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date: 21 November 2017

(p. 493) Index

(p. 493) Index

Abed, F. H., 398
accountability
of corporations, 435, 437
and New Public Management strategies, 482–83
of nonprofit sector, 35–36, 450–51
of public-private partnerships, 294–95
and social entrepreneurship, 84
within UN, 100
achievements of civil society, 377–438
overview, 11–13
and democracy, 377–88
and the market, 428–38
and peace, 404–14
and poverty reduction, 391–401
and power, 416–25
Ackerman, Peter, 366
Addams, Jane, 224, 228
administrative decentralization, 444–45, 446
Adventist Relief and Development Agency, 265
advocacy groups. See also civil society organizations (CSOs); specific groups
boomerang pattern, 422
growth of, 111
lack of mass mobilization, 115
professional management of, 112–13, 115–16, 118
representative functions of, 381
role in poverty reduction, 392–95
use of human rights talk, 117
Afghanistan, 5, 50, 357, 458–59
AFL-CIO, 111
Africa. See also specific countries
feminist groups, 64–65
NGOs in, 187, 189
poverty reduction initiatives, 392
reciprocity among poor, 463–64
African Americans. See also civil rights movement
black churches, 261
closing of medical schools for, 448
and duty-based norms, 248–49
ethnically based membership groups, 110
free spaces concept, 332–33, 334
age and participation, 247
agricultural subsidies, 98–99
ahimsa (nonviolence), 279
AIDS, civil society assistance, 33, 96, 97, 162, 165, 259, 424, 434, 470–71
Ai Weiwei, 165–66
Alber, Jens, 32
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 56, 57
Algeria, 147, 149
Alinsky, Saul, 59–60, 63, 263
All-China Federation of Trades Unions (ACFTU), 159
All-China Federation of Women (ACWF), 160, 166, 167
Almond, G. A., 109, 110
Al Qaeda, 9, 410
Altman, Nathanial, 279
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), 112
American Civil Liberties Union, 301–2
American Legion, 111
American Library Association, 368
Amnesty International, 212
amoral familism, 210
Anabaptist religious tradition, 260
anarchism, 408
ancient Greek thought, on civil society, 15, 17, 311–12, 327, 328, 405–6
Anderson, Benedict, 315
Anglo American (company), 434
Anheier, H. K., 31–32, 95
Annan, Kofi, 211
Annie E. Casey Foundation
Rebuilding Communities Initiative, 461
anomic societies, 210, 290. See also uncivil society
anti-apartheid movement (South Africa), 60, 237, 240
anticorruption initiatives, 432
anti-debt coalition, 48
anti-Nike sweatshop campaigns, 430–31
antipolitics viewpoint, 288
Anti-Terrorist Financing Guidelines, U.S., 300, 301
Arab Islamic Janjaweed militias, 350
Arato, A., 74, 123, 124, 240, 327–28
Aravind eye hospitals (India), 84
Arendt, Hannah, 236–37, 238, 317, 319, 327, 350
Argentina, 122, 123, 124, 126–27, 434
Aristotle
on civil society, 15–17
on consequences of participation, 200
on equality, 233
on good citizen, 405
influence on Montesquieu, 23
Armenia, Republic of, 265–66
(p. 494) Aronowitz, Stanley, 332
Article 19 (organization), 354
Arya Samaj movement (India), 173
Ashoka, 86
Asia Foundation (U.S.), 300
Asian Development Bank, 96, 99
Asset-Based Community Development Institute (U.S.), 225
asset-freezing orders, 300, 303, 304
Associated Press, 355, 357
associational life. See also civil society organizations (CSOs)
decline of, 237
ecosystems and local conditions, 8, 482
and equality, 237–38
and experience of pluralism, 286–87
governmental impact on, 285–96
and information technologies, 337–46
as intrinsic good, 172
and spirituality, 275–77
state influence on, 113, 210–11
associational speech, 289–90
Association for Progressive Communications, 75
Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), 59, 62
Association of Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen, 153
Atlanta Agreement, 432
Auditorías Articuladas (Colombia), 127
Augustine, 18
Australia
formal compacts, 33
as liberal welfare state regime, 31
nonprofit sector, 35
rise of for-profits, 36
shifts from cash assistance to nonprofit providers of services, 32
authoritarianism
in India, 173–74
in Iran, 149
in Latin America, 123, 125
in Middle East, 147, 152, 154
vs. communism, 139
autonomy of self, 71–72, 429
Baker, Peter, 353
Bangladesh, 12, 391, 392–93, 424
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), 44, 86, 392–93, 397–99
Bank for International Settlements, 96–97
BankTracker project (Investigative Reporting Workshop), 357
Barber, Benjamin, 324, 326, 327
Barney, D., 341, 345
Baron, Barnett, 300
Barr, A., 201
Barrett, G., 422–23
Beck, U., 420
Belgium, 211, 247, 249
Beltrán, Cristina, 333
Benin, 187
Benkler, Y., 341
Bentham, Jeremy, 316
Berman, Sheri, 473, 475
Berry, J. M., 118
Better Life in Egypt, 153
Between Facts and Norms (Habermas), 328–29
Beveridge, Albert Jeremiah, 460
Big Society policies (UK), 5, 29, 30
Black, Hugo, 359
blogosphere, 341, 364
Bob, C., 94
Bohman, James, 379
Bolivia, 124–125, 396
Bolzendahl, C., 248, 251
Bosnia, 350
Boston Foundation
Persistent Poverty Project, 462
Bottom of the Pyramid movement, 81
Bouabid Foundation (Morocco), 155
Bourdieu, P., 419
bourgeois civil society, 22
Boussard, C., 189
Boutros Ghali, Boutros, 412
Boy Scouts of America, 224, 291
Bradlee, Benjamin C., 351
Brady, H., 364
Brahmo Samaj movement (India), 173
brand vulnerability, 430–32
Brazil. See also specific organizations
civil society ideas, 122
Constitution (1988), 126
corporations and sustainability standards, 434
and IMF transparency, 98
Landless Movement, 129
Management Councils, 126
market-oriented NGOs, 124
participatory budget process, 227–28
populist-development initiatives, 123
strong leadership, effect on participation, 130
Workers’ Party, 125, 126
and World Bank transparency, 98
Brest, Paul, 450
Breyer, Stephen, 367
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 355
British Petroleum (BP), 431
broadcast media, 317
Bronfman, Charles, 450, 451
Brooks, David, 233
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (U.S.), 334
Brown, D., 45
Brown, Gordon, 303
Bryce, Lord, 109
Bunce, Valerie, 137, 138
Burke, Edmund, 23, 211, 315
(p. 495) Burt, Martin, 88
Bush, George H. W., 210
Bush, George W., 163, 352, 353, 468, 470, 471–72
business associations, 110, 111, 159, 160–61, 476
Byzantine Church, 17–18
Callaghy, T. M., 185
Callamard, Agnès, 354
Cameron, David, 30
Canada, 214, 251, 302, 356
capacity-building by NGOs, 5, 37
capitalism
and decline of the public, 10–11
in Middle East, 472
and neoliberalism, 128
overreliance on markets, 5
philanthrocapitalism, 481
and social inequality, 235–36, 241
turbo-capitalism, 73
Cárdenas, C., 125
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, 130
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 447–48
Carnegie Foundations, 447–48
Carothers, T., 469, 474
Carroll, J. W., 260–61
Carter, Hodding, 354
Castro, J., 424
Catholic Church, 125, 260, 264
Catholic Relief Services, 265
censorship by governments, 165–66, 168, 319, 343, 345
Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, 276
Center for Investigative Reporting, 356–57
Center for Public Integrity, 352, 356, 358
Central Council of United Trade Unions (Iran), 149
Central Europe
impact of economic crisis (2008–10), 35
centralized economic planning, 138
Ceres, 433
Chabal, P., 184
Chad, 350
chains of affectedness, 379
Chandhoke, N., 71, 187, 418
charismatic hero model, 87
charismatic impersonalism of Leninist regimes, 136–37
Charities Act of 2006 (UK), 303
charity. See also philanthropy
and counterterrorism regulations in UK, 302–4
critiques of, 450–52
and legislative initiatives, 29, 167
neoliberal view of, 154
Charity Commission (UK), 302–4
Chateauwert, Melinda, 334
Chatterjee, Partha, 179
Chávez, Hugo, 124, 125, 436
checkbook democracy, 212
child care vouchers, 36
child labor, 432
Children's Defense Fund, 113, 115
Chile, 122, 127, 130
China. See also specific organizations
Beijing Olympic Games (2008), 163–64
business standards, 434–35
censorship of Internet, 165–66, 168, 319
civil society since 1978, 159–68
Communist Party, 160, 165, 166–67, 168, 305
Communist Youth League, 160
Constitution (1982), 305–6
diverse sources of identity, 204
illegal organizations, 159
information technologies, 165–66
market reform, 161–62
organization registration process, 161–62, 163, 166–67
poverty reduction initiatives, 392
rapid change and conflicts, 204
restrictions on space for civil society, 299, 305–6
rise of ethical consumer in, 434–35
