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date: 15 November 2018

(p. 1089) Index

(p. 1089) Index

Abass, Ademola 215, 364
Abdallah, Ahmedou Ould 845
Abdel-Megid, Wahid 461
Abe, Shinzo 382
abolitionist campaigns 19, 24–6
Abramowitz, David 483 n.27
Abu Ghraib jail, Baghdad 952
Accountability, Coherence and Transparency Group (ACT), and UNSC veto reform 234–5, 242 n.60, 276
Accra III agreement 662
Achamkulangara, Gopinathan 882
Acharya, Amitav 47, 217, 377, 386, 470
Acholi ethnic group 45
Action Plan to Prevent Genocide (2004), UN 295, 297, 584
Addis Ababa peace agreement (1972) 859
Adeniji, Oluyemi 753
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca 209
Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ), UN 280
African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crisis (ACIRC) 361, 368 n.24
African Court on Human and People’s Rights (ACHPR), and measures against Libya 362
African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) 339
African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) 359–64, 366
African Peer Review Mechanism report on Kenya (2006) 757
African Union (AU) 339–40, 355–67
Ad-Hoc High Level Committee 216
African Standby Force (ASF) 360–1, 364
calls for UNSC ‘peace imposition’ missions 539
Charter 339
Commission on South Sudan 363
Constitutive Act (2000) 215, 396
Constitutive Act, Articles 4/12 137, 358, 359–60, 363–4
Continental Early Warning System (CEWS) 359–60
Convention for the Protection and Assistance of IDPs (2009) 87, 610–11
Côte d’Ivoire post-electoral crisis 338–40, 361, 362, 369 n.32, 697, 700, 702–3
Darfur peacekeeping operations 323, 358, 364, 720, 721, 937
elite/governed disconnect 362, 364–5
Ezulwini Consensus (2005) 215, 358
humanitarian intervention 211
hybrid forms of protection 366
and the ICC 646–7
Kenyan post-election crisis 750, 754–5
Libyan crisis ‘road map’ 771
Libyan crisis, role in 215–17, 275, 356, 362, 364, 366–7, 465 n.28, 473, 592, 593, 793
Mali Mission (AFISMA) 363, 786–8, 789, 790–1, 792, 793, 794–6
mass atrocity prevention 338–40, 359–65
Mission to CAR (MISCA) 363, 540 n.6
as moral agent of protection 172, 178
Panel of Eminent African Personalities 753
Panel of the Wise, and mass atrocity prevention 361–2, 368–9 n.28
Peace and Security Council (PCS Protocol) 339, 359–60
R2P development and implementation 123, 335, 356, 363–5, 952, 957, 975, 993
Regional Economic Committees (RECs) 360
Roadmaps I to III, and ASF 361, 368 n.23
Situation Rooms 360
Somalia Mission (AMISOM) 339, 340, 793, 844, 845–50, 851–2
(p. 1090)
states vulnerability to mass atrocities 364–5
‘Strengthening the Responsibility to Protest in Africa’ resolution 358
Sudan Mission (AMIS) 339, 720–3
three pillars (R2P), progress towards 365–7
transition to responsible sovereignty 356–8
Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRALEX), EU 396
Agenda for Peace, An (1992), UN 64, 510
Supplement (1995) 64
Aguelhock massacre (2012), Mali 789, 792
Aideed, Mohammed Farrah 538, 563, 843
Ainley, Kirsten 590, 648
Akal, Lam 859
Akbar 961
al-Bashir, Omar, and ICC charges 61, 459, 646
Al Shabaab 309, 339, 793, 844–52
rape and sexual violence 847–8
al-Assad, Bashar, regime 10, 260, 384, 412, 416, 425, 473, 626, 627, 630, 686, 775, 895–908, 919, 927
and the ICC 643
Al-Assad, Riad 898
Alatas, Ali 376
Alawite groups 900
Albright, Madeleine 470, 587, 917, 976
Aleppo, Syria 898
Algeria 30
and Darfur 720
R2P 257, 270, 455
Algiers, destruction of (1816) 24
al-Islam, Saif 590, 592, 770, 772
Aljaghoub, Mahasen 465 n.31
Allawite sect, Syria 902
Al-Moualem, Walid 775
Al-Noeimi, Abdul-Ilah Al-Bashar 901
Al-Qaeda 304, 900
in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) 790, 791, 792
sanctions regime against 666
Al-Senussi, Abdullah 590, 592, 772
American Convention on Human Rights (1977) 435
‘American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man’ 431
American Interests and UN Reform (US Congress) 122–3
Amin, Idi 45
Amnesty International 435
Darfur reports 719
Libya, war crimes 778
Mali 794
Myanmar atrocities 805
Amorim, Celso 216, 621
Amos, Valerie 902
Angola civil war 5, 62
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 60
Annan, Kofi 95, 263, 295, 365, 586, 595, 750, 779, 949, 972
African Union 9, 293, 339, 773
failures in Srebrenica and Rwanda 99–100, 116–17, 118, 127 n.7, 136, 169, 256
‘Five Point Action Plan to Prevent Genocide’ (2004) 295, 297, 584
High Level Panel establishment 121
High-Level Panel and UNSC veto rights 232
humanitarian intervention dilemma 114–27, 676
and the ICISS report 88, 249, 290, 584, 585, 677, 687 n.17, 986
In Larger Freedom 87, 114–15, 122, 124
Kenya post-election crisis 258, 678, 679, 754, 761, 925
Kosovo crisis 6, 107, 108, 116, 160
Millennium Report 108
A More Secure World 114, 121–2, 125, 489, 492
R2P development 114–27, 257, 973, 984
regime change in Libya 773
Rwanda 6, 107, 108
sovereignty as responsibility 5, 65, 74, 87
Srebrenica 586 n.32
state sovereignty and individual sovereignty 117–19
Syria 899
We the Peoples report 119
Ansar al-Sharia militias 778
Ansar Dine (‘defender of the faith’) 786, 788–9
(p. 1091) anti-apartheid struggle, South Africa 48, 76, 194,
Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (Ottawa Treaty, 1997) 117, 126
anti-slavery campaigns see abolitionist campaigns
Anwar, Dewi Fortuna 375
Arab Lawyers’ Union’s statement at the World Conference on Human Rights (1993) 499
Arab League:
Arab Action Plan for Syria (2011) 456
Gadhafi denunciations 680
and Israel 104
as moral agent of protection 172
NATO intervention in Libya 456, 473, 770, 918
suspension of Syria (2011) 456
Syrian civil war response 456–8, 898, 919
Syria’s use of chemical weapons 457
Arab Spring 9, 259, 472, 769
Arab/Fur tribal wars (1987–9) 718
Arab/Masalit tribal wars (1995–9) 718
Arab states of the Middle East and North Africa 451–63
civil society perspective on R2P 458–62
double standards and R2P 458–60
‘just war’ notion 461
Libyan intervention contrasted with Syrian conflict 456–8, 459–60, 462–3
Palestine, as exemplar of double standards 453–4, 459
R2P debates 452–5, 455–8
variations in the calls for protection 460–2
see also Arab League; individual states
Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO) 807
Arakan Rohingya Union 813
Arbour, Louise 265 n.25, 328, 955
R2P 318, 319
WSOD and R2P 316–17
Argentina 187
atrocities 4
as a ‘global leader’ in human rights 439
IAHRC report 435
and the ICC draft resolution on Syria 644
National Commission on the Disappeared (NCD) 435
