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date: 19 April 2019

(p. 399) Index

(p. 399) Index

A
Ache hunter-gatherers of Paraguay, 98
Ackerman, J. M., 338
Adaptation, 6, 122, 170, 174, 387
adaptive mating arrangement, 38
adaptive parental favoritism, 58
adaptive siblicide, 134
adaptive workaround, 282
as altruistic dispositions, 313
behavioral/cognitive, 150
deferred, 150
environmentally contingent, 250
of gorillas, 374
grandmother hypothesis, 186
hominids, 368
of infants, 156
information processing, role in, 12, 14
of intercommunity alliances, 18
monogamy as, 42, 47
of multiunit group structures, 38
and natural selection, 4, 250, 281
ontogenetic, 150
of pet keeping, 291, 300, 304
relationship-specific, 7, 183
Adolescence, 162, 317
brain development, 13
Adoption, 89, 158, 288, 318, 348
among Papua New Guinea Suau, 118
among Yap of Micronesia, 118
as an altruistic parental substitution, 114
ancient Romans, 119
anyone can be a parent, 123
within Baatombu society, 118
in Brazil, 116
cross-species, 300, 304
definition, 114
and degree of relatedness, 90
difference with fosterage, 114
factors influencing, 123
as a form of kin support, 116
as a form of social networking, 118
general preferences, 120
human vs animal, 124
infant-directed speech (IDS), 290
Inuit, West African, and Oceanic, 117
and kinship, 116, 122
motivation for, 114
multidisciplinary perspectives, 124
and nonadoptive families, 124
in North America, 116
open, 115
range of human, 124
of strangers, 115
as a universal human phenomenon, 121
use of, 122
Western adoptive parent, 114, 120
Yukpa of South America, 117, 119
Adrenal androgens, 161
Adrenal puberty, 161
Adrenarche, 161
Advertisement, and pets, 304
Aegithalos caudatus, 350
Affective dynamics, in parent–child relationships, 65
African black eagle (Aquila verreauxi), 55
African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis), 221
African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 214, 217
African lions (Panthera leo), 215
African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), 121
Age-related preferences, 72
Ainsworth, M. D. S., 285
Akalis, S., 289
Alarm-calling, 9
Alexander, R. D., 368
Allele
favoring altruism, 53
and fitness notion, 346
focal, 346, 352, 356
grandparent–grandchild relatedness, 183
identical, 5
parent–off spring relatedness, 71, 76
recognition, 349
rival, 347, 389
role in natural selection, 52
Alley, T. R., 157
Allomothers, 185
Alloparenting, 17, 116, 139
benefits, 123, 154
and grandmother hypothesis, 380
kinship theory and, 217
in pet keeping, 300
Allostatic load, 24
Almond, D., 88
Altruism, 78
Hamilton’s rule, 53, 129, 232, 234
in haploid insects, 8
induced, 313
kin selection theory, 129, 313, 332
kinship theory, 5, 137, 216, 253
parental investment theory, 130
reciprocal, 121, 253, 313, 337, 370, 393
reinforced, 320
sibling rivalry, 55
unilateral, 262
Alvergne, A., 74
American coot (Fulica americana), 351
American Pet Products Manufacturers’ Association (APPMA), 298
American toad (Bufo americanus), 213
American white pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), 54
Anderson, G. M., 390
Anderson, K., 8
Anderson, K.G., 99, 106
Anderson, M.L., 113
Andrews, P.W., 92
Androgens, 22, 161, 282
Angelman syndrome (AS), 77
Anglo American women, 84
Animal families, behavioral mechanisms of, 3. See also Animal kin recognition
alarm-calling, 9
in chimpanzee community, 15
cues of nonpaternity, 16
infanticide, 4, 16
multiple-reproductive-male groups, 16
parenting, 9
polygamous mate competition, 16
relationships between chimpanzee mother and her offspring, 3
weaning conflict, 6
Animal grandparenting, 187
Animal kin recognition
altruism and kinship theory, 216
amphibians, 213
birds, 214
cooperative behaviors, 216
development of, 223
fish, 213
implications for cooperative behavior, 216
inclusive fitness theory, 215
indirect/direct, 219
invertebrates, 212
kin selection, 215
mammals, 214
and mating behavior, 217
mechanisms of, 218
and parental care, 216
(p. 400)
phenotyping matching, 218
primates, 215
reptiles, 214
and social cohesion, 217
timing of learning, 224
Anthropomorphic thinking, 300
Anthropomorphism, 288
in Homo sapiens, 288
Aoudad (Barbary sheep, Ammotragus lervia), 223
Archer, J., 288
Ardipithecus ramidus, 43, 152
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), 16, 20
Arm-pit effect, 131
Arsi Oromo, 72
Asexual reproduction, 52
Asian colobines, 36
Asymmetrical aggression, 357
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), 213, 221
Atran, S., 321
Attachment behavior, 20, 69
bonding, 120, 251, 261, 286, 293
Attachment to pet
anthropomorphism, 288
infant features and, 288
infant schema, 287
mechanisms promoting, 287
social releasers, 287
Augustus, Gaius Julius Caesar, 119
Aureli, F., 253
Australopithecine diet, 370
Australopithecus species, 20
A. anamensis, 366
A. garhi, 44
Autonomic nervous system (ANS), 21
Autonomous polygynous unit, 39
Avian brood parasites, 283
B
Baboons (Papio cynocephalus), 253, 352
Baby schema, 91
Bachman, G.C., 85
Back to the Future, 333
Badcock, C., 78, 314
Balch, S. H., 316
Ball, H.L., 87, 158
Banded mongooses (Mungos mungo), 86
Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), 219
Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), 256
Barclay, P., 354
Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), 89
Bartholomew, K., 286
Battleground controversy, 57
Beck, L., 285, 291
Beetles (Atemeles pubicollis), 59, 284
Begging call, 58, 85, 89
Behavioral primatology, 35
Belding’s squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi), 224, 348
Belisle, P., 254
Bell, M.B.V., 86
Belsky, J., 69, 317, 390
Bem, D. J., 335
Bennett, P. C., 293
Bereczkei, T., 88
Betram, B.C.R., 214
Betzig, L., 99
Big-game hunting, evolution of, 40
Biological parents, 118
Biparental care, 22, 58, 97
Biparental negotiation, 59
Biparental titi monkeys (Callicebus moloch), 252
Bipedalism, evolution of, 42, 153, 156
Birds, survival rate of, 6. See also Lekking species (birds)
Birth order
age-related preferences and, 72
and degree of sibling rivalry and conflict, 133, 314
as determinant of parental investment, 69
