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date: 22 November 2017

(p. 953) Index

(p. 953) Index

abortion, 580
accreditation, for law enforcement agencies, 610
Action Plan on Social Exclusion, 79
Adler, Jeffrey S., 38
Administration of Criminal Justice, 735
administrative rules, 598
Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice Network (ADJJ), 638, 640
adult pre-sentence conferences, 235
adversarial systems, 3
Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 61
African Americans
bail issues, 806
criminal justice policies and treatment of, 109, 110, 118–119
death penalty and, 336–337
Great Migration and, 632, 635
majority of LWOP sentences, 787, 888
police victimization of, 329
prison population, 881, 887
racial profiling of, 329–330
re-arrest rates of parolees, 941
views and experiences with police, 586–587
women prisoners, 903, 907 See also black offenders
after-school programs, 139
AIDS, 935–936
Albonetti, Celesta A., 806
alcohol, control policies, 308–309
Alcoholics Anonymous, 945
Allan, Emelie, 454–455
Allen, Hilary, 371
Alpert, Geoffrey P., 598, 863
Alschuler, Albert W., 679
American Bar Association, 649, 731
American Bar Foundation, 735, 736
American Board of Forensic Odontology, 786
American Correctional Association, 162, 801, 883
American criminal justice system, 4–6, 11–17, 21–23
capital punishment, 5, 19, 20, 21–22
crime decline of the 1990s, 47–50
crime prevention, 126–128, 138
crime trends, 31–33, 35–37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43–50
during 1950s, 735–736
evidence-based approach to crime policy, 76–78
federal legal system, 12, 13
Great American Crime Decline, 26, 42
history of American homicide trends, 28–30
imprisonment rates, 5–6, 12, 19–23
land-grant universities, 82
overview of, 6–11
reducing gun crime and, 431–434
rehabilitation in, 156, 158, 159–167
state and county-level criminal justice systems, 13–17 See also United States
American Friends Service Committee, 634
American Jail Association, 801
American Journal of Sociology, 561
American Law Institute, 106, 731
American Prison Association, 162, 801
American Society of Criminology, 800
An American Dilemma (Myrdal), 331
Andeneas, Johannes, 186–187, 195–196, 261, 264, 266
Anderson, Rocky, 526
Andrews, Don A., 159, 166, 167, 172, 909
Anwar, Shamena, 198–199
Aos, Steve, 946
Apel, Robert, 194, 455, 468
apology, sincere, 238–239
Argomaniz, Javier, 142
Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT), 466
arrest, effect of, 199
Ashworth, Andrew, 230, 231
Association of Paroling Authorities International (APAI), 928, 943–944
Astor, Avraham, 395
Atkins, Daryl, 774
Atkins v. Virginia, 774
(p. 954) Atuahene, Bernadette, 217
auditors, police, 610
Australia
evidence-based approach to crime policy, 80–81
male and female prison population, 906, 907
mandatory penalties in, 742–743
Personal Safety Survey, 363–364
Australian Law Reform Commission, 106
Ayres, Ian, 430
Babor, Thomas, 290
Baicker, Katherine, 776
Bail Reform Act of 1966, 802
Bail Reform Act of 1984, 802
Baldus, David, 336–337, 769
Bales, William D., 713, 722
Bankston, Carl L., 395
Barclay, Gordon, 42
Barclay v. Florida, 772
Barefoot v. Estelle, 772
Barker, Thomas, 588
Barker, Vanessa, 880
Barnes, Helen, 69
Barnett, Randall, 217, 218–219, 221, 222–223
Bartley-Fox law, 432–433, 737–738
Bates, Leigh, 194
Baumer, Eric P., 45, 46
Bayesian model of risk perceptions, 198–199
beat meeting, 564
Beccaria, Cesare, 179–180, 257–258
Beck, Allen J., 943
Becker, Gary, 290, 305
Beelmann, Andreas, 133
Beha, James, 737
behavior
deterrent effect of risk perceptions on, 194–197
experiential effect of behavior on risk perceptions, 197–199
behavioral triage, 306
behavior therapy, 168
Belenko, Steven R., 853, 854
Bellah, Robert, 159
Bellair, Paul E., 326
benefits and burdens theorists, 107, 121n9
Bennett, Trevor, 275, 279
Benn, John, 784
Bentham, Jeremy, 100, 179–180, 215, 257–258
Bentler, P. M., 455
Berger v. United States, 784–785
Berk, Richard A., 186, 190, 457, 514
Berns, Walter, 780
Beyler, Craig, 783
Bhati, Avinash, 933
Biebel, Elizabeth Perkins, 567
Bilukha, Oleg, 134
Binder, Renee L., 865
Binswanger, Ingrid, 942
Birkeland, Sarah, 70, 71
Black, Dan A., 430
Black, Donald, 592, 604
black offenders
capital punishment and, 767–768
imprisonment/incarceration rates, 108, 119, 321–322, 332–333, 334, 336
indeterminate sentencing and, 105
and 100-to-1 rule, 108–109
racial disparities in victimization and offending, 323–326
under U.S. correctional control, 156
U.S. criminal justice system and affects on, 19–20 See also African Americans
Blair, Tony, 79
Blakely v. Washington, 678–679, 717
Blau, Peter M., 484
Block, Carolyn R., 36
Block, Michael K., 808
Bloom, Dan, 464
Blueprints for Violence Prevention, 77
Blumberg, Abraham, 669
Blumstein, Alfred, 45–46, 72, 183, 283, 333
Bonczar, Thomas P., 937
Bond, Brenda J., 559
Bonger, Willem, 351–352, 356
Bonta, James, 159, 167, 909
boot camps, 825, 839n1, 865–866
Booth v. Maryland, 772
Bordenkircher v. Hayes, 675–676, 677
Bordt, Rebecca, 713
Boston Gun Project, 192, 434
Bosworth, Mary, 911
Boucherat, Jacky, 210, 228
Bowers, Kate, 528
Boyum, David, 275
Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, 434
Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, 421, 425
Braga, Anthony A., 189, 191, 434, 527, 559, 566
Brahm, Eric, 232
Braithwaite, John, 211, 224–225, 228–229, 230, 231, 237–238
(p. 955) Brantingham, Patricia L., 191
Brantingham, Paul J., 191
Bratton, William, 494, 556–557, 559, 600
breach of parole conditions, 834
Breed v. Jones, 633
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, 865
Brimage guidelines on plea bargaining, 688
British Crime Survey (BCS), 36, 42, 363–364, 562, 586
Brockway, Zebulon, 929
“Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety” (Wilson and Kelling), 548
broken windows theory/broken windows policing, 515, 538, 554–556
effect of, 556–560
research testing in, 560–562
Brooks, David, 396
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 327, 580, 612
Brummer, Bennett, 844
brutalization effect, 186
Budd, Tracey, 586
Buerger, Michael E., 191, 527
Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention (Tonry and Farrington), 131
Bukstel, Lee H., 885
bureaucratic policing, 545–547
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF), 431–432
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), U.S., 7, 17, 368, 552, 586, 594, 702–703, 795
parole and prisoner re-entry data, 932, 935, 938, 940, 941, 942, 943
police-citizen survey, 612
State Court Processing Statistics program, 803, 806, 807
Bureau of the Census, U.S., 7, 321
burglary victimization, prevention of repeat, 143–144
Burke, Edmund, 734
Bushway, Shawn D., 716, 722
Butcher, Kristin, 393, 395–396
Byrne, James, 803
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, 944
California’s three-strikes laws, 5, 115–117, 180, 181, 184–185, 748–749
California Substance Abuse Control and Crime Prevention Act (SACPA), 301
Campbell Collaboration, 73, 74