NATO intervention in Libya 275
R2P policy 442
US foreign policy and human rights 434–5
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand 58
Aristotle 960
Armée Nationale de Côte d’Ivoire (FANCI) 694, 695
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), UN, and sexual/gender-based crimes 498
Arusha Peace Accord, Rwanda 563
Asan Institute for Policy Studies report on North Korea 829
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN):
atrocity prevention 341–3
Charter and R2P 342
International Governmental Commission on Human Rights 343
post-conflict peacebuilding 343
R2P adoption, norms and objectives 342, 377–8
Regional Forum (ARF) 342, 343
Ashoka 960, 961
Ashton, Catherine 402
Asia-Africa Conference, Bandung (1955) 47
Asia Pacific, and South Asia 373–86
commitment to sovereignty and non-interference 373, 374
divergent norms of human rights and developmentalism 375
freedom from fear agenda 378
holistic, people-centred notions of security 377
‘norm containment’ 373
protection responsibilities inherent in sovereignty 376
R2P promoting state stability 376–8
R2P, regional context of 376–81
security norms and practices 374–6
slow, incremental change 379
state developmentalism 375
state security and individual rights 375
UN Charter and international law concerns 378–9
‘values’ debate on human rights 375
(p. 1092) Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, University of Queensland 289, 480, 979
Assad, President see al-Assad, Bashar
asylum, and asylum seekers 81, 86, 604–5
Atrocities Prevention Board (APB), US 274–5, 474–5, 476, 477, 922
Australia:
and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) 279–80
statement on R2P (2011), and the HRC 324
support for R2P 218
Awami League 42
Axworthy, Lloyd 87, 107, 117, 119, 121, 126, 986, 994–5 n.13
Aye Maung, Dr 811
Azawad, Republic of 786, 788–9
Aziz, Abdel 771
Baderin, Mashood A. 364
Badinter, R.obert 121, 394
Bagosora, Théoneste 61
Baja, Laura Liboon 720
Bak-Boya, Baisa 417
Balkans (1875–8) 96
Bamako, Mali 790, 791
Ban Ki-moon 11, 144, 259, 288, 290, 304, 494, 565, 582, 592, 679, 979, 995 n.32
armed groups and R2P standards 305
condemning Gadhafi 768
and gender-based atrocities 494
Implementing the Responsibility to Protect report (2009) 167, 220 n.1, 271–2, 376–7, 409, 452, 513–16, 514 Tab. 27.1, 535–6, 648, 754, 757, 937
Myanmar 811, 812
and Japan’s leadership in R2P 381–2
NATO intervention in Libya 473, 623
R2P prevention as key concept 307, 336, 377, 378, 586
reports commissioned (post 2009) 307, 987
Sri Lanka 882, 883, 884
Syria 169, 901
‘three pillars’ approach and framework 220 n.1, 377, 471, 482 n.14, 725, 728, 987
UNSC veto reform 233
Bandung Conference and Declaration (1955) 47
Bangladesh 43, 157, 673 see also East Pakistan
Barbalić, Ivan 770–1
Barillas, Eduardo Stein 119
Barnett, Michael 46, 211–12
Barre, Siad 841
Bass, Gary 27, 30–1, 68
Bay of Pigs, US invasion of Cuba (1961) 96
Bédié, Henri Konan 694
Beijing Platform for Action and women’s empowerment (1995) 490
Belarus, and R2P 270, 399, 404 n.41
Belgium soldiers, and Rwandan genocide 99
Bellamy, Alex J. 40, 49, 135, 178, 273, 277, 341, 342, 586, 588, 590, 598 n.53, 703, 725
Benghazi 10, 67, 401, 518, 519, 563, 622, 680, 770–2, 778, 897, 926
Benin, R2P support 257
Bensouda, Fatou 592, 761
Berkman, Tobias 530–1
Berlin Conference (1884–5) 357
Beyani, Chaloka 611
Biafra crisis 47, 49, 78
Biden, Joe 382
Binder, Andrea 552
Bishara, Marwan 959
Blair, Tony 392, 393, 394, 676, 680
Blair-Clinton Doctrine 676
Blätter, Ariela 589, 989–90
Bodin, Jean 156
Boko Haram 304, 789, 991, 992
Bolton, John 232, 471, 722, 936, 954
Bond, Jennifer 489, 490, 492–3, 494
Bonwick, Andrew 607
Bor massacre, Sudan 859
Bosco, David 254, 645–6, 647
Bosnia-Herzegovina 101, 563, 592–3, 770
Arab response 460
ethnic cleansing 5, 470, 588
Muslim populations 196
‘safe areas’ 249, 564, 568–9
UN role in 115
UNSC sanctions 659–60
Bosnian Serbs 563
ethnic cleansing facilitated by impartial arms embargo 588
(p. 1093) Bouteflika, Abdelazia 66
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 81, 159, 211
Boxer Rebellion (1900), China 21
Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions Movement 463
Brahimi, Lakhdar 510, 565, 901
Brahimi Report (2000) on the DRC, UN 251, 565–6, 734–5
Brazil, and R2P 216, 443, 620–2, 624 625, 627–31, 632 n.2, 920, 921
egalitarian rule-based multilateralism 621
‘international evidence locker’ app 476–7
NATO intervention in Libya 261, 622–3, 774–5, 920
reciprocity and international society 621
RwP initiative 217, 220, 277, 379, 409, 443, 480, 624–5, 627–30, 920
Syria, stance on 626
and UNSC 235–6, 632 n.5
BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) group, and R2P 208, 210, 455
principle of sovereignty 214
R2P interpretations 409, 916, 927
reaction to UNGA resolution on Syria 627
structural power and R2P 211–13, 221 n.20
Summit, Delhi (2012), and RwP 626
UNSC reform 212–13
UNSC resolution 1973 (2011, Libya) 13, 213, 770, 773
Britain, and the slave trade 24, 34 n.14
British Army Training Unit, Kenya (BATUK) 757
British Peace Support Team (BPST), Kenya 757
Brockmann, Miguel d’Escoto 66, 300, 950
Brockmeier, Sarah 393, 395
Brookings Institution 75, 77, 83
Project on Internal Displacement 87–8
Brown, Chris 210, 240, 752
Brundtland Commission report (1987) 119
Bruno, Giordano 961
Budapest Centre’s Task Force on EU Prevention of Mass Atrocities 586
Buddha 961
Bukavu crisis (2004) 736
Buoazizi, Mohamed 9
Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations (CSO), US 475–6
Burma see Myanmar
Burrows, Mathew 980
Burundi 5, 258
African Mission in (AMIB) 339
peace building 515
refugees 99
Bush, George H. W. administration 470–1, 604
Bush, George W. administration 122, 394, 470, 856
and R2P 949
Butler, Richard 231
Cairns, Edmund 556
Camara, Dadis 679
Cambodian genocide 157, 296, 309 n.31
Khmer Rouge compared with Libya crisis 773
Vietnam’s intervention (1978–9) 4, 43–4, 51 n.57, 97, 157, 250
Cameron, David 680, 900
and regime change in Libya 773
Canada:
advocacy for human security 117
civilian protection 251
and ICISS 677
Kenyan election crisis 755
R2P development 218, 986, 995 n.14
Capitulations system 28–9, 34 n.22
Carlsson, Ingvar 100
Carment, David 338
Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict 479, 584
Carpenter, Charli 492
Carter administration, US, and human rights 76–7
Castro, Fidel 429
Cédras, General Raoul 58
Central African Republic (CAR) 63, 199–200, 306, 321
African-led mission (MISCA) 363, 540 n.6
MINUSCA mandate 534–5, 535 Fig. 28.5