Sichuan province earthquake, 163, 165, 166, 306
and social capital theory, 203
state enterprise reform, 164–65
state-owned enterprise, 164–65, 435–36
suppression of protest, 160, 161
suspicion of charities/foreign NGOs, 167
Tibet demonstrations (2008), 164
China Association for Science and Technology, 164
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 160, 165, 166–67, 168, 305
Chittister, Joan, 274
Chowdhury, A.M.R., 398
Christ and Culture (Niebuhr), 260
Christian Coalition (U.S.), 112, 260
Christianity, 17–18, 259–62, 332–33. See also specific sects
church-related associations. See religious groups
Cicero, 17, 23
Cities Alliance, 99
citizen engagement, 56–57, 424–25. See also participation
citizen protest. See protest
citizenship
civil society groups as school of, 290–91
deliberative, 324–25, 327–30
and diversity, 246–49
duty-based, 247–49, 252
and gender, 249–52
Latin American concepts of, 126–27
logic of congruence, 291, 292
neoliberal concepts of, 20
and property, 20
vs. associational membership, 286
citizen watchdog groups, 386
civic association, 110, 221–22, 223
The Civic Culture (Almond and Verba), 109
(p. 496) civic knowledge
devaluation of, 11
as generated by civil society, 368–72
and leadership skills, 365–66
preservation of knowledge commons, 366–68
and role of civil society, 362–65, 367–68
as space of civil society, 362–72
civicness, interaction with civility, 220–21, 222–29
civic organizing, 59
civic renewal philanthropy, 451–52
civic skills, 364, 365
civil disobedience, 217, 370. See also protest
civility, 222–26
and civic associations, 220–21
Enlightenment viewpoint on, 406
and functional need for specialized knowledge, 223–24
and group social homogeneity, 224
and interaction with civicness, 220–21, 222–29
as norm of civil society, 220–30
Tocqueville's viewpoint on, 221–22
and use of anger, 229–30
civil liberties
in democratic states, 298–99
and overregulation in U.S., 299–302
and public communication, 319
quasi-independent regulation in UK, 302–4
restrictions in China, 299, 305–6
restrictions in Vietnam, 299, 307
and spaces of civil society, 298–308
civil regulation of markets, 430–38, 438n1
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (U.S.), 113
civil rights movement (U.S.), 61, 217, 218n2, 237–38, 333, 459
civil society, definitions of, 4, 13, 71, 245, 377, 405–6, 416–19. See also specific aspects and theories
civil society, forms of, 29–103. See also specific forms
overview, 7–8
global civil society, 93–103
grassroots associations, 55–66
nongovernmental development organizations (NGDOs), 42–52
nonprofit sector, 29–38
social entrepreneurship, 80–88
social movements, 58, 68–77
Civil Society and Political Theory (Cohen and Arato), 327–28
civil society assistance, 443–72. See also civil society organizations (CSOs); specific types of assistance
and democracy-promotion, 468–77
grassroots philanthropy, 455–65
infrastructure for, 470–72
institutional philanthropy, 443–52
civil society ideas, history of
overview, 4–7
and associations, 23–25
and economic man, 19–21
Hegel's idealism, 22–23, 172, 312, 314, 327
Kant's formalism, 21, 371
Marx's democratization, 22–23, 240, 258, 259, 264, 315, 331
organized commonwealth, 15–18
and peace-building, 405–7
and public sphere, 311–21, 328
radical vs. neo-liberal viewpoints, 5–6
resurgence during 2000s, 6
Smith's views, 18, 20–22, 313, 314
transition to modernity, 18–19
civil society norms, 197–280. See also specific norms
overview, 8–10
civility, 220–30
diversity, 245–53, 481
equality, 232–42
religion, 257–67
social capital, 197–205
spirituality, 270–80
and uncivil society, 209–18
civil society organizations (CSOs). See also associational life; specific organizations and countries
advancement of equality as goal of, 237–38
civil regulation of corporations, 430–33, 438n1
constitutive media of, 383–84
democracy within, 380–85
democratic associational ecology, 385–88
as oppositional to democracy, 386, 387
poverty reduction, 202–3
provision of direct services by, 368
and public communication, 316
and social capital language, 205
socialist displacement of CSOs in, 149
use of term, 43
and voluntariness, 382–83
civil society spaces, 285–372
overview, 10–11
and civic knowledge, 362–72
and civil liberties, 298–308
and digital age, 337–46
government, 285–96
and public journalism, 349–59
public sphere, 311–21
public work, 324–34
civil society studies
as applicable to forms of social organization, 142
comparison to social movement studies, 68–77
consensual issues, 70
European tradition, 70
North American tradition, 70
as regime type distinction, 142–43
as western concept, 142
class cleavage, 73
climate management, 433, 437
Clinton, Bill, 352, 470, 477n1
(p. 497) Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 470, 472
Coates,B., 393
Coca Cola Company, 431
Coelho, K., 418
coercion
freedom from, 407
in Hobbes's civil society, 19
in Kant's civil society, 21
in Locke's civil society, 20
and neoliberal structural adjustment, 184
by state/government, 286, 291, 363
Coffé, H., 248, 251
Cohen, J., 74, 123, 240, 327–28
Colas, D., 404
Cold War era, 47, 146, 160, 288, 470
Coleman, J., 198
collective action, 172, 200
Colombia, 122, 124, 126–27
Color Revolutions, 163, 307, 340
Comaroff, Jean, 185, 187
Comaroff, John, 185, 187
Combined Federal Campaign (CFC, U.S.), 301–2
Committee to Democratize Information Technology (CDI, Brazil), 84
Common Cause, 113
common goods, 387
common pool resources, 200, 334
common power, 18–19
commons, 326, 334
commonwealth ideals, 326–27, 329, 333–34
communication infrastructure policy, 344–46
communism, 240–41. See also Europe, post-communist
Communist Party, 136–38, 305
Communist Tudeh Party (Iran), 149
Communist Youth League (CYL), 160
community-based organizing, 59
Community Foundation for Northern Ireland, 460–61
Community Interest Companies (UK), 84, 85, 201
community media, 11
community organizing groups
collective action, 60
and democratic pluralism, 59–60
education approach to, 60
focus on public issues, 58
as subset of SCOs, 61
use of Alinsky model, 59–60, 63
use of Smock model, 59–60
compacts
between government and nonprofits, 33, 37
of open collaboration, 203–4
in South Africa, 434
comparative communism studies, 136–37
compassionate conservatism, 5, 470
Compassion International, 265
CompassPoint survey, 275–76
competitive contracting, 33, 293
Comunidade Solidária (Brazil), 130
conflict
associational management of, 384
and associational segregation, 211
avoidance of in empowerment projects, 222–23
controlled conflict strategy, 59
and democratic debate, 229–30
due to rapid change, 204–5
expression of in mutual qualification programs, 227
and social movement studies, 69–73
study on Hindu/Muslim conflicts, 410
Confucian model, 363
Congress Party (India), 173
conscientization programs, 421
Conselhos Gestores de Políticas Públicas (Brazil), 128
consensus movements, 70
Conservative Party (UK), 5
conservatism, 5, 112, 262–63, 470
Constitution
of Brazil, 126
of China, 305–6
of U.S., 22
constitutive media of associations, 383–84
consumer activism, 226
consumer choice and shift to NPM strategies, 33, 36
consumerism
as choice without consequence, 326
and male lost identity, 326
within marriage, 326
vs. public work, 324–25, 327
Consumers International, 345
contentious politics concept, 70–71
controlled conflict strategy, 59
convergence with mutual autonomy, 127
convergent antagonism, 127
Cooley, Charles Horton, 319
cooperative commonwealth. See commonwealth ideals
cooperatives, 408
Copenhagen climate talks (2010), 433, 437
Coptic Evangelical Organization for Social Services (Egypt), 151
copyright law (U.S.), 367
Cornwall, A., 418
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategies, 81
Corporation for National and Community Service, U.S., 30
corporations. See also specific corporations
brand vulnerability, 430–32
civil regulation, 430–38, 438n1
collection of consumer data, 345
community consultation mechanisms, 97
decline of U.S. news media, 354–56
environmental standard compliance, 432
ethos of privatization, 430
funding of voluntary associations, 212
influence over regulatory process in U.S., 433
(p. 498) and interaction of civicness and civility, 226
ownership of communication infrastructure, 344
social responsibility efforts, 81, 226
corporatist welfare state regimes, 31
Correa, Rafael, 125
corruption, 432
Costa Rica, 65
counterterrorism law/policy. See also Bush, George W.