of parent, 196
and reproductive value, 139
Birthweight, 84, 101
Bjorklund, D.F., 187
Black grouse (Tetrao tetrix), 236, 238
Blackbellied magpies (Pica pica), 91
Blind goby parents (Typhlogobius californiensis), 217
Bloch, M., 312
Blood-brothers, 9, 340
Blood glucose and gestational diabetes, 83
Blood pressure and pregnancy, 84
Blood-sisters, 340
Blunt analogy, 41
Bogin, B., 151, 369
Bonas, S., 286
Boncoraglio, G., 89
Bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), 251
Bonobos (Pan paniscus), 37, 151
Bororo people, and pet keeping, 298
Botryllus schlosseri, 351
Bowlby, J., 157, 249, 285
Boyce, W.T., 71
Bradley, B. J., 373
Bradshaw, J. W. S., 291
Brain. See also Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
evolution of hominid, 368
in human kinship recognition cues, 315
size, 19, 152
Breast milk, 77, 87, 151, 159
Breastfeeding, 12, 21
benefits, 159
daughter favoritism in, 72
kin recognition in, 132
hunter-gatherer society, childrearing practices, 155
of pets, 299, 304
Breeding bonds, 36
Breeding progeny, 53
Bressan, P., 356
Briskie, J.V., 89
Brood parasitism
avian brood parasites, 283
degree of, 89
Brood reduction, 55
Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), 221
Brooke, M. D., 350
Brosnan, S.F., 253
Brotherton, P.M.N., 38
Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), 222
Brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus), 252
Buckholdt, D. R., 311
Buckle, G. R., 351
Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates), 87
Buhrmester, D., 137
Bumpass, L.L., 98
Burch, R. L., 334
Burke, T., 214
Burnham, D., 290
Buss, D.M., 171, 174
Bustards (Otis tarda), 236
Buunk, A.P., 88
C
Cacioppo, J. T., 288
Cakile edentula, 348
California gull (Larus califormicus), 86
Callitrichids, 136
Cameron, E.Z., 88
Camilleri, J.A., 176
Canaries (Serinus canaria), 87
Canis lupis, 292
Cannibal-morph larva, 56
Cannibalism, 56
Capuchin monkey infants (Cebus apella), 251
Capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), 255
Caregiving behavior, 91
Carsten, J., 312
Carter, C. S., 390
Cash, K., 54
Castillo, R.R., 201
Castro F., 91
Celibacy, induced altruism and, 317
Chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus), 39, 257
Chapais, B., 254
Chappell, M.A., 85
Charlton, B. D., 292
Chastril, E. R., 380
Chat room partners, 163
Cheney, D.L., 218
Cherlin, A., 103
Childcare, evolution of, 153
Childhood, 150, 159
preschool-age children, 160
weaning process, 160
Childlessness, and investment patterns between siblings, 141
Childrearing practices, 155
(p. 401) Children, contribution in caring and helping, 74
Children’s outcomes
and divorce, 100
impact of fathers on, 101
Child’s reproductive value, 73
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 37, 151, 187, 215, 370
human trait evolve from, 371
life history, 369
nonsuckling females, 372
sex differences in subsistence activities in, 44
siblings in, 377
Chin, M. G., 290
Chiroxiphia manakins, 237, 240
Chisholm, J.S., 70
Chrastil, E.R., 184
Chromosomal homologue, 52
Churchill, S.E., 41
Cichlid fish (Pelvicachromis taeniatus), 222
Cicirelli, V.G., 138
Cinderella Effect, 104
Ciolli, J. L., 291
Clark, D. A., 155
Clutton-Brock, T.H., 86
Coall, D. A., 200
Coefficient-of-relatedness, between parent and offspring, 52
Coevolutionary development, 18
Coffing, K., 367
Cognition, human, 13
Cohabitation, 98, 102, 107, 121, 130, 173, 220
Cohen, G.L., 163
Colby, P. M., 286
Coleman, G. J., 293
Coleman, M., 107
Collis, G. M., 286, 289
Colony-dwelling species, 56
Common cuckoo (Cuculus canorum), 89
Common ravens (Corvus corax), 214
Communication, with pets, 289. See also Vocalizations
infant-directed speech, 290
unconditional positive regard, 291
Compadrazgo, 310
Companion Animal Attachment Scale, 285
Concrete operations, 151
Consanguinity, 199
Consortships, 45
Cooperative and competitive behaviors, 113, 216
in sea squirt, 351
Cooperative breeding hypothesis, 154
Cooperative grooming, 9
Cooperative subsistence, between spouses. See Mutual provisioning
Copidosoma floridanum, 351
Coquerel’s dwarf lemurs (Mirza coquereli), 254
Cornwell, R. E., 287
Cortex, 12
Cortisol stress response, effect of family environment, 23, 26
elevated levels, 25
high-stress events, 25
and maternal care, 26
risk for associated health problems, 26
Cosmides, L., 331, 333, 336, 354
Costell, A., 289
Costs
of cuckoldry and paternity uncertainty, 170
dispersal of primates, 265
of pet keeping, 299
Counseling psychology, 7
Crèching, 239
Crespi, B., 78
Cronk, L., 72
Cross cousin marriage, 19
Cross-cultural infidelity, 170
Cross-fostering experiments, 130
Cross-species adoption, 300
Crowding out, 200
Csányi, V., 291
Csikszentmihalyi, M., 162
Cuckoldry, 73
and male sexual jealousy, 170
paternity uncertainty and costs of, 170
psychological mechanism to prevent, 170
Cuculus canorus, 350
Cue to paternity, 255
Cues of kinship, 9
association and familiarity, 218
comparison of cues, 222
conspecific, 221
decision-making about relatedness, 222
environmental/spatial, 220
group, 221
individual, 221
nonspecific, 220
recognition genes, 218
spatial location, 218
Cues of relatedness, 94, 239
Custance, D. M., 292
Cuteness, 157
D
Dalerum, F., 88
Daly, M., 8, 89, 103, 134, 158, 172, 286, 300
Darwin, C. R., 4, 216, 352, 386, 389
Darwinian sexual selection, 52
Darwin’s “one special difficulty,” 53
Dating diaries, 109
Daughter-biased investment, 72, 88
caring and helping attitude, 74
Daughter favoritism, 72
Davies, N. B., 89, 350
Dawkins, R., 131, 284
De Cremer, D., 339
De Waal, F.B.M., 253
DeBruine, L. M., 354
Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), 348
Deferred adaptations, 150
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 161
Deixis, 290
Del Giudice, M., 161, 390
Detritivore diet, 56
Developmental plasticity, 67
Developmental psychology, 7, 75
DeVoe, D., 287
Dickemann, M., 88
Dickins, T.E., 201
Dictyostelium discoideum, 352
Diet, hominid, 369
Dimorphism, 365
in hominoids, 18
Diploid offspring, 52
Direct reproductive fitness, 5, 13, 243
Divorce
among hunter-gatherers, 97
causes of, 99
and children’s outcomes, 100
cross-cultural justification for, 99
