Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 21 April 2019

(p. 739) Index

(p. 739) Index

Note: Tables, figures, and notes are indicated by t, f, and n

A
“abandoned,” by a partner, 366
ability, to help the recipient, 355
abominations of the body, 434
Aboriginal children, taken from their families and institutionalized, 676
absence, of empathy, 17
abstract concepts, feeling empathy for, 274
abstract sciences, 730
abstract terms, dilemma in, 529
abused children, low in empathy/sympathy, 124
abusive relationships, staying in, 366
acceptability of other helpers, 269
accessibility, of commitment, 372
accommodation, 366
cognitive developmental process of, 15
defined, 364
of interpersonal motives, 223
involving conflict between self-interest and the interests of the relationship, 364
acculturation, in Mexican American children, 128
“accurate” judgment, promoting, 702
accurate perceptions, of partners’ respective thoughts and feelings, 369
achievement-related characteristics, 317
acid rain, car exhaust contributing to, 629
acting, to aid others, 139
action control, phenomenology of, 159
action-goal dynamics, of others, 156
actions, consistent with our preceding thoughts, 159
activation
approaches to, 630
of the fight-or-flight component, 250
“activation bias,” 591
active bystanders, 694–695, 713, 714t
active bystandership, 693
beginning early, 702
inhibitors of, 713
more likely in a pluralistic society, 707
prior actions developing positive, 714t
“supporting characteristics” relevant to, 697–698
active deviance, 597, 598
“active sympathy,” 11
activities, judgments about types of, 147
activity theory, 511
actor-dependent explanations, of violence and peace, 683
actor-dependent peace intervention, 683
actor-observer differences, in attribution attenuated for close partners, 370
actors, making predictions about the amount of reward they will receive, 538
actor’s intent, status of, 722
adaptations, 48
adaptive explanations, 39, 40f, 46
adaptive function, debating, 38
adaptive mechanisms, byproducts of other, 49
adaptive on average, 46–47
“adaptive on average”mechanisms, 46
adaptive psychological mechanism, “tricking” to produce a prosocial response, 47
“adaptive work-arounds,” 729
adjusted multivariate models, isolating age of participants from other factors, 429
adjustment-correction models, in social-cognitive psychology, 248
adolescent and young adult women, endorsing altruism to a greater extent, 382
adolescents
age differences in the impact of service learning, 497–498
development of prosocial behavior in, 118–119
focusing on interactions and exchanges, 143
gender differences in prosocial behavior larger in late, 382
with higher scores on a measure of mattering, 511
high in agreeableness, 682
high levels of sympathy under conditions of high paternal support, 124
judgments about deception of parents or peers, 140
prosocial likely to have friends engaging in these activities, 125
psychological effects of volunteer work on, 496
rights upheld by, 146
volunteer opportunities, 515
adolescent social involvement, leading to a greater likelihood of community involvement, 499
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), 216
adults
abundantly exposed to children, 599
effects of volunteering and helping on, 501–502
endorsing rights in some situations but not others, 145
rights upheld by, 146
advanced cognitive processes, 284
advantage, motivation to justify, 555
advantaged
giving resources to the disadvantaged, 554
taking actions on behalf of others, 551
“advantageous inequity aversion,” 107
aerosol propellants, 629
affect, translating commitment into relationship maintenance behaviors, 371
affect communication, creating matching physiological states, 74
affective benefits, of helping others, 402
affective empathy, 16, 673
affective outcomes, 284, 285
affective perspective taking, 117
affective processes, 371
affective states, 285–288
influence of parallel on helping for problematic targets, 289–290
influencing negotiators, 673
with interdependent strangers, 291–292
Affect Misattribution Procedure, 434
affect modes, more desirable for close relationships, 407
affiliation, pursuit of, 173
affiliation transition, 477
affiliative activity, serving to tending needs, 9
African Americans, being helped by a white helper, 320
African countries
reactions of toward the PEFPAR, 311
women’s inferior social status, 445
(p. 740) after-school activities, linked with positive youth development, 126
after-school programs, including a service component, 514–515
“after-the fact” reasoning, 87
Agape motive, 174
age
affecting receptivity, 315
effects, 429, 507–508
moderating variable in the relationship between helping and positive mood, 428
not a sufficient reason (to not offer a trial), 663
rates of volunteering having a curvilinear relationship with, 469
ageist depictions, of older adults as “costly and burdensome,” 416
agency, gender differentiation along dimensions of, 377
agentic attributes, 381
agentic instrumental approach, 469
agentic motivations, 376
agentic traits, 377–378
age-related changes
in cognitive development, 233
in empathic responding or prosocial behavior, 117
in judgments about hitting and helping, 150
in moral judgments, 149
age-related differences, in prosocial behavior, 15, 16
age-related patterns, of children’s and adolescents’ moral judgments, 147
age-related vulnerability cues, influence on prosocial behavior, 588
aggression
displacement, 591
empathy-induced altruism inhibiting, 272
expressing in a more indirect way, 593
inhibition by empathy-induced altruism, 272
negatively related to tolerance, 589
reduction, 598
studies, 394
aggressive behavior, 285, 368, 588
aggressive responses, 264
agreeableness, 238
avoidance of negative behaviors, 241
best single predictor of prosocial activities, 243
clear connection between cooperation and, 533
containing many forms of other-oriented, group-directed behaviors, 238
as core element in the prosocial personality, 241–242
correclates as direct expressions of Care, 247
correlation with Other-oriented Empathy factor, 239
defined in motivational terms, 238
ease of escape and, 240
generating reciprocal agreeableness in other people, 242
inviting complacency in interpersonal relationships that are inequitable and exploitive, 688
linked to traditional assessments of self-regulation, 244
linked with peaceful interpersonal relationships, 682
links with empathy and prosocial behavior, 19
not a universal predictor of all forms of prosocial tendencies, 242
not necessarily related to overt helping behavior, 239
as one of the “Big Five” personality factors, 463, 593
as one psychological manifestation of the Care system, 247
overlapping with communal traits, 388n1
persons high in experiencing empathic concern, 240, 247
persons high in likely to help others regardless of the situation, 19
persons high in reported greater willingness to help siblings and friends, 239
persons scoring high on generated thoughts indicating care and benevolence, 598
positively related to cooperativeness and self-restraint, 682
positively related to restraint, 241
probably not the core element of the more restricted Altruistic Personality, 242
prosocial personality and, 238–239
reflecting differences in the motivation to maintain positive relations, 463
related to Penner’s Other-Oriented Empathy scores, 239
related to protective and empathic responses to needy persons, 593
relationship with prosocial behavior, 18–19
role in prosocial behavior, 18
single best predictor of prosocial tendencies and behavior, 242
tied distinctively to systems of self-regulation, 241
unrelated to personal distress, 239
Agreeableness factor, Altruism and Trust facets of, 657
AHEAD study, exploring health and mortality, 506
AIDS
image of persons with containing both active and passive elements, 597
volunteerism improving psychological and physical functioning of persons with, 482
volunteers reporting experiences of stigmatization, 481
Aitutaki, native population of, 126
alcohol dependency, 437, 447
alcoholics, helping other alcoholics, 502
Alexander, 732
all-at-once combination, 269–270
“alliance,” formed between patients and oncologists, 662
alliances, in primatology, 66
allocation, resolution of disputes over, 553
allocation decisions, 276, 553
allocators, 92, 93
allopregnenalone, 356
all others, helping of, 614
Allport, Gordon, 26, 394, 723
Allport’s model, 569–570
almsgiving, 4, 733
Alorese, of Java, 126
alternatives, to the current relationship, 365
altruism. See also prosocial behavior
as acting morally, 261
among nonrelatives, 65–67
based on empathic perspective-taking, 76
behavior associated with, 267t
best satisfied by cooperating, 272–273
coined by Auguste Comte, 721
defined, 61, 62, 628
defining differently, 52
described, 629
as distinct, 260
drawing on general mammalian neural systems, 513
empathy the key to, 400
emphasizing actor’s motivation, 628
explaining in the animal kingdom, 61
extant across the life course, 417
forms of, 62, 64t
genetic basis for in humans, 265
harming the person providing help and the recipient, 274
helping behavior, 261
imbedded in organized environments, 419
impact on decisions to participate in clinical trials, 660
involving other-interest, 261
link with attachment, 220
meanings of, 10, 259
as motivation for helping, 28
preferences for recipients of, 111
as a prosocial category, 5–6
question of the existence of, 262
representing another example of costly signaling, 312
requiring sacrifice on the part of the altruist, 106
sanctions against, 276
socialization to, 512
source of “true,” 286
special subcase of prosocial behavior labeled, 722
(p. 741) as a subcategory of helping, 5
term reserved for prosocial actions, 233
as threat, 175
as used by biologists, 38
used in three other ways, 261
woven tightly into the fabric of everyday life, 265
altruism born of suffering, 676, 706, 706f, 713
altruism model, of inheritance, 426
altruist action, 512
altruist-dominant group, success of, 13
altruistic actions, 234, 514
altruistic acts, 5–6, 100
altruistic aggression, 272
altruistically motivated helping, 23
altruistic behavior(s)
categories of, 64t
classes of, 101
cue eliciting, 105
defined, 555
evolved for self-serving evolutionary reasons, 63
in later life, 416–417
in nonhuman great apes, 104
as one subtype of prosocial behavior, 114
as a signal sent by the helper to the recipient, 312
taxonomy of, 62
altruistic compensation game, 95
altruistic emotions, 513
altruistic group, membership in, 14
altruistic helper, willing to forego personal gains, 10
altruistic helping, 117
altruistic impulses, of primates, 79
altruistic motivation, 348
affected by trial phase, 569
described, 260–261
leading to partiality in our decisions, 275
less fickle than egoistic prosocial motivation, 272
not always leading to action to benefit the other, 262
not consistent with views of motivation, 350
as potentially dangerous, 273–274
prompting a cost-benefit analysis, 265
results of, 261
sources of other than empathic concern, 278
altruistic motives, 658, 659
altruistic or other-focused motives, volunteers indicating, 481
The Altruistic Personality, 236
altruistic personality, 234, 242, 278, 462
altruistic prosocial behavior, 130
altruistic punishment, 191, 193
altruistic punishment games, 94, 95
altruistic tendencies, early emergence of basic, 103
Altruists, 533
Alzheimer’s disease, 437, 514
amae, cultural practice in Japan, 200
ambiguity, of the helping situation, 395
ambiguous messages, 213–214
ambiguous situations, perception of need in, 263
ambivalence, 173, 214
ambivalent reactions, to people in need of help, 733
American Cancer Society, supporting clinical trials, 656
American ethnic groups, 536
American interactions, 201
American Jews, 707
Americans
defining the self in terms of personality, 203
traveling primarily in their private vehicles, 643
Americans’ Changing Lives , 501
Americans’ Changing Lives survey, 421, 424, 506, 507, 508
American situations, emphasizing the individual, 201
American soldiers, experiences during World War II, 569
AmeriCorps, 517n1
Amsterdam, relations between Dutch and Muslim immigrants, 704
anecdotes, providing starting points for animal behavior research, 76
anger
feelings of, 264
underlying altruistic punishment, 90
anger-based punishment, 94
anger-related left-frontal cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, 272
anger suppression, 599
animal altruists, not knowing about the genetic benefits, 63
animal behavior, costly signaling theory in, 46
animal breeding, byproducts, 49
animal empathy, 71, 80
animal models, explaining how maternal behavior is instantiated in the brain, 353
“animal model” studies, 654
animals
basic responses in, 71
recognizing and acting in accord with principles of distributive fairness, 556
anomalies, of prejudice and helping, 246
anonymity, opportunities for, 48
antagonistic child variation, 148
antagonistic victim, 147
antecedent, experience, and consequence stages, of volunteerism, 460
antecedent motives, of community volunteers as predictors of their experience, 472
antecedents, 283
of gratitude, 308
of prosocial behavior, 332, 336–337
of volunteerism, 293, 460–472
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 8, 538
anterior dorsal striatum, activating, 90
anterior insula, 8, 94
anthropocentric values, 628
“The Anthropology of Infectious Disease,” 725
anticipated embarrassment, 635
anticipated negative emotions, research focusing on, 635
anticipatory guilt, in mass media advertisements, 635
anticommons dilemma, 530
“anti-fundamentalism,” measure of, 616
anti-recycling message, delivered by an attractive source, 637
anti-Semitism, freed by the German persecution of Jews, 698
antisocial action, conflicting with a prosocial action, 139
antisocial disobedience, 671
antisocial judgments and actions, in the service of the prosocial, 139–141
antisocial organizations, voluntary contributions to, 485
“antisocial punishment,” 96
anxiety, 210
anxiety buffer hypothesis, 168
anxiety-controlling drugs, 539
anxiety dimension, 210
anxiously attached people
exaggerating neediness, 318
having some qualities necessary for effective caregiving, 216
viewing a partner’s supportive behavior as having larger implications, 214
vulnerable to false or premature beliefs, 212
anxious mothers, 216
apes
accounts of targeted helping, 77
scope of altruistic behaviors in, 110–111
well-developed prosocial behavior in, 78–79
apologies, 45, 311, 676
“appearing fair,” versus being truly “being fair”, 93
appraisal, 590
appraisals of one's partner, stability of, 213
approach motivation, increasing, 354
Aquino, Corazon, 688
Arab Spring, 683
Arafat, Yassir, 704
Aramaic language, 732
Aristotle, 7, 8, 731
Aron, Arthur, 352
arousal:cost-reward model, 21, 27, 286, 395–396, 397
ascription of responsibility (AR), 630