Crime and Justice Group, 61, 74, 79, 83
Crime and Justice Steering Committee, 74–76
systematic reviews, 519, 526–527
Campbell Collaboration Library of Systemic Reviews, 76
Campbell, Donald, 63–64, 73
Campbell, Tom, 215, 217
Canada
crime patterns and trends in, 9, 10, 42
criminal justice system in, 12–13
General Social Survey, 364, 386
juvenile systems in, 4
mandatory penalties in, 744
prison population in, 881–882
Risk, Need, and Responsivity (RNR) program, 836–837
women prisoners, 898, 909, 910, 914
Canadian National Survey on Criminal Victimization, 36
Canadian Sentencing Commission, 106, 746
Canty, Chris, 308
capital punishment, 5, 17, 18, 21, 99–100, 180, 757–760, 787–788
common justifications of the death penalty, 775–781
constitutional history of the death penalty, 770–775
costs of, 775–777
crime and, 185–186
death penalty internationally, 760–763
death penalty in the U.S., 763–767
death penalty stipulation, 675
democratic values and, 780–781
deterrent effect of, 777–778
eighteenth-century England, 734–735
executing the innocent, 783
ineffective counsel, 783–784
LWOP, 786–787
misconduct, 784–785
morality and, 101, 102, 120n2, 780
problems in administering the death penalty, 782–786
race, ethnicity, and the death penalty, 336–338
and race in America, 767–770
religion and, 779–780
use of jailhouse informants and junk science, 785–786
Caplow, Theodore, 903
Caputo, Michael R., 297
Carlen, Pat, 914
(p. 956) Carter, Debbie Sue, 786
Cassell, Paul G., 604
Catalano, Richard, 77, 128, 146
Caulkins, Jonathan P., 278, 307
Cavadino, Michael, 742
censure theorists, 107
Census Bureau, U.S., 7, 321, 393, 797
Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO), 457–458, 463–464
Center for Wrongful Convictions (Northwestern University), 785
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 134, 436, 935–936
Centers for Substance Abuse Treatment, 850
Centre for Criminal Justice Economics and Psychology, 79
Cerdá, Magdalena, 568
certainty principle, 184, 196
Chaiken, Jan, 275
Chaiken, Marcia, 275
charge bargaining, 15, 117, 676, 677, 691n4, 709
Chen, Elsa Y., 749
Chevigny, Paul, 606
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS), 558–559
Chicago Area Project (CAP), 127
children
after-school programs, 139
child skills training, 133
early childhood home visiting program, 77
LWOP sentences for crimes by, 787
preschool intellectual enrichment programs, 132–133
“children’s hearings,” 4
Chiricos, Theodor G., 334, 459–460, 713
Cho, Rosa, 469
Christensen, R. L., 454
Christie, Nils, 221, 223–224
Christopher Commission, 591, 600, 602, 607, 608
Christy, Annette, 865
Church, Thomas, 668, 670
citizen reviews, 608–609
City of Los Angeles v. Lyons, 606
civic republican perspective, 211
civil courts, 605–607
civil death, 884, 940
civil disabilities, of parolees, 940
civilizing process concept, 39
Clarke, Ron, 131, 137, 140, 141
Clark, John, 809
Class III and Class IV citizen reviews, 609
Clear, Todd, 160
Clemmer, Donald, 883
closed-circuit television (CCTV), 64, 79, 142–143, 147, 488
Cloward, Richard, 127–128
cocaine
powder, 108, 109, 285, 718
prices, 287, 295
Cochrane Collaboration, 73–74
Cochrane Library, 73
Cochrane, Sir Archie, 73
Cohen-Cole, Ethan, 186
Cohen, Jacqueline, 183
Cohen, Lawrence E., 44
Cohen, Stanley, 884
Cohen, Thomas H., 803, 804, 805, 807, 809
Coker v. Georgia, 773
Coles, Catherine M., 556, 560
collaborative review groups (CRGs), 73
collective efficacy, 393, 564
Combs, Nancy, 213, 233, 234
Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA), 591, 610
Commission on Civil Rights, U.S., 602
common law countries, prosecution in, 666, 667, 687–688, 691n11
communicative theories of punishment, 111
communicative theorists, 107
communitarian theorists, 107
Communities That Care (CTC), 77, 128
community and problem-oriented policing, 538–554, 567–569
bureaucratic policing, 545–547
COPS program, 550–554
early uniformed police, 543–545
historical development, 543–550
organizational dimension of, 541
philosophical dimension of, 540–551
tactical dimension of, 541
theory and research, 554–567
community-based crime prevention, 127
community conferencing theory, 225
community courts, 846
community crime prevention, 130–131, 136–138, 146
after-school programs, 139
mentoring, 138
neighborhood watch, 138–139
(p. 957) Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), 550–551
community policing and, 551–553
crime research and, 553–554
community penalties, 831
community policing, 670
community prosecution, 670–671
community service, 838
compensation to crime victims, 215–216
competency, adolescents’ legal, 643–644
competence to stand trial, 645
Miranda rights, 644, 645–648, 649, 652n3
waivers of counsel, 648–650, 652n5
comprehensive community initiatives, 127
Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984, 932
CompStat, 143, 500, 512, 530–531, 600–601
computerized evidence, 512
conditional elasticity, 290
confidence gap, 163
Congress, U.S., 76, 420–421, 550, 736, 848, 926
Conscience and Convenience (Rothman), 930
conscience collective concept, 258, 259, 260–261
consequentialist morality, 101
consequentialists, 101, 102, 103
Constitution, U.S., 683, 709
constitutional history of the death penalty, 770–775
Eighth Amendment, 643, 773, 774, 801
Fifth Amendment, 644
Fourteenth Amendment, 603, 675
Fourth Amendment, 577, 606
Second Amendment, 421–422, 423
construct validity, 64, 66
Continental European civil-law countries, systems in, 3
contingency management, 168
contrition, 238–239
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 787
Cook, Philip J., 192, 289, 427, 776
Cordner, Gary, 540–541, 567
Cork, Daniel, 283
Corman, Hope, 187–188, 557
Cornish, Derek, 131, 141
Cornwell, Christopher, 461
Correctional Program Assessment Inventory (CPAI-2000), 172–173
correctional system
American, 156–167
paradigm of effective correctional treatment, 167–173
corrections, embrace of the term, 162
Corruption Perception Index (CPI), 589
corruption, police, 587–588
causes of, 588–589
data on, 589–591
use of excessive force, 591–595
cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis, 68–69
cost-of-illness (COI) studies, drug-related crimes and, 282
Cottingham, John, 219–220
counsel
capital punishment and ineffective, 783–784
juveniles and waivers of counsel, 648–650, 652n5
counterfactual inference, 64
counterterrorism, 498
countries, other
criminal justice systems in, 4, 22
death penalty in, 760–763
homicide rates in, 42
intimate partner violence in, 365
mandatory penalties in, 741–744
offending by young people in, 356
prison population in, 881–882
probation system in, 833, 836, 837, 838
sex, gender, and criminalization in, 369–370
victimization of young people in, 365
violent/nonviolent offending in, 354, 355
violent victimization in, 363–364
county-level criminal justice system (U.S.), 13–17
courts
civil, 605–607
criminal, 605
gun, 432
problem-solving, 719–720, 843
progressive juvenile court, 1899–1960s, 629–631
specialty, 846–850, 862–866