Anti-Terrorist Financing Guidelines, U.S., 300, 301
East Turkestan Islamic Movement, 167
impact on civil liberties in U.S., 299–302
implications for NGDOs, 49–50
quasi-independent regulation in UK, 302–4
suspicion of charities/foreign NGOs, 163
terrorism watch lists, 299–302
Creative Commons website, 341
creative destruction, in entrepreneurship, 84
criminality for a cause, 217
crises, responses to. See also economic recessions; specific crises
bonds of mutual sacrifice, 484–85
function of spiritual activism, 272–73, 278–79
as historical feature of civil society, 184
by religious groups, 259
by uncivil society organizations, 179
Croly, Herbert, 446
cross-border activism. See global civil society
cross-class federations, decline of, 109–19, 482
Cuba, 30
Dalai Lama, 431
Dalton, R. J., 248
Damascus Chamber of Commerce, 149
David, R., 393
Davis, R. S., 117
deCerteau, Michel, 341
Declaration on Indigenous Peoples, UN, 96
decolonization, in Middle East, 149
de-commodification, 31
Decree on Associations (Vietnam, 2003), 307
de-facing power, 417–18
Dekker, Paul, 226
Delli Carpini, M., 364
democracy. See also state/government; specific countries
and “all-affected” principle, 378–80, 388
Barber on thin democracy, 324
checkbook democracy, 212
within CSOs, 380–85
democratic associational ecology, 385–88
and diversity, 245–53, 320
electoral democracies worldwide, 377–80
emergence of and nonprofits, 29
Fraser on multiple public sphere and, 238–39
in global civil society, 101–2
and grassroots associations, 56
illiberal democracy, 210
incivility and debate, 229–30
individual influence, 379–80
normative definitions of, 378–80
oppositional CSOs, 386, 387
participation in governance, 99–100, 126–28
as prerequisite in comparative studies of civil society, 142–44
and religious pluralism, 262–63
Rosenblum's key virtues of, 233
thin democracy, 324
Tilly on insulation from categorical inequality, 233
Democracy in America (Tocqueville), 174, 241, 337, 443
democratic associational ecology, 385–88
balanced mix of associations, 386
checks on power, 386–87
distributions of attachments, 387–88
individual attachments, 387
Deng Xiaoping, 160, 161
Denmark, 31, 32, 34
Department for International Development (DFID), 266
devolution, 5, 293
Dewey, John, 10, 320, 369–70
Diani, M., 69
Diderot, 369
digital age and information technologies. See also Internet
and awareness of social entrepreneurship opportunities, 82
and communication policies, 338, 344–46
critiques of, 341–44
digital rights management, 342
impact of technologies, 338–41
and increased engagement, 11
infrastructure controls, 344
open-source software movement, 341
and spaces of civil society, 337–46
tactical media, 340
and transnationalization of social movements, 75
and 24/7 journalism, 353
wireless adhocracies, 340
digital divide, 343
digital rights management (DRM), 342
directive influence, of individual, 379
directly exercised, individual influence, 379–80
disaster relief, 84
discomfort, and democratic debate, 229–30
discrimination vs. economic inequality, 233–34
diversity
and citizenship, 246–49
and gender, 249–52
as norm of civil society, 245–53, 481
and openness to perplexity, 224
(p. 499) Doherty, William, 326
domestic violence as common concern, 239
dominant vs. subordinate groups, 278
Durkheim, Emile, 258
Dworkin, R., 234–35
Eastern Europe
homogenization effect of communism, 136–38
and impact of economic crisis (2008–10), 35
post-communist civil society, 134–44
East Germany, former, 138
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), 43
economic globalization, 73. See also neoliberalism
economic inequality
and grassroots associations, 58
increase of, 57, 241
vs. racial discrimination, 233
economic man concept, theorists on, 19–21
economic recessions
of 1990–91, 83
of 2008–2010, 35, 83, 393, 432–33
economics, dominant role of, 5–6
Ecuador, 124, 125, 126–27
Edelman, Marian Wright, 113
education
Carnegie Foundation contribution to, 447
and participation in U.S., 248
policies in market-based societies, 11
school choice, 292
and social entrepreneurship, 84
striving culture in higher education, 326
and transfer of civic knowledge, 368
Edwards, M., 234, 236, 280, 474
egalitarians, on inequality, 233–34
Egypt. See also specific organizations
civil society, history of, 148
CSOs in, 147
Ibn Khaldun Center, 147
influence of blogosphere, 155, 364
labor strikes, 151
labor unions, 149, 150
lawyers’ syndicate, 148–49
Muslim Brotherhood, 149, 150–51, 152, 473
nonprofit sector, 30
Partners in Development, 155
poverty levels, 155
public sphere, history of, 154
Egyptian Center for Economic Studies, 153
Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights, 153
Ekeh, P. P., 185–86
electoral democracies, 377–80
Eley, G., 237
Elias, Norberto, 406, 407
elites and scientific philanthropy, 445–49
El Sistema program (Venezuela), 228
Elsner, Martin, 406
employment and participation, 250
empowered deliberative democracy (EDD), 329
empowerment projects, 222–25
enactments of citizenship, Scholte on, 95–96
enclave deliberation and intolerance, 383
The End of Charity (Hunter), 450–51
The End of History (Fukuyama), 49
energy sector, 436
Enlightenment ideas, 148, 369, 404, 406
Enrique's Journey (Nazario), 464
Enterprise Income Tax Law of 2008 (China), 167
environment
climate management, 433
Copenhagen climate talks (2010), 433, 437
corporate compliance with standards, 432
movements, 72, 217
planning/management, 84
environmental associations, 112
equality. See also inequality
and associational life, 237–38
definitions of, 232–34
and goals of civil society, 235–37
and good society, 240–41
as norm of civil society, 232–42
and public sphere, 238–40
radical equality, 234–41
Equator Principles, 431, 432
Esping-Andersen, G., 31, 34
Espinosa, K., 201
Estlund, Cynthia, 330
ethical consumers, 81
Ethical Trading Initiative, 431
Ethiopia, 186
ethnic heterogeneity, 409
Europe. See also specific countries
and Alber's social service model, 32
anticommunist movements, 217
anti-immigrant/Muslim groups,214–15
civil society vs. barbarians of new worlds,406–7
class-based differences in participation,248
corporatism,210
environmental issues protests,217
freedoms of association/speech/religion,214
impact of economic crisis (2008–10),35
income level and participation,247
social rights issues,73
urban sociability, history of,317
WISEs,84
Europe, post-communist,134–44. See also specific countries
charismatic impersonalism of Leninist regimes,136–37
friendship networks,140–41
homogenization effect of communism,136–38
(p. 500) low membership in voluntary associations,135–36, 139–42, 143–44
and membership in EU,142
mistrust of formal organizations,139–40
party-state control of public sphere,137–40
and private sphere,138, 140–41
social legacy of communism,139–42
European Charter of Local Self-Government, 103 n8
European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR), 471
European Social Forum, 240
European Union (EU)
blocking of WTO negotiations, 98–99
CSOs as representatives, 381
European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights, 471
funding and terrorist watch lists, 301
importance of, 380
membership of post-communist countries, 142
Peace and Reconciliation Program, 460–61
and political participation,5, 29
subsidiarity, 103 n8
evangelical Christians, in U.S.,112, 260–61
Evans, Sara, 332
experts, reliance on, 448
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI),431, 432
Fafchamps, M., 201
Fair Labour Association, 431
Fair Trade Foundation, 88
Fair Trade movement, 86
faith-based organizations,59, 293, 392. See also religion and religious institutions
Faludi, Susan, 326
Falun Gong,164, 166
Farm Bureau Federation, 111
Farmer Voice project, 84
Federation of Trade Unions (Egypt), 149
fees and social origins theory, 32
fellowship associations, in U.S., 110–11
feminism,59, 64–65, 72, 239, 422. See also gender
Feminist Transformation Watch (FTW), 64–65
Ferguson, Adam, 20, 406
feudalism, 22
Fez Festival of Sacred Music, 95
Fiji, 215
Financing for Development, UN, 99
Flexner Report (Carnegie), 447–48
Fondo Centroamericano de Mujeres (FCAM), 461
Fondo de Solidaridad y Inversión Social (FOSIS), 130
Food for the Hungry, 265
Ford Foundation, 301, 449, 471, 475
foreign aid, 43, 46–47, 50–52, 483
Forest, Robert de, 447
Forest Stewardship Council, 434
for-profit providers, 36
Foucault, M., 417–18, 421
foundations. See institutional philanthropy; specific foundations
Fourth World Conference for Women (1995), 166
France, 23, 226–27
franchise state, 397
Frank Buttle Trust (UK), 458
Franklin, Benjamin, 367
Fraser, Nancy, 233, 238–39
fraternal groups, 110
Fraternal Order of Eagles, 111
Freedom House, 378
free spaces concept, 331–34
Freire, Paulo, 60, 421
French Encyclopedia of 1751–1772, 369
French Revolution, 23
Friends of Labourers Society (India), 173
Fukuyama, F., 49, 201
Fundación Paraguaya, 88
Fung, A., 325, 329
Galeotti, A. E., 239
Galilei, Galileo, 349
Galston, William, 233, 235–36
Gandhi, Indira, 173
Gandhi, Mahatma, 173, 280, 366
Gandhian organizations, and social uplift programs, 173
Ganz, Marshall, 366
Gap, 432
Gardner, John, 113
Gaventa, J., 422–23
Gaza Strip, 146
G8 (Group of Eight), 102–3, 103n9
Gellner, Ernest, 407–8, 409
gender. See also feminism
and diversity in participation, 249–52
exclusion in public sphere based on, 318
and Financing for Development negotiations, 99
and nonprofit sector leadership, 238
participation gaps, 245–53
socialization and participation, 250, 252
General Federation of Women's Clubs (U.S.), 111
genocide, 350
Genro, Tarso, 127
Georgia (country), 163
Gerber, A. S., 115
The German Ideology (Marx), 331
Germany
commercial hospitals, 36
as corporatist welfare state regime, 31
green social movement, 384
Nazi use of civil society, 88, 238, 409, 476
nonprofit sector, 35
(p. 501) and social origins theory on nonprofit regimes, 32
social services provision, 32
Weimar Republic, 9, 378, 409, 475
GI Bill of 1944 (U.S.), 111, 485
Gibson, William, 339
Girl Scouts of America, 57
giving circles, 464
Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative, 431
Global Alliance for Workers and Communities, 432
Global Campaign Against Poverty, 95
Global Campaign for Secure Tenure, 394
global civil society, 93–103
accountability, 100–101
definitions of, 93–95
democracy, 101–2
and global governance, 95–97
participation, 99–100
transnationalization of social movements, 75
transparency, 98–99
Global Consumer Dialog on Access to Knowledge and Communication Issues, 345
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey, 85–86
Global Fund for Malaria, Tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS, 96, 97
global governance, 95–97, 213
Global Integrity, 355
Global Investigative Journalism Network, 358
globalization. See economic globalization
global North. See also global South
access to information, 101
and CSOs in Middle East, 151, 153–54
and NGDOs as intermediaries, 43–44
perception of sustainability standards, 433–34
Global 100, 434
global public culture, 317
Global Reporting Initiative, 434
global South. See also global North
aid dependency, 46–47
economic growth and civil regulation, 434–35
lack of grassroots participation, 101
limitations on role of civil society, 437
and NGDOs, 43–44, 51
NGO advocacy campaigns, 393
perception of sustainability standards, 433–34
global war on terror. See counterterrorism law/policy
Goldfarb, J., 49
good society, civil society as, 187–88, 212, 215–16, 240–41, 279–80
Google, 168, 369
Grameen Bank, 30, 392
Gramsci, Antonio
definition of civil society, 10, 179, 237, 417, 418
hegemonic culture, 125, 315, 421
Selections from the Prison Notebooks, 171
grassroots associations, 55–66
and citizen engagement, 56–57
power of community organizing, 58–60
practice of, 56–58
social change organizations, 60–65
theories of, 55–56
Grassroots Grantmakers, 457, 460
grassroots philanthropy, 455–65
definitions of, 456–57
effectiveness of, 465
importance of, 456–58
philanthropy from grassroots, 457, 463–64
philanthropy to grassroots, 456, 458–60
philanthropy with grassroots, 456–57, 460–63
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Greater New Orleans Foundation's Community IMPACT Program, 459
Great Society programs (U.S.), 449, 451
The Great Transformation (Polanyi), 5
Green, D. P., 115
Green Dam Youth Escort censorship software (China), 165–66
Greenpeace, 95, 212, 430
Grey Areas project (Ford Foundation), 449
Guatemala, 65, 413
Gulf of Tonkin resolution (1964), 351
Habermas, Jürgen. See also public sphere
administrative power, 329
definition of lifeworld, 370
deliberative forum, 216–17
effects of consumerism, 327
Between Facts and Norms, 328–29
public opinion, 319–20, 329, 370, 371
public sphere, 10, 126, 218n1, 238–39, 318, 324, 325, 328–29, 417, 485–86
social movements, 72
state authority, 218 n1
strict separation from state, 123, 127
The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere,171, 320, 328
welfare state, 73–74
habits of association, universality of, 186
habitus, concept of, 419
Hackney Community Transport (HCT), 85
Hagopian, Frances, 324
Handlin, Mary, 326
Handlin, Oscar, 326
Hann, Chris, 192 n2
Haraway, Donna, 339
Harbeson, J. W., 186
Harding, R., 86
Harlem Children's Zone (U.S.), 30
Harvey, Hal, 450
(p. 502) Haskell, Thomas, 446
hate groups, 224
Haugaard, M., 419
Havel, Václav, 138, 469
Hayward, C. R., 417–18
Hegel, G.W.F.