Asian Americans, volunteering by, 610
Asian elephants, 65, 66f
(p. 742) Asians, regarded as high in competence and low in warmth, 438
assessment, immediate effects of, 251
Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study, 422, 423, 503
Asset and Health Dynamics cohort, of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 503
assignment of blame task, answering, 178
assumptive help, 315, 403
assurances, emphasizing commitment, 367
asymmetric intergroup conflicts, managing nonviolently, 688
athletics, girls' participation in, 387
“at-risk” students, benefits of service learning stronger for, 497
attachment, as an innate behavioral system, 225
attachment anxiety, 317
ambivalent attitudes toward a relationship partner and, 214
associated with less autonomous motives for caregiving, 218
associated with more egoistic reasons for volunteering, 220
associated with more feelings of personal burden and self-criticism/guilt, 222
associated with seeing fewer positive traits and feelings in photographs of people, 212
dimensions of, 463
engendering ambivalence about forgiveness, 224
engendering ambivalent reactions to others’ generous behavior, 222
linked to higher levels of personal distress rather than compassion, 220
not significantly associated with dispositional gratitude, 223
attachment avoidance
dimensions of, 463
men high on, 169
men low in, 340
people high in, 463, 465
attachment behavioral system, innate, 210
attachment behaviors, 210
attachment figures, 210, 215, 225
attachment insecurities
associated with actual aggression between contending or warring social groups, 215
associated with a less constructive experience of forgiveness, 224
associated with lack of esteem for and acceptance of others, 212
detrimental effects on caregiving behavior, 219
interfering with a partner’s positive behavior to restore understanding and empathy, 224
involved in more abusive, life- threatening parental behavior, 217
negatively biasing the perception of others' supportiveness, 213
related to difficulties in providing support and care for partners in need of assistance, 242
seeming to block positive effects gratitude has on prosocial behaviors, 223
attachment orientations
attitudes toward outgroups and, 214–215
caregiving and, 215–219
changing depending on current context and recent experiences, 210
attachment perspective
experience of gratitude and, 222
on prosocial attitudes and behavior, 209–225
attachment-related anxiety, 210
attachment-related avoidance, 210, 211
attachment-related biases, 212–214
attachment-related threat, 217
attachment security
allowing a person to shift attention to others’ needs, 215
associated with autonomous motives for caregiving, 218
associated with empathic reactions to people in need, 463
associated with greater responsiveness and supportiveness toward a dating partner, 219
associated with positive representations of others, 212
associated with the use of more comforting behavior and tactile communication, 217
equated with the appraisal of others' support, 213
expected to be associated with dispositional gratitude, 222
fostering the development of prosocial character traits and virtues, 209
making compassion and altruism more likely, 221
predicting higher levels of daily gratitude, 223
attachment styles, 210, 463
attachment-system functioning, 210
attachment systems, 242
attachment theory, 350
basic concepts, 210–211
Bowlby's, 463
described, 209
interactions creating lifelong working mental models, 317
studying prosocial behavior, 724
attention
devoted to faces during processing, 393
focused on the person in need, 263
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), parents of children newly diagnosed with, 442
attitudes, 264
patterns of, coordinated into systems and norms, 727
toward participation in randomized clinical trials, 659–660
toward volunteering, 468
attitudes and behavior, functions of, 464
attitudinal reciprocity, 67–68, 69t
among chimpanzees, 108
attribution model, 436
attributions
of blame toward people with disabilities, 178
connection with willingness to help, 435
atypical caregiving behavior, 217–218
Australian government, apology for “stolen generations,” 676
Australian Rugby Union clubs, 479
authoritarian political systems, 671, 683, 684
authoritative parenting, 123, 708
authority
building immoral societies and practices, 710
conferring interpersonal respect on persons, 557
overly strong respect for, 707, 710
promoting more moderate respect for, 707
authority-ranking relations, 322
autism spectrum disorder, 74, 443
automatic activation, 370, 380
automatic processing, of race, 392–393
automatic response, to a threat to identity, 702
automatic versus controlled processes, 248
autonomous agents or robots, efforts to design and construct, 586
“autonomous altruists,” 478
autonomy, 173, 712
autonomy model, 416
autonomy-oriented help, 314–315, 323, 408
autonomy support, to volunteers, 478
aversive-arousal reduction
behavior associated with, 267t
goal of, 266
ultimate goal of, 268
“aversive racism,” 594
aversive racism theory, 395, 396, 398
aversive vicarious arousal, 21
avoidance, 210
associated with a less prosocial orientation, 222
immediate, 434
of negative behaviors, 241
women chronically high in, 340
avoidance anxiety, 317
avoidance dimension, 210
avoidance responses, 438
avoidant adults, 218
avoidant and anxious persons, 219
(p. 743) avoidant attachment, 217, 220, 222, 318, 340
avoidant individuals, 216, 224, 463
avoidantly attached men, 340
avoidant mothers, 216–217
avoidant parents, less responsive to their children, 217
avoidant people, 213, 214, 220
awareness, not the primary obstacle to behavior change, 639
awareness of consequences (AC), 630
awareness-raising campaigns, 643
awareness stage, 16
Axelrod, Robert, 88
B
baby boom generation, wave of, 415
backward inference, 273
“bad” person, refusal to help, 45
balance, of giving and seeking prosocial behavior, 339
Balzac, 274
Banker’s Paradox, 42
Banks, Katie, 290
barriers
to constructive dialogue, 673
to full cooperation, 532
to initiating service, 481
to peacemaking, 677–678
removing, 678–680
to volunteering, 469
basic needs, theory of, 700
Batson, C. Daniel, 9–11, 22, 23, 28, 351, 462, 601n1, 629, 659
Baylor Religion Survey (BRS), 610
Becker, Ernest, 167
begging behavior, in chimpanzees, 66
Begin, Menachem, 674
behavior(s)
associated with different empathy induced motives, 267t
automatically qualifying as antisocial or prosocial, 153
benefiting others, 86
benefitting the self in some way, 350
central rules for needed to prevent devolution into chaos, 527
changing, 642
as directly observable, 722
driven by cultural norms about fairness, 193
failure to engage in, 236
fine line between prosocial and antisocial, 358
as a function of both actor dispositions and the characteristics of the situation, 657
as a function of people’s personality, 695
impact of, 627
less likely to be tolerated, 596–598
occurrence of particular, 261
personal and situational influences on, 461
promoting an instrumental goal, 261–262
promoting an ultimate goal, 261
as prosocial, 158
science of, 722
skewing toward offering help, 339
Behavioral Approach System (BAS), 241
behavioral changes, encouraging, 528
behavioral consequences, of empathy-induced altruism, 265
behavioral consistencies, 11, 17
behavioral economics, 86, 87, 95
behavioral immune system
as an adjunct to the infection-resisting physiological immune system, 726
detecting potential pathogen threats, 727
formation of, 733–734
triggering avoidance responses, 433
behavioral inhibition, interfering with ability to act prosocially, 120
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), 241
behavioral interventions, 528–529
behavioral level, ostracized individuals and, 157
behavioral maintenance strategies, 367
behavioral measures of regulation, 120–121
behavioral mechanisms, 585
behavioral phenomenon, ancient lineage of prosocial behavior, 722
behavioral routes, attractiveness or availability to different goal(s), 269
behaviorism, principles of, 9
behaviorist heyday, 722
behaviorists, 722
behavior norms, promoting or inhibiting contact with other people, 727
behavior of others, considering, 642, 644
being close. See intrinsic valuing
being connected, to a stigmatized person, 443
“being green.” See pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs)
beliefs
about one's own abilities, 380
about the onset of a stigma, 435
bell-curve, optimum and, 47
belongingness
basic need for, 173
feeling of, 308
need for, 307
powerful terror management function of, 174
belongingness-related motivations, 321
Belyaev, Dmitri, 49
Benedict, Pope, 437
benefactor, 4
benefactor’s actions, 222
beneficial effects, of cooperative intergroup interdependence, 570
benefits
exchanged in close temporal succession, 68
for patients who participate in clinical trials, 656
promoting volunteerism, 485
for the self, 351
benefits factors, 510
benevolence, 681
benevolent sexism, 380, 384
Bentham, Jeremy, 249
Bereitschaftspotential (BP-readiness potential), measured, 19
best friends, prosocial behavior among, 349
best interests, 41, 524
betrayal, forgiving a partner’s acts of, 366
between-groups helping, not always straightforward, 470
biased responses, processing of race activating, 393
biases, 47, 564
bicultural individuals, 200
bidirectional relations, between parents and children, 124
Big Five factor of Agreeableness, 28
“Big Five” personality dimensions, 18
Big Five personality traits, 463, 533–534
NEO-PI-R measure of, 657
big game, hunting and sharing, 45
bimodal distribution, with two optima, 55n3
binary approach, to assessing prosociality as overly simplistic, 153
binding moral ties, 728
binge eating, 441
“binging,” 96n5
biological agents, associated with infectious diseases, 725
biological factors, for prosocial actions, 8–9
biological immune systems, formation of, 733
biological legacy, 426
biological markets, 53
biological predisposition, of human altruism, 105
biological study of behavior (ethology), 586
biospheric value orientation, 631
biospheric values, individuals holding, 628–629
biracial individuals, 393
Blackmore, Susan, 50
Blacks
adhering less to physician recommendations, 405
association with apes, 393
cancer patients asking fewer questions than do White patients, 665
expecting more discrimination from Whites, 407
female lung cancer patients likely to be enrolled in clinical trials, 663
(p. 744) more likely to agree to participate in clinical trials, 664
more likely to be arrested and incarcerated for drug use, 446
receiving less information about clinical trials, 664
trusting doctors and clinicians less than Whites, 404–405
blame, attributions of, 435–436
blame-validation mode, 178
blaming the victim, 272
bleeding victims, activating avoidance, 246
blood donations, 176, 476
blood feuds, in the culture of many societies, 710
bodily synchronization, 71
bodily systems, active during mixed-motive interaction, 527
body movements, perceiving the pattern of, 155
“bogus pipeline manipulation,” 593
bonding social capital, 483
bonds, formed through volunteering in a community, 483
Bone Builders exercise program, 515
bonobos
cooperative network, 66
enabling other individuals to access food, 109
food generosity, 78
helping in, 104–105
more socially tolerant over food, 109
performing instrumental helping behaviors, 106
prosocial behavior in, 721
quite different in some respects to chimpanzees, 108–109
sharing in, 108–110
“boomer” generation, involved in volunteering, 516
“boomers,” aging of, 415
bottom-up approach, 236–243, 586
bottom-up research, on the prosocial personality, 236–238
boundaries, of age-related differences, 16–17
Bowlby, John, 209
boys, socialization of, 382
brain
constraining evolution of psychological mechanisms, 586
learning patterns via experience, 160
brain functions, of high altruism people versus low altruism, 512–513
brain mechanisms, linking health and mortality, 517
brain region, mediating helplessness, 355
brain structures, participating in the neuroscience of prosociality, 9
brave/heroic prototype, activating, 699
brave individuals, personal characteristics of, 711
Brave Leader game, 40
breakdowns, of adaptive mechanisms, 46
Brewer, Marilyn, 709
“bribery” system, by a chimpanzee male, 68
“bridging” social capital, 483
Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), 439
brothels, 728
brother’s keeper, 4
Brown, Peter J., 725
Brown, Roger, 232, 233, 251
Buddhism, 614, 618
Buddhist approaches, to peace, 681
burnout, in the helping professions, 275
“business as usual,” continuing with, 583
byproduct mutualism, 41f
byproducts, examples of, 49
bystander effect, 637
bystander intervention, 20–21, 637–644
“bystander nations,” 694
bystanders
affecting each other’s behavior, 698
coming to rely on the actions of others, 20
described, 694
exerting influence on other bystanders, 713
influence of the presence of other, 695
influencing others, 698
model of the decisions, 637–638, 638f
passivity of, 694
reactions of other, 263
C
calculated reciprocity, 67, 68, 69t
Calicut, in India, 676
callithrichid monkeys, food sharing, 66
calm and connection system, 513
Camp David Accords, 674
Canadian Medal of Bravery, 711
cancer clinical trials. See clinical trials
cancer patients, 653, 656
cancer research, prosocial behavior in, 653–666
canonic literary masterpieces, 169
capacity, 117, 118
capuchin monkeys
experiments with, 65
food sharing, 66
group hunting, 64
group membership mattering with, 564
sharing of spoils among, 69f
care-based attributions, 322
care-based expectancies, moderating influence on aggression, 598
care-based tolerance, 584, 589, 596
Care component, suppressing the fight-or-flight system, 247
career advancement motivation, 466
career development, service learning and, 497
career interest, gender-differentiated patterns of, 386
career motivation, age differences in, 469
career-related benefits, volunteering providing, 24
caregivers, 210, 443
caregiving. See also prosocial behavior
as central element of the female gender role, 384
excluded from definitions of volunteerism, 459
finding benefit in, 218
as an innate behavioral system, 225
positive effects within, 503
caregiving motivation and stress regulation, model of, 355f
Caregiving Questionnaire, 218
caregiving system, 353
activation of, 357
biological model of, 354–356, 355f
care-inducing signals, survival value of, 71
care moral orientation, 381
"care orientation" items, of the Prosocial Personality Battery, 466
care provision, 218–220
care system, 589, 591, 599
caretaking roles, women in, 377
caring. See also intrinsic valuing; prosocial behavior, not extending to other people, 697
Caring Canadian Award, 711
caring feelings, 696
Caring Heart organization, 170
caring individuals, personality constellations of, 711
caring orientation, 695