youth, 4
court system, race, ethnicity, and the, 331
death penalty, 336–338
racial disproportionality in incarceration rates, 332–333
sentencing decisions, 333–336
crack babies, 284
crack cocaine, 45–46, 108–109, 304, 635, 718
crackdowns, police, 307–308, 529
Craig, Wendy, 132
(p. 958) CRASH (Community Resources Against Street Hoodlums), 600
Crawford, Charles, 334
creative restitution, 221–222
crime
aggregate police presence and, 187–189
capital punishment and, 185–186
imprisonment and, 183–185
police deployment and, 189–192 See also drugs; guns; immigrants; race, ethnicity; sex, gender; work
Crime Act of 1994, 128, 550, 551, 596–597, 607, 848, 850
Crime and Justice Group. See Campbell Collaboration
Crime and Justice Steering Committee. See Campbell Collaboration
crime commissions, presidential, 11, 127
crime policy. See evidence-based crime policy
crime prevention, 126–129, 144–148
classifying, 129–131
community, 136–139
developmental, 131–136
programs, 127–128
situational, 139–144
crime rates and trends, American, 6–11
Crime Reduction Program (UK), 78–79
crime research, 553–554
crime trends, 6–11, 22, 26–34, 50–52
contemporary trends, 41–50
crime decline of the 1990s, 47–50
early 1960s through early 1990s, 43–47
historical record of, 27–32
historical trends, 38–40
key issues, 34–37
major patterns of, 32–33
crime triangle, 566
crime victims, compensation to, 215–216
criminal conduct, psychology of, 168–169
criminal courts, 605
criminalization, sex, gender, and, 367–372
Criminal Justice in Cleveland (Pound), 669
criminal justice policy councils, 72
criminal justice prevention, 131
criminal punishments. See punishment
criminal sentencing, 710
effects of sentencing reform, 715–717
evidence-based policy recommendations, 717–720
future directions of, 720–723
unwarranted disparities in sentencing, 710–715
criminogenic needs, 170
criminology of the other, the, 109
Crofton, Sir Walter, 929
Crow, Matthew S., 722
Crutchfield, Robert D., 454
Cruz, Rolando, 785
Cullen, Francis T., 179, 455
culpability, adolescents’ diminished, 638–643
culture-of-control argument, 22, 23, 160, 902–903
Cummings, Peter, 435
Cusik, Gretchen R., 722
customized policing, 520, 525–531
Daly, Erin, 233
Daly, Kathleen, 238, 713
dangerous offender laws, 5
DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), 60, 71, 303, 525–526, 552
Darley, John M., 580, 583–584
data-mining methods, 514
Davis, Gwynn, 210, 228, 235
Davis, Kenneth Culp, 673
Dawson, Robert O., 735–736
daycare programs, 135
day fines, 17, 837
death penalty. See capital punishment
de Beaumont, Gustave, 875
declination, 674
defense-of-life rule, 329, 341n3
deferred prosecution agreement, 674
deferred prosecutions, 674
de Greiff, Pablo, 234
DeIulio, John, 635
“Delivering Crime Prevention: Making the Evidence Work” (conference), 80
Delone, Mariam A., 427
Democracy in America (de Tocqueville), 159–160
democratic values, capital punishment and, 780–781
Demuth, Stephen, 712–713, 805
deontologists, 100
Department of Corrections, U.S., 939
Department of Education, U.S., Safe and Drug-Free Schools program, 71
Department of Homeland Security, U.S., 189
Department of Justice, U.S., 7, 550, 603, 605, 607, 688, 737, 835, 934
(p. 959) Department of Labor, U.S., 457
deprivations literature, 883
Dershowitz, Alan, 106
desert theories, 106
determinate sentencing systems, 696–701, 723–724
modern, 701–710
parole and, 932
research on criminal sentencing, 710–723
deterrence, 179–180, 199–200, 263
deterrent effect of capital punishment, 777–778
deterrent effect of criminal punishment, 182–186
deterrent effect of mandatory penalties, 744–749
deterrent effect of police, 186–192
key concepts of, 181–182
in policing, 515
right-to-carry gun laws and, 428
sanction risk perceptions, 192–199
deterrence model of police legitimacy, 579
de Tocqueville, Alexis, 159–160, 875
developmental crime prevention, 130, 131–132, 145–146
child skills training, 133
parent education, 134–135
parent management training, 135–136
preschool intellectual enrichment, 132–133
de Waal, Frans, 530
de Waard, Jaap, 130
Dezhbakhsh, Hashem, 186, 777
differential police response (DPR), 522
Dignan, James, 231, 239, 742
diminished culpability, adolescents’, 638–643
Dinovitzer, Ronit, 404, 409
Discovery of the Asylum, The (Rothman), 160
discretionary parole release, 928
decline of, 931–934
discrimination, sentence disparity and, 710
displacement
forms of, 140–141
hot spots and, 528
theory of, 515
distributive justice, 262–263
District of Columbia v. Heller, 422
diversionary (pre-plea) drug courts, 852
diversion programs, drug, 301–303
diversity of focus policing strategy, 191–192
DNA Collection at Burglary Crime Scenes (Roman), 523
DNA evidence, 523–524, 786
domestic criminal justice, restorative justice in, 234–236
domestic law, reparation in, 215–216
domestic violence, arrests, 525
domestic violence courts, 846, 863–864
Donohue, John J., 49, 183, 186, 430
Doob, Anthony, 199, 744, 746
Dornbusch, Sanford M., 455
dose-response relationship, drug use and, 280
Dowd, Michael, 600, 607
Doyle, Joanne M., 461
Drake, Elizabeth, 946
Drass, Kriss A., 41
Drizin, Steven A., 647
Drug Abuse Reporting Program, 849
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 284
Drug Court Discretionary Grant Program, 850
Drug Court Program Office (DCPO), 850
drug courts, 302–303, 836, 843–845, 866
drug court model, 850–853
growth of, 848–850
in reducing recidivism, 853–861
start of specialty court movement, 847
unresolved issues, 861–862
drugs and crime, 275–277, 309–311, 718
alcohol-control policies, 308–309
blacks arrested for drug offenses, 903
coerced or mandated abstinence, 306–307
controlling drug-related crime, 305–309
crack cocaine, 45–46, 108–109, 304, 635, 718
decriminalization, 297–298
drug courts, 302–303
drug demand and substitutes, 290–292
drug-diversion programs, 301–303
drug involvement among criminals, 280
drug laws cause drug-related crime, 281–282
drug markets, 292–294, 307–308
drugs in prisons, 886–887
drug substitutes, 290–292
drug testing and pretrial release, 809, 815
drug types, 284–286
epidemic stage, 288
flagrant retail drug markets, 294, 307–308
Goldstein’s tripartite framework, 277–279
legalizing drugs, 295–296, 311nn56
magnitude of drug-related crimes, 279–282
non “drug-related” crimes, 280–281, 282–284
Pareto Law, 289–290
(p. 960) prevention programs, 303
prices of drugs, 286–287
regulating drugs, 296–297
Rockefeller Drug Laws, 737, 747
search time, 287
and supply and demand, 298–305, 312nn910
supply control, 304–305
traditional themes and typologies, 277–288
two-tiered toughness, 308
“due process revolution,” juvenile justice and 1960s, 632–634
Duff, R. Antony, 226, 230, 237, 260
Dugan, Brian, 785
Duggan, Mark, 429–430
Dumas, Jean, 136
Duncan, Greg, 132, 133
Durkheim, Emile, 39, 110, 111, 112, 116, 117, 119
reassurance and reinforcement model, 255, 258–260
DWI courts, 854–858
dynamic risk factors, 169, 170
Earl, Felton, 393
early uniformed police, 543–545
Eberheart v. Georgia, 773