impact on parental investment in children, 98
in industrialized nations-states, 98
in nonindustrial societies, 99
and parental investment, 100
Dobler, R., 213
Dog Attachment Questionnaire, 286
Dóka, A., 291
Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 215
Domestic dog (Canis familiaris), 224, 292
Dopamine, 21, 77
Dopamine D2 receptors, 23
Draper, P., 136, 317
Dubuc, C., 45
Duflo, E. C., 201
Dunbar, R.I.M., 88, 134
Duntley, J.D., 174
Durrant, R., 174
DuVal, E.H., 242
Dwyer, F., 293
E
Eastwick, P. W., 282
Edlund, L., 88
Edmonson, E., 290
El-Alayli, A., 291
Ellis, B.J., 71
Emlen, S.T., 138
Emotional support, and pet keeping, 302
Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), 212
Encephalization quotient (EQ), 151, 368
Endothermic young, 58
England, B.G., 104
Epley, N., 288
Esteem support, and pet keeping, 302
Estrogen, 21
Ethnographic Atlas, 18, 124
Eugenides, J., 331
(p. 402) Euler, H. A., 8, 184, 190, 195, 198, 380
European earwig (Forficula auricularia), 213
European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 59
Evans, R.M., 54
Evolutionary arms race, 283
Evolutionary ethics, of family, 392
Evolutionary game theory, 51
Evolutionary origins, of pet keeping, 299
Evolutionary perspective, on family
adaptations as decision-makers, 6
kinship theory, 5
natural selection, 4
Evolutionary significance, of pet keeping, 283
Extended phenotype model, therapeutic implications of, 391
F
Facial resemblance, parent–child, 315, 332, 334
and fathers’ perceived similarity, 73
role in kin recognition, 132, 354
Fagan, E. C., 287
Falk, D., 290
Familial homicides, 87
Familiarity
as cues of kinship, 218
defined, 331
role in kin relation, 330
as sexual barrier, 331
Family environment, cortisol stress response to, 26
Family evolution. See also Evolutionary perspective, on family
evolutionary changes in hominid, 366
family tree, 366
great apes, 366
Father-absent households, 101
Father-present homes, 101
Father–child relationships, 106
predivorce, 101
Father–child resemblance, 73, 78
Fatherhood, 7
Fawcett, T.W., 88
Female black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), 55
Female body size, 19
Female–female competition, 374
Female infidelity, 99
Female sexual infidelity, 171
Fetal alcohol syndrome, 120
Fetal development, 7
Fictive kin labeling, 311
Fictive kin relationships, 311
Fictive kinship
in American black, 312
overview, 310
problems with concept of, 311
in Yanomamo, 312
Fictive kinship, 9, 311
Fidler, M., 289
Figueredo, A. J., 172
Filicide, 8, 160
Finches species, 6
Fiordland crested penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus), 217
Fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata), 213
Firstborns, favoritism for, 73
Fisher, M.L., 189
Fisher, Sir Ronald, 53
Fitness, J., 171
Flinn, M.V., 104, 106, 136
Flirting, 157
FLO1 gene, 353
Fluid intelligence, 13
Food sharing, between mates, 37
passive forms of, 45
Food transport, in terms of sexual division of labor, 37, 42
among bipeds, 43
hominins, 42
predator avoidance during, 43
Forbes, L.S., 54
Forced in-pair copulation (FIPC), in humans, 175
Fox, M., 184
Fractionation hypothesis, 37
Fragaszy, D., 300
Fratricides, 134
Friends, 329
Friendship, 9, 161, 181, 291, 299, 303, 311, 337
Frieze, I. H., 175
Fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis), 224
Furman, W., 137
Furstenberg, Jr., F.F., 98
G
Gácsi, M., 292
Gage, A.J., 175
Galagoes (Galaginae spp.), 252
Gallup, G. G., Jr., 334
Game theory, 172
Ganong, L.H., 107
Gardner, A., 78
Garrity, T. F., 285
Geary, D. C., 162
Gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada), 36, 38, 41
Generalized kinship theory, 76
Genes
and human family, 389
manipulation, 390
phenotypic effect of, 390
Genetic correlation, donor and recipient’s offspring, 5
Genetic incongruity, in kin, 387
Genetic kinship, 5, 9, 389
Genetic relatedness, 9, 183, 218, 330, 393
closeness to nieces and nephews by aunts/uncles, 201
father–child resemblance, 73
grandparent investment, 379
Hamilton’s rule for, 53, 346, 350
homicide between siblings and, 139
inclusive fitness theory, 89
infanticide and, 158
kinship and, 221, 312, 333, 335, 354, 357
for lekking males, 231, 236, 243
proxy for, 115
stepparenting and, 105, 196
Genomic imprinting, 76
Gestation (pregnancy), 13
Gestational diabetes, 6, 83, 156
Gestational hypertension, 84
Getz, W. M., 184, 380
Ghost marriage, 33
Gibbons (Hylobates lar), 36
food transferring and sharing, 45
Gilby, A., 289
Giron, D., 351
Gittins, S.P., 45
Godfray, H.C.J., 85
Godoy, R., 72
Godparents, 9
Goetz, A.T., 9, 174, 176
Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), 131, 222
Gomes de Oliveira, M., 300
Goodall, J., 3, 92
Goodenough, W., 33
Goodwin, D., 291
Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla berengei, Gorilla gorilla gorilla), 36, 254, 372
human trait evolve from, 371
siblings in, 377
Grandfather hypothesis, 187
Grandmother hypothesis, 186, 379
Grandparental investment, allocation of, 8
and genetic relatedness, 379
sex-biased preference, 197
Grandparental investment, potential moderators of, 380
Grandparenting, 8, 16, 181, 376
age factor, 196
analysis of investment by aunts and uncles, 201
animal, 187
assessment of grandparental investment, 188
child survival, 192
and consequences for public policies, 200
contact and care, 190
cultural context, 199
effect of residential distance between grandparent and grandchild, 193
effects in grandchildren, 200
emotional bonding, 17
(p. 403)
empirical analysis of tangible transfers, 192
expressions of affection, 191
gender of grandchild, 197
and genetic relatedness, 201
grandfather hypothesis, 187
grandmother hypothesis, 186, 379
grandparent–grandchild resemblance, 198
grandparent–parent relationship, 198
and grandparents’ physical and mental health, 200
heterosomal relatedness between grandparents and grandchildren, 184
impact of family composition, 194
marital status of grandparents, 194
matrilineal bias of grandparental–grandchildren relationships, 190
menopause and grandmother hypothesis, 379
potential moderators of grandparental investment, 380
rank order of grandparent categories, 189