Carnegie Hero Fund Commission, 396
Carnegie Medals, analysis of, 383
carpe diem perspective, 168–169
carrot and the stick, combination of, 90
Carter, Jimmy, 674
casual helping, 5
casual sex, MS increasing desire for, 169
catastrophes, reactions to real-life large-scale, 182
Categorical Imperative, Kant’s, 16
categorization, compromising accuracy, 563
category inclusiveness, 679
causal descriptions, of what we do, 154
causal/mechanistic and “bottom up” (E1), 723
ceiling effect, minimizing empathy-helping relationship, 300
central authority, ceding some freedoms to, 527
centrality, of close relationships, 354
centralized decision-making system, views of, 158
cerebellar control models, 160
chance event, people feeling more in control of, 159
change, in depression in three groups, 508
“character,” dispositional quality of, 17
(p. 745) characteristics, role of children’s, 124–125
character strengths, relationship with altruistic behavior, 417
charismatic leaders, 169
charitable behavior, effects of MS on, 170
charitable donations, 336
charitable giving, 419–420, 422
charity, saintly virtue of, 609
“charity saves from death,” 169
cheaters, optima for, 55n3
child abusers, negative feelings against, 597
Child Development Project, 128–129
childhood
development of prosocial behavior in early, 115–118
differences in behavior in collectivist and individualist cultures, 197
childless elderly, 420
children. See also young children
biologically predisposed to be cooperative, 111
comparing behavior to closest primate relatives, 100
continuing to help even if they have to leave a fun activity, 102
cultural differences in prosocial behavior, 193–194
emotionally reactive but well regulated as especially sympathetic, 121
focusing on interactions and exchanges, 143
giving a voice, 707
helping an unfamiliar adult in novel situations, 103–104
helping driven by an intrinsic rather than an extrinsic motivation, 103
helping in, 101–103
including in discussions of values and rules to live by, 711
interacting with prosocial peers, 125
making different types of judgments about domains of social interactions, 142
needs, failing to satisfy, 217
not needing guidance nor a little nudge from the parents, 103
peer group activities involving decisions as to who to include, 146
physically or sexually abused, 713
providing food to a bystander, 106
rights upheld by, 146
sacrificing a personal gain to prevent inequality, 107
scrutinizing situations they encounter, 149
sharing in, 106–108
showing more prosocial behavior toward friends than nonfriends, 125
susceptible to influence of the environment, 125
thinking, in domains, 142
younger than 8 years making global judgments of self-worth less readily, 315–316
chimpanzees
brutally killing each other, 80
consolation, studies of, 76
cooperating at a high rate with other chimpanzees generally, 564
cooperating with nonrelatives, 65
currying favors for strategic reasons, 68
exchanging other-rewarding tokens, 68
food sharing, 66
group hunting, 64
helping among, 77, 104–105
as highly competitive over food, 110
lacking cognitive resources, 233
mental states about the mental states of others, 154
motivated to help with an unachieved goal, 105
not inclined to actively share resources with others, 109
performing costly helping acts, 62
presence and absence of certain types of altruistic behaviors, 104
PTCs, negative findings of, 78
reciprocal distribution of alliances, 66
reluctant to deliver resources to others, 109
selecting prosocial tokens, 78–79
selectively grooming supporters, 68
sharing in, 108–110
studies of socialization practices, 104
understanding of their partner’s role, 64
willing to help even in the absence of a concrete reward, 105
yawning, 75
Chinese decision makers, in a prisoner’s dilemma game, 197
Chinese identity, of Chinese American biculturals, 200–201
Chinese individuals, norms of cooperation toward ingroup members, 199
chivalrous helping, 383–384
chlorofluorocarbon (CEC) emissions, 629
choice-disabilities, 445
choices, unfolding over time, 531
“chosen trauma,” 705
Christianity, 51, 618, 731
A Christmas Carol, 170
chronic inability to cope, recipient’s, 323
chronic individual differences, manifesting themselves, 334
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 439
chronic relational individual differences, people bringing to relationships, 334
chronic self-esteem, 318
church attendance, 610, 620
church-authorized indulgences, sale of, 733
church elders, more likely to act prosocially, 423
church-related organizations, volunteering for, 470
Cialdini, 352
“circle of moral regard,” 301
circumstances, exerting differential influence on people, 695
“circumstantial evidence,” considering, 664
citizenship behavior, organizational, 45
Civic Engagement in Older America, 517
civic-mindedness, increase in, 481
civic organizations, alms to the indigent delivered by, 733
civil rights movement, parents of participants in, 711
classes, of prosociality, 3
classical conditioning, 284
classic bystander intervention paradigm, 242
classic MS condition, 176
classification scheme, for helpful actions, 5
climate change, 45, 182
clinical interactions, between an oncologist and a patient, 658
clinical trials
conducted with human participants, 654
developing new and better ways to treat cancer, 653
discussion of differing across patient from different racial/ethnic groups, 664
increasing patient participation in not being coercive and/or manipulative, 666
levels of, 654–655
not presented in a neutral fashion, 661
participants as rational actors, 660
reasons for participating, 659
shortage of patients participating in, 656–657
close communal relationships, 636
close friends and family, empathy-helping link with, 300
close interpersonal relations, need for, 174
close interpersonal relationships, 357
close kin, statistically likely to carry identical copies, 43
close relationships
centrality of, 349–350, 352–353
focusing only on, 332
hormonal underpinnings of, 358
increasingly prosocial interdependence develops, 366
nonromantic, 372
prosocial action not an unconditional consequence of, 362
coalition partners, active meat sharing in the wild between, 108
coercion and punishment, 42
cognition, 244, 369–370
cognitive biases, 368–369
cognitive busyness, exhausting people, 599
cognitive-developmental approach, 233
(p. 746) cognitive developmental theory, 15
cognitive dissonance, as a negative state driving PEB, 634
cognitive interdependence, 366, 369
cognitive links, between partners, 368
cognitively generated inferences, 154
cognitive mindset, 529
cognitive outcomes, 284
cognitive/perceptual level, ostracized individuals and, 157
cognitive perspective taking, 117
cognitive processes, 282, 673
cognitive reframing, involved in prosocial actions, 672
cognitive representations, 284
cognitive-social approach, 18
cognitive social learning, shaping social behavior, 18
cognitive tendencies, related to commitment, 366
cohesive training group experience, 478
cohort effects, 429
collaboration, 108
collaboration condition, 107
collaborative foraging, element of partner choice, 110
“collective action frame,” for mass actions, 685
collective behavior, producing synchronized, 685
collective commitment, to civility and cooperation, 677
collective cultures, 196, 198
“collective fear orientation,” 678
collective guilt, 636
collective identity, 568, 573
collective inefficiency, expectations of, 90
collective interest, in social dilemmas, 568
collective mechanisms, in the contact hypothesis, 571
collective memories, 675–676, 679
“collective rationality,” 88
collective responsibility, taking for environmental harm, 636
collectivism, 10, 201, 276, 629
collectivistic cultures, 196–197, 536
collectivistic values, acceptance of by Turkish adolescents, 127
collectivist-leaning in-group, embedded within an individualistic culture, 536
colorblindness, exhibiting, 392
color-naming response, slowing down, 267–268
combat, compassion in, 181–183
combat conditions, necessitating racial integration, 569
comforting feeling (or illusion), of being an important person in a meaningful world, 167
command-feedback regularities, embodied in corticocerebellar networks, 160
commemorations, introducing a vision of a better future generating hope, 706
commitment
accessible, 370
as a central motive underlying prosocial motivation, 365
components of, 365
disrupting the transformation of an aggressive urge into violent relational behavior, 368
enhanced to the extent that volunteers feel they are supported, 485
to the environment, 371
link with forgiveness, 367
playing a central role in understanding tendency for a person to depart from self-interest, 363
predicting both behavioral and cognitive maintenance processes, 366
promoting behaviors and patterns of thought reflecting a prorelation ship orientation, 372
to a relationship, 333
relationship maintenance mechanisms and, 366–371
to remain as volunteer, 480
commitment prime, associated with forgiveness, 367
commitment-sacrifice association, directionality of, 372
common fate, basic elements of, 571–572
common goals, 6
common good, acting against, 275
common goods game, 192
common group identity
developing without relinquishing separate group identities, 572
emphasizing, 568
fostering, 709
overcoming parochial interests, 569
common identity, intergroup cooperation and, 567–569
common ingroup identity
creating, 574
creating a sense of, 571–572
improving intergroup attitudes, 567
inclusive caring and, 709–710
increasing trust, forgiveness, self-disclosure, and helpfulness, 679
inducing people to recategorize others within, 574
common ingroup identity hypothesis, 7
common ingroup identity model, 567, 571, 573, 679
common ingroup identity theory, 26
common pool, or resource management, dilemmas, 563
common-pool resource problem, 526
common pool resources game, 191
common resources, use of, 10
commons dilemma, 292, 568
communal affordances, importance for career selection, 386
communal characteristics, prosocial behavior and, 384–385
communal clashes, between Chinese Malaysians and Malays in 1969, 680
communal goal endorsement, predicting attraction to different careers, 386f
communal goals, women tend to rate as more important, 381
communal motives, 376
communal relationships, 334, 336
“communal sharing,” relational model of, 314
communal traits, 377, 381, 385, 387
communication
across group lines, 564
allowing group members to coordinate their actions, 25
critical role of, 78
improving cooperation between individuals, 566
between oncologists and patients when invitations are made, 661
promoting greater trust among group members, 25
promoting prosocial action, 28
“communication messages,” 703
communication strategies, 367
“communicative cooperation,” 65
communion, 376, 377, 384
communities
benefits to forming, 468
as a context and a dynamic process, 468
identifying with, 485
lessening of a sense of, 712
volunteerism as a tool to build unequal, 483
community concern motivation, as a key predisposing factor for volunteers, 467–468
community groups, training members of newly created, 703
community-oriented condition, 174
community service
activities, 495
in adulthood, 499
differences in effects for required versus voluntary, 499–500
general religiousness uncorrelated with, 610
having positive impacts on youth, 499
leading to a number of positive outcomes, 466
recommended as a way to develop skills, 466
requirements for, 471
strong evidence for the causal impact of on health, 506
via institutions with the power to compel community service, 470
community volunteering, 293–295
community volunteers, empathic concern and, 462
(p. 747) comorbidities, making participation in a trial either scientifically or ethically inadvisable, 663
comparability, of experimental situations, 269
“comparison hypothesis,” research supporting, 314
comparison level, of alternatives, 53
comparisons, tying to issues of justice, 550
“comparison stress” explanation, 313
compassion fatigue, 275
compensating, victim(s) for harm done, 552
compensation, 508
compensatory model, advocating empowerment, 482
competence, 697
competing avoidance response, decreasing, 354
competition
as a fundamental cause of intergroup prejudice and conflict, 570
not a trait that Zunis society valued, 532
resulting when goals are negatively interdependent, 681
undermining incentives to cooperate, 51
“competitive altruism,” 53, 312
competitiveness, 682
competitive strategies, versus cooperative strategies, 9
“competitive victimhood,” 705
competitors, 25, 92, 94, 532, 533
compliant prosocial behavior, 120, 125
compulsive caregiving, 216, 218
computation. See symbol manipulation
computer metaphor, of the mind, 585–586
Comte, Auguste, 721, 723, 730
conceptual framework for prosocial actions, 654
conceptual model, connecting scope of justice to the inclusion model, 633–634, 633f
concrete terms, dilemma in, 529
concrete threat, posed by threatening animals, 181
“conditional altruism,” 660
“conditional cooperator,” in one’s best interest to be, 642
“conditional forgiveness,” expressing, 703
“conductance hypothesis,” 310
confederate, as another possible cause of response, 159
conflict
defined in various ways, 672
parallel with, 4
presenting instigating conditions for, 703
as a sequence of interrelated events, 245
between White and Black Americans, 709
conflict-enhancing policies, increased support of, 678
conflict management
cultural variations in, 681
interventions aimed at, 679
styles, 681
conflict resolution, 672, 679, 682
conflict-resolution workshops, induction of empathy used in, 273
conflict situations, increased cooperation and care in, 272
conflict transformation, 679
conflictual stance, against the status quo, 685
conflict with another group, persistent and seemingly intractable and violent, 700
conformist transmission, bias toward, 49–50
conformity, 49, 535, 681
connectedness, 467, 632
connectedness to nature, 632–633, 645
Connections, in the RICH approach, 705
conscience development or internalization, explaining children’s, 124
conscientiousness, 238, 244
conscientization, 685, 686, 687t
conscious error detection, moment of, 161
consciousness, 161
conscious thoughts, 158, 159
conscious will, 159–160
consequences
of an action, 654
anticipated affecting prosocial activities, 246
of gratitude, 308
of particular importance to theory and research on volunteerism, 480
risk of, 246
of volunteering, 293
consequences stage, 461
consequentialism, 233
“conservation behavior.” See pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs)
conservation psychology, 630
“conservation” values, of security, conformity, and tradition, 535
consideration of others, 645
consilience, 724
consistency, 159
consolation, by apes, 75–76
consolation behavior, common and similar in human and apes, 76f
consolation gap, between monkeys and hominids, 76