Eck, John E., 141, 142, 144, 187, 189, 190, 191–192, 523
economics, supply and demand and drug-related crime, 298–305, 312nn910
education
parent, 134–135
preschool intellectual enrichment programs, 132–133
Effectiveness of a Prison and Parole System, The (Glaser), 941
effect size, of race on sentencing, 336
Eglash, Albert, 217, 221–222
Ehrlich, Isaac, 777
18-to-1 rule, 108
Einat, Tomar, 184
Eisenhower, Milton S., 127
Eisenstein, James, 669
Eisner, Manuel, 27, 30, 38, 39–40, 41, 42, 46, 49, 356
Ekblom, Paul, 130
elasticity of demand, 290
Elias, Norbert, 39
employment. See work and crime
England and Wales
crime patterns and trends in, 9, 42, 43, 50
criminal justice system in, 12–14, 22, 23
development of public prosecution, 664
early prison reforms in, 875, 876
juvenile systems in, 4
London model of early uniformed police, 543, 544
mandatory penalties, 734–735, 741–742
plea-bargaining procedures in, 674–675, 681
prison population in, 872, 878, 884, 887–888, 890–892
women prisoners in, 905–906, 909, 910, 911
English-speaking common-law countries, systems in, 3
Enmund v. Florida, 773
equality principle systems, 3
equilibrium theorists, 107
equity, 681
Ericson, Richard V., 488–489
European Convention of Human Rights, 762–762
European Court of Human Rights, 890
European nations, crime trends, 41–42
European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics (ESCCJ), 36, 354
European Union, 762
Evans, William N., 188, 553–554
evidence, defined, 63
evidence and crime control, 511
cost-effectiveness of crime control, 515–519
measurement and classification, 512–513
prediction, 513–514
theories of causation, 514–515
evidence-based crime policy, 60–63
assessing research evidence, 66–69
challenges and future directions, 81–83
economic analysis, 68–69
evaluating the effects of programs, 63–66
evidence-based model, 63–69
implementation of, 81–82
institutional base, 73–76
international developments, 76–81
meta-analytic review method, 68
policy processes, 70–72
practitioner use, 82–83
systematic review method, 66–67
evidence-based policy recommendations, in sentencing guidelines, 717–720
evolutionary psychologists, 114
(p. 961) “exceptional circumstances” provision, 741–742, 743, 744
excessive force, use of, 591–592
causes of, 592–593
data on, 593–595
excessive force criminal cases, 605
use of deadly force, 595
exclusionary rule, 603–604
expediency principle systems, 3, 15
experienced arrest certainty, 199
expiration parole releases, 932
expressive punishment policies and laws, 111–112
external validity, 64, 65
fact bargaining, 15, 676, 677, 679
Fagan, Jeffrey, 186
failures to appear (FTA) rates, 807, 808, 809
Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (NRC), 519
Fare v. Michael C., 646, 647
Farrell, Amy, 722
Farrell, Graham, 143
Farrington, David P., 79, 131, 138, 142, 454
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 6–7, 10, 324, 348, 352–353
Federal Bureau of Prisons, U.S., 810
Federal Courts Study Committee, 731
federal firearm licensee (FFL), 431–432
federal legal systems, 12–13
federal mandatory penalties, 739
Federal Probation Service, 828
federal sentencing guidelines, 707–710
Feeley, Malcolm, 689
Fegley, Suzanne, 455
Felson, Marcus, 44
feminization of poverty, 904–905
Finn, Mary A., 716
Fisher, George T., 683, 684, 686–687, 691n5
Fishman, Janet E., 598
Fishman, Joseph F., 801
flagrant drug dealing, 294, 307–308
fleeing felon rule, 328, 329, 341n3
Florin, Paul, 146
Fogel, David, 932
Folger, Robert, 585
foot patrols, police, 547–549
Ford v. Wainwright, 774–775
forecasting criminal behavior, 514
forest plot analysis, 517–518
Forever Free program, 913
Fornango, Robert, 49, 557–558, 942
Foucault, Michel, 110–111, 117, 260, 874–875, 892
France, Anatole, 117, 264
Frankel, Marvin E., 164, 697, 704–705
Franklin, Benjamin, 875
Frase, Richard, 707
Freeman, Richard B., 461
Fridell, Lorie, 594, 601
Friedman, Lee, 69
Fry, Margaret, 215
fugitive slave laws, 98, 767–768
functional displacement, 141
Furman v. Georgia, 185, 337, 770–771, 779
Fyfe, James J., 593, 595, 598
Gagnon v. Scarpelli, 937
Galaway, Burt, 225
Gallegos v. Colorado, 646
Garfinkel, Harold, 768
Gartin, Patrick R., 191, 527
Gartner, Rosemary, 903, 908, 914
gender disparity, in sentencing, 712–713, 716
gender gap in crime, 351
gender inequality model of violence, 367
gender responsiveness, 911–912
Gendreau, Paul, 159, 166, 167, 172
General Accounting Office (GAO), 337–338, 553, 769, 853–854
general deterrence, 179
general responsivity principle, 171
General Social Survey (Canada), 364, 386
geographical variations, in sentencing, 714–715
Gersh, Jeffrey S., 191
Gibbs, John J., 812–813, 814
Gill, Martin, 142
Gilmore, Gary, 763
Gittings, R. Kaj, 186, 777
Giuliani, Rudolph, 556–557
Glaser, Daniel, 941
Glaze, Lauren E., 813
global position satellite (GPS) monitoring, 939
Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanor, 352
Goffman, Erving, 884, 911
Goldberg v. Kelly, 105
(p. 962) Goldkamp, John S., 802, 810, 817
Goldstein, Herman, 526, 542, 549
Goldstein, Paul J., 277–279, 282
Goldwater, Barry, 829
good time systems/credits, 18, 702
Gottfredson, Denise, 139
Gould, Eric D., 456, 461
Gover, Angela R., 863
governance, police, 494–497
government through crime argument, 23
Graham v. Connor, 591
Graham v. Florida, 643–645, 650–651
“Granger cause” crime, 187, 188
Grant, Oscar, 328
Grattet, Ryken, 947–948
Great American Crime Decline, 26, 42
Great Depression, 876
Greenberg, David, 44
Green, David, 71–72
Greene, Jack R., 548–549
Green, Lorraine, 191
Gregg v. Georgia, 186, 337, 771, 773, 774
Grisso, Thomas, 647, 649
Groenhuijsen, Marc S., 239
Grogger, Jeffrey, 448–449, 455–456, 468–469
Grossman, Michael, 290
Guerette, Rob T., 528
guided discretionary death statutes, 771
guided restitution, 222
guns and crime, 420–423
defensive use of guns, 425–428
effect of right-to-carry laws on crime, 428–431
future research and policy, 435–439
juvenile gun violence, 635
Michigan Felony Firearms Statute, 738–739
possession and use in the U.S., 423–425
preventing firearm injuries, 434–435
reducing gun crime, 431–434
Gurr, Ted R., 28, 356
Haberfeld, Maria R., 601
Habits of the Heart (Bellah), 159
“Habits of the heart,” concept of, 160
Hagan, John, 393, 397, 404, 409, 806
Haggerty, Kevin D., 488–489
Haley v. Ohio, 646
Hamilton, Edwin E., 602
Haney, Lynne, 904
Hannah-Moffat, Kelly, 909
Harcourt, Bernard E., 556, 560–561
Hardy, Marjorie S., 434
Harland, Alan, 225
Harrell, Adele, 862
Harris, David, 339
Hart, H. L. A., 103–104, 106, 120n6
Hartnett, Susan M., 558–559
Hauser, Robert M., 806
Hawken, Angela, 306, 834
Hawkins, David, 77, 128
Hawkins, Gordon, 179, 195
Hayman, Brett S., 604
Haynes, Stacy H., 722
Head Start, 133
Heimer, Karen, 355, 363
Helland, Eric, 184–185, 200
Hemenway, David, 427
Henry, D. Alan, 809
Herman, Judith, 240
heroin, 285, 286–287
Heumann, Milton, 679, 682–683, 691n5, 738
Hiday, Virginia Aldige, 865
high diversity policing approach, 191–192
high policing, 498, 499
Hipp, John, 948