and relationship uncertainty, 183
and reproductive strategy, 184
sex-chromosome relatedness, 183
and type of joint activities, 198
Graves, J., 92
Greenberg, L., 351
Greve, W., 187
Grief, natural selection and, 282
Griffin, D., 286
Group-against-group play, 14
Group selection, 52, 187, 232, 322
Gubrium, J. F., 311
Guenons (Cercopithecine spp .), 256
Gurven, M., 46
H
Hadza hunter-gatherers, 102
Haig, D., 6, 78, 83, 156
Haldane, J.B.S., 53, 114
Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), 36, 38, 41
Hames, R.D., 136
Hamilton, W.D., 5, 8, 53, 84, 130, 313, 332, 345, 352, 387, 389
Hamilton’s kin selection theory, 113, 216, 252
Hamilton’s rule, 52, 56, 84, 129, 134, 252
altruism, 53, 129, 232, 234
genetic relatedness, 53, 346, 350
siblicide, 134
Hammill, B.G., 196
Hanneke, C.R., 176
Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), 251
Haplodiploid sex determination systems, 53
Hardman, D., 139
Hare, H., 93
Harris, J. R., 332
Harris, P. B., 313
Hatching asynchrony, 54
Hatley, F., 169
Heimann, M., 157
Helpers-at-the nest paradigm, 135
Helping behavior, 74
Hendrix, C., 285
Henzi, S.P., 92
Herbivorous insects, 58
Hertig, R., 200
Herzog, H., 300
Heuveline, P., 98
Hickey, M., 287
Higley, J. D., 390
Hill, C.M., 87, 158
Hill, K., 38, 46, 101
Hindgut microfauna, 59
HIV/AIDS, 154
Hoben, A., 8
Hoffman, C. L., 390
Hoier, S., 191
Holcomb, R., 285
Hole-nesting birds, 91
Hollingsworth, S. L., 291
Holmes, W. G., 348
Holy, L, 311
Homicide, 163
adaptation theory, 170, 174
as a cause of child mortality among Ache hunter-gatherers, 101
familial, 87
siblicide, 134, 139
impact of step-parenting, 8, 89, 104
Hominid socioecology, 373
change in brain size, 368
diet, 369
evolutionary change, 366, 367
family tree, 366
great apes, 370
life history, 369
reduction in polygyny, 374
sexual dimorphism, 367
social behavior, 367, 369
Hominins, 20, 37, 39, 151
cranial capacity, 13
origin of sex differences in subsistence activities in, 42
Hominoids, 13
Homo erectus, 19, 153, 187
Homo ergaster, 153
Homo habilis, 153, 366
Homo neanderthalensis, 366
Homo sapiens, 19, 45, 149, 152, 162, 366
anthropomorphism in, 288
direct kin recognition in, 349
Homologous traits, 37
Hormonal mechanisms, in human–family relationships, 20
Horn, A.G., 91
Horowitz, L. M., 286
Hrdy, S. B., 154, 187, 300
Hughes, K.D., 45
Human brain, evolution of, 12, 34
cognitive abilities, 13
family environment and, 14
hormonal basis for attachment and family love, 20
information processing and communication, 13
juvenile period, 13
maternal attachment, 22
problem solving skill, 14
relations between family environment and cortisol stress response, 26
social behavior, 14
social environment, response to, 23
structural changes, 13
Human crying, 91
Human family
biological and psychological findings of culture, 393
evolutionary ethics of, 392
familial nature, 386
genes and, 389
grandparents, 379
marriage patterns and family formation, 375
modern, 374
mother hypothesis, 380
nuclear and extended family relationships, 376
overview, 386
parental investment, 387
parents and children, 388
potential moderators of grandparental investment, 380
reproductive strategies, 387
siblings, 377
types of, 375
Human groups, modal composition of, 36
Human juvenile period, 369
Human kinship recognition cues, 314
brain in, 315
development of language, 315
Human kinship systems. See also Human brain, evolution of
extended, and control of mating relationships, 17
fathering, 14
grandparenting, 16. See also Grandparenting
human community and intergroup relations, 15
mating relationships, 15
paleontological evidence, 18
parental cooperation, 34
paternal care, 15
Human life, evolution of. See also Human family
adolescence, 162
childcare, 153
childhood, 150, 159
(p. 404)
early stages of pregnancy, 155
extending immaturity, 151
infancy, 156
juvenile period, 161
Human mating system, 36
Human placental lactogen (hPL), 83
Human social relationships, 14
Human society, evolution mapped upon the phylogeny, 38
Hungarian Gypsies, 72
Hungarian Gypsy populations, 88
Hunter, J., 162
Hunter-gatherer societies, 149, 378
Ache community of Paraguay, 98, 101
Aka of central Africa, 102
capabilities for food acquisition, 185
childrearing practices, 155
divorce, 97
Hazda, 102
modern, 46, 155
net flow of resources, 192
origin of sex differences in subsistence activities in, 42, 44
pair-bonding, 37
sexual division of labor in, 34
stepfamilies, 102
Hurtado, A.M., 101
Hutchinson, P.L., 175
Hyena (Crocuta crocuta), 214
Hyperinvestment, in children, 75
Hypertensive pregnancies, 84
Hypothalamic-anterior pituitary-adrenal cortex system (HPA) activity, 21
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, 16, 158
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system, 16
Hypothalamus, 21
I
Immaturity, period of, 150
Immunocompetence, 90
Implicit association task (IAT), 132
Imprinted genes, characteristics of, 76
Incest avoidance, 330
Inclusive fitness theory, 51, 57, 89
animal kin recognition, 215
Inclusive reproductive fitness, 5
Indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), 91
Indirect reproductive fitness, 5
Induced altruism, 313. See also Altruism
attachment theory, 317
celibacy, 317
institutional practices and, 315
suicide terror, 319
Infancy, 156
Infant altriciality, 20
Infant crying, 389
Infant mortality, 72, 154
industrialized cultures, 101
nonindustrialized cultures, 101
Infant quality, 87
Infant schema, 284
attachment to pet, 287
Infanticide, 16, 116, 220, 257, 264, 374. See also Siblicide
adoption of kin as an alternative, 116
female, 72
inclusive fitness theory, 158
in Indian caste system, 88
maternal, 4, 86
parental, 71, 90
at risk population, 73
selective, 72, 75
by stepfathers, 103
Infant–mother relationship, 70
Information processing (intelligence), 12
Initiation, 101
Insectivorous swifts (Apus apus), 54
Instinctual parenting, 155
Insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF2), 76
Intensive parenting, 16
Intergenerational relationships, 183. See also Grandparenting
Intergroup competition, 339
Intimate partner violence (IPV), 170
male sexual proprietariness and, 172