UNSC Resolution 2121 (2013) 11
UNSC sanctions 663–4
US role in 472, 478
(p. 1094) Central American Treaty for Democratic Security 440
Chad 662, 718
Darfur peace talks 720
Chamberlain, Neville 35 n.44
Chandler, David 216, 217
Chapultepec conference (1945) 431
Chatichai, Chhonhavan 928
Chavez, Hugo 137
Chechnya 100, 104, 106, 411
Muslim and Arab response 460
Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC) 907 see also Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(OPCW)
chemical weapons 263
Ghouta chemical weapons attack (2013) 262
Syrian civil war 457, 473, 900, 906–7
Chesterman, S. 41–2, 575
child soldiers:
DRC 648, 661
Protocol on 971
Somalia 660
and the UNSC 665
Chile 96, 187, 434
atrocities 4
human rights 76
IAHRC reports 435
pro-human rights activism 439
R2P policy 442–3
Truth and Reconciliation Commission 435
US foreign policy, and human rights 434–5
China:
global humanitarianism, politics of 685–6
humanitarian intervention 375
ICC and Syria 643–4
Institute of International Studies 939
Mandate of Heaven 376
NATO intervention in Libya 680, 950
NATO operation in Kosovo 104
‘norm containment’ 373
North Korea (DPRK), and human rights 279–80, 829, 831–2
North Korean escapees 827, 828, 832–3, 834
pillars of R2P 937, 941
R2P concerns 123, 258, 918–19
responsible protection (RP) 217, 220, 630
RwP 939
separatist movements 374
Small Five (S5) group proposal, and the UNSC veto 233
Sri Lanka relations 882
UNSC legitimacy of in R2P situations 379
UNGA resolution on Syria 627
UNSC resolution 1674 (Darfur) 722
UNSC resolution 1769 (Darfur) 723–4
UNSC resolution 1973 (Libya) 345, 770
UNSC veto reform 236, 239
UNSC vetoing resolutions on Syria 624, 775, 776, 899, 951
US relations 480
WSOD and R2P 935–6
China’s shaping of the trajectory of R2P 932–43
alternative futures 942–3
characteristics and shaping opportunism 933–6
Confucian legacy 941
development agenda and peacebuilding 940–2, 945 n.47
implication for the future of R2P 937–42
official position on R2P 936–7
participation in UN peace operations 940–1
post-Mao period 941
‘Reform and Opening’ national policy 941–2
‘scientific development concept’ 941
sovereign equality 937–8, 939, 944 n.34
strengthening forms of state capacity 941
Western double standards 938–9
Chivvis, Christopher 518–19
Chomsky, Noam 66, 137
Chrétien, Jean 119, 970
Churkin, Vitaly 770, 928 n.15
civilian protection in armed conflict see protection of civilians (POC)
Clapham Sect 24, 34 n.11
Clapper, James 469
Claude, Inis 229
climate change 62, 980
(p. 1095) Clinton, Bill 116, 956–7
Clinton, Hillary 473, 808, 880, 956
‘Clinton Doctrine’ 470, 676
Cohen, Roberta 65, 74–88, 834
Cohen, Roger 750, 754
Cohen, William 587, 955
Cold War humanitarian intervention 3, 38–49
definitions of sovereignty 155
human rights 47–8, 158, 159
India’s intervention in East Pakistan (1971) 42–3, 97, 157
non-intervention principle 44
norm consolidation 46–8
prohibition on the use of force 41–2
self-defence as justification for intervention 44, 45
Tanzania’s intervention in Uganda 45–6, 51 n.59
‘turning point’ thesis 38, 39
Vietnam’s intervention in Cambodia (1978–9) 43–4, 51 n.57
weak institutionalization of norms 40–1
Colombia 444, 445
and the UN Charter 432
Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) 756–7
Commission on Human Rights (now Human Rights Council) 186–7, 201
Human Security Now report (2003) 378
Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Issues (Fifth Committee), UN 269
Committee on Social, Humanitarian and Cultural matters (Third Committee), UN 269
Common Security and Defence Policy missions, EU 400, 401, 402,
Communist Party in Burma (CPB) 802
communist regimes and genocide 4
Community Alert Networks, DRC 738
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA, 2005), Sudan 719, 859
conflict prevention 581–95
and atrocity prevention 586–9
conflating R2P and 583–6
‘Five Point Action Plan to Prevent Genocide’ (2004) 584
Genocide Prevention Task Force (GPTF), US report (2008) 586–7, 590
ICC and R2P protection 592, 594, 599 n.92
ICISS report The Responsibility to Protect (2001) 584, 596 n.18
implications of R2P’s nexus with international crimes 589–93
international criminal law and criminology 590–1, 594
WSOD (paragraphs 138–40) and 582, 590, 596 n.10, 599 n.88
Congolese Community Liaison Assistants, DRC 738
Congrès national pour la défense du people (CNDP) rebels, DRC 739
Conley, Laura 969
Contarino, Michael 641
Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948), Geneva 40–1
Article II 296
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Optional Protocol (1999) 490
Convention on the Rights of the Child 203 n.37
Article 38 195
Convention on the Status of Refugees (1951) 604–5
Coons, Chris 475
Costa Rica, and R2P 218, 443
Focal Points initiative 443
Côte d’Ivoire post-election crisis (2010) 200, 260, 564, 591, 693–707, 925–6
aftermath of atrocities 705–6
AU and ECOWAS differences 362, 369 n.32
background to the crisis 694–6
Commission dialogue, vérité and réconciliation (CDVR) 706
ECOMICI mission (ECOWAS) 695
ECOWAS 695, 697, 698, 699, 700, 702–3, 975
Human Rights Council, UN 698, 699
human rights violations and UN OHCHR 319
Independent Electoral Commission (CEI) 695
(p. 1096)
India’s position 383
international reactions 696–7
Ivorité doctrine 694
Licorne Opération 564, 695, 700, 701, 704
mandate interpretation and implementation 701–2
National Commission of Inquiry 706
POC mandate 538
robust response? 697–701
role of international actors 702–5
sanctions 662
Special Investigative Cell 706
UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) 536, 566, 703
UNOCI mission 10, 261, 564, 591, 695, 696, 698, 699, 700–1, 702, 703, 704, 705
UN Special Advisers 301
UNSC resolution 1975 (2011) 10, 259, 261
US assistance 472, 478
Côté-Harper, Gisèle 119
Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific (CSCAP) 342–3
Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) 433, 446 n.15
counter-terrorism:
R2P and 993
and the Sri Lankan civil war 325
UN Special Advisors and 305–6
US support for counter-terrorism in Kenya 756–7
Covenant of the League of Nations 154
Crete, European intervention (1866–8) 25, 27, 28, 96
Crimea, Russian reincorporation 104–5, 413
crimes against humanity and international law 3–4, 194, 203 n.30, 203 n.31, 203 n.33, 203 n.35, 203 n.36, 203 n. 37, 203 n.38
definitions 194
Crisis Action 552
Crisis Prevention and Recovery Unit, UNDP 596 n.8
Croatia, atrocities 5
Crusades, the 28, 29, 31