Burgerliche Gesellschaft, 172
civil society, 22–23, 312
exclusion of family, 327
function of state, 314
hegemonic neoliberalism. See neoliberalism
Held, D., 422
Helem CSO (Lebanon), 153
Hess, C., 366
hidden power, 420–21
higher education, 11, 326. See also education
Highlander Institute (U.S.), 238
Hill, Walter B., 114
Hindman, M., 341
Hindu Mahasabha (India), 173
HispanicMoslems.com, 370
Histadrut trade union (Israel), 150
Hobbes, Thomas, 18–19
Hobsbawm, E. J., 179–80
Hobson, B., 251
homogeneity, liabilities of, 8, 482
homogenization effect of communism, 136–38
Honduras, 65
Hooghe, M., 249
housing vouchers, 36
Howard, M.M., 135
Hu Jia, 164
Hulme, D., 392–93
human capital, use of term, 199
Human Development Report, UN, 464
human rights, 155, 214, 437, 438
Human Rights Commission, 214
Human Rights Watch, 212, 355
Hume, David, 200, 314–15
Hungary, 34–35, 137
Hunter, David, 450–51
hyper-individualism, in market-based societies, 11
Ibn Khaldun Center (Egypt), 147
identity-based solidarity groups, 95–96
identity goods, 385
illiberal democracy, 210
immigrants, 318, 333
Income Generation for Vulnerable Group Development Program (BRAC), 398
India. See also specific organizations
Aravind eye hospitals, 84
Arya Samaj movement, 173
associational segregation, 211
civil society, 171–81
corporations and sustainability standards, 434
development models, 174
diverse sources of identity, 204
forging of networks, 176, 177–78
freedom of information movement, 424
Gandhian organizations, 173
gender/race/ethnic bias in nonprofit sector, 238
Kishore Bharti, 174
labor unions, 173
Narmada Bachao Andolan movement, 175
NGOs, 44, 175
noncivil organizations, 178
nonprofit sector, 30, 174
number of social actions groups in, 174
poor and political society space, 179–80
professional management in civil society, 174–76
Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh (RSS), 178–79
religious reform movements, 173, 178
Self-Respect Movement, 173
sons of the soil movements, 215
study on Hindu/Muslim conflicts, 410
Supreme Court decisions, 175
worker social protection, 176
Indigenous Peoples, UN Declaration on, 96
individual influence, 379–80
individualism, 444–45, 446
Indonesia, 64–65, 201–2, 203, 204
Industrial Areas Foundation, 59, 263
Indymedia, 75
inequality. See also equality
correlations to violence, 410
due to bourgeois civil society, 22
economic inequality, 57, 58, 233, 241
egalitarians on, 233–34
and inhibition of voluntary activity, 24
and levels of violence, 410
social inequality and capitalism, 235–36, 241
information, communication, and technology resources (ICTs), 337–38. See also digital age and information technologies
information technologies. See digital age and information technologies
Inglehart, R., 251
innovation and social entrepreneurship, 83–84, 482
institutional philanthropy, 443–52
professionalization and distance from citizens, 450–51
relations with government, 449–50
rise of scientific philanthropy, 445–48
Tocqueville on, 443–45
instrumental coalitions, 69
intellectual property law, 345
International Campaign to Ban Land Mines, 48, 95
International Consortium of Investigative Journalism, 358
International Crisis Group, 355
international labor movement, 432
International Labor Organization (ILO), 432
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 94, 97, 98, 187
international NGDOs (INDGOs), 44, 45, 48, 94
(p. 503) International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 434
International Youth Foundation, 432
Internet. See also digital age and information technologies; specific websites
Chinese censorship of, 165–66, 319
corporate interference with, 345
Google search engine, 369
international governance of, 99–100
and Middle East protests, 151, 155
number of Chinese users, 165
open-access websites, 95
and public journalism, 356–58
social media, 82, 339–41, 353–54
state regulation of communication infrastructure, 344, 345
and transnationalization of social movements, 75
UN Internet Governance Forum, 345
World Bank study on effects on rural youth, 326
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, 96, 97
Internet Governance Forum (IGF), 97, 345
Interpal, 303
Investigative News Network, 358
Investigative Reporting Workshop, 356, 357
invisible hand concept, 21, 314, 315–16
invisible power, 420–21
involuntary organizations, 185–86, 286–87, 383
Iran
civil society, history of, 148
CSOs in, 149, 150, 152–53
elections, 146
public sphere, history of, 155
revolution (2009), 151
use of social media in protest, 340
Iraq
CSOs in, 147
Ministry of Civil Society, 468, 487–88
NGDOs and donor geo-priorities, 50
public sphere, history of, 154, 155
tribal voting in elections (2010), 237
Iraq war
based on erroneous information, 352
Bush democracy-promotion, 471–72
global protests against, 95
government paid news consultants, 352–53
online posting of contractors, 357
Iron Rule motto (Alinsky), 263
Islam
Muslims in western societies, 214–15, 300, 410
role of ulama, 363–64
waqfs (Islamic philanthropy), 148, 151
ISO social responsibility standard (SR 26000), 434
Israel
CSOs in, 147, 150, 152, 153–54
Keshev, 155
and Palestinians, 146
public sphere, history of, 155
Italy, 85, 210
It Takes a Village (Clinton), 470
Japan, 32, 211
Jefferson, Thomas, 366
Jewish Agency for Israel, 150
Johnson, Lyndon, 351, 449
Jordan, 147, 149, 154, 473
journalism, 353, 354–56. See also public journalism
Jowitt, Ken, 136–37, 138
Jubilee Debt Relief campaigns, 95
jury service, 365
Just Associates (U.S.), 64
justice, as implicit in love, 279–80
Kabeer, N., 424
Kadeer, Rebiya, 167
Kahn, Charlotte, 462
Kaiser Health News, 355
Kamali, Masoud, 364
Kant, Immanuel, 21, 371
Karstedt, S., 410–11
Keane, J., 73
Keck, M. E., 422
Keeter, S., 364
Keshev (Israel), 155
Khatami, Mohammad, 149
KidsVoting USA, 364–65
Kilmurray, A., 461
Kim, H., 238
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 279, 333, 366, 484, 485
kinship, ideology of, 185–86, 201
Kishore Bharti (India), 174
knowledge commons, 367–68
Korten, D., 45
Kovach, Bill, 359
Kretzmann, J. P., 56
Kripalu, Swami, 272
Krishna, A., 201
Kuhn, T., 461–62
Ku Klux Klan, 88, 224, 225
Kunreuther, F., 238
Kuwait, 147
Kyrgyzstan, 163
labor unions
absence/repression of in Middle East, 149, 150, 473
in Brazil, 437
decline of, 63, 117
in Egypt, 149, 150
in India, 173
involuntary aspects of, 383
in Israel, 150
in Lebanon, 150
(p. 504) in Morocco, 150
as part of nonprofit sector, 34, 74
state-controlled, 150
in Sweden, 34
in Tunisia, 150
in Turkey, 150
in U.S., 63, 117–18, 237
Lafarge (company), 431
Lagemann, E. C., 448
Lamb, Harriet, 88
Landless Movement (MST), 129
Las Petateras group, 64
Latin America. See also specific countries
anti-dependency views, 46
citizenship, concepts of, 126–27
civil society in, 122–31
decline of social rights, 130
gender/race/ethnic bias in nonprofit sector, 238
neoliberalism in, 128–30, 483
participatory budget process, 126, 127, 227–28
participatory democracy in, 126–28
and social movements, 123–25, 129
Law of National Dialogue (Bolivia), 392, 396
Law on Donations to Public Welfare Undertakings (China, 1999), 167
lawyers’ syndicate (Egypt), 148–49
leadership
Center for Contemplative Mind in Society study on, 276
CompassPoint survey on, 275–76
development among urban poor, 394
development programs for, 276–77
League of Women Voters, 110
Lebanese Union of the Physically Handicapped, 151
Lebanon, 9, 148, 149, 150–51, 154
Lederach, John Paul, 412
Lee, Nicole, 276
Lefebvre, Henri, 63–64
left party ideology, 117–18, 123–25, 131
Leninist regimes, 136–37
LEXIS/NEXIS, 367
Liberal Democratic parties (UK), 5
liberalism, 233–35, 408, 409
liberal peace, 411–12
liberal welfare state regimes, 31–32
libraries, 367
Libya, 147, 149
Liebling, A. J., 359
Light, Paul, 329–30
Lincoln, Abraham, 349
Lindholm, M., 251
Lippman, Walter, 320
Lipschutz, R., 418
Liss, Jon, 63
Livesey, J., 187–88
local community initiatives. See grassroots associations
local empowerment, 5, 61, 82. See also grassroots associations
Locke, John, 18, 19–20, 21, 313
logic of congruence, and citizenship, 291, 292
Lomasky, Loren, 362–63
London subway bombings (UK), 355, 369
L3C corporations, 84, 85
Lukes, Steven, 417, 420
Lula da Silva, Luiz Ignácio, 130, 431, 437
Lutheran Social Services, 265
Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation (U.S.), 459
Maastricht, Treaty of, 103 n8
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 18, 313
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 408
Madison, James, 24
Madsen, Richard, 363
Mahmoud, M., 398
Mahmud, S., 424
mainstream vs. margin groups, 278
majoritarian theorists, 233–34
Making Democracy Work (Putnam), 201
The Making of the English Working Class (Thompson), 332
Mamdani, Mahmood, 185, 189–90
Mandeville, Bernard de, 313
Mann, Michael, 408–9
Marching Together: Women of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (Chateauwert), 334
Marine Stewardship Council, 84, 431
market
and associational strategic goals, 384
business case thought, 435–36