partner rape, 175
during pregnancy, 175
proximate correlates of, 176
as punishment, 171
secual coercion, 174
variance in severity, 173
Investment dynamics, in parent–child relationships, 65
Iridomyrmex, 93
Izar, P., 300
J
Jaffe, K., 288
Janssen, D. P., 339
Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), 9, 248, 257
Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix), 217
Jerauld, R., 317
Johnson, H., 172
Johnson, J. L., 313
Johnson, T. P., 285
Johnstone, R.A., 86
Jones, B., 68
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP), 330
Ju/Hoansi (!Kung) of Botswana, 136
Juvenile bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), 213
Juvenile dependency, 40
Juvenile period, 13, 161
immunological disorders, 162
peer social interaction, 162
psychological and psychosocial risk factors, 161
social isolation/rejection, 161
Juvenile transition, 74
K
Kahn, S. M., 311
Kaighobadi, F., 171
Kanter, R. M., 321
Kaplan, H.S., 38, 99, 107, 380
Kelemen, D., 161
Kenell, J. H., 317
Kennedy, C., 287
Kenrick, D. T., 338
Kibbutz, 130
Kikusui, T., 287
Kilner, R. M., 85, 89, 92
Kin call, 132. See also Kin recognition
Kin cue manipulation, 315
Kin discrimination, 212, 215
Kinning, 115
Kin perception, overinclusive, 336
Kin prototype, 333
Kin recognition, 130, 347
ability to, 348
in animals. See Animal kin recognition
components of, 350
in context of cooperation and conflict, 350
in cross-fostered females, 131
culturally inherited labels and, 356
definition, 212
direct, 348
in eusocial parasitic wasp, 351
from facial resemblance, 132, 354
green-beards effect, 352
human condition and, 353
indirect, 348
individual recognition, 353
label polymorphism, 350
mechanism, 333
peacocks, 352
phenotype matching, 333, 354
social evolution theory, 345
spatial cues, 348
sweat bees, 351
third-party knowledge of kinship, 132
underlying mechanism(s), 212
weaning and, 224, 348
Kin relation
evolution and psychology of, 330
friendship and, 337
incest avoidance and role of familiarity, 330
overinclusive kin perception and sex differences, 335
overview, 329
psychology beyond family, 335
Kin selection, 215, 223
altruism and, 313, 332
lekking species, 232
theory, 113, 129
Kinship
biology’s role in. See Fictive kinship
critiques and, 312
fictive. See Fictive kinship
index, 336
namesaking and, 313
(p. 405)
psychological, 336
recognition cues, in human, 314
use and misuse of terms, 340
in Yanomamo, 312
Kinship theory, 5, 191
and animal psychology, 9
cues of kinship, 9
and friendship, 9
of genomic imprinting, 76
and human psychology, 7
Kipsigi, 72
Kitamura, C., 290
Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), 218, 348
Klaus, M. H., 317
Kogan, L., 287
Kölliker, M., 213
Komers, P.E., 38
Krause-Parello, C. A., 289
Krebs, J. R., 284
Kreger, N. C., 317
Krupa, A., 214
Krupp, D. B., 354
Kubinyi, E., 292
L
Lace bug (Gargaphia solani), 213
Lack, D., 54
Laham, S.M., 195
Lalumière, M.L., 175
Lancaster, J.B., 99, 107
Lance-tailed manakins, 237
Lancy, D.F., 75
Larval amphibians, 55
Lasioglossum zephyrum, 351
Leek, M., 198
Lekking species (birds)
aggregations, 240
behavior of territorial and satellite males in ruff, 240
cooperative courtship in, 231
cooperative partnerships, 238
cues of relatedness, 239
factors influencing settlement decisions, 242
interindividual dynamics, 241
kin selection, 232
kin structure within or between, 236
mating systems, 230
nonkin associations, 239
reproductive patterns, 237
Leonard, M.L., 91
Leveling hypothesis, 41
Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS), 285
Li, J.-C.A., 106
Lieberman, D., 131, 315, 331, 333, 336, 354
Life history, of hominid, 369
Life history theory, of parent–child relationships, 86. See also Parent–child relationships
and extrinsic mortality, 67
psychological mechanisms, 75
risk of disease (pathogen stress), 68
and sexual selection, 67
somatic effort–reproductive effort trade-offs, 66
Light, P., 289
Linepithema humile, 345, 357
Lions (Panthera leo), 216
Littlefield, C.H., 189
Lobmaier, J. S., 287
Local resource enhancement, 72, 135
Long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis), 254
Lorenz, K. Z., 157, 284, 287
Lorises (Loris sp.), 252
Lu, H., 98
Lukjanczuk, J.L., 158
Lystad, A. L., 291
M
Maasai society, 116
Mace, R., 192, 379
MacGinitie, G.E., 217
Maddy, R., 311
Madrash, E. A., 285, 291
Maestripieri, D., 390
Maintaining relationships, 171
Maladaptive behavior
adaptive workaround, 282
arises by natural selection, 281
avian brood parasites and, 283
changing environment and, 283
grief, 282
Male bonding, 339
Male infidelity, 99
Male–male competition, 282, 373
in gorillas, 372
Male philopatry, 370
Male reproductive success, 88
Male sexual jealousy, 170
Male warrior hypothesis, 339
Mammalian mating systems, evolution of, 38
Manacus manacus, 352
Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 255
Manipulative reproductive strategies, 388
Marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum), 213
Marelich, W.D., 201
Marital stability, 68
Markus, G.B., 133
Marlowe, F., 104
Marriage, 97
dissolution of. See Divorce
Marsiglio, W., 103
Marvin, R.S., 137
Mate retention, 171
Maternal behavior and hormonal activation, 21
Maternal care, 34
and childhood stress, 26
Maternal genes, 6
Maternal infanticide, 86
Maternal investment decisions, 7
Maternal perinatal association (MPA), 131
Maternal resemblance, 89
Maternal resources
allocation of, 7
transfer to offspring, 76, 193
Maternal solicitude, 7
Maternal–fetal conflict, 83
Maternal–offspring bond, 23, 249
Mateship, 8
Mating game, 339
Matrilineal kin relationships, 248
Maturation, in gorillas, 372
McAlpine, W., 317
McAndrew, F. T., 313
McComb, K., 292
McDonald, D., 241
McHenry, H. M., 367
McKibbin, W.F., 176
McNicholas, J., 286, 289
Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus), 22
Mechanic, M.B., 201
Medium-term relationships, 98
Meerkat (Suricata suricata), 90
Meintjes, R. A., 287
Meltzoff, A.N., 157
Memes, 300
Menopause, 86
and grandmother hypothesis, 379
Mesocricetus auratus, 348, 352
Messent, P. R., 305
Mice (Mus musculus), 221
Michalski, R.L., 139, 189, 196
Microtus species, 58
Middlesex, 331