Hispanics
bail issues, 806
incarceration rates for, 321–322, 332, 334, 336
police victimization of, 329
racial disparities in victimization and offending, 323–326
racial profiling of, 330
undocumented immigrants, 397
Historical Violence Database, 35
History of Homicide Database, 35
History of Violence Database, 27, 30, 36
hit rates, 330
HIV/AIDS, 935–936
Hjalmarsson, Randi, 186, 198
holistic restorative justice, 229
Holleran, David, 713, 716
Holloway, Katy, 275, 279
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 734
Holzer, Harry J., 465
Home Office of England and Wales, 106
home-visitation programs, 134–135
homicide rates, historical data on, 28–30
homicide victimization
Latino, 399
sex and, 361–362
Hood, Roger, 762
Hope, Tim, 131, 137
(p. 963) Horney, Julie, 198
Horn, Robert N., 461
Hoshi, Akemi, 137, 139
hot spots, crime and policing, 140, 190–191, 513, 527–528
Hough, Michael, 82
Howard, John, 875
Hoyle, Carolyn, 762
Hudson, Barbara, 237
Hudson, Joe, 225
Hughes, Timothy A., 943
human rights, 890–891
Human Rights Watch, 329, 887
Hunter, Albert, 563
Huo, Yuen J., 583, 584–585, 611
hybrid theories, 104
ideal theory, 101
illegitimate opportunities, 394, 410n8
immaturity gap, 640
immigrants and crime, 385–388
comparative research, 401–405
crimes committed against immigrants in the U.S., 398–401
crimes committed in the U.S., 390–397
immigration and crime nexus, 388–390
implications, 405–409
Immigration Commission, 392
imprisonment/incarceration rates, 5–6
patterns and trends, 17
racial disproportionality in, 332–333
United States, 5–6, 17–23, 444, 698–699, 874–877
U.S. data on imprisonment of women and men, 899–905
welfare policies and incarceration rates of women, 905
incapacitation
capital punishment and, 778–779
as recurring theme in sentencing, 836
incarceration
and the accumulation of work experience, 463–464
employment consequences of, 465–470
welfare policies and incarceration rates at women, 904
independent commissions, 607–608
indeterminate sentencing, 104–105, 697, 701, 929, 930–931
indicated crime prevention program, 131
Industrial Commission (1901), 392
industrial prisons, 876
infectious diseases, 935–936
information technology (IT), 488–490
inquisitorial systems, 3, 667
In re Gault, 632–633, 634, 644, 646, 648, 649
In re Winship, 633, 634
instrumental model of legitimacy, 579
intensive supervision probation (ISP), 837, 865–866, 938
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 232
intermediate sanctions/intermediate punishments, 719, 830, 831
internal validity, 63–64
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), 943
International Center for Transitional Justice (ICT), 232
international crime trends data, 36
International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS), 7, 9–10, 30, 36, 42, 43, 364, 585–586
international criminal law and justice, reparation and restoration in, 231–234
International Homicide Index, 36
international human rights, 207, 217
international law, reparation in, 216–218
International Police Organization (Interpol), 36
International Self-Reported Delinquency Study, 356
intimate partner violence, 364–365
intuitionist theorists, 106–107
Ivković, Kutnjak, 589, 591, 599, 601
Jacob, Bruce R., 214
Jacob, Herbert, 669
Jacobs, Jane, 140
jailhouse snitches, 785–786
jails and pretrial release, 795–797
correlates of pretrial release, 804–806
historical developments, 800–802
jail inmate population, 797–800
jail issues, 810–815
mental health and adjustment to jail, 812–815
new generation jails, 810–812
policy implications and future research, 815–818
pretrial release and detention trends, 803–804
pretrial supervision, risk, and misconduct, 806–810
James, Doris J., 281, 813
James, Steve, 308
(p. 964) Jefferis, Eric S., 581
Jeffrey, C. Ray, 137
Jim Crow laws, 108, 768
Jofre-Bonet, Mireia, 291
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 628, 638
Johnson, Calvin C., 552
Johnson, David T., 763
Johnson, Dianne, 743
Johnson, Guy, 768
Johnson, Robert, 884
Johnstone, Gerry, 227–228, 231
Joint Terrorism Task Forces, 498
Jolliffe, Darrick, 138
Jones, Bill, 748
Jonson, Cheryl Lero, 179
Jung, Haeil, 469
junk science, 785–786
Juran, Joseph, 289
Jurek v. Texas, 337, 771
juvenile crime
arrests, 525
gun violence, 635
juveniles serving life sentences, 888
juvenile justice, 627–629, 650–652
juvenile drug courts, 854–858
1960s and the “due process revolution”, 632–634
1980s-1990s “get tough” era, 635–637
progressive juvenile court, 1899–1960s, 629–631
2000–2010, reassessing adolescents’ competence and culpability, 637–650
juvenile systems, 4
public support for saving juveniles, 163
Kachnowski, Vera, 933
Kallem, Andrew, 456
Kaminski, Robert J., 581
Kansas City Gun Project, 433
Kant, Immanuel, 100–101
Karberg, Jennifer C., 281
Katz, Charles M., 559, 607, 608
Katzenbach, Nicolas deB., 127
Katz, Lawrence, 186
Keebler, Gina, 803, 807, 808, 809
Kelling, George L., 548, 556, 557, 560
Kelly v. California, 772, 788
Kennedy, Anthony, 731
Kennedy, David M., 434
Kennedy, Patrick O., 773
Kennedy, Randall, 329, 330
Kennedy v. Louisiana, 773
Kerner Commission, 586, 607
Kerstetter, Wayne A., 609
Kessler, Daniel, 433
Kilmann, Peter R., 885
Kimbrough v. United States, 935
King, Rodney, 328, 581–582, 607, 611
Kirschheimer, Otto, 110
Kiss, Elizabeth, 208
Kleck, Gary, 193, 426, 427
Kleiman, Mark, 275, 292–293, 304, 307, 834
Klein, Herbert, 844
Klepper, Steven, 196–197
Klick, Jonathan, 189
Kling, Jeffrey R., 469, 471n3
Klockars, Carl B., 588, 591, 601
Knapp Commission, 590–591, 599, 600, 605, 607
Knox, Rebecca C., 425
Konopka, Gisela, 352
Koons-Witt, Barbara A., 716
Koper, Christopher, 529
Kornhauser, Ruth R., 563
Kovandzic, Tomislav V., 554
Kowalski, Matt, 184
Kreager, Derek A., 199
Kreisel, Betsy Wright, 609
Krone, Ray, 785, 786
Kruttschnitt, Candace, 903, 908
Kubrin, Charis, 395, 396
LaFree, Gary, 41, 44, 45
Lalonde, Robert, 469
Lamberth, John, 596
land-grant universities, 82
Land, Kenneth C., 562
Lane, Roger, 28, 29, 38, 40, 544
Langan, Patrick, 941
Langbein, John, 664, 680–681, 690
Larson, Richard C., 307
Latessa, Edward J., 173, 808
Lattimore, Pamela, 946
Laub, John H., 455
Lauritsen, Janet L., 326, 363, 721
Lavrakas, Paul, 126–127
law-and-order movement, 829
Law Enforcement and Mental Health Project at of 2000, 864
lawsuits, civil, 605–607
law without order, 164
(p. 965) lead exposure, crime rates and, 49
Lee, David S., 184, 185, 200
Lee, Matthew, 399
legal theorists, and facets of punishment, 104–106
legislatures, American, 4–5
legitimacy, 262–265
legitimacy, police, 579–581
data on, 581–582
minority views and experiences, 586–587
personal experience with police and, 583–586
procedural justice, 582–583
Lemke, Robert, 808
Lenihan, Kenneth J., 457
Leo, Richard A., 604, 647
level of focus policing strategy, 191
Level of Service Inventory (LSI), 170
Level of Supervision Inventory-Revised (LSI-R), 909, 911–912
Leventhal, Gerald S., 611
Levin, David, 941
Levi, Ron, 404, 409
Levitt, Steven D., 47, 48, 49, 186, 187, 188, 433, 434