Cuba, opposition to R2P 96, 270, 443–4
Cuban Revolution 429, 434
Cuéllar, Javier Pérez de 159
Cunliffe, Philip 538
Cyclone Nargis and Myanmar 138, 258–9, 293–4, 300, 678, 801, 817, 818
Czechoslovakia 35 n.44
D’Alema, Massimo 393
Dabbashi, Ibrahim 680
Dallaire, Lt.-Gen. Roméo 99
Danish Institute of International Affairs 46
Darfur crisis 9, 121, 478, 563, 684, 717–27
AU peacekeeping support 323, 358, 364, 720, 721, 937
background to the conflict 718–19, 727 n.9
China’s view 940
Christian advocacy movement in the US 721–2, 726
consent for UN peacekeeping 722–3
early reluctance to engage with 719–21
genocide debate 296, 309 n.31
High-Level Mission report (2007) 323, 328
International Commission of Inquiry on, UN 61, 684
Janjaweed militias 9, 662, 718
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) 718, 720
mortality rates 720–1
Peace Agreement (DPA, 2006) 721, 722
perceived double standards 459
POC 528
prevention and early warning in relations to R2P 725–6
rape, in displacement camps 323
and R2P 555, 556, 721–6
UN-AU Mission in (UNAMID) 339, 533, 534, 535 Fig. 28.5, 563, 723
UNSC resolution 1706 (2006) 258
UNSC sanctions against Sudan 661–2
Darusman, Marzuki 883
Davies, Sara E. 494
Davis, David R. 565, 576 n.14
Dayton Accord (1995) 101
de Waal, Alex 571, 720, 860
Déby, Idriss 720
Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict, Myanmar 809
(p. 1097) decolonization, post-war 47, 94–5
Defense Strategic Guidance (2012), US 472
DeMeritt, Jacqueline H. R. 565
‘democratic peace’ thesis 63
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) see North Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 258, 260, 734–46
Amani Leo Operation (2010) 740
child soldiers 648, 661
‘conditionality policy’, UN 740
early protection crises 736–7
EU-led Interim Emergency Multinational Force 540 n.6
First Congo war (1996–7) 734
Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) 742–4
innovative POC tools 737–9
Kimia II, Operation 739
protection in the context of joint military operations 739–40
Second Congo war (1998–2003) 734, 735
STARE/ISSSS programme 741
strengthening national protection capacities 741–2
UN Office of International Oversight Services (OIOS) evaluation (2014) 738–9
and UN OHCHR 319, 320
UN protection mandate, and stabilization mission (MONUSCO/MONUC) 251, 533, 537, 539, 540 n.16, 734, 735, 736–7, 739, 740, 741, 742, 743–4, 745, 746 n.2, 866
UNSC sanctions 661
Dempsey, Martin 956
Deng Xiaoping 941
Deng, Francis M. 74–88, 210, 280, 290, 291, 296, 310 n. 43, 311 n. 50, 606, 677, 698–9, 754, 756, 934, 986, 995 n.17
conceptual framework 159–60
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, UN 84–7, 606, 609–10, 611
‘sovereignty as responsibility’ 65
Denmark, and R2P 218
Focal Points initiative 395, 443
Global Action against Mass Atrocity Crimes initiative 395
Department for Peacekeeping operations, UN 566, 596 n.8
Department of Political Affairs, UN 596 n.8
Desalegn, Hailemariam 955
DeSoto, Hernando 976
Diarra, Cheik Modibo 789
Dieng, Adama 274, 302, 307, 759, 792, 813
Dinka ethnic group 857, 859, 863
Dominican Republic crisis (1965–6) 96, 433
Donbass crisis 215, 345, 412, 414–22, 570
Donetsk 415, 416, 418
Donetsk people’s republic (DPR) 412, 414–15, 416, 419–20, 422, 423
Doss, Alan 739
Doyle, Michael 527
Dra’a, Syria 896–7
drone assassinations, and the ICC 955
drone technology, and peace-making 977
Drummond, Catherine 342
Du Chee Yar Tan 811
Dunant, Henri 547
Dunne, Tim 470, 483 n.35, 974, 979
Duval, Raymond 211–12
East Bengal 43
East Pakistan 4
Indian intervention (1971) 42–3, 97, 157
East Timor crisis 5, 58, 59, 100, 564
Ebola outbreak 969
Russian aid 411
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), UN 76, 187, 202 n.2, 202 n.3
resolution 1235 (XLII) 187
resolution 1503 (XLVIII) 187
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) 362
Economic Community of West Africa (ECOWAS):
Côte d’Ivoire post-electoral crisis 362, 369 n.32, 695, 697, 698, 699, 700, 702–3, 975
Council of Elders 340
ECOWARN Early Warning System and Atrocity Prevention 340
Liberian civil war intervention 59, 199, 337
Mali, intervention in 786–96
(p. 1098)
Protocol on the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention (1999) 340
Standby Brigade in Mali 789–91
Summit, Nigeria 699
suspension of Mali 789
underfunding 340
West African Early Warning System (WARN) 360
Egypt 472
arms imports from EU countries 400
and IDPs 84
Palestine and R2P obligations 453–4, 459
R2P 257, 270, 453
Syria and R2P responsibilities 455
El Salvador 4, 433
‘electronic component validation tool’ 477
Eliasson, J. 274
Enough Project, Washington 478, 978
Epstein, Charlotte 210
Eritrea 365
Ethiopia, war with Italy 33
ethnic cleansing 4, 120, 193, 411, 994 n.2
Balkans 86, 101, 102, 470
Bosnian Serb forces 102, 103, 588, 659–60
Côte d’Ivoire 699
Darfur 721
definition of 608
and the ICC 608
and IDPs 608
and international law 195–7, 526, 596 n.10, 608–9
Kenya post-election crisis 293
Kosovo Albanians 5–6, 102, 249, 677, 985–6
Myanmar 804–5, 807
South Ossetia 258–9, 411
Eurocentric models, and international society 209
Europe and the European Union 391–403, 955
arms exports 400
atrocity prevention 344–5
‘Bosnia syndrome’ 392
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) 958
Common Security and Defence Policy missions 400, 401, 402
Consensus on Development 394
diplomatic resources 400
ICISS representation 393–4
Israel-Palestine issue 953–4
Kenyan post-election crisis 755
Libya crisis 344–5
as moral agent of protection 172, 178
NATO intervention in Kosovo 392–3
NATO and OSCE partnerships 344
norm acceptance and programmatic implementation 392–6
pillar 1 and 2 aid programmes 399
pillar 3 situations 344, 401
R2P, operational implementation 397–401
rapid reaction Battlegroups 401
sanctions on Assad regime 897
sanctions and economic leverage 401
structural and operational prevention 398–400
Task Force on the Prevention of Mass Atrocities 404
warning and risk assessment 398
World Summit (2005) 394, 395
European Concert 26, 31
European External Action Service (EEAS) 395, 398, 400, 402, 403
Country Conflict Assessment (CCA) 398
Early Waring Risk Matrix (EWRM) 398
European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) 399
European Security Strategy report (2003) 395
European Strategy for Security and Development report (2011) 398
Evans, Gareth 56, 219, 678, 726, 774, 949, 972
China and R2P 480
NATO intervention in Libya 260
sovereignty 87
Vietnam’s intervention in Cambodia 43, 44
Evatt, Herbert 230, 231