and capitalist overreliance on, 5
civil regulation, 430–38, 438n1
civil society influences on, 428–30
emerging economy businesses, 433–35
and historical concepts of civil society, 313
and neoliberalism, 6, 128, 130
and public sphere, 313, 316
and social entrepreneurship, 83–85
and social inequality, 235–36
strategic effects of civil society on, 430–31, 437–38
and sustainability standards, 433–34
systemic effects of civil society on, 428, 437–38
tactical effects of civil society on, 428, 437–38
Marx, Karl, 22–23, 258, 259, 264, 315, 331
Marxism, demise of, 240
Maryland Association of Nonprofits (U.S.), 33
Massey, D., 201
maternal commonwealth. See commonwealth ideals
Matsuda, M. J., 235
Mattelart, A., 341
May, C. T., 341, 343
Mbembe, A., 191
McCarthy, J. D., 116–17
(p. 505) McCarthyism, 298–99
McChesney, Robert, 355
McDonalds, 431–32
McGrew, A., 422
McKinney, W., 260–61
McKnight, John, 56, 451
McVeigh, Timothy, 410
Medard, Jean-Francois, 186
media, 317, 340, 354–56
Medicaid program, 36
Melucci, A., 72
men, in nonprofit sector leadership, 238
Mesas de Concertación (Peru), 127
Mexico
civil society ideas, 122
Feminist Transformation Watch in, 65
and IMF transparency, 98
populist-development initiatives, 123
self-management councils, 128
and World Bank transparency, 98
Zapatista rebellion, 217
Meyer, Philip, 355
Michnik, Adam, 469
microcredit groups, 30
Middle East. See also specific countries
civil society in, 146–56
countries of, 156n1
elections, 146
public sphere, history of, 154–56
state-led industrialization, 472–73
state-owned enterprise, 436
U.S. foreign policy in, 5
Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI), 471–72
Mill, John Stewart, 365
Millennium Development Goals, UN, 50, 51, 100, 102
Miller, D. E., 264
Miller, Jean Baker, 278
Milner, Henry, 363
Mindell, Arthur, 278
Ministry of Civil Society (Iraq), 468, 487–88
Mitlin, D., 395, 397
Mitzal, B., 71
modular man, 407–8
Mogaladi, J., 397
Molenaers, N., 396
Money Well Spent (Brest and Harvey), 450
Montesquieu, 23, 314
Moore, Barrington, 31
Morales, Evo, 125
moral reasoning, 363, 365, 371–72
Morocco, 147, 149, 150, 154, 155
Mueller, M. L., 344, 346
multicultural identity politics, 233
Multilateral Development Banks, 97
Mumford, Lewis, 317, 342
Muskie, Edmund, 351
Muslims, 214–15, 300, 410
Mustapha, A. R., 185, 189
mutualism, 408
mutual qualification programs, 226–27
Muwatin (Palestinian Territories), 155
Myanmar, 30
mysticism, 259–60
Narayan, J. P., 173
Narmada Bachao Andolan movement (India), 175
National Bureau of Economic Research (U.S.), 448
National Council of Voluntary Organizations (NCVO) (UK), 33, 304
National Education Association (U.S.), 112
National Endowment for Democracy (NED), 470, 476
National Public Radio (U.S.), 355
National Rifle Association (U.S.), 112
National Right to Life Committee (U.S.), 112
national security, 319
National Self-Service Alliance (India), 178
National Socialist Party (Germany), 88, 238, 409, 476
Natura, 434
Natural Resources Defense Council, 355
Nazario, Sonia, 464
neoliberalism. See also economic globalization
charity, 154
citizenship, concepts of, 20, 130
coercion and structural adjustment, 184
and CSOs in Middle East, 152–53
decline of shared decision making under, 128–29
in Latin America, 128–30, 483
market, 6, 128, 130
on peace-building, 411–12
on role of civil society, 128–30
and shift to NPM strategies, 82
and universal rights, 130
vs. radical viewpoint, 5–6
and weakening of state-based approaches to common good, 418, 430
World Social Forum as alternative to, 437
neo-Tocquevillians, 216, 233–34, 274, 486. See also specific theorists
Nestle, 431–32
Netherlands, 30, 31, 32, 211, 226–27
New Deal (U.S.), 449
new humanitarianism, 51
The New Liberalism (Berry), 118
new localism, 82
New Organizing Institute (NOI), 340
New Public Management (NPM)
and accountability, 482–83
in Brazil, 129
and consumer choice, 36
and neoliberalism during 1980s, 82
of nonprofit sector, 33–35, 482
(p. 506) news media crisis and decline of public sphere, 354–56
New Zealand, 31, 32, 35, 37
Nicaragua, 65
Nichols, John, 355
Niebuhr, H. Richard, 260
Nigeria, 187, 215, 432
Nike, 430–32
Nischengesellschaft (niche society), 138
Nixon, Richard, 351
nondomination, 379
Non-Formal Primary Education program (NFPE), 398
nongovernmental development organizations (NGDOs), 42–52
during 1970s, 45–47
during 1980s, 45–47
during 1990s, 48, 49
during 2000s, 48–50
and caritas mentality, 46
characteristics of, 44–45, 52n3
and civil society, 43–45
and democratization, 49
and donor geo-priorities, 50
and foreign aid system, 43, 483
function of, 43–44
funding levels of, 44
future trends, 50–52
interfaces with military/security services, 51
pretender organizations, 52 n3
and pro-business ideology, 46
revisionism and reconceptualization, 47–50
soft vs. hard development, 45
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). See also specific organizations
in Africa, 187, 189
apolitical delivery of services, 397–99
in Bangladesh, 12
calls for global parliament of, 213
capacity-building by, 5
Chinese investigation of, 163
consultancy with UN Peace Building Commission, 99
controlled by Middle East authoritarian rulers, 152
faith-based organizations, 265–66
and global nonjournalism, 355
government sponsorship in China, 159
grassroots type of, 455
in Guatemala, 413
in India, 175
lack of amelioration of poverty, 130
lack of good society virtues in, 212
in Latin America, 130
and neoliberalism, 128–29
number of, 94
poverty reduction, 166
professionalization of, 112–13, 115–16, 118, 174–76, 429, 455
role in poverty reduction, 392–401
strategic managerialism of, 192n2
in sub-Saharan Africa, 190–91
as synonymous with civil society, 474–75
and UN formation, 43
use of PRSP processes, 396
as world conscience, 213
nonprofit journalism, 355, 357
nonprofit organizations (NPOs), 43
nonprofit sector. See also specific countries and organizations
accountability and performance demands, 35–36, 450–51
advocacy role, 37
capacity building within, 37
competition for block grants, 293
competition with for-profit organizations, 36–38
exclusion from nonprofit leadership, 238
explanation of, 30–31
faith-based organizations, 265
gender/race/ethnic bias in, 238
government funding of, 291–93
and impact of economic crisis (2008–10), 35
impact of restrictions due to terrorism threat, 299–302
labor unions, 34, 74
limitations of theories, 34–35
New Public Management theory, 33–35
as norm of civil society, 29–38
reliance on corporations, 212
specialized needs groups, 33
surveys on leadership challenges, 275–76
theories of, 31–35
from welfare states to social origins, 31–35
nonviolent activism, 217–18, 279
The Nonviolent Revolution (Altman), 279
Norberg, J. R., 34
norms of civil society. See civil society norms
Norris, P., 251, 253
North-South relations. See global North; global South
Norway, 31, 32
nuclear armament, 351
Obama, Barack
anti-terrorist financing policy discussions, 301
Cairo speech, 472
continuation of MEPI program, 472
elections (2008), 24–25, 58, 119, 237
establishment of Office of Social Innovation, 29
information-control policies, 353
Office for Civil Society (UK), 37
Office for the Community and Voluntary Sector (NZ), 37
(p. 507) Oklahoma City bombing (U.S.), 410
Ola Joven program (FCAM), 461
Oliveira, F., 127
O’Meara, Kerry Ann, 326
Open Constitution Initiative (China), 306
openDemocracy website, 95
Open Society Institute, 471
open-source software movement, 341
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 94
organized commonwealth, 15–18
Orvis, S., 185
Oslo Accords (1993), 147
Ostrom, Elinor, 200, 334, 366
Ottoman Empire, 148, 150
Our World is Not for Sale, 100
Oxfam, 42, 95, 430
pacifism, 260
Paffenholz, T., 412–13
Pakistan, 84, 432
Palestinian National Authority, 146
Palestinian Territories, 147, 155
Paley, J., 184
Palin, Sarah, 459
Palmer, Parker, 273
Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), 111
Paris Commune, 23
participation
in budgetary process, Latin America, 126, 127, 227–28
citizen engagement, 56–57, 424–25
democratic rights, 99–100
and demographic characteristics, 247–48
gender gaps, 245–53
predictors of, 388
resources/motivation/mobilization, 114
and social capital, 203–4
participatory budget process, in Latin America, 126, 127, 227–28
Partido Revolucionario Democratico (PRD) (Mexico), 125
Partnership Against Corruption Initiative (PACI), 432
Partners in Development (Egypt), 155
Patanjali, 273
Pattie, C., 251
Peace Accords of 1996 (Guatemala), 413
peace-building
achievements of civil society, 404–14
and civil society as normative concept, 404–11
and issues of violence, 406, 408–11
as “liberal peace,” 411–14
Peace Building Commission, UN, 99
Pei, M., 162
Pentagon Papers, 351, 359
Pentecostalism, 264–65
People Improving Communities through Organizing (PICO), 263
people power mobilizations, 217
Pereira, Bresser, 129
performance contracts, 35–36
performance demands, 35–36, 84, 154
Persistent Poverty Project (U.S.), 462
Peru, 122, 124, 125, 127, 395