Miklósi, A., 291
Miller, S. C., 287
Misattributed paternity, 183
Miscarriage, 155
Mistina, D., 107
Mitchell, R. W., 290
Mithen, S., 288, 300
Mixed-sex groups, 36
Mobbing call, 91
Moderating variables, 188
Modern childhood, 75
Molnar, P., 157
Molothrus ater, 352
Monogamous primate species, 38
Monogamy,
differentiate between leveling and provisioning hypothesis, 42
evolution of, 40, 45
fractionation hypothesis, 36
in human families, 375, 379
leveling hypothesis, 41
mating strategies, 154, 186
moral values of, 395
provisioning hypothesis, 40
true/strict, 58, 68, 85
Monogamy–polygyny set, 36, 39, 46
Monozygotic twins, 201
Monton, S., 288
(p. 406) Moor macaques (M. maura), 256
Moore, M.K., 157
Mosier, J., 285
Mother–child relationship, 317, 388
Mother hypothesis, 380
Motherhood, 7
Mother–infant interaction, 251
Mother’s reproductive fitness, 6
Mukogodo, 72
Multimale–multifemale group, 37, 42
Multipartnered fertility, 109
Multiple-reproductive-male groups, 16
Multiunit composition, of human groups
expansion hypothesis, 39
fractionation hypothesis, 37
intermediary polygyny stage, 39
multimale–multifemale group, 37
Murdock, G. P., 318
Mutual provisioning, 37, 44
Mutualism, 253, 302
Myelinated cortical neurons, 13
N
Nagasawa, M., 287
Nagy, E., 157
Namesaking, 313
Natural selection, 16, 66, 73, 301, 304, 321, 331, 386
adaptation and, 4, 8, 170, 396
and attachment behavior, 157, 250
grief, 282
Hamilton’s rule, 53
inclusive fitness theory, 215
maladaptive behavior arises by, 281
morphological changes, 19, 26
parental investment and, 87
Naturalistic fallacy, 4, 396
Negotiation, biparental, 59
Nelson, T., 287
Neonatal imitation, 156
Nepotism, 52
Nested family social structure, 16
Nestling cuckoos, 89
Nestling size hierarchy, 54
Nestor effect, 187
Nettle, D., 88, 139
Neuroendocrine mechanisms, in human–family relationships, 20
Neurotransmitters, role in attachment behavior, 21
Noble, D.G., 89
Nonadaptive behavior. See Maladaptive behavior
Nonmarital births, 108
Nonpaternity, 8, 16, 100, 169, 380
Non-school-related financial expenditures, 106
North American Hutterites, 72
Nursery-based families, 52
extremes of altruism and cooperation in, 55
passage of time between fertilization and offspring food consumption, 53
O
Oates, K., 357
Occam’s razor, 199
Odendaal, J. S. J., 287
Oedipus complex, 197
Offspring’s reproductive fitness, 6
Ohta, M., 287
Oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus rhoadsi), 223
Onaka, T., 287
Ontogenetic adaptations, 150
Optimal outbreeding, 217
Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 254
Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, The, 216
Ostriches (Struthio camelus), 214
Ottoni, E. B., 300
Outlet theory, 195
Overexpression of maternal genes, 77
Oxford English Dictionary (OED), 297
Oxytocin (OT), 16, 20, 159
in attachment in mammals, 287
P
Pair-bonding, 16, 22, 52, 58, 113, 170. See also Mutual provisioning
evolutionary history, 34
food acquisition dimension of sexual division of labor, 37
hunter-gatherer societies, 37
in lekking species, 232
mating, 371, 373
parental cooperation model, 34
phylogenetic perspective, 37
primatological perspective, 35
Paleoanthropology, 35
Paleolithic human, pet keeping and, 298
Palmer, C.T., 175
Paper wasp (Polistes fuscatus), 222
Parasitic cowbird (Molothrus ater), 91
Parasitoid wasp (Copidosoma floridanum), 56
Parental care, 53, 216
cohabitating versus married families, 108
Parental cooperation hypothesis, 34
Parental cost. See also Costs
to incubation period, 55
men’s financial expenditures on children, 100
Parental discrimination, 71
Parental infanticide, 90
Parental investment, 51, 86
in adopted related children, 90
in children, biosocial model, 105
decisions, 158
divorce and, 100
form, postdivorce, 100
in lower-caste families, 88
and offspring’s future prospects, 87
and self-selection, 108
and sibling relationship, 130
Parental overproduction, 52
advantages, 53
insectivorous swifts (Apus apus), 54
songbirds, 54
Parent–child relationships, 388
affective dynamics, 65
age-related preferences and birth order, 72
characteristics of imprinted genes, 76
children’s contribution in caring and helping, 74
children’s strategies, 69
in diploid species, 71
father–child resemblance, 73
impact of parents’ behavior, 71
individual differences in plasticity, 70
investment dynamics, 65
life history theory, 66
macro- and microecological factors influencing, 69
parental investment, 68
puberty timing in girls, 70
romantic attachment styles, 69
sex-biased investment, 71
Parenting. See also Alloparenting; Parent–child relationships
attachment bond, development of, 286
experience hypothesis, 304
skills, pets and acquisition of, 303
stepparenting, 89
Parent–offspring bond, 52
Parent–offspring conflict, 6, 9, 56, 60, 76, 197, 388
and age of offspring, 87
battleground logic of, 57
and begging noises, 91
and child’s expected future prospects, 87
as a corollary of sibling conflict, 85
cultural correlates of, 391
and degree of relatedness, 88
in evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) framework, 85
and gender of parent, 86
and noise level and predation, 91
and number of offspring, 86
and parental age, 86
and physical environment, 90
and sibling relationship, 129
and solicitation signals, 90
theory, 84
Parent–offspring genetic relatedness, 90. See also Genetic relatedness
Parent–offspring recognition, 216
Park, J. H., 132, 336
(p. 407) Parker, G., 57, 86
Parrotlets (Forpus passerinus), 87
Pashos, A., 196
Paternal care
as adaptive attachment mechanisms, 282
benefits, 26
divorce and, 99
evolution of, 47
hormonal basis for, 21
in humans, 14, 68
as mating effort and parental effort, 105
in monogamous species, 38
and phenotypic similarity, 73, 123
Paternal genes, code for psychological systems, 392
Paternal investment, 38, 40
Paternal resemblance, 8, 89. See also Resemblance
Paternal solicitude, 7
“Paternally biased” pattern, of brain development, 78
Paternity uncertainty, 89, 170, 199
Payne, C., 288
Peacocks (Pavo cristatus), 214, 216, 352
Peccei, J. S., 379
Peer pressure, 163
Perrett, D. I., 287
Personal fitness, 215
Pet keeping