Executive Committee for Peace and Security, UNHRC 317
Ezulwini Consensus (2005) 358
Force Intervention Brigade (UN), Democratic Republic of Congo 741, 742–4, 745
Figueiredo, João 629
Fink, Sherry 969
Finkel, James 474, 475
Finnemore, Martha 45, 64, 221 n.14, 308 n.9,
Fischer, Martin 338
Fisher, Joschka 393
‘five impediments to human protection’ (Weiss) 567–8
Flint, Julie 720
Flournoy, Michele 472
‘Focal Points’ initiative 218, 311 n.51, 395, 443, 480–1, 979
Foot, Rosemary 480
Force Intervention Brigade (FIB), DRC 735
forced displacement as mass atrocity crime 604–13
asylum 604–5
AU Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons (2009) 610–11
‘cluster approach’ 611–12, 615 n.64
‘containment agenda’ 605
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement 606, 609–10, 611
humanitarian protection 612–13
institutional protections 611–12
legal prohibitions 608–11
providing international protection 606–7
refugees/IDP numbers 605
and Syrian IDPs 612–13
Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC) 737, 739, 740, 741, 742, 743, 744, 745
Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), DRC 739, 743, 744
Forces Nouvelles (FN), Côte d’Ivoire 694–5
Ford, Robert 898
Forsythe, David 25
Fox, Liam 772–3
Framework for Analysis for the Prevention of Atrocity Crimes, UN 298, 551
France:
Côte d’Ivoire, role in 703–4
Cyclone Nargis and Myanmar’s response 801
deportation of Roma 397
Mali intervention 787–8, 790–1, 794
NATO intervention in Kosovo 393
NATO intervention in Libya 276, 682, 683
Operation Turquoise 59, 99, 260, 99, 569, 621
right to humanitarian intervention 75
Small Five (S5) group proposal, and the UNSC veto 233
Syria 897
UNSC ‘code of conduct’ 13
UNSC veto reform (2013) 235, 237
White Paper on European and foreign policy (2013), and R2P 395
Franck, Thomas M. 42, 43, 51 n.44, 237
Franco, Francisco 98
Frazer, Jendayi 752
Free Syrian Army (FSA) 898, 900, 901, 905
Freedom Flotilla Coalition 463
French Foreign Legion, and the Rwandan genocide 564
‘Friday of Dignity’ demonstration, Syria 897
Friends of Syria coalition 473
Fujimori, Alberto 439
Fukada, Yasuo 381
Fur/Arab war (1987–9) 718
Gadhafi, Kamis 780 n.23
Gadhafi, Muammar 9, 139, 216, 379, 401, 456, 460, 473, 563, 622–3, 673, 679–84, 769–71 788, 793, 897, 950, 973–4
collapse of the regime 518–19, 768
ICC charges 61, 590, 591, 592, 772
regime change 200
regional influence 718
Gallagher, Dennis 79
Gambari, Ibrahim 116
Gandhi, Mahatma 962
Garang, John 859, 860
Gates, Robert 680
Gaza Strip 954
calls for ICC investigation 643
Israeli bombardment (2014) 459
Israeli intervention (2009) 138
Israeli onslaught (2008) 454
(p. 1100) Gbagbo, Laurent 10, 200, 564, 591, 695–6, 697, 698, 699, 701, 705–6
Gelber, Katherine 974, 979
Gender, and the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda, UNSC 489–90, 491, 492, 493, 494, 496, 497, 499–502, 502 n.10
gender-based violence, and UNSC sanctions 665
gender gap in R2P 489–502
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), UN, and sexual/gender-based crimes 498
discrimination and inequality 500–1
gender explicit/implicit divisions 494–501
gendered analysis of R2P 494
ICISS report 491–2
(in)equality and the prevention of mass atrocities relationship 497
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 498–9
patriarchal assumptions 498
and R2P history 490–4
Secretary-General’s report (2009) and gender responsiveness 495, 496
Secretary-General’s report (2013) and sexual/gender-based violence 496
Sight for Sore Eyes report, UN 489, 490, 492–3
state engagement with WPS and R2P principles 497
gender-inclusive/gender-focused rights framework 490
General National Congress, Libya 777–9
Generalised System of Preferences (GSP), EU 399, 404 n.41
Geneva Convention (1864) 547
Geneva Conventions (1949) 3, 136
Article 3 195
First Additional Protocol 255–6
and forced displacement 608, 614 n.35
Protocol I, Article 89 (1977) 256, 526
Protocol II 196, 204 n.42
Geneva II peace talks, Syrian civil war 901
genocide:
accusations against North Korea 829–30
and international law 40, 193–4
see also Cambodian genocide; Darfur; Kosovo; Rwanda genocide; Special Advisor on the Prevention
of Genocide, UN
Genocide Convention (1947/48) 3, 38–49, 47, 60, 64, 136, 255, 296, 319, 320, 608, 675, 684–5, 826, 915
Article 6 193
Article VIII 255
65th. anniversary 326–7
Genocide Prevention Task Force (GPTF), US report (2008) 141, 586–7, 590
Genocide Watch, Myanmar 805
Gentili, Alberico 22–3
Georgia, Russian intervention (2008) 66, 258–9, 411
Germany 918
Libya crisis 345
NATO intervention in Kosovo 392–3
White Paper on Security Policy (2006) and R2P 395
Ghana
and Focal Points initiative 443
and R2P 218
Ghebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom 955
Gheciu, Alexandra 516
Ghouta chemical weapons attack (2013) 262
Gilbert, Martin 914
Gilpin, Robert 152
Gingrich, Newt 122
Gladstone, William 30
Glanville, Luke 41, 46, 50 n.8
Glinka, Elizaveta (‘Doctor Liza’) 421–2
Global Action against Mass Atrocity Crimes initiative 395
Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect, New York 289, 979
global humanitarianism, politics of 673–86
Libya 679–84
origins and evolution of R2P doctrine 675–8
protection after Libya 684–6
R2P practice 678–9
Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict 596 n.8
Global Protection Cluster, UNHCR 529, 535 Fig. 28.5, 541 n.20
(p. 1101) Global Public Policy Institute (GPPI), Berlin 480
Go Myung-hun 829
Goa 374
Golan Heights occupation by Israel 644
Goldstone, Richard 105
Goldstone Report (2008) 454
Goma crisis (2012) , DRC 741, 742–3
Goodin, Robert 175–6, 177, 178, 181
Goodwin-Gill, Guy 607
Gorbachev, Mikhail 105
Gorlovka, Donbass 418
Gothenburg European Council (2001) 344
Great Lakes Protocol and Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (IDPs) 610
Greece, European intervention (1827) 25, 27, 28, 96
Grotius, Hugo 22–3, 153
Group of 77 (G77), and R2P 118, 124
Kosovo crisis 676
‘Group of Friends’ of the Responsibility to Protect 218, 273, 441, 442
Guantanamo detention centre, US 952
Guatemala 439
atrocities 4
and UNGA resolution A/Res/63/308 273
Guéhenno, Jean-Marie 723, 906
Guéï, Robert 694
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, UN 84–7, 606, 609–10, 611
Guinea crisis (2009) 678, 679
stadium massacre (2009) 363
Guinea-Bissau 63
Gulf Cooperation Council, call for no-fly zones in Libya 456
Gulf War (1990–1) 57, 98, 470
Ha Van Lau 44
Haass, Richard 956
Habyarimana, Juvenal 99
Haftar, Khalifa 778
Haiti 58, 59
MNF (Multinational Force) 59