constraint-driven approach, to conscious will, 160
constructive ideologies, creating, 704–705
constructive leaders, personal characteristics of, 713
consumption, resulting in waste and pollution, 626
contact, 576, 704
contact and interaction, not helping to avoid, 397–398
contact between people, 704
contact hypothesis, 7, 26, 569, 573, 576, 583
contact situation, 673
“contact theory,” 569
context, 695, 702
contextual activation, of mental representations of attachment security, 221
contextual features, emphasizing common “groupness” and cooperative interdependence, 571
contextual influences, in the expression of one form of prosocial behavior, 244–245
contingent responding, linked to children’s prosocial behavior and/or empathy, 122
continuity of involvement, effect on psychological well-being, 509
continuum, “distal” and “proximal,” 723
“continuum of destruction,” 700
contributions
all parties making, 7
to charities and public goods, 45
contributory behaviors, source of well-being in late life, 416
contributory model, 416, 429
control architecture, for actions, perceptions, and cognitions, 158
control condition, 170
control instructions, serving as a barrier to empathy, 298
controllability, 597
“controlled communication,” 674
controlling caregiving, scale measuring, 218
control model, presented by Thibaut and Walker, 556–557
the conventional domain, justifications, 143
conventional norms, 111, 142
conversation, greater shared control of, 662
conversion therapy, 444
conviction, that the partner is motivated to be caring, 368
cooperation. See also prosociality
achieving, 567
basic elements of, 571–572
in both intragroup and intergroup situations, 25
central to many problems faced by real-world groups, organizations, and societies, 548
commonly found within groups, 562
conspicuous on people living in harsh environments, 729
defined, 6, 562
(p. 748) determined at a more base level, 538
at different levels of social interaction, 7
dominant game-theoretical approach to, 585
effects on intergroup relations, 569–573
as end result of confusion, 528
enforced, 599
enhanced by turn-taking method of choice, 531
facilitating, 574
features of, 7
as fundamentally a group-level process, 562
in a great variety of taxa, 64
within or between groups, 10
between groups as a daily occurrence, 566
between-group selection for, 52
increasing, 272
influence of intergroup processes on, 563–569
interfering with pursuit of short-term individual self-interest, 549
involving people coming together as more or less equal partners, 562
jointly influenced by one’s in-group culture, 536
with law and legal authorities, 549
migrating toward as they age, 533
as a natural process, 537
philosophies of, 526–527
positive effects generalizing to entire outgroup, 573
positive forms of, 549
as a prosocial category, 6–7
reciprocally activating behavioral mechanisms, 584
reducing prejudice, 572
religiosity instigating an increased rate of, 536
repeated and long-term requiring intervention, 528
in social dilemmas, 527
sometimes seen as an undesirable behavior standard, 96
as a trait evolved through evolution, 92
understanding how to motivate, 549
values influencing, 534
cooperative behavior, 191, 548, 682
cooperative choices, 532, 538
cooperative efforts, 570
cooperative groups, 190
cooperative hunting, 64
cooperative image, maintaining, 612
cooperative intent, 45, 54, 566
cooperative interdependence, 571, 572, 574
cooperative intergroup relations, 576
cooperative learning, 570, 673, 707
cooperative practice, required to sustain ourselves, 204
cooperative pulling paradigm, testing, 65
cooperative pulling task, with capuchin monkeys, 69f
cooperative tribal societies, with egalitarian social structure, 190
cooperators, 532
allocations in ultimatum bargaining settings, 94
cooperate frequently but are also sensitive to the choice environment, 533
drawn toward choices leading to greatest joint payoff, 26
optima for, 55n3
coordination, in decision-making, 149
coping, helping as, 423–424
copying, common behaviors, 49
coresidential grandchild care, effect on health for caregiving grandparents, 422
core values, of different people, 534
Corporation for National and Community Service, 515
correlated features, not selected for directly, 49
correlational research, on green guilt, 635
correspondence of outcomes, featuring, 363
correspondent inference, process of, 378
cortex, 160
cortical inhibition, of other-primed actions, 156
corticocerebellar connections, 160
corticocerebellar control, 161
cost-benefit component, channeling motivated behavior, 21
cost-benefit factors, for larger helping tasks, 407
costly altruism, 78
“costly cooperation,” 38
“costly punishment,” 191
costly sharing, 107
costly signaling, 41f, 45–46, 312, 348
costly signaling theory, 45, 89
costly traits, “advertising,” 348
costs
making intergroup cooperation less likely, 573
to patients for participating in a clinical trial, 655
role in oncologists’ decisions to offer clinical trials, 663
types of, 21
of volunteering, 485–486
costs and benefits, attending participation in a clinical trial, 661
costs and the rewards, incurred and realized by helping or cooperating, 29
counter-empathic reaction, in male pairs of mice, 71–72
couple well-being, promoting, 367
covert aggression, expressing, 596
crack cocaine, 446
craniofacial features, of neonates and toddlers, 588
creative expression, unique, 174
creativity, threatening one’s connection to others, 174
criminal record, in the United States, 447
criterion judgments, 142
critical people, highly likely to cooperate, 537
cross-age tutoring, teaching the skills the tutors teach, 499
cross-categorization, 537
cross-country differences, in volunteer participation, 417
cross-cultural experimentation, 192, 193
cross-cultural research, first step in, 191
cross-cultural study, of prosocial behavior, 126
cross-group friendship literature, meta-analysis of, 575
cross-group helping, motivation for, 320
cross-sectional research, concerning self-stigma, 440
“a cuddle chemical,” 513
cues
eliciting sharing, 106
indicating kinship, 336
indicating the presence of benefits, 47
for need in others, 355
culpable control model, 178
cult recruitment, 158
cultural adaptation, 189, 190
cultural and subcultural variation, role in prosocial responding, 126–128
cultural differences
in modern industrialized societies, 196–203
in preindustrial societies, 194–196
in prosocial behavior, 55
in social dilemma behavior, 536
within societies, 203
in tolerance, 598–599
cultural dimensions, of egalitarian versus hierarchical organization, 598
cultural embeddedness, 199
“cultural group selection,” 51
cultural norms
chimpanzees not transmitting about appropriate social behavior, 104
providing a competitive advantage, 190
cultural practices and norms, creating cooperation and coordination, 190
cultural scripts, creating clear guidelines for behavior, 199
“cultural selection,” 51
cultural tendencies, toward individualism and collectivism, 196–199
“cultural tilt,” in bystanders, 700
cultural traits, 50
cultural values and norms, interacting in the process of blame assignment, 179
cultural variability, 192
cultural variants, development of, 189–190
cultural worldviews, 167, 169
(p. 749) culture and cooperation, dynamic between, 536
“culture of social envy,” German, 419–420
cultures
impacting the prosocial behavior of groups, 195–196
prosocial behavior and, 188–204
prosocial responding not differing across, 128
socializing people, 167
targeting differences among truly distinct, 192
varying in their valuing of prosocial behaviors, 130
curtailment activities, more difficult to promote, 641
curtailment activity, 641
“cycle of generosity,” 321–322
cycle of violence, 671
D
Dalai Lama, 613
Damasio, Antonio, 264
dangerousness, perceived, 436–437
dangerousness social property, 587
Daniel, 732–733
Darby, Joe, 693–694, 695
"dark side," of communal tendencies, 385
Darley, John, 20
Darwin, 532
“Darwinian algorithms,” 586
dating and martial relationships, in adulthood, 216
Dawkins, Richard, 39, 50
Day of Atonement, 732
“deactivating,” attachment-system, 211
death, 172, 174
death concerns, salient among Americans, 678
death-disability rejection hypothesis, 177–181
Death Interrupted, Saramago’s, 168
“death of death,” consequences of, 166
death reflection condition, 176
death reminders, effects of on carpe diem attitudes, 169
death salient condition, 170
death thought accessibility (DTA) hypothesis, 168
Death with Interruptions, 166
deception, physician justified in engaging in, 139
decision, to help or not help a person in distress, 220–221
"decision control," 557
decision making, in allocation contexts, 554
decision-making procedures, using fair, 552
decision-making processes, 20, 46
decisions to help, racial discrimination occurring in, 395
decreased helping, increasing density contributing to, 202
decriminalization, of homosexuality, 444
deep contact, rather than limited and superficial engagement, 704
deep engagement, school and work providing natural opportunities for, 708
Deepwater Horizon oil spill, 629, 639
de-escalation, 674, 680
defection, 91, 96
defectors, 90, 96
defense mechanisms, functioning to ward off awareness of mortality, 167
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), 444
defensive attribution hypothesis, 178
“defensive helping,” 321, 404
defensive model, of attribution, 178
defensive reinterpretations, reducing the “cost of the victim not receiving help,” 21
defensive startle reflex, 593
“defensive violence,” 700
degree of similarity, between observer and target, 283
delayed exchange task, in capuchin monkeys, 67
delayed helping, case of, 251
deliberative processes, role of, 441
deliberative reactions, stigmas referencing elaborate and diverse, 435
delta game, 93
“demarcation problem,” 730
democratic transitions, 687t
demographic characteristics
of involvement in volunteerism, 468–470
of potential participants, 663
of recipients, 315–316
demographic variables, cooperation and, 535–537
demonization, of varied objects, 710
demonstration of superiority, helping as, 403–404
denial of interpersonal treatment with dignity and respect, 553
Denmark, rates of volunteerism, 417
dependability, of the partner, 368
dependence
based on three independent factors, 365
bases of, 367
central role in understanding tendency for a person to depart from self-interest, 363
evidence for the bases of, 365
as a sign of incompetence, 312
yielding strong commitment, 368
dependency
less consistent with the positive self-cognitions of the high self-esteem person, 318
as a multifaceted rather than a monolithic psychological construct, 317
as non-ego-central and less conspicuous, 315
as relatively inconspicuous, 315
on similar others as more threatening, 313
as a source of self-threat, 311–316
dependency and autonomy oriented help, 323
dependency model, 416
dependency-oriented help, 314–315, 323, 404
dependency-oriented helping behavior, 684
dependent individuals, overusing available help, 317
depersonalization, 677
depression
accelerating recovery from, 356
effect on volunteering, 508
lower among volunteers, 506
memberships buffering the impact of stress on, 501
positive effects of volunteering on, 509
derogation
of alternatives, 369
of innocent victims of suffering, 272
descriptive account, of how people actually behave, 86
descriptive norms, 380
destructive ideologies, creation of, 700
destructive tactics, chosen by participants low in agreeableness, 682
deterrence, linking punishment to, 552
de Tocqueville, Alexis, 320
Deutsch, Morton, 697
devaluation, history of, 700
development
of prosociality, 39
of a psychological mechanism, 38
developmental accidents, 48
developmental antecedents, of deficits in empathy, 17
developmental byproducts, 49
developmental changes
evidence about, 382
stage-based, 16
developmental processes, 28
developmental psychology, 14–17, 155
developmental stage of relationships dimension, 335
deviant conditions, 594, 595, 597
deviant individuals, 599–600
deviations, around the optimum, 47
diagnostic situations, 362, 363
dialogue, between members of hostile groups, 704
dialogue and narrative approaches, 680
diary studies, of ongoing relationships, 372
Dickens, Charles, 170
dictator game, 92, 93, 191–192
genetics and, 121
offers in, 193
responses on, 611
studies using, 107
(p. 750) didactic style, of helping, 315
differential distinctiveness, personality implying, 234
differential susceptibility, notion of, 130
differential treatment, 712
difficulties, people preferring to risk continued, 312
difficult life conditions, in a society, 700
diffuse social roles, 378
diffusion of responsibility, 21, 697, 698, 714t
in bystander helping, 42
not helping as a, 398–399
dilemma, 525, 528
dilemma-like situations, 533
dilemma of the commons, 549
diplomats, saving Jews from deportation to concentration camps, 138
direct assistance, 644
direct association, 284
direct communications, 25, 28
“directed altruism,” 62–63
direct fitness, 8, 12, 39, 43
direct helping, 397, 502
directive support, 296
direct reciprocity, 13, 41f, 43–44, 88
direct requests for help, usually producing help, 661
direct self-interest, 362–363
direct violence, compared to structural violence, 671
disabled persons, 441, 595
disadvantaged groups, 551
disadvantageous inequality, responding to, 107
disasters, race and helping after, 405–406
discipline strategies, 124
disclosure, 440
discomfort
with contact, 217
with receiving social support from others, 385
discourse, lapses in the monitoring of, 217
discrepancies, 262, 263
discretionary judgments, 139, 141
discrimination
about different elements of situations, 149
emerging in rates of interracial helping, 396
expressed in action or inaction, 392
in helping as common, 395
discriminatory way, being treated in, 438
discussion, of the dilemma, 528
disengagement theory, 416
disgust and fear reactions, activated in the brain by low/low individuals, 437
disharmonious relationships, with teachers in kindergarten, 126
disharmony, in many societies, 712
disliked group, what should be given to, 553
disorganization, occurring during parent-child interactions, 217
disparagement, of the victim, 397
displacements, serving a variety of needs, 594
disposition, to learn from others, 50
dispositional agreeableness, 291, 299
dispositional characteristics, of potential volunteers, 461
dispositional collectivism, 465–466
dispositional correlates, of patient decisions to participate in clinical trials, 657
dispositional empathic concern (EC), 285
associated with the volunteers’ experience of empathic concern, 294
influencing a number of prosocial behaviors, 298
moderating the effect on OCBs of having a short time horizon, 302
related to disapproval of unethical practices, 292
related to offering more support, 296
related to those OCBs directed toward individuals, 295