adaptations in pet species, 291
adaptive and nonadaptive hypotheses, 301
adaptive consequences, 302
in America, 298
attachment bond, development of, 286
attachment view, alternatives to, 292
as by-product of adaptive mechanisms, 284
communication with pets, 289
costs of, 299
cross-species adoption, 300
in European Union, 298
evolutionary origins of, 299
evolutionary significance of, 283
functional consequences of, 301
human attachment to pets, 285
infant schema and, 284
maladaptive behavior arises from natural selection, 281
nonadaptive consequences of, 302
as nonhuman social support, 302
Paleolithic humans, 298
pet rejection by humans, 284
pictorial and documentary evidence for, 298
supernormal stimuli, 285
Petrie, M., 214
Pets. See also Pet keeping
and acquisition of parenting skills, 303
adaptations in, 291
adaptive and nonadaptive hypotheses, 297
advertisement and, 304
attachment bond, development of, 386
communication with, 289
definition of, 297
human attachment to, 285
mechanisms promoting attachment to, 287
as social parasites, 302
Phenotype matching, 239,
kin recognition and, 218, 347, 354
paternal care and, 73, 123
self-referent, 131, 234, 333, 349
Philopatric woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii), 254
Physical violence, 172
Physiological stress responses, 24
Piaget, J., 151
Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), 215, 256
Pike (Esox lucius), 213
Pink-backed pelicans (Pelecanus rufuescens), 92
Pinker, S., 314, 336
Placental gene IPL, 76
Plasticity genes, 71
Pleistocene, 13
Pölitz, E., 191
Pollet, T.V., 8, 88, 138, 142, 189
Polyembryony, 56
Polygamous mate competition, 16
Polygyny, 68, 174, 381
as an obligate evolutionary step, 39, 378
drive for, 42
in human families, 375
mother–daughter, 119
multiunit group structures, 37
primatological perspective, 35
as reproductive-strategy, 186
resource-based, 376
sexual dimorphism and, 368, 374
social power, 376
threshold, 41
Polygyny–monogamy mix, 41
Popp, D., 171
Poresky, R. H., 285
Postmenopausal women, 8
Pottos (Arctocebus sp.), 252
Practiced sexual promiscuity, 38
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), 77
Prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), 22, 154
Prato-Previde, E., 292
Preeclampsia, 6, 84
Preferential investment hypothesis, 195
Pregnancy, early stages of, 155
Pregnancy conditions, in United States, 83
Preoperational thinkers, 151
Primate kin preferences
attachment processes, 249
dispersal costs/foraging efficiency, 265
dominance style concept, 264
ecological model of kin bias, 263
female philopatry/male dispersal species, 256
female reproductive patterns and mortality rate, 254
filial attachment, 250
kin-biased mutualism and reciprocity, 253
kin recognition and reproductive skew, 254
kin selection theory, 252
kin selection vs mutualism/reciprocity, 262
male philopatry/female dispersal species, 257
matrilineal kin relationships, 248
nondispersed social structures, 258
persistent mother–offspring bonds, 260
rank relationships, 260
reproductive benefits of kin bias, 259
sex-biased dispersal patterns, 253
socioecological explanations, 264
solitary or dispersed social structures, 258
in terms of links between WGC and affiliative networks, 265
Prinstein, M.J., 163
Progesterone, 21
Projectile weaponry, 41
Prolactin (PRL), 16, 21
Promiscuous teleology, 161
Protectionism, 56
Provisioning hypothesis, 40
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 347
Psychological kinship, 336
Psychosocial stress, 24, 303, 305
Punishment, violence as, 171
Putative fathers, 7
Pygmy fathers, 185
Q
Qirko, H. N., 9, 396
Quail (Coturnix coturnix), 91
Queen bees (Apis mellifera), 93
Quinlan, M.B., 154
Quinlan, R.J., 68, 136, 154
Quinsey, V.L., 158, 176
R
Raemaekers, J.J., 45
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 213
Rat (Rattus norvegicus), 212, 224
Reciprocal altruism, 253, 313, 337, 370
evolutionary advantages, 121
as cooperative relationships, 393
Reciprocity, 18, 253
(p. 408) Red fire ant workers (Solenopsis invicta), 352
Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), 54
Redondo, T., 91
Referential model, 38
Reinforced altruism, 320
Relational uncertainty, 195
Remarriage, 102, 194
Replacement offspring, 54
Reproductive fitness, 5, 155, 335
Reproductive strategists, 5
Reproductive success, 217
Resemblance, 7, 115
and adoption, 120, 123
facial, parent–child, 73, 315, 332, 354
father–child, 73, 78
grandparent–grandchild, 198
paternal, 170
phenotypic, 333, 335
self, 315, 355
Resource inhibitors, 76
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), 45, 215, 248, 348
Rhodes, J.A., 41
Richards, P. S., 285
Ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 251
Risk-taking behavior, 162
Romanes, G.J., 217
Romantic love, 21, 161
Romeo and Juliet, 389
Romero, G., 9
Rousseau, J. J., 386
Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax), 238
Rushton, J.P., 189
Ryan, A.K., 138
S
Sabatini, F., 292
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 353
Sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), 236
Saliva immunoassay techniques, 24
Salmon, C. A., 196
Samuels, H.R., 137
Samuelson, M. L., 285
Santos, L., 45
Scelza, B. A., 380
Schaller, M., 132, 336, 338
Schino, G., 253
Schmitt, D.P., 107
Schneider, D. M., 311
Schön, R.A., 155
Sea elephant (Mirounga leonina), 217
Sear, F., 201
Sear, R., 192, 379
Segal, N.L., 201
Seghers, J.P., 201
Self-referent phenotype matching, 131, 234, 333, 349
Self-resemblance, 315, 355
Self-sacrifice, 56
Semiautonomous polygynous units, 39
Serinus canaria, 85
Serotonin, 77
Serpell, J. A., 300
Sex-biased dispersal patterns, 253
Sex-biased investment, 71
in Indian caste system, 88
Sex chromosome relatedness, 380
Sex differences, kin relation and, 335
Sex-specialization, 35
Sex-specific reproductive strategy, 199
Sexual coercion and violence, 174
Sexual dimorphism, 18
in hominid, 367
Sexual division of labor, 16, 37
cofeeding activity, 45
food acquisition dimension, 37
food transport perspective, 37, 42
mutual provisioning, 37, 44
phylogenetic perspective, 37
sexual specialization in subsistence activities, 46