Liebling, Alison, 885
Liebman, James, 784
Life Plan for Recovery program, 913
life-without-possibility-of-parole laws/sentences (LWOPs), 5, 16, 637, 642–643, 644, 759, 779, 781, 786–787, 888
lighting improvements, 140, 142
limiting retributivist theories, 106
Lind, Andrew, 391
Lindquist, Charles A., 814
Lindquist, Christine H., 814
lineups, police, 524
Lin, Jeffrey, 948
Lipset, Seymour Martin, 163, 166
Lipsey, Mark W., 940
Liptak, Adam, 732
Living Insurance for Ex-Prisoners (LIFE) program, 457
Lizotte, Alan, 427
local legal culture concept, 668, 669
Lochner, Lance, 193, 198
Lockett v. Ohio, 772
loco parentis, 627
Loftin, Colin, 738, 747–748
Lombroso, Cesare, 351–352
Longshore, Douglas, 861
Los Angeles Times, 581
Lösel, Friedrich, 133
Lott, John R., 428, 429, 430, 435
Loughran, Thomas A., 198–199
Love, Eulia, 581
low diversity policing approach, 191–192
Lowenkamp, Christopher T., 173, 808
Ludwig, Jens, 192, 427, 434, 556
Lynch, Mary, 835
Lyons, Christopher, 469
MacArthur Foundation, 628, 638
MacCoun, Robert, 193, 579
MacDonald, John M., 863
Machin, Stephen, 461–462
MacKenzie, Doris L., 835
Maconochie, Alexander, 929
Mader, Katherine, 608
Magarrell, Lisa, 237
Magnuson, Katherine, 132, 133
Maguire, Edward R., 552
mandated drug desistance programs, 306–307
Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System, 739
mandatory minimum sentencing laws, 5, 16, 98, 105, 432–433, 704, 717–718, 731
mandatory parole release, 928, 932
mandatory penalties, 730–733
before 1970, 733–736
deterrent effects, 744–749
evaluations, 747–749
mandatory minimums, 747–748
in other countries, 741–744
since 1970, 736–741
undoing the harm, 749–751
Manhattan Bail Project, 802
Manning, Peter K., 489–490, 549
Manpower Development and Training Act, 1962, 457
Mapp, Dolree, 603
Mapp v. Ohio, 603–604
marijuana, 285, 295, 296
Markowitz, Fred E., 562
Marquart, James, 779
Marshall, Ineke H., 36, 198
Marshall, Tony, 210, 226, 227, 235
Martinez, Ramiro, 393, 399
Martinson, Robert, 159, 165–167, 635, 828, 877, 931
(p. 966) Marvell, Thomas B., 187, 188, 433
Marx, Karl, 110, 117, 119
mass imprisonment, 881
Mastrofski, Stephen D., 549, 552
Mathiesen, Thomas, 884
Matsueda, Ross L., 199
Mattick, Hans, 801
Mauer, Marc, 331
Maxwell, Gabrielle, 235
McCleskey v. Kemp, 336–337, 338, 769–770
McCleskey, Warren, 336–337
McCoy, Candace, 740
McCrary, Justin, 184, 185, 200
McDavid, James C., 585
McDonaldization of justice, 228
McDowall, David, 426, 427, 738, 747–748
McDuff, Kenneth, 779
McElroy, James E., 609
McFarland, George, 784
McFarland v. State, 784
McKay, Henry D., 127, 562, 563
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania, 633
McManimon, Patrick, 740
McNiel, Dale E., 865
McNulty, Thomas, 326
Mead, George H., 218
means-over-ends syndrome, 549
Measure 11, Oregon’s, 740–741
mediation, victim-offender, 235
Megan’s Laws, 5
Meghir, Costas, 461–462
Menkel-Meadow, Carrie, 229–230
mental health
and adjustment to jail, 812–815
capital punishment and, 774–775
mental illness and incarceration, 816, 874, 887–888
of women prisoners, 910
mental health courts, 846, 864–865
Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act of 2004, 864
mentoring programs, 138
Merry, Sally, 226, 235
Messinger, Sheldon, 883
Messner, Steven F., 49, 558
meta-analyses, 517–518
methamphetamine, 285
Michigan Felony Firearms Statute, 738–739
Miller, Marna, 946
Milton, Catherine H., 595
Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines Commission, 106
Minow, Martha, 233
miracle of the cells, 184–185
Miranda v. Arizona, 577, 604–605
juveniles and Miranda rights, 644, 645–648, 649, 652n3
misconduct
capital punishment, 784–785
pretrial supervision, risk, and, 806–810
prosecutors, 784–785
misconduct, police, 587, 597
external mechanisms of control and accountability, 603–608
internal mechanisms of control and accountability, 597–603
mixed mechanisms of control and accountability, 609–610
police corruption, 587–591
racial profiling, 595–597
use of (excessive) force, 591–595
Mistretta v. United States, 709
Mitchell, Ojmarrh, 336
mobile digital terminal (MDT) communications, 600
Mobilization for Youth (MOBY) program, 127–128
Mocan, H. Naci, 186, 187–188, 557, 777
Model Penal Code, 103
Mollen Commission, 591, 600, 602, 607
Monell v. Department of Social Services, 606, 689–690
Monitoring the Future (MTF) project, 355
Monkkonen, Eric H., 28, 38
Monroe v. Pape, 606
Moody, Carlisle E., 187, 188, 433
Moore, Mark H., 540
Moore, Marlee E., 865
Moore, Sir Thomas, 215
morality, capital punishment and, 101, 102, 780
moral values of police legitimacy, 579–580
Morenoff, Jeffrey, 395
Morgan, Neil, 743
Morris, Allison, 235
Morris, Norval, 106, 827, 837, 872–873
Morrissey v. Brewer, 937
mortification of self, 884
Mouzos, Jenny, 42
Muhlhausen, David B., 553
Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, 464
multivariate analysis, 517
(p. 967) murder rate, 7
Murphy-Graham, Erin, 70, 71
Murphy, Kevin, 290
Muslim immigrants, 399
Mustard, David B., 456, 461
Myers, Samuel L., 456
Myrdal, Gunnar, 331, 338
Nagel, Ilene H., 806
Nagin, Daniel S., 179, 183, 192, 195, 196–197, 430, 745, 746
Nairobi Declaration on the Rights of Women and Girls to a Remedy and Reparation, 212
Narcotics Anonymous, 945
narrative theory, 239
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 428–429, 430–431, 434, 491, 745, 746
National Adult Literacy Survey, 936
national advisory bodies, 745–746
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 546
National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, 127
National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (1931), 392, 410n6
National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, 127
National Conference of State Legislatures, 736
National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline, 161
National Crime Prevention Programme (Australia), 80
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 7–9, 10, 35–36, 42, 326, 353, 362, 363, 364, 426, 427
National Demonstration of the Breaking the Cycle (BTC) project, 862
National District Attorneys Association, 943
National Drug Control Strategy, 848–849
National Family Violence Surveys, 364
National Firearms Act of 1934, 421
National Health Service (NHS), 73
National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), 35
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 73
National Institute of Corrections, 801
National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 75, 523–524, 737, 838
National Juvenile Defender Center, 649
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), 454, 455, 456, 466, 467–468
National Opinion Research Center, General Social Survey, 581
National Policy Improvement Agency, 79
National Research Council (NRC), 48, 519–520, 579, 588, 947
National Research Council Panel on Sentencing Research, 334
National Research Institute of Legal Policy (Finland), 746
National Rifle Association (NRA), 434
National Supported Work Demonstration, 455
National Supported Work Program (NSW), 457, 458