Operation Restore Democracy 62–3
UN sanctions 60
UNSC resolution 940 (1994) 260
Hall, Lucy 500
Ham, Carter F. 473
Hama demonstration, Syria 898
Hamas 954
Hamilton, Lee 119
Hamilton, Rebecca 726
Hammarskjöld, Dag 48
Hannay, David 393–4
Haugevik, Kristin 337
Havel, Václav 102–3
Hebron 454
Hehir, Aidan 462, 640, 641, 639
Heller, Claude 881
Hezbollah 410, 899–100, 901, 908
High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), UN 291, 315–28
contribution to World Summit (2005) 316–17
early warnings and prevention 320
Forum on Minority Issues 320
human rights education 321
‘Human Rights up Front’ (HRuF) initiative 320–1
human rights violations 319
monitoring mechanisms 318, 322
pillar 3 of R2P 323
R2P implementation 317–23
rebuilding legal institutions and training 322
Regional Quarterly Reviews 321
‘responsibility to protect’ report 318
Syria 319, 902
Zeid’s Holocaust Memorial Museum speech 321
High-Level Advisory Panel report on R2P in Southeast Asia, (2014), UN 343
High-Level Advisory Panel report on R2P in Southeast Asia (2013), UN 377–8
High-Level Mission to Darfur, UN 323, 328
High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (UN-HLP) 65, 87, 190, 216, 232, 290, 393, 832, 935
establishment 121
A More Secure World report (2004) 114, 121–2, 125, 489, 492
report (2003) 114
Himmelfarb, Sheldon 977
Hirono, Miwa 941
(p. 1102) history and evolution of R2P 114–27
ICISS report Responsibility to Protect 119–21
A More Secure World report (2004) 114, 121–2, 125, 489, 492
Rwanda, Srebrenica and UN failures 115–17, 118
World Summit negotiations 122–4
World Summit Outcome Document WSOD) 124–5, 126–7
Hitler, Adolf 4, 35 n.44
HIV/AIDS 62
Hobbes, Thomas 153, 155
Hofman, Michiel 556
Hogan Lovells 829
Holmes, John 555–6, 880
Holocaust 3, 40, 98
and the Stockholm International Forum conference (2004) 395
Holocaust Memorial Museum 321
Holt, Victoria 64, 530
Holy Alliance (1815), Paris 19
Honduras 433
Houla massacre (2012), Syria 899
Houphouët-Boigny, Félix 694
Hu Jintoa ‘theory of harmonious world’ 939
Hubert, Don 589, 989–90
Human Liberty Center, Seoul 829
human rights 57, 75
Latin America 431–40
norms 47–8, 94–5
and sovereignty 75–7, 158–60
UN Charter Article 2(7) 74, 76
violations as early warnings of mass atrocity 320
and women 490
Human Rights, Declaration of see Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Human Rights Council (formerly Human Rights Commission), UN 11, 269, 278, 279, 315–28, 394
16th. Special Session (2014) 319
17th. Human Rights Council session 325
65th. anniversary of the Genocide Convention 326–7
Analysis Framework on prevention of genocide 327
Australian statement on R2P (2011) 324
Commission of Enquiry on North Korea 325–6
contribution to World Summit (2005) 316–17
and Côte d’Ivoire 698, 699
education and UN OHCHR 321
Executive Committee for Peace and Security 317
High-Level Mission to Darfur report (2007) 323, 328
Libya, International Commission of Inquiry on 769, 772, 777
Libyan government, and R2P 324, 325
R2P implementation 317, 323–7
resolution 25/25 on North Korea 828
Somalia, Universal Periodic Review 845, 846–7, 852
Sri Lanka civil war 324–5, 886, 880, 882, 883, 884
Syria and R2P 324, 325, 776
Universal Periodic Reviews 324–5
‘Human Rights up Front’ initiative (2014) 315, 320–1
Human Rights Watch 612, 724, 754
Libya atrocities 772, 777
Myanmar atrocities 804, 807
and South Sudan 864
Human Security Network 971, 973
humanitarian action and R2P 545–57
advocacy 551–2
comparable moral ends 549
complementarity 553
essential distinctions 552–3
and the individual 546–9
monitoring and alerts 554
politicization 555–6
practices of protection 550, 551
respective roles 550–2
similarity and difference 557
tension between 554–6
Humanitarian Charter Code of Conduct (1991) 550
humanitarian intervention 107, 548
and depoliticization 640–1
and international law 97, 188–90, 193, 251
humanitarian intervention, 1990s 56–69 (p. 1103)
consent definition 58–9, 69 n.8
‘democratic peace’ thesis 63
ICISS report issues faced 64–7
pro-democratic interventions 63
state sovereignty, conditionality of 65
Third World recalcitrance 65–7
UN operational military capacities 63–4
UN organizational limitations 63–4
UNGA intervention and state sovereignty tensions 57
UNGA resolutions 46/182 58
UNSC decision-making 67
UNSC enforcement 63–4
humanitarian intervention in the nineteenth century 19–33
abolitionist campaigns 24–6
Capitulations system 28–9, 34 n.22
Christian solidarity 31–2
collective and ‘disinterested’ interventions 27–8
commonalities between humanitarian and imperialist impulses 29–30
jurisprudential cases 25
‘moral capital’ and policies 25–6, 34 n.17
natural disasters 21
Ottoman Christians 20, 21–2, 26–7, 28–9, 30
public opinion 30–1
responsibility to intervene debate 20
‘saving strangers’ 20–1
‘Society of Nations’ 32–3
target-state and the victims of massacres 26–7
use of term 19–20
humanitarian protection ‘egg model’ 530–2, 531 Fig. 28.1
Humanitarian Response Plan in Ukraine (2015), UN 416
humanitarian war, Spanish conquest in the Americas 22
Hungary 397
Hurrell, Andrew 219
Hutu ethnic groups, and the Rwanda genocide 98–9
Hutu génocidaires militias 734
Ibo people 47
Ibok, Sam 720
IBSA (India, Brazil and South Africa) group:
opposition to Libya intervention 775
and RwP 630
Summit (2011) 626
trust fund for development 384
Idris, Salim 901
Ignatieff, Michael 119, 623
Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin 814
Implementing the Responsibility to Protect, UN report (2009) 167, 220 n.1, 271–2, 376–7, 409, 452, 513–16, 514 Tab. 27.1, 535–6, 648, 754, 757, 937
Independent Commission on Global Governance 62
India:
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 385
Côte d’Ivoire 383
Development Partnership Administration 384
East Pakistan intervention (1971) 42–3, 97, 157
humanitarian assistance funding 385
humanitarian intervention 375–6
NATO intervention in Libya 275, 383, 772, 775, 950–1
NATO operation in Kosovo 104
‘norm containment’ 373
separatist movements 374
Sri Lanka intervention (1987–9) 374
Sri Lanka relations 883
Sri Lankan civil war, involvement in the final stages 385
Syria 383–4
Tamil population 883
tensions with Pakistan 341
UN peacekeeping operations 384
UNSC veto reform 235–6, 384
Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) 377
Indonesia 58, 376,
Ban’s R2P implementation strategy 380
concept of national resilience 377
East Timor atrocities 5, 58, 59, 100, 564
multidimensional security concepts 377