Petrobras (Brazil), 436
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life
survey on religious affiliation, 271
Phalanges (Lebanon), 149
philanthrocapitalism, 481
philanthropy
civic renewal philanthropy, 451–52
family-based type in Middle East, 151
grassroots philanthropy, 455–65
impact of economic recession on, 83
institutional philanthropy, 443–52
in market-based societies, 11
redefinition in business terms, 128
and social origins theory on nonprofit regimes, 32
in UK, 34
venture philanthropy, 88
Philippines, 217, 238
phronesis, definition of, 328
Piven, Francis Fox, 449
A Place for Us: How to Make Society Civil and Democracy Strong (Barber), 324
Plato, on “the Good,” 15–17
plug-in volunteers, 225–26, 227
Pocantico Declaration (2009), 358
Poland, 30, 34, 35, 61, 134, 137
Polanyi, Karl, 5
policymaking and public agendas, 116–18
political participation. See participation
political parties, 73–75, 251. See also specific political parties
politics, 74–75, 317
politics of hope, 395, 400
Polletta, F., 240, 242n8
Pol Pot, 238
polycentric governance systems, 334
Portugal, 85
Post, S., 280
Pouligny, B., 412
poverty
due to bourgeois civil society, 22
in Egypt, 155
and exclusion from public sphere, 155
and impact of economic crisis (2008–10), 393
and political strength, 202–3
in southern Africa, 464
status of during NGO growth, 130
use of kinship systems, 201
poverty reduction initiatives
civil society achievements on, 391–401
and government policies, 223, 395–96, 449
(p. 508) impact of CSOs on, 202–3
lessons learned, 399–400
and NGDO strategy, 46
NGO advocacy, 393–95
NGOs in China, 166
service delivery, 397–99
War on Poverty, 223, 449
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), 396
Power: A Radical View (Lukes), 417
power cube, spaces of power, 420–22
power models
of Alinsky, 59–60
control of information, 349–59
of Sartre, 331–32
power relations
changing nature of, 419–23
and civil society, 416–25
globalization of, 422
and transformative potential of civil society, 423–25
Precision Journalism (Meyer), 355
Presidential Hundred Hour Challenge Award (U.S.), 225
Principles of International Charity, 301
Pritchett, Henry S., 447
private property, 22–23
private sector social entrepreneurship, 81–88
private voluntary organizations (PVOs), 43
privatization of state services, 82, 128–29
pro-am culture, 82
professionalization
of foundations and distance from citizens, 450–51
professions, licensing of, 448
Project Hope (China), 167
ProPublica, 356, 357
prosperity gospel churches, 264–65
protective influence, of individual, 379
protest
definition of, 70
on environmental issues in Europe, 217
and information technologies, 151
against Iraq war, 95
popularity of, 6
as public communication, 318
and social capital, 75
and social movement organizations, 70, 74, 76–77
against sweatshops, 430–31
Tiananmen Square demonstrations, 161
Tibet demonstrations (2008), 164
use of social media, 340
for U.S. immigration reform, 333
by workers in China (1957), 160
against WTO in Seattle (1999), 437
Protestantism, 260–62, 264
proto-politics, 179–80
Provisional Regulations for the Registration and Management of Popular Non-Enterprise Work-Units (China, 1998), 167
public argumentation, 371–72
Public Broadcasting System (U.S.), 355
public goods, 366–68, 385, 387
public interest groups. See advocacy groups
public journalism
advantages of, 340–41
and increased engagement, 11
as new ecosystem, 356–58
as space of civil society, 349–59
state control of information, 350–54
Publicly Limited Companies (PLC), 85
publicness, ideal of, 318–21
public opinion, 319–20, 329, 354, 370, 371
public-private partnership, 11, 33, 226, 293–95
public spaces, 126
public sphere. See also Habermas, Jürgen
changes due to broadcast media, 317
and collective choice, 313–14
communist party-state control of, 136–38
and culture, 314–15
and diversity, 245–53
and equality, 238–40
ideal of publicness, 318–21
importance of, 315–17
journalism and decline of, 354–56
and market forces, 313, 316
in Middle East, history of, 154–56
as spaces of civil society, 311–21
and spirituality, 277–79
state as complementary to, 314
and tactical definitions of uncivil society, 216–18
urban sociability, 312–13, 316–17
public work
and commonwealth ideals, 326–27, 329, 333–34
and deliberative citizen, 324–25, 327–30
and democratic movements, 333–34
free spaces and co-creation, 325, 331–33
as means to bridging differences, 330–31
as space of civil society, 324–34, 483
Pushback Network (U.S.), 62
Putin, Vladimir, 163
Putnam, Robert
bonding and bridging social capital changes, 266, 382–83
civil society as foundation for democracy, 469–70, 474
equality and civic community, 237
social capital, 8–9, 30, 34, 178, 198, 200, 201, 474–75, 477n3
Raboy, M., 345
racial discrimination, 233–34. See also civil rights movement (U.S.)
Radcliff, B., 117
(p. 509) radical equality. See also equality
and associational life, 237–38
definition of, 234–35
and goals of civil society, 235–37
and good society, 240–41
and public sphere, 238–40
radical ethno-nationalism, 409
radical fundamentalism, 61, 262–63
radicalism, characteristics of, 235
radiofrequency spectrum, 344
Rafsanjani, Akbar Hashemi, 149
Rahman, S., 397, 398
Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh (RSS), 173, 178–79
Rawls, John, 371
Reagan-Thatcher era (1980s), 46–47, 82. See also neoliberalism
reason, 17
Rebuilding Communities Initiative (U.S.), 461
recreational associations, 251, 392, 474
Regulations on the Management of Foundations (China, 2004), 167
reinventing government, 82
religion and religious institutions. See also spirituality; specific religions
congregational diversity, 261
conservative vs. liberal viewpoints, 262–63
European freedoms of association/speech/religion, 214
interfaith collaboration, 266, 271
involuntary aspects of, 383
in Islamic societies, 363–64
liabilities of U.S. mega-churches, 88
during Middle Ages, 17–18
as norm of civil society, 257–67
Pew survey on religious affiliation, 271
as private belief, 18
and social engagement examples, 263–66
social role of, 258–59
typologies of and civil society interaction, 259–62
U.S. freedoms of association/speech/religion, 22, 214
vs. spirituality, 258–59, 271
young adult participation, 271
religious groups. See also specific groups
American membership in, 110
as associations in Middle East, 149, 153
harmful uses of, 257
Hindu identity groups in India, 173, 178
justification of violence by, 263
with political agendas in Middle East, 150–51
protesting of policies, 257
provision of social services, 257
and social services in Europe, 32
Renard, R., 396
renationalization of financial institutions, 436
representative governance, limitations of, 6, 96
representative influence, of individual, 379–80
Republican Party (U.S.), 112
res publica, 312
Reveille for Radicals (Alinsky), 263
Revenue Watch Institute, 432
Right to the City (RTTC), 62–64
risk matrix, for overseas giving, 301
Ritscher, James, 276
Robins, K., 342
Robinson, M., 397
Rockefeller, John D., 447
Rockefeller Brothers’ Fund, 471
Rockefeller Foundation, 301, 447, 448
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 448
Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease, 448
Rodriguez, R., 238
Roman Catholic Church. See Catholic Church
Roman Empire, 17–18
Roosevelt, Franklin, 449
Roozen, D. A., 260–61
Rosenblum, Nancy, 233, 287
Rosenstiel, Tom, 359
Ross, Edward Alsworth, 446–47
Rotary, 110
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 21, 315
Rudolph, Susanne, 177
rule of law, 20
Rural Credit Project (BRAC), 398
Rural Development Program (BRAC), 398
Russell Sage Foundation, 447
Russia
backlash against privatization, 436
effects of Ford Foundation funding in, 475
emergence of nonprofits, 34
illiberal democracy, 210
number of NGOs, 44
Rwanda, 9
Saddam Hussein, 155
Salamon, L. M., 31–32
Sambrook, Richard, 355
Sandel, Michael, 372
Santos, B. S., 127
Sarkozy, Nicolas, 431
Sartre, Jean Paul, 331–32
Satterthwaite, D., 395
Saudi Arabia, 147, 150
Save the Children Fund, 432
saving-and-credit schemes, 394
Schattschneider, E., 420
Schlozman, K., 364
Scholte, J. A., 96
school choice, 292
school of citizenship concept, 290–91
Schudson, M., 229, 320
Schumpeter, J., 84
scientific philanthropy, 445–48
sectarian religion, 259–60. See also religion and religious institutions
(p. 510) Security and Civil Society report (NCVO), 304
Selections from the Prison Notebooks (Gramsci), 171
Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA, Pakistan), 84
Self-Respect Movement (India), 173
Sen, B., 392–93
Sennett, R., 317
Serve America Act of 2009, 30
settlement house movement (U.S.), 228
Seyd, P., 251
Shack Dwellers International (SDI), 394–95
shared decision making, 128–29
shared governance, 334
Sharkey, Jacqueline, 352
Shefner, J., 190
Shell Oil, 430, 431–32
Shirky, Clay, 339–40, 370
Siemens, 357
Sierra Club, 212
Sikkink, K., 422
Silberman, Charles, 449
Skocpol, T., 251
Slack, Jennifer, 342
Smith, Adam, 18, 20–22, 313, 314
Smith, D. H., 56