in subsistence activities, 37, 44
Sexual jealousy, 170, 176, 388
Sexual reproduction, 52
Sexual swellings, in female gorillas, 372
Sexually proprietary brain, 176
Seyfarth, R.M., 218
Shackelford, T.K., 8, 107, 171, 174, 176, 189
Shared genes, 114
Shea, J.J., 41
Sherman, A., 286
Sherman, P. W., 348
Shields, N.M., 176
Shingleback lizard (Tiliqua rugosa), 214
Shirley, J., 300
Shoaling, 213
Siblicide, 9, 134
Sibling relationships, 8, 55
in adult life, 137
cannibalism, 55
caretaking, 135
competition, 5
developmental benefits, 136
factors affecting, 138
in Israel, 130
kin selection theory perspective, 129
parental investment theory perspective, 130
parent–offspring conflict theory perspective, 129
as resources, 135
rivalry and resource dilution, 132
role in kin recognition, 130
role of relatedness for, 138
siblicide, 134
in Taiwan, 131
Sibling tie, 128
Siblings, 377. See also Sibling relationships; Step-relationships
anthropological studies, 379
in chimpanzees and gorillas, 377
human evolution and, 378
todays, 378
Sibship, 8
size, 140
Silk, J. B., 117, 300
Silvén, M., 155
Sims, V. K., 290
Skinks (Egernia stokesii, Egernia striolata), 214
Smith, M. S., 380
Smith, P.K., 198
Smock, P.J., 98
Snipe (Gallinago media), 240
Snub-nosed monkeys (Rinopithecus spp.), 36
Social behavior, 34, 238, 369
adolescent, 162
as deferred adaptation, 150
effects of kin recognition on, 211, 214, 350, 352
genetic relatedness and, 346
homonids, 367, 369
human, 7, 14, 18, 20, 77, 136, 172
inclusive fitness theory, 51, 53
mammals, 215
parent–offspring conflict theory, 84
reptiles, 214
role of OT and AVP, 22
sex differences in, 281
Social-brain hypothesis, 153
Social buffering, pet keeping and, 302
Social communication (language), 12
Social competition, 17, 75, 368
Social evolution theory, 345
conflict, 346
cooperation, 346
genetic relatedness, 346
mathematical approaches to, 346
Social integration, and pet keeping, 302
Social learning, 13, 43, 74, 153, 317
of infants, 251
neonatal imitation as a form of, 156
role of matrilineal kin, 256
Social parasites, pets as, 302
Social stress, 24, 52, 260
Social support, pet keeping as nonhuman, 302
Solicitation signals, 58, 85, 90, 315, 357
Somatic effort–reproductive effort trade-offs, 66
Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), 256
Sophie’s Choice, 73
Spadefoot toad tadpoles (Scaphiopus bombifrons), 213
Sperber, D., 312
Spiders (Stegodyphus tentoriicola, S. lineatus), 213, 216
Spiezio, C., 292
Spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus), 224
Spotted bowerbirds (Chlamydera maculate), 236
(p. 409) Sprengelmeyer, A., 287
Sprengelmeyer, R., 287
Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), 251
Stallones, L., 285
Starks, P.T., 184, 380
Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 224
Starratt, V.G., 171, 176
Steelman, L.C., 134
Steffa, M., 317
Steinberg, L., 317
Step-relationships, 8
among preindustrial populations, 102
cross-sectional measures of family structure, 102
father–child relationships, 106
nature of stepfamily formation, 102
stepchildren, 8
stepfathers. See Stepfathers
stepparenting, 89
stepsiblings, 103
Stepfathers, 90
benefits in reproductive terms, 106
and parental care, 102
Sterile castes, in social insects, 53
Stewart, R.B., 137
Stewart, S.D., 106
Stewart-Williams, S., 176
Strand, M. R., 351
Strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio), 220
Stress response systems, 21, 26
Suicide terror, induced altruism and, 319
Sulloway, F. J., 133, 135, 139, 314
Sweat bee (Lassioglossum zephyrum), 220
T
Taiwanese arranged marriages, and kinship, 314
Tamarins (Callitrichines spp.), 252
Tarsiers (Tarsius spp.), 252
Taylor, A. M., 292
Team sports, 14
Tern (Sterna hirundo), 55
Testosterone, 21
and maladaptive behavior, 282
Theory of mind (ToM), 13, 288
Thornhill, N.W., 175
Thornhill, R., 175
Three-dimensional family
parent–offspring dimension, 56
parent–parent dimension, 58
sibling dimension, 55
Timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus), 214
Timberlake, J.M., 98
Tinbergen, N., 282
Tits (Parus major), 87
Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), 256
Tooby, J., 331, 333, 336, 354
Topál, J., 291
Trade-offs, somatic effort–reproductive effort, 66, 68, 105
birth spacing and sibship size, 140
and investment in children, 109
Tran, U.S., 189, 201
Tree-nesting birds, 91
Trivers, R. L., 51, 56, 85, 88, 93, 132, 155, 162, 253, 313, 387
Trivers-Willard effect, 88
Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH), 72, 197
Trivers’s theory, 57
Turner, D. C., 292
Two-parents-and-two-kids model family, 55
U
Úbeda, F., 78
Uhlenberg, P., 196
Uncarved stones, 41
Unsafe sex practices, 163
Uteroplacental circulatory subsystem, 84
Uxoricide, 173
V
Vale, B., 299
Vale, R. J. D., 299
Van den Berghe, P. L., 312, 316
Van Noordwijk, M.A., 45
Van Schaik, C.P., 45
Van Vugt, M., 339
Ventral palladium, 23
Verderane, M. P., 300
Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), 215, 218, 251, 304
Virányi, Z., 292
Visalberghi, E., 300
Vocalizations, 91
Volk, A.A., 158
Vollmer-Conna, 290
Voracek, M., 189
Vulnerability genes, 71
W
Wach, J., 315
Waytz, A., 288
Weaning, 159, 389
and adoption, 116
conflict, 6, 57, 129
cues and, 221
in human, 369, 371
kin recognition and, 224, 348
period, 129, 154
in primates, 369
solicitation and, 92
Webb, S. R., 291
Weekes-Shackelford, V.A., 8, 107
Weitzel, B., 8, 190
Westermarck, E., 130, 331, 335
Westermarck effect, 314
White, D. R., 318
White, L., 137
White-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), 256
Whitten, A., 92
Wickens, S. M., 291
Wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 45
Wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarai), 45
Willard, D., 88
Williams, G. C., 299
Williams, R. C., 285
Willits, F.K., 138
Wilson, C., 292
Wilson, M., 8, 89, 103, 134, 158, 172, 286, 300, 357
Wire-tailed manakin (Pipra filicauda), 241
Wise, M., 169
Wolf, A. P., 131, 336
Wood cockroaches, 59
Wooden digging tools, 41
Wright, Sewall, 53
Wynne-Edwards, V. C., 52
Y
Yanomamo, kinship in, 312
Yomut, 72
Young-male syndrome, 163
Z
Zahavi, A., 91
Zajonc, R.B., 133
Zebra fish (Danio rerio), 224