(p. 1104) Intelligence Analysis Centre (EU INTCENT) 398
Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), UN 86, 611
Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR) 433–4, 435
Inter-American Court 435
Inter-American Democratic Charter (2001) 343
Inter-American Juridical Committee (1948) 432
INTERFET, Intervention Force in East Timor 564
Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) 843, 844, 852
Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN) 360
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), as moral agents of protection 171–2, 182 n.19
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 969
Internal Review Panel on Sri Lanka, UN 883, 884–5, 886
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) 75, 81–5, 95
and gender-based violence 497
Great Lakes Protocol and Guiding Principles 610
Guiding Principles, UN 84–7, 606, 609–10, 611
Kenya 752
Myanmar 804
numbers (2014) 605
Representative of the Secretary-General for 606
sovereignty as responsibility 78–81
‘well-fed dead’ 85
International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect (ICR2P) 289, 552
International Commission of Inquiry for Darfur, UN 61, 684
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), The Responsibility to Protect
consultation in Beijing 375
criteria for military intervention 120, 125, 193
European representation 393–4
focus areas for rebuilding 511–12
and gender 491–2
and the individual 986, 994–5 n.13
issues faced 1990s 56, 57, 58, 64–8
origins 970–3
precautionary principles 120, 122
and regional organizations 336–7
responsibility to rebuild 509, 510, 511–12, 519, 520 n.18, 520 n.19
Rwanda and Kosovo debates 106–8
UNSC veto-restraint proposal 231, 232, 235
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 20, 62, 79, 424
Donbass conflict relief aid 413, 418–19
founding 547
Myanmar atrocities 805
and POC 525
Syria 899
International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) 275, 743
International Court of Justice (ICJ), The Hague 3, 318, 956
Nicaragua v. United States (1986) 96
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 136, 202 n.2
Article 7 203 n.36
Covenant rights 203 n.33
International Covenant on the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 202 n.2
International Criminal Court (ICC) 61, 117, 438, 442, 555, 638–50, 922–3, 954–5, 957, 964 n.23, 980
AU and 646–7
Central African Republic 664
Côte d’Ivoire 704, 706
‘Court of Human security’ proposal 639, 640
‘double standards’ accusations 643–4, 646, 647, 649
(p. 1105)
and ethnic cleansing 608
Gadhafi al-Islam and Al-Senussi 772
Gadhafi regime 259, 591, 592, 593
humanitarian intervention and depoliticization 640–1
Independent Prosecutor‘s jurisdiction and the ‘consent’ regime 642
Kenyan post-election violence 648, 760–1
Libya crisis 622, 679, 680, 769
Mali atrocities 790, 792
North Korea (DPRK) 279, 827, 828, 833
Omar al-Bashid indictment 459
in practice 645–7
R2P, inconsistencies with 639–44
R2P protection 592, 594, 599 n.92
R2P, relationship with 637–9
R2P as tool 923
Syria 319, 643–4
targeting Africans 955, 957
UN Commission of Inquiry (COI) on Human Rights in 825–7
UNSC draft resolution on Syria 643–4
UNSC P5 641–2
UNSC relationship 639, 640, 641–2, 643–4, 649
international criminal law (ICL) 193, 525
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 3–4, 60–1, 62, 399, 592–3, 608–9, 955
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 60–1, 297
and sexual violence 498–9
International Crisis Group, estimate of deaths in South Sudan 858
‘international evidence locker’ app 476–7
international humanitarian law (IHL) 97, 188–90, 193, 251
international law 186–202
atrocity crimes 8
clarification of the differences between ICL, IHL and IHRL 196–7
criteria for resort to coercive measures 197–9
disinterestedness principle 198
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 187, 202 n.2, 202 n.3
Elements of Crimes 196–7
ethnic cleansing 195–7, 526, 596 n.10, 608–9
genocide 40, 193–4
‘humanitarian intervention’ 188–90
necessity principle 198
proportionality principle 198
refugees 5
‘three pillars’ of R2P 190–2
UN Charter and 378–9
UN mandates on executions (1982) and torture (1985) 187–8
and UN R2P practice 199–201
war crimes 195–6, 995–6 n.37
Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances 187–8
International Monetary Fund (IMF):
European influences 958
and Sri Lanka 881
International Peace Institute 289
Blue Paper (2008) 586
International Intervention report (2000) 118
International Solidarity Movement 463
Iran:
R2P 270
Sunni-Shiite conflicts 906
and Syrian civil war 899
UNGA dialogue sessions on R2P 452
Iraq 60, 192
assistance to counter ISIL (2014) 992
humanitarian impact of sanctions 60, 665, 666
northern (1991) 57, 59
Operation Provide Comfort 604
safe zone 569
US/UK intervention (2003) 66, 121
Iraqi Kurdistan 237
Ishakawa, Sachiko 383
Islamic State (ISIS/ISIL) 205 n.75, 304, 345, 458, 461, 473, 478, 901–2, 906, 908, 992, 993, 979
in Iraq, and UN Special Advisers 302–3, 311 n.57
military response to 917
(p. 1106) Islamist political parties, Libya 778
Israel–Palestine conflict 76
and the Arab League 104
Gaza intervention (2009) 138
Gaza, Israeli bombardment (2014) 459
Gaza, Israeli onslaught (2008) 454
Israel shielded from R2P sanctions 685
settlements in Palestinian territories 454
violations of human rights and humanitarian law 454
war crimes 454
war with Hezbollah (2006) 410
Italy, and the NATO intervention in Kosovo 393
Jabhat al-Nusra 900
Jabri, Vivienne 209–10
Jad, Imad 461
Jammu 374
Janjaweed militias 9, 662, 718
Japan:
Commission of Human Security (CHS) (2001) launch 378
commitment to UN Peacebuilding Commission 382
constitution and armed forces 381
Development Cooperation Charter 383
peacekeeping forces in South Sudan 382–3
role in Sri Lanka 881
Japanese Constitution, Article 9 382
Jews, European 33
Jihadist suicide bombers 960
John Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies 83
Johnson, Hilde 858, 862
Joint Protection Teams (JPTs) in DRC 737
Jordan, joining NATO coalition in Libya 771
Juba, South Sudan 857
Juba Declaration (2006) 860
Juma, Monica 756
Junk, Julian 393, 395
‘just war’ tradition 22, 96, 461, 675–6
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), Darfur 718, 720
Kabau, Tom 363
Kabila, Laurent-Désiré 734, 743, 744
Kachin Independence Army (KIA), Myanmar 804
Kachin State, Myanmar 804, 805, 812
Kadi case, and the Al-Qaeda consolidated list 666
Kagame, Paul 756
Kagera region, Uganda 45
Kälin, Walter 84, 85, 86, 606–7