tending to produce cooperation but not better outcomes, 292–293
dispositional empathy, 292–293
affecting one’s willingness to enter emotionally evocative situations, 294
contributing directly to prosocial organizational behavior, 295
contributing to a rational decision-making process, 294
effects on volunteer activities, 462
of employees of a multinational conglomerate, 295
found to be associated with providing social support, 296
having a direct effect on helping, 288
helpers reported greater, 237
influence of, 294
at the level of, 632
link with OCB, 295
predictive of pro-environmental behavior, 634
related to prosocial behavior, 288
relationship with social support, 296
research on volunteering focused on, 462
dispositional factors, value of considering, 18
dispositional gratitude, 308, 309–310
dispositional gratitude scale (GQ-6), scores on, 310
dispositional optimism, predicting patients’ expectations, 658
dispositional personal distress, 296
dispositional perspective taking (PT), 285, 293, 296
dispositional regulation, 120
dispositional self-control, 370
dispositional self-esteem, 318
dispositional sympathy, of an older volunteer, 427
dispositional variables, moderating the effects of MS on prosocial responses, 171
dispositions, 363, 657
dissatisfaction, with volunteering, 480
dissociated states of mind, experienced as frightening by infants, 218
dissociation, between automatic and controlled aspects of responding, 595
distal defenses, symbolic in nature, 167
distal motivators, for prosocial actions, 27
distal motives, for prosocial action, 8–9
distal variables, 723
distancing, from people with disabilities, 183
distinctiveness, reaffirming, 709
distressed parties, seeking out, 72
distressed targets, exposure to increasing observer arousal, 286
distributed approach, to the “self,” 158–159
distributed “self,” embodied others and, 161–162
distributive fairness, 556–557
distributive justice, 138, 550–551, 553
distrust, dominating, 311
diversity, of involvement in activities, 508
“divine control” subscale, of locus of control, 620
division of labor, in the United States, 377
“docility,” 50
“doing well by doing good” effect, 497
dolphins, 76, 77f
domain, of prosocial behavior, 4
domains of judgment, formation of different, 145
dominance-subordination context, 73
dominant approach, to the study of helping, 18
dominant behavior, individuals displaying, 379
dominant groups, defining social norms, 434
dominant individual, tolerance of, 583
door-holding behavior, observational study of, 383
dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, effect of religious prime, 617
dose-response curve, 495, 496
dose-response effects, doing more on, 517
Dragon-Slayer game, 40
“drive x habit” explanation, of behavior, 590
drug abusers, expressing prejudice against, 436
drug addicts, as low in competence and low in warmth, 437
drug courts, created in the United States, 447
(p. 751) drugs, developing to treat cancer, 654–656
drug treatment programs, 447
drug use, 446–447
drug users, acceptable to express negative feelings against, 597
“dual concern model,” 681
dual identities
holding, 705
maintaining, 27
people holding, 709
Dual-Inheritance Theory, 50, 55n4
dual process model, 244
dual-process social intuitionist model, 248
ducklings, predisposed to imprint after hatching, 11
duration of service, model of volunteers,' 461
Dutch organizations, employees engaging in extra-role behaviors, 295
Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), 338
dyadic interactions, 6, 662
dyadic situations, cooperation in, 7
dynamic constructivist approach, to culture, 200
dynamic cultural influences, on prosociality, 201
dynamic effects, of culture on prosociality, 200–201
E
early adolescence, 382
early choosers, not immune to social pressure, 531
early helping, intrinsically versus extrinsically motivated, 103
early social participation, predicting later volunteering, 499
early-stage relationships, 339
ease of escape, 287
ease of self-simulation (ESS), 301–302
Eastern cultures, children not consistently more prosocial, 127
eastern societies, as more communal and collectivistic, 127
East Timor, 684, 687t
echolalia, 156
echopraxia, 156
“ecological behavior.” See pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs)
ecological psychology, 155
economic approach, 527–531
economic deprivation, 202
economic deterioration, after the financial crisis of 2007, 711–712
economic factors, role in relationship between culture and prosocial behavior, 201
economic games, 191
economic theory, 86
economic value, placing on the good itself, 535
education, associated with rates of volunteering, 469
educational achievement, associated with participation versus nonparticipation, 498
educational and occupational status effects, of volunteering during adolescence, 498–499
educational level, as a correlate of prosocial behavior, 424
educational radio programs, 703, 713
effectance motivation, structural impediments to the satisfaction of, 512
effective caregivers, becoming, 215
effectiveness, feelings of, 714t
effective situation, guiding interpersonal behavior, 363
effects
of acts on people, 143
on behavior of volunteering, 495–496
cohort vs. age vs. period, 429
efficacy and control, feelings of, 512
“efficiency and regulation,” increased emphasis in contemporary institutions, 419
efficiency behaviors, 641
effortful control, 14, 241, 244
egalitarian social structure, 598, 599
egalitarian society, 598
egalitarian values, 593
the Ego, 173
ego-achievement orientations, 318
ego-centrality, of help, 314
egocentric empathic distress, 115
ego-dystonic homosexuality, 444
ego goal orientation, 319
egoism, 9–10, 629
compared to altruism, 261
as distinct, 260
meaning of, 259
egoism-altruism debate, 259
egoism-altruism distinction, 6
“egoistic” alternative argument, 351
egoistic alternatives, 266–268, 269
egoistic approach, 22
egoistic desire, to reduce one’s own distress, 634
egoistic factors, in the motivation for helping, 29
egoistic guilt avoidance, appearing to be altruism, 23
egoistic helping, compared to altruistic helping, 10
egoistic motivations
associated with religious helping, 613
assumed for helping, 286
as driving most helping behavior, 9–10
of helping to avoid guilt or censure, 614
results of, 261
egoistic motives, 376, 658
most prevalent reason for aiding others, 27
motivating out of concern for themselves, 628
patient decisions about clinical trials, 659
egoistic prediction, about patient participation in a clinical trial, 661
egoistic prosocial behaviors, 9
egoistic value orientation, 630
ego-relevant dimension, relative inferiority on, 313
egotistical values, priming, 171
Egypt, military forces during the 2011 Arab Spring, 683
Einfühlung, 70
Eisenberg-Berg, 138
elaborated cognitive networks, 284
“Elaine Paradigm,” Batson’s, 240
elderly
activities of volunteers, 418
capabilities of, 415
childless having weaker support networks, 420
effects of volunteering on, 502–504
establishing foundations, 419–420
more active having healthier trajectories of depression, 509
nervous about exercise, 517
programs for, 515–517
recipients of Meals on Wheels services, 482
regarded as low in competence, but high in warmth, 437
research on altruism in, 502
elementary schools, allowing to teach in, 437
elephants, reassuring distressed companions, 76–77
embeddedness, consequences of, 198–199
embodied others, 154–156
emergencies
as ambiguous, 20
facing alone, 698
not helping in, 399
emergency helping, 5, 383
emergency rescues, of strangers, 383
emotional connectedness, selection pressure to evolve, 71
emotional connections, acquisition of ToM starting with, 73
emotional contagion, 72, 75f
among chimpanzees, 73
among rodents, 80
emotional core (temperament), 14
emotional cores, inherited, 16
emotional experiences, of volunteers, 474–476
“emotional fatigue,” reported by volunteers, 474
emotional helping, 5
emotional involvement phase, of volunteers, 477
emotional matching, 284
emotional reactions, 142, 436, 592
(p. 752) Emotional Reactions of Rats to the Pain of Others, 71
emotional responses, to displays of emotion, 71
emotional self-regulation, agreeableness and, 593
emotional similarity, between spouses, 297
emotional socialization, parental, 123
emotional support, 296, 356, 478
emotional tendencies, 120
emotional understanding, 117
emotions
attributed to transgressors, 143
as central organizing features of moral orientations, 144
driving cognitive responses like attribution, 436
guided by reactions to the decisions of others, 95
having an object, 145
as instigator of punishment, 90
involving evaluative appraisals, 145
motivational states guiding mental and behavioral activity, 587
power of, 72
while making a sacrifice for romantic partners, 338
empathetic individuals, greater concern for environmental problems, 632
empathic accuracy, 202, 369
empathic actions, 154
empathically aroused individuals, 272
empathic capacities, applied outside the rearing context, 71
empathic concern (EC), 240–241, 284, 285, 665
antecedents of, 262–265, 277
associated with prosocial responses to problematic targets, 289
causing a normally steady hand to shake, 274
described, 260
eliciting an altruistic motivation, 23
emotional response of, 286
evolved as part of the parental instinct, 264
experienced for the transgressor, 301
in helping for in-group and out-group members, 289
including a whole constellation of feelings, 260
leading one to help the target(s), 271–272
moderating the effects of noise on cooperation, 291
more avoidant people reporting less, 220
not limited to biological organisms, 632
as other-oriented, 260
people feeling for a wide range of targets, 264
precursor to pure altruism, 351
producing altruistic motivation, 260, 271
producing more cooperative actions toward an interdependent stranger, 298
producing more supportive communications from parent to child, 296
promoting helping, 247
prompting awareness of the opportunity for empathic joy, 266
as a psychological mediator, 239, 240
for a relationship partner, 298
remaining a significant predictor of helping, 351
serving as instigator of helping, 475
similarity and group membership indirect effect on, 277
for strangers’ needs, 220
taken seriously as an other-focused motivational state, 350
for the transgressor, 297
for the welfare of others, religious obligation, or because is “the right thing to do “, 416
empathic disposition, coupled with MS leading to a prosocial response, 171
empathic engagement, 80
empathic-evoking need, removing, 267–268
empathic feelings, as unpleasant, 266
empathic joy, behavior associated with, 267t
empathic-joy hypothesis, 266
empathic overarousal, 114, 120
empathic persons, inclined to unconscious mimicry, 74
empathic perspective-taking, 76–77
empathic responses
aspects of improving, 129
emerging later than instrumental helping, 117
Hoffman outlined stages of development for, 115
immediacy of, 70
to nonhuman others, 645
empathic self-efficacy beliefs, 380
empathic/sympathetic responding, to someone in distress, 115
Empathic Tendencies Scale, 237
empathizing, related to three forms of social cognition, 243
Empathizing Quotient (EQ), 243
empathizing/systematizing model, 249
empathy, 8
for another’s life condition, 116
appeals to associated with helping ingroup members, 678
applied to a range of phenomena, 260
attention drawn to, 352
capacity for, 461–462
causing the presence of, 50
centrality of, 675
changing with shifting circumstances, 696
cognitive forms emphasized in the conflict resolution literaturs, 673
cognitively controlling, 80
combination of simulation and projection, 70
complexity of, 75f
components of, 240
critical proof that other-focused motivation exists, 351
deactivated as a significant motivator of helping out-group members, 400–401
defined, 70, 114, 282–283
described, 70–73
as evolutionary byproduct, 50
as evolved proximate mechanism, 80
feeling one with another’s state, 70
feelings of, 695
help motivated by, 407
increased increasing helping, 271
inducing, 632
as an innate human tendency, 16
as a key component of prosocial behavior, 17
limited endurance over time, 274
mirror neurons involved in, 50
for a misbehaving partner, 297
moderating effect of, 295
as a moderator, 302
needed in generating altruistic caring for others, 93
negatively associated with prejudice, 673
neurological underpinnings of for nonhuman others, 645
one component of an altruistic or prosocial personality, 462
only relevant to low or no-cost helping, 351
organizational model of, 283f
with perceived emotions, 70
as a precursor to pure altruism, 351
predictor of prosocial behavior, 400
primary mediator of helping toward ingroup members, 470
producing a stake in the recipient’s well-being, 78
promoting a range of prosocial behaviors, 571
promoting helping behavior, 631
prosocial behavior and, 282–302
referring to a set of related components, 246
relationship prosocial behavior, 673
relationship with both morale and affect-balance as negative, 502
role in fostering forgiveness, 297
for stigmatized groups, 470
tenderness and, 601n1
3-step model to improve attitudes, 273
empathy-altruism connection, beauty of, 80
(p. 753) empathy-altruism framework, 631–632, 634
empathy-altruism hypothesis, 22–23, 28, 259–278, 286–287
alternatives, 23
appearing true, 271
Batson’s, 240
challenges to, 270
clear support for, 269
described, 260, 631
egoistic alternatives to, 266–268
experimental results, 268–270
fatal blows delivered to, 352
generated significant controversy, 352
implications of, 271
independent support for, 351
research directions regarding, 277–278
results supporting, 270
testing against each alternative, 266, 267t
theory based on, 265, 276
as viable explanation for specific findings, 23–24
empathy-altruism model, 246, 462, 475
empathy-altruism relationship, limitations of, 351
empathy and oneness, helping due to feelings of, 400–401
empathy avoidance, 274–275
“empathy disorders” (psychopaths), individuals with, 154
empathy “episode,” typical, 283
Empathy Focus condition, 239
empathy index, significantly related to almost every OCB, 295
empathy-induced altruism
antecedents and consequences of, 277
benefits of, 271–276
evolution of, 264
liabilities of, 273–276
making matters worse, 274
not all needs evoking, 274
producing immoral action, 275
undermining the common good, 275–276
empathy-induced altruistic motivation, 265f, 277
empathy-induced attitude change, 273
empathy induced helping, 268
empathy-inducing experiences, 273
empathy-inducing need, 269
empathy inductions, improving racial attitudes, 273
empathy induction techniques, 631
empathy mechanism, 73–75, 79–80
empathy process, comprehensive treatment of, 282, 283f
empathy-related constructs, 285
empathy-related heuristic, involving the self, 301
empathy-related processes, 114, 283, 287