National Violence Against Women Survey, 364
National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), 436
National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), 35, 424
Native Americans, 326
Nazis, 98
Neapolitan, Jerome, 36
need principle, 169, 170–171
Nehusi, Kimani, 214
neighborhoods, immigrant, 406–407, 411n20
neighborhood watch programs, 138–139, 552
Nesovic, Alekdandra, 173
Nevin, Rick, 49
Newcomb, M. D., 455
New Jersey v. Soto, 596
Newman, Donald, 735
Newman, Oscar, 137, 144
New York Times, 76, 524
Nikolic-Ristanovic, Vesna, 234
Nixon, Richard M., 160
nominal probation, 835–836
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 208
“nothing works” claim, 137, 158, 159, 165, 166, 167, 697, 828, 877
nuisance abatement, 141–142
nullification, 733–734
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) program, 79, 80, 134–135
Nurse Home Visitor Program (NHVP), 77
Nutt, David, 61
Obama, Barack, 926, 946–947, 948
offender rehabilitation, 160
offending, racial disparities in victimization and, 323–326
offending, sex, gender and, 350–361
(p. 968) characteristics of female and male offenders, 358–359
explanations of sex differences in offending, 359–361
gender gap in crime, 351
nonviolent offending, 354–355
offending by young people, 355–356
offending over the centuries, 356–358
sex-specific levels and trends in offending, 351–358
violent offending, 352–354
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S., 188
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S., 77
Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), U.S., 280, 284, 285, 289
Ohlin, Lloyd, 127–128
Olds, David, 77, 79, 80, 134
100-to-1 rule, 108–109, 119, 718
O’Neill, Tip, 690
ontological insecurity, 22, 79
Operation Ceasefire, 192, 434
Operation Pressure Point, 307
Operation Restoration, 559
order maintenance policing, 557–558
Oregon’s Measure 11, 740–741
Orfield, Myron W., Jr., 604
Ortiz, Vilma, 409
Ostrom, Brian J., 297, 670
Ousey, Graham, 395, 396
Owen, Barbara, 908
Owens, Emily G., 188, 553–554
PACT (Pulling America’s Communities Together), 127
Pager, Devah, 197, 465
Palloni, Alberto, 393, 397
Palmer, Ted, 166
pardons, 927–928
parens patriae doctrine, 630, 636
parent education programs, 134–135
parent management training programs, 135–136
Pareto’s Law, 289–290
Pareto, Vilfredo, 289
Parks, Roger B., 562, 563
parole, 925–927, 946–948
abolition of, 105, 703, 925, 932–933
breach of parole conditions, 834
definition and evolution of, 927–934
history of parole development, 929–931
imprisonment rate for women and, 903–904
inmates release, recidivism, and prison return, 941–944
life-without-possibility-of-parole laws/sentences, 5, 16, 637, 642–643, 644, 759, 779, 781, 786–787, 888
parole boards, 162, 701
parole population growth and the characteristics of parolees, 934–936
parole release, 16, 931–934
parole supervision, 933–934, 937–940
parole violators and impact on prison populations, 943–944
promising programs in parole and re-entry, 944–946
re-entry systems and, 936–940
state parole systems, 18
under community corrections, 162
parole agencies, 827, 839n3
parole authorities, 928–929
Parole Violation Decision Making Instrument (PVDMI), 944
parsimony, 100
participation elasticity, 290
Pate, Anthony, 594, 601, 602
paternalistic justice, 371–372
paternalist theorists, 107
Paterson, Alexander, 876
Pathways to Prevention (Homel), 80
Patterson, Gerald, 135–136
Pawson, Ray, 130
Payne v. Tennessee, 772
Pease, Ken, 143
Peel, Sir Robert, 543, 610
Pemberton, Antony, 239
penal culture, 160
penal harm movement, 160
penitentiaries, American, 160–161, 875
Pennsylvania Crime Commission, 591, 599, 600, 605, 607
Penry, Johnny Paul, 774
Penry v. Lynaugh, 774
Pepper, John V., 52
Permanent Court of International Justice, 212
Perry Preschool Program, 69, 71
personal moral values of police legitimacy, 579–580
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 905
(p. 969) Personal Safety Survey (Australia), 363–364
Petersilia, Joan, 81, 838, 885–886, 938, 944–945, 947–948
Petrosino, Anthony, 67
Petry, Nancy M., 291
Pettit, Becky, 469
Pettit, Philip, 237
philosophers, and facets of punishment, 99–104, 106–107
Piehl, Anne Morrison, 393, 395–396, 716, 722
Pincoffs, Edmond, 103, 106
Piquero, Alex, 136
Pitchford, Susan R., 454
plea bargaining, 15, 676, 750
development in U.S., 680–685
plea negotiations, 15, 117–118, 122n14
post-plea meetings, 235
prosecutorial discretion in charging and, 673–685
Pogarsky, Greg, 194, 195
Poister, Theodore H., 585
police and crime control, 509–511
arrests, 524–525
CompStat, 530–531
criminal investigation by detectives, 522–524
customized policing model, 525–531
deterrent effect of police, 186–192
evaluating police practices, 519–531
evidence and crime control, 511–519
hot spots policing, 527–528
police crackdowns, 529
police demand for knowledge, 531–533
science-led policing, 532
policing repeat offenders, 529
preventive patrol, 520–521
problem-oriented policing, 192, 514, 526–527
rapid response to most calls, 521–522
restorative policing, 529–530
science-led policing, 531–532
standard policing model, 520–525
police auditors, 609
police chiefs and administration, 599
police-community collaboration, 563
Police Executive Forum, 521, 523
Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), 546–547
Police Foundation, 493–494
police legitimacy and lawful policing, 577–579
challenges and future directions, 610–613
police legitimacy, 579–587
police misconduct, 587–597
responses to police misconduct, 597–610
police organization, 479–480, 499–500
aggregate police presence and crime, 187–189
deterrent effect of police, 186–192
information technology, 488–490
internal structure of U.S. police organizations, 483–486
people doing policing, 490–491
police consolidation movement, 481–482
police culture, 491–494
police deployment and crime, 189–192
police governance, 494–497
police patrol technology, 487–488
police technology, 486–490
stability and change in American policing, 497–499
structure of U.S. policing industry, 480–483
police reform, 548–549
policy forums, 72
political conflicts, restorative justice processes and, 236
political science accounts, punishment and, 112–114
politics-administration dichotomy model, 545
Pollack, Harold A., 284
Pollak, Otto, 352
Porter, Anthony, 783
Posner, Richard, 116
posterior probability of risk, 198
post-plea courts, 852
post-plea meetings, 220, 235
post-sentence and prison pre-release, 236
Pound, Roscoe, 669, 734
Powell v. Alabama, 783
Pratt, Travis, 746
pre-bargaining, 674–676, 677, 678, 690n3
predictive policing, 489, 510
pre-plea courts, 852
preschool programs, 135
pre-sentence conferencing, 235
pre-sentence investigation reports (PSIs), 835
President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, 11, 127, 586, 591, 607, 610
President’s Crime Commission, Task Force on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime, 632
pretrial release. See jails and pretrial release