Kamphausen, R. D. 941
Kantian ethics 640–1
Kapila, Mukesh 721
Karua, Martha 755
Kashmir 374, 937
Kassim, Yang Razali 959
Kathman, Jacob D. 565, 576 n.14
Kayin (Karen) State, Myanmar 803, 804
Keating, Colin 115–16
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) 96, 154
Kelsen, Hans 152
Kenya post-election crisis (2007/8) 9, 258, 293, 309 n.25, 339, 363, 478, 535 Fig. 28.5, 678–9, 750–62, 925,
993
Commission on Post-Election Violence (CCIPEV) 648
election 2013 759–60
Electoral Commission of (ECK) 751, 758
hate speech 758–9
and the ICC 648
Independent Electoral Boundaries Commission (IEBC) 759, 760
mediation process 754–5
National Dialogue and Reconciliation Act (2008) 750, 753, 761, 762
Party of National Unity (PNU) 751
preventable tragedy? 757–9
R2P, role of 756–7
R2P success story? 759–61
and UN OHCHR 318
US assistance 472
violence prevention (2010, 2013) 474, 476, 478
Kenyetta, Uhuru Muigai 648, 760, 761, 762
Kerry, John 900
Khan, Yahya 42
Khin Nyunt 803
(p. 1107) Khmer Rouge, Cambodia 4, 60, 43–4, 250
Kibaki, Mwai 9, 678, 750, 751, 752–3, 755
Kiir, Salva 859, 860, 864–5
Kikwete, Jakaya 753
Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka 877
Kim Dae-jung 831
Kim Jong-un 833
Kim Soo-am 826
Kirby, Michael 826, 831, 834
Kisangani, Emizet F. 573, 577 n.48
Kisangani massacre (DRC, 2002) 736
Kissinger, Henry 928
Kivuiti, Samuel 751
Kiwanja (North Kivu) massacre (2008) 737
Kobane liberation, Syria 902
Kohona, Palitha 878
Kony, Joseph 592
Korean War 4
Kosovo crisis (1998–9), NATO intervention 5–6, 57, 67, 84, 95, 100–6, 107, 118, 231–2, 238, 392–3, 517, 676, 970, 971–2
Albanians 5–6, 101, 393, 609
Annan 116
atrocities 5
China’s response 938
ethnic cleansing 249
illegal but legitimate 105–6
Latin American response 440
Muslim populations 196
Muslims and Arab response 460
opposition to 949, 985–6
peacekeeping forces (KFOR) 59, 100, 676
UK legal justification 189
Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) 101, 104, 109 n.34
Kouchner, Bernard 58, 137, 138, 258, 309 n.26, 393, 678, 754, 881, 918, 960
Krain, Mathew 564, 665
Kufour, John 753
Küng, Hans 962
Kuper, Leo 549
Kuperman, Alan J. 135
Kurdish populations:
of northern Iraq, and UN resolution 688 (1991) 192
and Saddam Hussein 57–8
in Syria 897
Kurtz, Gerrit 393, 395
Kuwait, invasion of 57, 192
Kyrgyzstan 310 n.47
Ladsous, Herve 796
Lagarde, Christine 958
Langi ethnic group 45
Larger Freedom, In: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights For All, UN 87, 114–15, 122, 124
Latin America 429–45, 445 n.6
Cold War, state terror and politics of regional human rights 434–6, 446 n.19, 447 n.21
Costa Rica, human rights and R2P policy 443
Cuban and Soviet communist influences 429–30
democratic rule 429, 437
Fifth Meeting of Foreign Ministers, Santiago (1959) 432–3
homicide rates 444–5
Márquez Stockholm lecture (1982) 430, 444
military interventions and regimes 429–30, 425–6
Network for the Prevention of Genocide and Atrocity Crimes 274
R2P opposition from Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua 443–4
regional human rights architecture 431–4, 446 n.8
response to NATO intervention in Kosovo 440–1
role in UN Charter and human rights 432
RwP initiative and Brazil 443
Santiago Commitment to Democracy and the Renewal of the Inter-American System (1991) 440
US military cooperation against subversion 429, 434–5
US Senate and Congress debates on 436, 447 n.22
victims as human rights architects 436–40
see also individual countries
(p. 1108) Lavrov, Sergey 105, 418, 480, 591, 775, 950
Le Yucheng 939, 945 n.38
League of Arab States (LAS) 216
role in Libya 356
and UNGA dialogue sessions on R2P 453
League of Nations 548
Covenant 96
and humanitarian intervention 32–3
veto rights 229
Lebanon:
European intervention in (1860–1) 25, 27, 28
R2P, and intervention in Libya 455, 464 n.22
and UNGA dialogue sessions on R2P 453
Lee, Yanghee 811
Lee Junk-hoon 829
Lee Shin-wha 830
Lehman, Volker 233, 234
Lemkin, Raphael 3, 40, 64
Lesotho 63
Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC), Sri Lanka 883
Li Baodong 770, 950
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, Tamil Tigers) 204 n.42, 324–5, 562, 877–9, 881, 883–5
atrocities 297
terrorist tactics 306
Liberia, ECOWAS deployment 59, 119, 337
atrocities 5
UN protection mandate (UNMIL) 199, 251
Libya crisis, and NATO intervention 10, 68, 208, 213, 227, 229–61, 345, 400–1, 412, 535 Fig. 28.5, 563–4, 591, 640, 673–86
African Court on Human and People’s Rights (ACHPR), measures against 362
from Arab Spring to UNSC resolution 1970 769–70
Arab states response 456, 459–60
arms imports from EU countries 400
Asia Pacific concerns 379
atrocities 593, 772, 777, 993–4
Brazil and RwP 67, 622–4, 774–5
BRICS criticism 13, 213
Cambodia under Khmer Rouge compared 773
consequences for the Syrian civil war 775–6, 905–6
ECOWAS intervention 199
IDPs and refugees 605, 778
India’s position 383
international crime prevention efforts 591, 592, 593
LAS support 356
number of deaths 681
parliamentary elections (2012) 777–8
POC 525, 536, 539, 605
post-conflict peacebuilding 518–19, 684
post-intervention failures 973–4
proportionality 681
R2P 138, 139, 324, 325
regime change 10, 66, 275–6, 301, 319, 379, 412, 682, 702, 772–3, 774, 927, 959, 974
regional support 937
responsibility to rebuild 777–9
Russia and 412, 479–80, 950
strategic doctrine on how to design protection 681–2
UN HRC International Commission of Inquiry 769, 772, 777
UNSC arms embargo 259–61
UNSC resolutions invoking R2P 200
UNSC sanctions 663, 665, 666–7
UNSMIL 77–9
weapons supplies to Libyan rebels 773
see also Gadhafi, Muammar; UNSC Resolutions 1674; UNSC resolution 1970; UNSC resolution 1973; UNSC resolutions 2016; UNSC resolution 2040;
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 456
Libyan House of Representatives 778, 779
Libyan National Council (LNC) 898
Libyan National Transitional Council (NTC) 623, 681, 684, 771
Licorne Opération, Côte d’Ivoire 564, 695, 700, 701, 704
(p. 1109) Lima Declaration (2012) 628
Linas-Marcoussis Accord (2003) 662, 695
Lisbon Treaty, and R2P provision 396
Liu Tiewa 942–3
Liu Zhenmin 937, 940
Locke, John 156
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) 592, 991
Lotze, Walter 699
Loveman, Brian 445 n.1, 445 n.2
Lucent, Selena 641
Luck, Edward 211, 254, 256, 259, 379, 494, 529, 582, 633 n.26, 698–9, 957
and Darfur 725, 727
Kenya post-election crisis 753
R2P as political concept 135
Lugansk 415, 418
Lugansk people’s republic (LPR) 412, 414–15, 416, 419–20, 422, 423