empathy-specific punishment alternative, 23
empathy-specific punishment hypothesis, 266, 268
empathy-specific reward explanation, 23
empathy-specific reward hypothesis, 266, 268
empathy-volunteerism relation, qualifications to, 462
empirical analysis, of gratitude, 308
“empirical concepts,” 238
empirical regularities (E1), 734
employees, feeling empowered, 679
employment settings, collectivism appearing to be related in, 197
enacted stigma, 438, 443
“end-game,” in volunteer stages and transitions model, 477
“end-game effects,” 44
endorsement, of specific goals, 386
enemies
delegitimatizing or assigning to an extremely negative social category, 674
loving, 614
engagement, 475–476
engineering courses, including a service-learning component, 386–387
“enhanced prosocial personality,” 233
enhanced security, casual effects of, 219
entrainment episodes, spontaneous emergence of, 155
environment
human impact on, 626
types of actions to protect, 627
willingness to sacrifice for, 371
environmental action, 626.See also pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs)
environmental and social factors, variability in, 190
environmental education programs, 632
environmental identity, 642
environmental issues, 204, 633
“environmentally responsible behavior.” See pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs)
“environmentally significant behavior.” See pro- environmental behaviors (PEBs)
environmental problems
ascribing responsibility for, 640
awareness of, 638–639
knowing how to solve, 640–642
perceiving urgency of, 639–640
environmental protection, prosocial consequences of, 630
“environmental spoiling,” 591
environment/circumstances, leading to passivity or action, 698–701
“environment protective behavior.” See pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs)
environments, 379, 380
Epicureans, 526–527
epidemic diseases, depopulating an urban center, 726
epidemiologists, identifying general patterns in infectious diseases, 725
epilepsy, self-stigma among people with, 440
EQ (Empathizing Quotient), 243
equality, 107, 108, 551
“equality matching,” relational model of, 314
equity, leading to productivity, 551
equity theory, social psychology’s, 92
Eros motive, 173–174, 173
“error management” theory, 47
essentialist thinking, reactions to stigmas reflecting, 433
ethnic group, 687t
ethologists, opening new doors for understanding complex behavior, 11–12
“ethos of conflict,” 673, 678
eudaimonic well-being, 467
European American peers, reported more altruistic prosocial behavior, 127
Europeans, relationship between volunteering and well-being in a large sample of, 508
European Union, laws prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation, 444
evaluative appraisals, emotions involving, 145
event-related potentials (ERPs), in the brain, 393
events
meaning of, 698
methods used to explain, 730
evidence presentation, control of, 557
evidentiary facts, tied to E1, 731
evil acts, prototypes of, 710
evoked response potentials (EPR), 724
evolution, based on fierce competition, 87–88
evolutionary accounts
of cooperation among nonrelatives, 88
of interpersonal relations and social behavior, 724
evolutionary advantage, for strict limitation of empathic concern, 264
evolutionary altruism, 6, 261
evolutionary biologists, 261, 347
evolutionary biology, other-focused motives and, 352
evolutionary byproducts, 49–50
evolutionary factors, for prosocial actions, 8
evolutionary functions
of prosociality, 39–46
of religiousness, 622
“evolutionary lag,” 48
evolutionary-motivated altruism, costs involved with, 27
(p. 754) evolutionary pressures, toward selfishness and freeriding, 14
evolutionary psychology
contributions, 11–14
helping explain that humans are predisposed to prosociality, 8
of human prosociality, 37–55
evolutionary roots, of basic skills for helping, 106
evolutionary study of social behavior, place of tolerance in, 584–588
evolutionary theories, of altruism, 347–350
evolutionary thinking, incorporating into current disciplines, 54
“exceptionalism,” in beliefs of U.S., 712
exchange orientation, 416
exclusion, as legitimate and even necessary, 146
exclusive victims beliefs, 706, 706–707
exclusivity, 159
ex-convicts, expressing negative feelings against, 597
executive function, 154, 538
exemplary helpers, denoting relatively “uncommon people,” 233
exile (permanent ostracism), use of, 157
existential concerns, 168, 183
existential egotism, 168
expectancy-value models, 590
expectation of reciprocity, 194
expectations
of men and women, 379–380
redirecting the underlying cooperative motivation, 245
experience
shaping temperament, 711
sharing, 70
Experience Corps (EC), 506–507, 511, 515, 516, 516f
Experience of Generosity Questionnaire, 221–222
experiences
influencing prosocial behavior, 380–381
of the volunteer, 472
Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) scale, 210
experience stage, focusing on satisfaction, 461
“experiential education,” 496
experiential learning programs, power of, 466
“experiential understanding,” 703
experimental approaches, to reciprocal altruism, 67–70
experimental evaluation, 703
experimental games, evidence from, 191–194
experimentally augmented security, 215
experimental paradigms, 331–332
experimental research, in naturalistic settings, 428
experimental studies, comparing potential volunteers’ reactions to messages, 472
experiments
more needed to recommend volunteering, 517
testing the empathy-altruism hypothesis, 268
“Explanation 1” (E1), 723
“Explanation 2” (E2), 723
explanations, involving causal mechanisms and mediation, 723
explanatory facts, tied to E2, 731
explicandum, 724
explicit appeals, seen as manipulative and triggering anger, 635
explicit self-stigma, 439
exploitation, 348, 349
exploitation risks, 355
exploiters, prevailing, 204
exploration system, posited by Bowlby's attachment theory, 466
exposure to death, attempts to reduce one’s, 183
“expressive” activities, 503
“external bystanders,” usually remaining passive, 701
external incentives, investigating relationship between helping and, 103
external rewards, negative effects on helping, 104
external validity, questions of, 729
extracurricular participation, at both the high school and college level, 498
extraversion (E), 238
associated with a greater frequency and variety of interactions with others, 728
negatively related to restraint, 241
not significantly related to volunteering, 424
possibly connected, 535
promoting volunteering, 463
extreme dependency, evoking feelings of social responsibility, 93
“extreme times,” preventing, 695
extrinsic or instrumental valuing, 263
extrinsic religiousness, 613, 614
extrinsic valuing, of the other, 263
Exxon Valdez oil spill, 629
eyeblink response, 593
eye-movement behavior, 180–181
F
Facebook, 49
face-to-face, nature of the helping situation, 395
facial resemblance, using to detect kinship, 47
facilitated cognitive processes, 368
factor analysis, studies employing, 680
factorial survey method, 661
facts, sorts of, 731
failed finesse, 262
failure, costs of, 42
fair distribution, 550–551
fairness
development of principles of, 555
equal divisions of resources as fair, 198
norms of, 565
principle of, 275
shared principles of, 556
fairness judgments, linked to this outcome-based judgment, 557
false-feedback manipulation, 673
familiarity, 12
families, 441, 442–443, 467
familism, 128
familismo, emphasizing importance of family, 199
family essence, 442
family influence, on volunteering of adolescents in Hong Kong, 467
Fatah, views on the legitimacy of Israel, 677
“fat people,” 441
fear, of punishment, 593
fear-arousing communications, likely to lead to denial, 643
fearful avoidance, 211
fearful children, having parents low in control, 124
fearless children, 124
fear of death, role of, 177
“fear of rejection” hypothesis, 92
fears of prosecution, HIV-testing and, 445
federal helping response, 405
federalized national structure, creation of, 687t
feeble “recipient” of help, comparable to that of a “victim,” 424
feedback, to volunteers, 479, 486
feedback loops, influencing future volunteer action, 482
feed-back on effectiveness, 269
feeling, for others, 116
feeling bad/good, 467
feelings of mastery, positive effects of volunteering on, 501
felt responsibility, necessary to increase feelings of, 643
felt stigma, 438, 443
female brain, hard-wired for empathy, 243
female brain hypothesis, extreme, 48
female-dominated careers, 386
female gender role, prosocial behavior aligned with, 384
female participants, exposed to a stressor, 338
females. See also girls; women
lower levels of prejudice, stigmatization, and punitiveness in, 597
scoring higher than males on dependency scales, 317
seeking mates with resources, 336
female-typical heroism, not as easily visible, 388
(p. 755) feminine gay men, perceptions of, 438
“feminine” readiness, to depend on others’ help, 316
FF-based tolerance, 590, 593
fidelity, in a romantic relationship, 367
fight-based tolerance, 590
fight-or-flight (FF) system, 513
described, 588
directly inhibiting activity of, 589
evoking, 514
influencing activation thresholds of, 594
occurring faster than Care, 247
relatively low activation, 599
variables lowering the threshold of, 591
financial incentive, to enter the helping proffesions, 387
financial transfers, 427
“finding value,” 292
fitness, relative to the local group, 52
fitness interdependence, 352, 353
Five Factor approach, hypothesis derived, 238
Five Factor Personality inventory, personality dimensions of, 310
fixed action pattern, 12
flexibility, of appraisal-based emotions, 264
flexible behavior, of people with a cooperative social value orientation, 539
flexible correction model (FCM), 248
flight-based tolerance, 590
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), 155, 511, 512, 538
focus, expanding on prosocial behavior, 24–27
food, exchanged for other favors, 67
food-deliver paradigms, 109
food-for-grooming, among chimpanzees, 67
food insecurity, in African countries, 445–446
food rewards, tendency to help not diminished with, 105
food sharing
constraints on for chimpanzees, 110
as form of assistance, 66
with unrelated others, 13
foreign aid, effects of American, 311
“the foreign self,” empathy offering access to, 70
forgiveness, 284–285
associated with less avoidance and greater conciliation, 297
conditional upon the repentance of the transgressor, 618
defined, 297, 367, 618
described, 675
as a disposition, 618
empathy’s effect on, 300
facilitating by positive intergroup contact, 675
interpreted as a reduction in anger at harmdoers, 592
maintaining relational harmony and affectional bonds, 223
mediated by a host of emotional and cognitive factors, 675
negatively affecting self-feelings, 224
not an automatic response, 223
related to psychological and even physical well-being, 223
requiring a set of motivational changes, 223
to a romantic partner, 295
within social relationships, 297
of target, 592
Forgiveness Inventory, 297
formal negotiation exercise, 291
formal organizations, helping behavior through, 459
forward models, 160
foster grandparents, 516
foster mothers, findings among, 218
foundations, elderly individuals establishing, 419–420
four Ws, 3–4
“fragile flower,” altruism as, 351
France, 417, 709
Frank, Anne, 138
“free-floating” empathic concern, 302
“free riders,” 13, 43, 563
free will, volunteer action performed based on, 460
Freud, 232, 242
friend-reported prosociality, in early adulthood, 119
friendship, 333, 575
Fromm, Erich, 317
fulfillment, importance of, 485
full-time employment, 424
function, asking about, 38
functional ability, 506
functional altruism, 62, 64t
functional analysis of prosocial behavior, 358
functional approach
integrating and organizing literature of prosocial behavior, 346
to recruiting volunteers, 471
researchers following, 465
to volunteerism, 461, 464
functional connections, between brain regions, 161
functional consequences, of prosocial behavior, 356–357
functional limitations, associated with an increased risk of dying, 420
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 155, 511, 512, 538
functional relations, 573
functions, of volunteering, 512
future, vision for, 733–734
future directions, 298
future generations, 540–541, 628, 629
future orientation, 535
future self, connection with current self, 541
G
Gage, Phineas, 48
Galbraith, Peter, 702
Galtung, Johan, 683
“game,” defined, 55n1
game theory, development of, 20
Gandhi, Mohandas, 169
garbage bags, negative effects of charging a fee for, 91
Gates, Bill, 45
gelada baboons, yawning, 75
gender
differences and similarities in enacting prosocial behavior, 376–388
importance of, 19
little attention in social dilemma research, 536
volunteerism in later life and, 426
of volunteers, 469
gender differences
in cooperation in social dilemmas, 536
having deep roots in socialization, 28
impact of volunteering on well-being or health, 508
influencing social role selection, 377
in prosocial behavior, 376, 385–387
in seeking help, 316
gender-differentiated behavior, 379
gender-differentiated social roles, 387
gender-differentiated traits, 378
gendered division of labor, 377
gender identities, 380
gender-normative behaviors, 380
gender norms, situational accessibility of, 383
gender roles, 376, 377, 379
gender similarities hypothesis, 378
gene-by-environment interactions, 121, 124–125
gene-centric explanation, for the evolution of altruism and altruistic motivation, 349
gene-culture coevolution theories, 13–14
general fearfulness, characteristic of a right-wing political orientation and authoritarianism, 594
generalized reciprocity, 67, 69t
“general motivation to volunteer,” 427
general religiousness, 611, 612, 614
general role identity, 476
generative concern, as a predictor, 425
generativity. See also prosocial behavior, Erikson’s concept of, 423
generic strangers, laboratory experiments with, 285–288
generosity, 221–222, 311, 514. See also prosocial behavior
generous caregivers, 225
generous hunter, compared to the stingy hunter, 44
“generous” person, double-crossing everyone, 534
genes, 12, 121, 129–130
(p. 756) genetic attributions, for mental illness, 442
genocide, prevention of, 694
genotypes, conferring an immunity or resistance to infectious, 726
genotypic dissimilarity, 396
Genovese, Kitty, 20, 637
geo-historical space, removing power from, 687t
German president, apology before the Israeli parliament for the Holocaust, 676
Germans
establishing foundations, 419–420
in West motivated by principles of distributive justice, 559
Germany, 417, 426
Gerontological Society of America, 516–517
Ghost of Christmas, 170
girls. See also females
showing more empathic concern and prosocial behavior, 19
showing more prosocial moral reasoning than boys, 16
socialized toward behaviors showing care and concern for others, 382
given preferences, 365
given situation, 363