Smock, K., 59–60
Snowy Prairie studies (Eliasoph), 223–25, 228
social banditry, 179–80
social bonds, 409–10
social capital
bonding and bridging of, 266, 382–83, 410
and collective action, 200, 201
and democratic governance, 201–2
and diversity, 204
and economic development, 200–201
and increased citizen participation, 203–4
as norm of civil society, 197–205
policy implications, 202–5
and protest, 75
and quality of service delivery, 202–5
rapid change and conflicts, 204–5
relevance of, 198–200
and social movements, 68–69
social change organizations (SCOs), 60–65
collaboration among, 62
Feminist Transformation Watch, 64–65
management of, 61
Right to the City, 62–64
use of paid staff, 61
social clubs, 34
social compacts. See compacts
Social Cooperatives (Italy), 85
social democratic welfare state regimes, 31
social economy concept, 5
social enterprises, 30
social entrepreneurship, 80–88
charismatic hero model, 87
critiques of, 80, 87–88
global scope of, 85–86
and innovation, 83–84, 482
institutional drivers of, 81–83
market orientation of, 83–85
and public-private partnerships, 295
and resurgence of social issues, 73
sociality of, 83–84
social forum phenomena, 240
socialism, 408
socialization, 126, 250, 252, 257
social justice, 84
social movement organizations, 68–77
overview, 68–69
and autonomy of self, 71–72
conflictive and consensual collective action, 69–71
and mass-based power for change, 60
mobilization of volunteers, 58
and new forms of politics, 73–75
and role of protest, 70, 74, 76–77
and social conflict, 72–73
social movements
definition of, 69
disallowance of by communist regimes, 137
effects on workplace conditions, 330–31
German green social movement, 384
and information technologies, 344
integration of spirituality and justice, 272–73
lack of good society virtues in, 212
maintenance of nonviolence, 217
scholarly neglect of right-wing, 214–15
in South Africa, 397
social origins theory
components of, 32
corporatist nonprofit regimes, 32
liberal nonprofit regimes, 31–32
social democratic nonprofit regimes, 32
statist nonprofit regimes, 32
types of revenue, 32
social responsibility standard (ISO/SR 26000), 434
Social Science Research Council (U.S.), 448
social sciences, 446–48, 452
Social Solidarity Cooperatives (Portugal), 85
social trust, 410–11
social work, 447
Social Work and Research Centre (India), 174
societal trust, 201, 211
Solidarity and Social Investment Fund (Chile), 130
Solidarity movement (Poland), 61, 134
Solomon, Jeffrey, 450, 451
Somerville, Bill, 457
Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (U.S.), 367
sons of the soil movements, 215
Soroptimists, 110
Soros, George, 432, 471
(p. 511) South Africa
anti-apartheid movement, 60, 237, 240
concept of ubuntu, 206 n2
corporations and sustainability standards, 434
gender/race/ethnic bias in nonprofit sector, 238
naturalization of racial prejudice, 331
social movements, 397
Treatment Action Campaign, 424
United Democratic Front, 240
Soviet Union, former, 49, 134, 136–38, 288
spaces of civil society. See civil society spaces
spaces of power, 420–23
spiritual activism, 272–75
spirituality. See also religion and religious institutions
and associational life, 275–77
definitions of, 271–72
and good society, 279–80
mysticism, 259–60
as norm of civil society, 270–80
relationship to collective suffering, 272–75
and tensions in public sphere, 277–79
valuing of, 262
vs. religion, 258–59, 271
spousal violence, 319
state centralization, 4–5
state/government
and boundaries of civil society, 285–91
capacity building in nonprofit sector, 37
and civil society, 124–25
devolution, 5, 293
e-government portals, 340
Hobbes's civil society as, 18–19
influence on group formation, 113, 210–11
information-control policies, 350–54
as institutional framework of civil society, 285–96
as invisible hand, 21, 314, 315
material support for associations, 291–93
NGOs and pro-poor reforms, 395–96
and NPM strategies, 33
partnerships with civil society, 293–95
poverty reduction initiatives, 223, 395–96, 449
privatization of services, 128
regulation of communication infrastructure, 344, 345
relations with institutional philanthropy, 449–50
and social inequality, 235–36
state-owned enterprise, 164–65, 435–36
use of quasi NGOs, 101
state-owned enterprise, 435–36
status goods, 385
Stembridge, Jane, 279
Stone, Harlan Fiske, 448
Stone Circles (U.S.), 274–75
Stopler, G., 235
The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (Habermas), 171, 320, 328
Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee, 280
Su, C., 60
Sub-Saharan Africa
civil society, post-independence era, 183–91
civil society as “good society,” 187–88
critiques of NGOs, 187, 189, 190–91
disillusionment of postcolonial elite, 186–87
ideology of kinship, 185–86
impediments to democratic political culture in, 189–90
resistance (1980s), 188
structural adjustment agenda, 184
subsidiarity, 93, 100, 102, 103n8
Sudan, 350
Sufi orders, 149
Sumner, William Graham, 232–33
Sustainable Soya Roundtable, 434
Swadeshi Mitra Mandal (India), 173
Sweden, 30, 31, 32, 34, 251
Switzerland, 211
Syria, 147, 149, 154–55, 473
tactical media, 340
Tancredo, Tom, 459
Tata, 434
Taylor, Charles, 315
Teach for America (U.S.), 30
Tea Party movement (U.S.), 60, 112, 459
technological determinism, 342
Tenants and Workers United, 63
Tendler, J., 45
Teng Biao, 164
Ten Tactics for Turning Information into Activism (film), 340
terrorism watch lists, 299–302
Thailand, 326
Thatcher, Margaret, 46–47, 82
“The Working Class: A Break with the Past” (Aronowitz), 332
thin democracy, 324
think tanks, 130, 449
third party government, 293
third sector, 5, 74, 128–29, 168. See also nonprofit sector
third sector organizations (TSOs), 43
third-way politics, 5, 29, 82
Thompson, E. P., 332
Tiananmen Square demonstrations, 161
Tilly, Charles, 233
Tocqueville, Alexis de
administrative decentralization, 444–45, 446
associations as schools of democracy, 381
civic engagement in self-governance, 452
civicness and civility, 221–22, 223
civil society, 210
(p. 512) comparison to Alinsky's views, 59
consequences of participation, 200
conservative reliance on, 23–24
Democracy in America,174, 241, 337, 443
democratic engagement in problem-solving, 451
democratization of society, 320
equality, 232, 241
habits of association, 186
institutional philanthropy, 443–45
limitations of, 7, 13
voluntary associations and democracy, 469–70
Toledo, Alejandro, 125
Tomasky, Michael, 233
totalitarianism, 210
trade secrets, 319
trade unions. See labor unions
Training for Change (U.S.), 278
transformative organizing, 59
transitologists, 122
transmission belt model, 8–9, 290–91, 481
transparency, 96–99, 319, 432
Transparency International, 432
Treatment Action Campaign (South Africa), 424
Troeltsch, Ernst, 259–60
trust. See societal trust
Tunisia, 147, 150, 154
turbo-capitalism, 73
Turkey
CSOs in, 147, 151
influence of autocracy, 146
influence of regional authoritarianism on, 147
labor unions, 150
political pluralism, 149, 156
public sphere, history of, 155
Turner, Rick, 331
Tvedt, T., 43
Uganda, 44
Ukraine, 163
ulama (Islamic scholars), 363–64
uncivil society
associational life with destructive consequences, 378
and critique of school of citizenship concept, 290–91
Mann on use of civil society for evil ends, 408–9
normative definitions of, 212–16, 483–85
and norms of civil society, 209–18
organizational definitions of, 210–12
summary critique on use of term, 218
tactical definitions of, 216–18
and violence based on religious ideals, 263
Union Marocaine du Travail (UMT), 149
unions. See labor unions
United Democratic Front (South Africa), 240
United Farm Workers, 59
United Kingdom. See also specific organizations
Big Society policies, 5, 29, 30
British mandate in Israel, 150
corporate accountability reform attempts, 437
Department for International Development, 266
formal compacts, 33, 37
gender differences in participation, 251
and impact of economic crisis (2008–10), 35
as liberal welfare state regime, 31
London subway bombings and public journalism, 355, 369
nonprofit sector, 32, 35, 37
philanthropy for arts/culture, 34
and public safety volunteers, 30
quasi-independent regulation, 302–4
Reagan-Thatcher era, 46–47, 82
renationalization of financial institutions, 436
Social Enterprise Unit, 81
surveys on social enterprises, 85–86
war on terror and civil liberties, 299
young adult participation, 247
United Nations (UN)
accountability within, 100
and cross-border associations, 95
CSOs as representatives in, 381
Declaration on Indigenous Peoples, 96
demands for whistleblower policies, 96, 100
Financing for Development, 99
formation of, 43
funding and terrorist watch lists, 301
gender considerations in Financing for Development negotiations, 99
Human Development Report, 464
international framework for business and human rights, 437
Internet Governance Forum, 345
Millennium Development Goals, 50, 51, 100
organization of global summits, 95
Peace Building Commission, 99
transparency of nomination process, 99