giver, of instrumental and emotional support, 423
Giving Assistance Test (GAT), 78
giving support, significantly related to health, 510
giving versus receiving social support, health and mortality benefits associated with, 357
global climate change, effects of, 629
“global”competition, 51
global empathic distress, 115
global energy consumption, 643
global needs, difficult to evoke empathy for pressing, 274
global population, decreasing one’s fitness relative to, 52
global public good, contributing to, 568
global warming, 638, 641
global workspace hypothesis, 161
goal-directed motives, 264, 629
“goal region,” of group success, 19
goals, 26, 268
goals and needs, preoccupation with one’s own, 714t
God, as a supernatural agent, 195
good feelings, altering people’s bodily systems, 514
good-intentions, doubts about other people’s, 212
Good Samaritan, 260
goodwill, recognizing another’s, 222
government initiatives, targeting high school or university students with requirements, 471
Grandin, Temple, 49
grandparents, caregiving by, 421–422
grateful disposition, links with religious variables, 620
grateful outlook, inducing, 310
grateful people, tending to experience greater “abundance” in their lives, 222
gratitude
ability to experience, 308
conceptualized in terms of three propositions, 222
consequences of, 309
cultivation of, 620
defined, 222, 308
described, 222–223, 618
distinction between indebtedness and, 309
emotional base of mutually supportive relationships, 309
expressing to a generous relationship partner found to have beneficial effects, 222
lack of, 311
links with prosocial behavior, 223
mediating recipient’s willingness to act generously, 309
as a natural religious reaction, 620
as one major derivative of the capacity for love, 308
as a remedy for many of life’s hardships, 222
situational experiences of, 310
theme of, 321
gratitude exercise, leading to more helping behavior, 223
gratitude-motivated employees, expectation of, 309
graveyard, walking through, 180
Great Depression, work programs in the US, 704
Greece, 417, 731
greed, as a motivator of competition between groups, 566
Greek allegories, 732
Greek culture, 200
Greek philosophy, 7, 524
green guilt, 635–636, 645
“greenhouse effect,” 638
green products, purchasing licensing subsequent immoral behaviors, 637
gridlock, in the U.S., 712
grief, complexity of feelings of, 145
group(s)
akin to a single reproductive unit, 13
being different from others in, 698
benefit from helping survive, 42
cooperation and functional relations between, 570–571
cooperation between more difficult to achieve than cooperation between individuals, 569
exerting substantial influence, 695
greedier and less trustworthy than individuals, 565
imbuing children and adults with hostility and aggression toward some others, 707
joining with norms fostering prosocial behavior, 51
members having extended time interacting with one another, 26
more likely to make competitive choices than individuals in prisoner’s dilemma games, 565
motivated by fear of the outgroup, 566
prosocial actions between, 372
protecting and strengthening, 157
scapegoating another group for life problems, 700
showing altruism born of suffering, 706
in a structurally violent system, 683
whole different than the sum of its parts, 19
group approaches, to healing, 705
group average, decreasing one’s reproduction relative to, 53
group boundaries
becoming less distinct, 401
giving across, 320
help transacted across, 319
study of cooperation across, 576
group cooperation, enforcement of, 41
group discussion, activating normative pressure, 566
group efficacy, good predictor of successful management of a dilemma, 537
group identification, strengthening the need to belong, 537
group identities, separate remaining salient, 572
group identity theory, 511
group-level processes, 348
group-level socio-structural and economic factors, 194–196
group-level thinking, 537
group members
coming together, 27
engaging in discussion during mixed-motive games, 565–566
individual characteristics of, 42
recognizing their membership in some larger superordinate group, 27
trying to impose structural solutions, 26
group memberships, 564–565, 567, 571
group-mindedness, in human groups, 111
groupness, inducing a sense of, 537
group norms
as agreed-upon ways individuals must act, 111
predisposition to conform to, 13
group or societal self-concept, disconfirmed by events, 712
group polarization, 566
(p. 757) group processes, influence on social life, 563
group productivity, through cooperation, 19
group-regardingness, 531, 537
group responsibility condition, 182
“group selection,” types of, 53
groups in conflict, brought together and engaged in a joint problem, 674
group situations, cooperation in, 7
group size, 42, 195
group stereotypes, dimensions underlying, 437
group-value model, 557, 558
group work, certain people not believing in the value of, 540
Guatemala, aid-financed dam, 274
guesser vs. knower test, 73
guilt
caused by attribution of a negative change in well-being, 592
defined, 634–635
experiencing, 645
over failure to participate, 660
possessing, 48
by tolerant perceiver, 592–593
guilt appeals, 636–637
“guinea pig(s),” being treated like, 664
“gut feelings,” 600
H
habitually dependent individuals, 317
Haidt’s model, congruity with the opponent process model, 250
Haiti, 2010 earthquake in, 406
Hamas, views on the legitimacy of Israel, 677
Hamill Family Play Zoo, at the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago, 632
Hamilton, William, 12, 43
Hancock, Graham, 274
Handbook of Social Psychology, 19, 333
handholding, prosocial behavior under examination, 338
“handicapped population, dangling at the end of the life span,” 416
“handicap principle,” 312
happiness, volunteering under 5 hours per month related to, 512
happy negotiators, more likely to plan to be cooperative, 673
Hardin, Garrett, 25
Hardy, Thomas, 184
harm-doers, 555, 713
strong negative feelings about, 697
harmonious societies, development of, 712
Harvard Study of Adult Development, 425
Hatch, Richard, 42
Hawthorne studies, findings of, 96n5
Hay and Cook’s theoretical model, 116
head trauma, causing antisocial behavior, 48
healing
contributing to altruism born of suffering (ABS), 706
from past victimization, 705
positive influence on, 703
“healing societies,” creating, 713
health, measures of, 506
Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 427
health and well-being
of a partner, 368
prosocial behavior effects on, 356–357
health benefits, of volunteering in late life, 421
healthcare, race and helping in, 404–405
health care professionals, irrational fears about HIV/AIDS, 436
health problems, in late life, 418
health services, utilizing existing, 317
heavenly rewards, of prosocial behavior, 170
“heavy duty” volunteering, not having any long-term positive effect, 422
Hebl and Dovidio model, 448
Hebrew and Aramaic texts, linguistic evolution of ancient, 732
hedonic well-being, 467
hedonism, different forms of, 262
“Heinz” story, 139
help
as affirming or challenging an unequal status hierarchy, 322
characteristics of, 314–315
direct and unambiguous requests for, 664
effectiveness of, 269
examples of, 5
given for purely altruistic motives, 22
from a member of a higher status group, 482
negative consequences of receiving, 311–316
positive consequences of receiving, 308–311
rejecting if it is seen to promote dependency, 470
seeking and receiving, 307–323, 439–441
understanding the meaning of, 408
helper motives, responses to, 407
helper role, as an important example of preventive proactivity, 423
helpers
characteristics of, 313–314
helping act done primarily for the benefit of, 9
talking about themselves and other people, 237
helpful behavior, interpretations of romantic partner’s everyday, 214
helpfulness
of a general society, 188
links with gratefulness, 310
voluntary acts of, 459
Helpfulness factor, 18, 237, 463
helping, 101–106
by another person, 269
appearing to receive greater recognition and reward, 388
biased against, 47
compared to cooperation, 562
as coping, 423–424
costs and benefits of, 21
damaging the perceptions of others, 404
defined, 38, 628
as a demonstration of not being racist, 401–403
described, 584
discovering the origins and functions of different types of, 39, 40f
done in a demeaning way implying dependency, 441
exacerbating rather than alleviating intergroup conflict, 575
as a form of coping with stress, 423
increased related to decreasing per capita gross domestic product, 201
increasing concern and caring for those one has helped, 708
informal acts of, 459
as it unfolds over time, 251
judgments about, 147
in low cost situations, 402
macro-level literature on primary beneficiaries of participation, 662
major dependent measure as something other than, 270
major motives underlying, 251
motivation for by young children, 102
as an outgrowth of selfishness, 221
positive effects of gratitude on subsequent, 309
process preceding, 398
promoting interracial, 408
as a prosocial category, 5
prosocial with a potentially antisocial intent, 403
receiving or anticipating rewards unrelated to, 269
relationship with altruism, 5
relation to religion, 612
religion and behavioral measures of, 611–612
roots of, 693–714
situational influences on, 231
some forms of greater after a short delay, 251
tool for groups to establish or maintain dominance over another group, 574–575
valuing (and undervaluing) of different forms of, 387–388
helping act, pleasure-producing effects of, 286
(p. 758) helping as coping approach, 424
“helping as coping” model, 423
helping behaviors. See also prosocial behavior
aiding in the bereavement process, 502
becoming more flexible over time, 102
causally determined by perception of acute need states, 584
children displaying spontaneous, unrewarded, 101
defined, 101
having beneficial effects on the helper’s genes, 347
in older adults, 417
“optimal” level of, 47
predicting remission of a substance abuse disorder, 502
helping decisions, 539
“helping disposition,” 293
helping interactions, 307–308
helping motivations, empirical evidence for different, 613–614
helping others, 424, 425
"helping personality" dimensions, 462
helping recipient, gender of, 383
helping scenarios, 347–348
helping situations, 272, 400, 406
helplessness, 355
helplessness-like passivity, 316
help request condition, 179
help seeking, 316, 323
Henrich, Joseph, 192
Henry, P. J., 188
heredity, 121
heritable group-level adaptations, 52
heroic actions, 711
heroic behavior, women and, 384
heroic helping, research on, 710
heroic imagination, 711
heroic people, 711
heroic rescuers, acting in extreme times, 695
heroism
compared to moral courage, 711
examination of various forms of, 383
publicly notable, 388
stereotypes, 380
heterosexism, 444
Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Homosexuals, differences on, 246
heterosexual majority, advantaging over sexual minorities, 444
heterozygous sickle-cell state, in Africa, 726
hierarchically organized societies, 598, 599
hierarchical power relationship, reversing, 687t
hierarchical relations, between groups, 575
hierarchy, of values and related goals, 701
hierarchy-attenuating occupations, women disproportionately represented in, 385
high-Agreeable people, more cooperative than low-Agreeable people, 533
high contributors, gaining status for helping others, 53
higher-status groups, members of avoiding cooperation, 575
highly agreeable persons, 682
highly religious participants, 619
high-power individuals, not oriented to the needs of those around them, 202
high-PSC person, feeling scrutiny in most mixed-motive situations, 534
high quest scores, related to helping the fundamentalist, 616
“high-road” influence, on the fight-or-flight response, 590
high self-esteem recipients, more sensitive to self-threat, 318
high-status groups, providing low-status groups with dependency, 684
Hinduism, focusing on the role of forgiveness, 618
Hispanics, more likely to agree to participate, 664
historical forces, operating over time, 734
historical injustices, 676
historical pathogen prevalence, 728
historical processes, shaping us as a species, 725, 729
hitting, judgments about, 147
HIV, 435, 439, 445
HIV/AIDS, 421, 436, 439, 445–446
HIV status, 440, 442
HIV victims, prejudice toward, 246
Hobbes, Thomas, 7, 527
Hoess, Rudolf, 275
Hoffman, Martin, 708
Hoffman’s theoretical model, 115–116
Holocaust
circumstances of, 150
events associated with, 137
rescuers, 417, 499
homeless persons, 437
Homo economicus, established model of, 191
homonomy, 173
homophobic victimization, on sexual minority youth, 441
Homo reciprocans, replacing Homo economicus, 91
homosexual identity, 444
homosexuality, 437, 444–445
homosexual marriage, restrictions on, 445
homosexuals
attitudes or aggressive tendencies toward, 596
blamed more for sexually contracting HIV/AIDS than heterosexuals, 436
enhanced sense of internalized self-stigma, 438
honesty, 54, 139
hookworm infections, in China, 725
Hope, in the RICH approach, 705
horizontal collectivist, 198, 536
horizontal individualist, 198, 536
horizontal person, emphasizing equality, 536
horizontal power arrangement, cultures differing on endorsing a, 198
horizontal-vertical distinction, affecting cooperation, 536
hormonal, immune system, linking health and mortality, 517
hormonal features, of interpersonal relationships, 357
“the horror of isolation,” 174
hospice volunteers, cross-sectional survey of, 473
hostile face, perceiving, 564
“hostile forces of nature,” species-wide adaptation to, 729
hostility, pattern of suppression of, 597–598
hours spent volunteering, 418f, 422
household energy conservation, importance of, 641
human activity, harmful consequences for the natural environment, 626
human agency, counteracting the ravages of sin, 732
human altruism
children’s helping behaviors revealing, 103–104
origins of, 100
what chimpanzee helping reveals about, 105–106
human cognitive capacity, 264
human cooperation, forms of unique, 189
human empathy, neural basis of, 74
human exchange, one network of, 204
human groups, 52, 189
“human identity,” in contrast to “Jewish identity”, 574
human immune system, functioning as a defensive adaptation, 726
human infants, 71, 210. See also infancy
human instincts, set of, 11
humanitariam and prosocial values, desire to act on, 466
"humanitarian and altruistic" values, 465
humanity, ascribing to persons with mental illnesses, 437
humanizing, the “Other,” 703–704, 707
human motivation, testing other theories of, 666
human nature, dominated by personal self-interest, 548
human nurturant impulse, 265
human parental instinct, 264
human physicality, posing a threat to terror management defenses, 175
human populations, showing different patterns of disease, 725
human prosociality, 37, 189
human resource management practices, of organizations utilizing volunteers, 479
(p. 759) humans
basic biological propensity to continue living, 167
building credits for themselves through good works, 732
evolved as collaborative foragers, 110
genetically predisposed to act prosocially, 27
having a natural capacity for social tolerance, 601
not hardwired for cooperation, 189
perceiving each other at conscious and unconscious levels, 155
performing altruistically motivated behaviors in flexible ways, 101
producing and sustaining high rates of cooperation, 532
relatively unique in ability to help even strangers, 353
scope of altruistic behaviors in, 110–111
human strengths and virtues, taxonomy of, 222
human subjects, mimicking faces and experiencing corresponding emotions, 70
Hume, David, 249, 527
hunter-gatherers, 110, 598, 726
hunters
direct benefit to, 40
sharing with the other(s), 43
hunting
example of, 39
requiring coordination, 42
hunting party formation, dynamics of, 531
Hurricane Katrina, fallout from, 405
Hussein, Saddam, 702
Hutus, endangering themselves to save the lives of Tutsis, 704
hyenas, exhibiting coordination, 65
hyperactivating strategies, 211–212
hyper-masculine gay men, perceived as low in warmth, but high in competence, 438
hypervigilance, toward diagnostic social information, 534
hypocrisy induction, technique of, 634
hypothalamic neural circuit, animal studies of, 353–354
hypothetical constructs, floating at different altitudes, 235
hypothetico-deductive approach, labeled here as top-down, 236
I
the Id, 173
“ideal scientific text,” 723
ideas, propagation of, 50–51
identical behavior, eliciting different outcomes depending on the type of relationship, 338
“identifiability,” of targets, 298
identification, with one’s group, 677, 709
identities, decategorizing, 26
identity, 568, 709
identity-based social identity model, 558
identity theories, 511–512
ideologies, 700, 704, 705
if-then behavioral signatures, 486
ignoring behavior, speaking to multiple scales of social management, 156
Ik, of Uganda, 126
IL-6, 356
illegitimate social advantage, 320
illnesses, 725
imagine-other perspective, 264
imagine-self perspective, 264
imagine-self strategy, 301
imagine-target strategy, 301
imitation, 50, 155
immediacy, of the need, 699
immediate circumstances, influence of, 698–699
immediate cost, of sharing resources, 106
immoral action, empathy-induced altruism leading to, 275
immune system effects, of oxytocin, 514
impact-focused behavior, 628
impact-orientation approach, 627
implicit ambivalence, assessing, 214
implicit associations, between Blacks and apes, 393
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 212, 434, 565
Implicit Attitudes Test, 290
implicit bias, 290, 665
implicit self-stigma, 439
implicit stigma-relevant attitudes, 441
imprisonment, of people for drug offenses in the US, 446
improved relationship, movement toward, 672
inattention to alternatives, selective, 369
incapacitation, linking punishment to, 552
incarceration, in the criminal justice system, 157
incentives, 530, 666
inclusion, balance with distinctiveness, 173
inclusion model, building on Aron’s self-expansion model of relationships, 632
Inclusion of Nature in Self scale, 632
inclusion of other in the self (IOS), 352, 369
inclusive caring, 697, 707–710
inclusive fitness, 8, 12, 39, 43, 347, 352
inclusive fitness/kin selection, 12, 27
inclusive fitness perspective, 52–53
inclusive fitness theory, 52, 55n2
inclusive victim beliefs, 706–707
incomes, higher associated with more volunteering, 469
An Inconvenient Truth (documentary), 642
incorrect judgments, ostracized individuals likely to conform to, 158
indebtedness, feelings of, 309
indentified victims, receiving more aid than nonidentified, 298
independence, need for, 307
independent mindset, priming, 529
India, strategy of accommodation, 201
indirect aggression, engaging in, 596
indirect assistance, 644
indirect fitness, 8, 12, 39, 43
indirect helping, 21, 397
indirect primes, impacting rate of competition, 529
indirect reciprocity, 13, 41f, 43, 44, 45, 88, 348
individual cooperation, dynamics of, 530
individual differences, 355
affecting the level of empathic concern, 264
in empathic tendencies, 337
influencing prosocial behavior, 334
nontrait, 535
in personality, 283
in prosocial behavior, 119–121
individualism, 196, 197, 201
individualism/collectivism, 728
individualist and collectivist cultures, 196–198
individualists, 26, 92, 94, 533
individual-level influences, 525
individual-level selection, 14
individual motivations, underlying prosociality, 199
individual payoffs, increasing, 20
“individual rationality,” 88
individuals
helping other individuals, 694
mixed-motive relationship to groups, organizations, and societies, 549
progressing from their actual selves toward their ideals, 367
“reflecting” others’ successes, 370
role in the group different across cultures, 196
using behaviors of others, 402
individual task condition, 180
individual traits, relating to cooperative choice, 532–535
individual trauma, sources of, 713
individual utility, 95
individual versus collective well-being, conflicts between, 10
inducing guilt, the duel effect of, 636
inductions, 124, 708
industry action, personal norms for, 640
inequality, 146, 712
inequity aversion, 92
infantile physical features, 588
(p. 760) infant-mother synchrony, predicting empathy in adolescence, 122–123
infectious agents, avoiding contact with, 727
infectious diseases
adaptations to such threats, 733–734
as a major contributor to natural selection, the human physical condition, and evolution, 725
in prehistoric populations, 725–726
qualifying as a “hostile force of nature,” 726
understanding of, 725
infidelity, as destructive, 367
inflammation, oxytocin down-regulating markers of, 357
inflammatory response, to pathogens producing fever, 726
influences
leading individuals to help others, 694
leading to violence, 702
informal help, 459
Information, in the RICH approach, 705
information, manipulating the distribution of, 93
informational social influence, 20
information processing. See symbol manipulation
information-processing approach, to selecting behaviors, 154
information-processing metaphor, for psychology, 722
information processing theory (IPT), 154
informative pointing, by young children, 101, 102
informed consent, discussing key aspects of, 664
ingratitude, 311
ingroup(s)
individuals most willing to take on the guilt of, 636
one’s membership in, 563
people orienting their thoughts to the needs of, 537
prioritization of over the outgroup, 199
processing of the faces of, 393
ingroup-favoring norm, 566
ingroup favoritism, diminishing, 319
ingroup favoritism and concern (B), inducing norms for greater, 728
ingroup helpers, empathy predicting helping, 462
ingroup identification, sufficient to experience collective victimization, 675
ingroup identity, 567, 571
ingroup identity model, 401
“in-group love hormone,” 514
ingroup members, 564
ingroup member’s welfare, valuing, 470
ingroup/outgroup categories, 26
ingroup-outgroup differences, 7
ingroup phenomenon, prosociality as, 55
ingroup strangers, perceived as more trustworthy than outgroup strangers, 567
inheritance motivation, literature regarding, 426
inheritance transmission, motivations for, 426
inhibitors of action, counteracting their influence, 714t
inhibitory activity, of a care mechanism, 592
inhibitory neural pathways, 588
inhibitory relationship, between the FF and care systems, 591
Inhorn, Marcia C., 725
inhumane treatment of others, 177
injustice within groups, perceptions of, 679
innate releaser mechanism, 12
in-school suspension, 157
insecure adults, reporting less available support, 213
insecure attachment style, 463
insecure individuals, 211, 225
insecure people, 212, 213, 218–219
instability, of guilt-based behaviors, 637
“instigating conditions,” kinds of, 700
instincts, 11
instructions, significant effects on helping, 287
“instrumental fairness,” 93
instrumental goal, 260
instrumental helping
cases of, 101
not restricted to human-raised chimpanzees, 104–105
requiring relatively little sacrifice, 106
instrumental motivations, 551
instrumental priming, 558
“instrumental” social participation, 503
instrumental support, 296
instrumental view, of the psychology of justice, 555–556
insurance company, deceiving, 140
intangible resources, for the relationship, 365
integrative analysis, 573
integrative solution, 672
“integrative understanding,” of compassionate behaviors in later life, 428
intellectual disability, implying dependency on others, 597
intense violence, almost always evolves progressively, 694
intensity, of involvement in activities, 508
intent, 234, 722, 730
intention(s), 268, 628, 731
intentional altruism, humans possessing a capacity for, 63
intentional helping, 63, 64t
intentional HIV infection, as a very rare event, 445
intentionality, 94, 590
intention-focused behavior, 628
intention-orientation, to pro-environmental behavior, 628
interaction(s), 210, 571–572
"interactional" justice, separate type of, 554
interaction anxiety, 595
interactionist approach, 464, 465
interactionist perspective, 665
interaction partners, 337, 585
interaction patterns, repeated in a given relationship, 334
“interactive conflict resolution,” 674
“interactive problem solving,” 674
interdependence, 42
among group members, 19
approach, 363, 371
breeding altruism, 110
of multiple contributors, 194
structure existing between relational partners, 362
“Interdependence Hypothesis,” 110
interdependence structure, review of, 363–365
interdependence theory, 7, 371
interdependent mindset, priming, 529
interdependent relationships, coordinating actions, 6
interdependent strangers, 285, 291
interdisciplinary direction, 541
“interest-based” approach, to conflict, 672
intergenerational dilemmas, behavior in, 540
intergenerational transfers, of assets, 426
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, 629
intergroup aggression, 215, 406
intergroup anxiety, in the presence of an out-group member, 289
intergroup biases, 565, 572, 574, 679
intergroup boundaries, 567, 572, 573
intergroup conflict, 26, 55, 570, 671, 685
intergroup conflict phase, 672–673
intergroup consequences, of cooperation between groups, 574
intergroup contact
having positive effects, 26
improving attitudes toward a range of stigmatized groups, 569
not involving direct reciprocal cooperation, 575
overall impact on the improvement of intergroup relations, 672
positively associated with empathy, 673
reducing intergroup conflict, 569
research on the effectiveness of, 575
intergroup cooperation, 28, 562–576
cases of, 7
changing the functional relationship between groups, 570
in the context of the jigsaw classroom, 571
(p. 761) essential for the effective functioning of societies, 569
impact of for improving intergroup relations, 573
important role of, 569
improving intergroup attitudes, 572
improving the attitudes of minority-group members toward majority-group members, 576
much more difficult to achieve and sustain, 563
perspectives encouraging new directions for research, 574
presence or absence of, 571
promoting common identity, 574
undermining competitive perceptions, 570
unique benefits for, 563
intergroup differences, in the type and extent of adaptation of cooperative practices, 190–191
intergroup dimension, relating to cooperation, 564
intergroup empathy, 674
intergroup friendships, influence on the reduction of prejudice, 673
intergroup helping, 319–321, 574, 684
Intergroup Helping as Status Relations model, 320
intergroup processes, influence of on cooperation, 563–569
intergroup prosocial behaviors, collective intent, 685
intergroup relations
effects of cooperation on, 569–573
promoting more positive, 572
social-psychological study of, 583
transforming a vertical to a more horizontal relation, 687t
intergroup threat, 565, 572, 678
intergroup violence, cycles of, 671
interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect, 565–566
“internal bystanders,” passivity of, 701
internalist approach, to prosocial behavior, 154
internalization stage, 16
internalized features, leading him or her to select external "niches," 385
internalized prosocial values, 278
internalized self-stigma, 349, 438–439
internalized stigma, 438, 446
internalized tendency, to apply relational perspectives onto helping interactions, 322
internal motivations, to control prejudice, 449
internal states, 337, 369
internal working models, of self and others, 210
internal working models of others, 211
international aid, 274
International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 725
interpersonal, social act, prosocial behavior as, 4
interpersonal abilities, building, 687t
interpersonal accuracy, 284
interpersonal aspects of procedures, 554
interpersonal attachments, providing a symbolic extension of the self, 167
interpersonal behaviors, determined by expectations about reactions of interaction partners, 245
“interpersonal” citizenship behaviors (ICB), 295
interpersonal conflicts, 244–245, 681
interpersonal connection, 352
interpersonal contact, 180, 398
interpersonal deviance, 679
interpersonal factors, 355
interpersonal functioning, improvements of, 481
interpersonal interactions, 201, 331, 681
interpersonal outcomes, 283, 285
interpersonal peace, 681
interpersonal phenomena, focus on seeking and receiving help as, 319
interpersonal power differences, reflected in choice-disabilities, 445
Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), 285, 292, 293, 295, 462
interpersonal relations, facilitating social effectiveness, 686
interpersonal relationships, 354, 366–368, 636
interpersonal sanctioning mechanisms, 203
interpersonal situations, 201, 532
interpersonal treatment, 553, 558–559
interplay, of justice and self-interest, 554–555
interracial helping, 395, 408
interventions
created by psychologists improving intergroup relations, 570–571
designed to help people forgive their transgressors, 297
designed to increase helping behavior, 506
intrapersonal and interpersonal, 684
prosocial behavior and, 128–129
to reduce stigma, 448
interviews, with 22 Black patients who had refused to participate in a clinical trial, 664
inter vivos transfers, to younger family generations, 426
intolerance, 582
intractable conflicts, 671, 675, 678
intractable cycles of violence, 673
intracultural variation, 193, 202
intragroup cooperation, 7, 25, 28, 548–559
intragroup peace, 677
intrapersonal outcomes, 284–285
intrapersonal peace, 680
intrapersonal processes, relationship maintenance and, 368–371
intrinsically religious individuals, 616, 617
intrinsic motivation, to volunteer, 428
intrinsic or terminal valuing, 263
intrinsic religiousness
helping members of value-violating outgroups, 614
positively correlated with a dispositional measure of gratitude, 621
related to a moral hypocrisy motivation,