World Summit on the Information Society, 345–46
United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), 394
United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 147
United States. See also specific agencies and organizations
access to state court decisions, 367
accusations of Interpal, 303
administrative decentralization, history of, 444–45
affirmative action, 113
Anti-Terrorist Financing Guidelines, 300, 301
blocking of WTO negotiations, 98–99
charitable contributions by individuals, 463
Christian Coalition, 112, 260
(p. 513) civil liberties, 319
civil rights movement, 61, 217, 218n2, 237–38, 333, 459
civil society in, 109–19
commonwealth ideals, 326
conservative associations, 112
constitution of, 22
corporate influence over regulatory process, 433
counterinsurgency grants to Afghanis, 458–59
culture wars, 482
decline of associational life, 237
decline of cross-class federations, 109–19
decline of news media, 354–56
democratic reform eras, 24
disproportion in Senate representation, 215
economic recession (2008–10), 432–33
education levels and participation, 248
e-government portals, 340
employment and participation, 250
fellowship associations, 110–11
foreign policy in Middle East, 5
freedoms of association/speech/religion, 22, 214
free spaces, history of, 331–34, 483
funding of paid volunteers, 30
gender differences in participation, 249–50
giving circles, 464
grassroots philanthropy, 458–60
hate groups, 224
home care services, 36
immigration reform protest, 333
and impact of economic crisis (2008–10), 35
incidence of associations, 56, 210
income level and participation, 247
jury service, 365
L3C corporations, 85
labor unions, 63, 117–18, 237
liabilities of mega-churches, 88
liabilities of prosecution and overregulation, 299–302, 303–4
as liberal welfare state regime, 31, 32
loss of avenues for political participation, 114–16
McCarthyism, 298–99
Medicaid program, 36
multicultural identity politics, 233
nondiscrimination protections, 292–93
nonprofit journalism, 355–58
nonprofit sector, 29, 32–35, 57, 238, 292, 385
participation among African Americans, 248–49, 332–33
participation among Latinos, 247–48
Pew survey on religious affiliation, 271
predictors of political participation, 388
presidential information-control, 352–54
public achievement programs, 227
Reagan-Thatcher era, 46–47, 82
renationalization of financial institutions, 436
school choice, 292
settlement house movement, 224, 228
social clubs, 34
social movements’ impact on workplace, 330–31
and social origins theory on nonprofit regimes, 31–32
surveillance of nonprofits, 302
tax-exempt status, 292
Tea Party movement, 60, 112, 459
third party government, 293
treatment of Muslim charities, 300
Vietnam War, 113, 351, 353
voluntarism, 114–15, 463
voter behavior, 237, 247
War on Poverty, 223, 449
war on terror and civil liberties, 299–302
wealth redistribution, 24
welfare reform, 32
women's impact on policy, 251
young adult participation, 247, 248
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 266, 470, 474
United Way (U.S.), 302
universal ethic, 21
universalistic bonds, 410–11
University of Chicago, 448
UnLtd (UK), 86
Unorganised Sector Workers Social Security Bill (India, 2008), 176
Urban Peace Movement (U.S.), 276
urban sociability, and history of civil society ideas, 312–13, 316–17
Uruguay, 122, 125, 126–27
U.S. Climate Action Partnership, 431
U.S. Defense Department, 351
U.S. Homeland Security Department, 99
U.S. Internal Revenue Service, 385
U.S. National Institute for Science and Technology, 99
U.S. Office of Social Innovation, 29
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 433
U.S. State Department, Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 470
U.S. Supreme Court
on criminalization of support to suspected terrorist organizations, 299
U.S. Trade Representative Office (USTR), 100, 102
U.S. Treasury
Anti-Terrorist Financing Guidelines, 300, 301
utilitarianism, 316, 371
The Vanishing Newspaper (Meyer), 355
Van Kleeck, Mary, 447
Van Ryzin, G. S., 86
Varshney, Ashutosh, 178, 211, 410
Vasquez, Tabaré, 125
Venezuela, 124, 130, 228, 436, 476
venture philanthropy, 88
Verba, S., 109, 110, 364
(p. 514) veterans’ associations (U.S.), 110
Via Campesina, 95
Vietnam
Decree on Associations, 307
discretionary restrictions on space for civil society, 299, 307
diverse sources of identity, 204
and social capital theory, 203
Vietnam Institute of Development Studies, 307
Vietnam Institute of Development Studies (VIDS), 307
Vietnam War, 113, 351, 353
violence
correlations to high levels of inequality, 410
decline of intra-elite violence in Middle Ages, 406
as means to political goals, 217–18
and peace-building, 408–11
Virginia New Majority (U.S.), 63
visible power, 420
Voltaire, 369
voluntarism
in global South, 47
in grassroots associations, 56
levels of in U.S., 114–15, 463
plug-in volunteers, 225–26
worldwide growth of, 30
voluntary associations. See also associational life; grassroots associations
and administrative decentralization, 445
and functional need for specialized knowledge, 223–24
Islamic organizations, 473
low membership in post-communist Europe, 135
normative definitions of, 381
retrogressive outcomes of, 9, 88
as socially homogenous, 224, 383
voluntary development organizations (VDOs), 43
Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights, 431
volunteering-as-therapy, 225–26, 227
Volunteers in America, 229–30
voting
among U.S. Latinos, 247
cultural recognition of, 315
decline of, 57
due to face-to-face appeals, 115
in Iraqi elections (2010), 237
in U.S. elections (2008), 237
voter engagement, 63
by women, 249, 251
vouchers, and shift to NPM strategies, 33, 36
Wagner Act, U.S., 330–31
Wainwright, H., 240
Walzer, Michael, 4, 13, 233
waqfs (Islamic philanthropy), 148, 151
Warner, M., 319
War on Poverty (U.S.), 223, 449
war on terror. See counterterrorism law/policy
The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe (Howard), 134
The Wealth of Nations (Smith), 20–21
wealth redistribution, 24
Weber, Max, 258
webinars, 340
Webster, F., 341, 342
Weimar Germany, 9, 378, 409, 475. See also Germany
Welfare Reform Act of 1996 (U.S.), 293
welfare states
and incidence of associations, 210
means-testing, 31
mix of state and market mechanisms, 31
shifts from cash assistance to nonprofit providers of services, 32
types of regimes, 31–35
universal benefits, 31
West Bank, 146
Westminster Foundation for Democracy (WFD), 471
West Publishing Company, 367
White, G., 184
White Aryan Nation (U.S.), 224, 225
Whiteley, P., 251
“Who's Behind the Financial Meltdown?” (Center for Public Integrity), 357
Wiarda, H. J., 190
Wiebe, Robert, 446
Wikipedia website, 95, 341, 369
Wilkinson-Maposa, Susan, 463–64
Willard, Frances, 113, 333–34
Wills, Garry, 351–52
Wilson, Brian, 260
Wilson, Woodrow, 471, 477n2
Windfalls of War (Center for Public Integrity), 357
Winner, Langdon, 342
wireless adhocracies, 340
Wolff, Michael, 353
Wolfowitz, Paul, 100–101
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 113
women
and diversity in participation, 249–52
and ethic of caring, 252
exclusion from nonprofit sector leadership, 238
in governmental leadership, 249
as helpmates of men's groups, 113
impact on policy, 251
rights of and CSOs in Middle East, 153
socialization of in U.S., 250
social movements, 72, 319
women-centered groups, 59, 64–65, 166, 173, 461
Women in Informal Employment Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO), 176
(p. 515) Women's Christian Temperance Union (U.S.), 333–34
Woolcock, Michael, 480
The Work and Workers of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (Willard), 333–34
Workers’ Party (Brazil), 125, 126–27
work integration social enterprises (WISEs, Europe), 84
workplace, 330–31, 383
Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, 334
World Bank
on civil society as “good society,” 187
demands for transparency by, 98
effects of Internet on rural youth, 326
and empowered deliberative democracy, 329
External Relations Department, 46
Global Alliance for Workers and Communities, 432
increase of civil society projects, 471
removal of Wolfowitz, 100–101
SDI influence on investment policies of, 394
and social capital language, 199
World Economic Forum, 95, 432
World Federalist Movement, 95, 99
Worldwide Fund for Nature, 430, 431
World Social Forum, 95, 213, 240, 437
World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), 102, 345–46
World Trade Organization (WTO)
agricultural subsidies, 98–99
Doha Round, 96, 98–99
negotiation of provisions, 100, 102
Seattle protests against (1999), 437
transparency, 97
World Urban Forum (2004), 62
World Values Surveys (WVS)
on organizational membership in post-communist Europe, 135–36
World Vision, 42, 265
World Zionist Organization, 150
Wright, E. O., 325, 329
Wuthnow, Robert, 223
Xue Muqiao, 161
Yahoo, 168
Yamamori, T., 264
Yemen, 149
Yishuv organizations, 150
Young, Iris Marion, 239, 320
YouthBuild (U.S.), 30
Yugoslavia, former, 137
Zittrain, J., 346