(p. 970) Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising (Sherman), 76–77
prevention programs, drug, 303
preventive police patrols, 520–521
primary crime prevention, 130
prior probability of risk, 198
Prison Community, The (Clemmer), 883
prisoner re-entry, 913–914
prisoners
employment programs for ex-prisoners, 457–458
parole release system, 18
percentages of state and federal, 13
prison sentences, 17 See also black offenders
prison industry, 876
prison privatization, 876, 877
prisons, 872–874
American penitentiaries, 160–161
as “correctional institutions”, 162
crime and imprisonment, 183–185
current issues and future of imprisonment, 889–892
effects of imprisonment, 882–889
ex-offenders and potential employers, 464–465
growth of U.S. prison population, 878–882
historical overview, 874–877
parole violators and impact on prison populations, 943–944
patterns and trends of imprisonment, 18–19
prison pre-release, 236
privatized, 876, 877
rehabilitation and reformatory process, 161–162
undocumented immigrants in federal, 396–397
women’s, 897–915
private security, 483
probation and community penalties, 825–826
brief history of probation, 1970–2010, 827–831
community service, 838
financial penalties, 837
future of probation, 838–839
intensive probation, 837
management for risk, 836–837
nominal probation, 835–836
pre-sentence investigation reports, 835
probation under community corrections, 162
scale of probation, 831–834
probation officers, 162, 301, 830
probation sentences, 16
problem-oriented policing, 192, 514, 526–527, 547–550, 565–567
community and, 538–543
Problem-Oriented Policing (Goldstein), 549
problem-solving courts, 719–720, 843
procedural justice, 238, 262, 263–264, 582–583
procedural reforms, for capital punishment, 771–772
professional model of policing, 546
Proffitt v. Florida, 337, 771
Progressive Era reformers, 545, 549, 627
progressive juvenile court, 1899–1960s, 629–631
Project Hope, 834
Project on Policing Neighborhoods, 563
Project Safe Neighborhoods, 434
Promise of Crime Prevention, The (Gant and Grabosky), 80
proportionality theories, 106
Proposition 36, California, 301–302
prosecution, 15, 663–666
definition and sources of prosecutorial power, 666–668
development of plea bargaining in the U.S., 680–685
elected prosecutors, 113
legal literature on, 671–673
misconduct in capital cases, 784–785
prosecutorial discretion in charging and plea negotiation, 673–679
role in sentencing, 718–719
sociological literature on, 669–671
theory of, 685–690
use of jailhouse informants and junk science, 785–786
Protocol 13, European Convention of Human Rights, 761–762
psychological effects, of imprisonment, 882–889
psychologists, 114
psychology of criminal conduct, 168–169
“Psychology of Punitive Justice, The” (Mead), 218
psychosis, 283
Public Interest, The, 165
Pulley v. Harris, 772
Punch, Maurice, 588
punishment, 95–99
and affects on disadvantaged groups, 117
(p. 971) deterrence and, 181–186
experiential effects of behavior and, 197
intermediate punishments, 719
new “justice model” of punishment, 701
pattern and trends, 17–21
philosophers and legal theorists, 99–107
political science accounts, 112–114
race, ethnicity, and nationality, 119–120
rehabilitation and punishment programs, 166
retribution and, 218–220
severe expressive punishment policies, 115–117
social theories, 107–112
thinking about, 115–120
Punishment and Deterrence (Andenaes), 261
Punishment and Responsibility (Hart), 103–104
punishment experience and punishment avoidance, 198
punitive restitution, 219, 223
pure restitution, 223
quasi-experimental designs (QEDs), 516, 526–527, 529
race, ethnicity, and crime, 119–120, 321–323
capital punishment and race in U.S., 767–770
court system and, 331–338
death penalty and, 336–338, 767–770
differential enforcement of the law, 329
policy implications and research agenda, 338–340
race, ethnicity and justice system processing, 327–338
race/ethnicity and sentencing decisions, 333–336, 711–712, 716
racial disparities in victimization and offending, 323–326
racial disproportionality in incarceration rates, 332–333
racial profiling, 329–330
racial and ethnic disparity, in sentencing, 333–336, 711–712, 716
Racial Justice Act, 769–770
racial profiling, 329–330, 595–597
racial threat hypothesis, 593
Rand Corporation, 546, 740, 837
random assignments, in design of community-based programs, 146
random forests modeling, 514
randomized and nonrandomized experiments, 65–66
randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 515–516, 522, 523–524, 526–527
Raphael, Steven, 434, 456, 460, 463, 465
rapid response strategies, police, 521–522
Rasinski, Kenneth A., 609
Ratcliffe, Jerry, 142
rational choice theory, 566
Raudenbush, Stephen W., 393, 395, 561
Rawls, John, 103, 106
Reagan, Ronald, 879, 880
re-arrests, 807, 809
reassurance, reinforcement, and legitimacy, 254–256, 267–268
Durkheim’s model, 258–260
legitimacy, 262–265
policy, 265–267
variations on Durkheimian themes, 260–261
Reaves, Brian A., 803, 804, 805, 807, 809
recidivism
drug courts and reduction of, 853–861
prisoner release and, 941–943
of re-entry programs, 946
REDRESS (NGO), 208
re-entry
evidence-based program implementation and cost-benefits, 945–946
parole and re-entry systems, 936–940
prisoner, 913–914
what works in re-entry programming, 944–945
Regional Community Policing Institutes (RCPI), 550–551
regression analysis, 181–182
rehabilitation, 156–159, 173–174
American “habit of the heart”, 158, 159–163
decline of rehabilitation and discretionary parole release, 931–934
early prison rehabilitative programs, 876–877
fall and rise of rehabilitation, 163–167
paradigm of effective correctional treatment, 167–173
Reid, Lesley, 396
reintegrative shaming, 225, 235, 237
Reisig, Michael D., 562, 563
Reiss, Albert J., Jr., 479, 554, 604
Reitz, Kevin R., 718
release on own recognizance (ROR), 804, 808
(p. 972) relevant conduct, 709
religion
capital punishment and, 779–780
early faith-based prison reforms, 875
remand prisoners, 15
Remington, Frank, 735
remorse, contrition, and apology, 238–239
Renigifo, Andres F., 557–558
Reno, Janet, 844
reparation, restoration, and restorative justice, 207–209, 240–241
history and development of key terms, 213–220
meanings and popularity, 209–213
restorative justice, 220–231
selected applications of, 231–236
theories related to, 237–240
reparative measures, 219
Repeat Call Addressing Policing Program (RECAP), 527
repeat offenders, policing, 529
Reppetto, Thomas, 140–141
republican normative theory, 211
residential burglary victimization, prevention of repeat, 143–144
responsivity principle, 169, 171
restitution
creative, 221–222
to crime victims, 215–216
“new paradigm” of restitutional justice, 222–223
restorative justice, 220–221
conceptions, definitions, and agendas of, 227–228
early ideas, 221–224
key terms, 225–227, 230–231
later ideas, 224–230
popular uses and misuses, 228
unleashed, 228–230
restorative justice conference (RJC), 530
restorative policing, 529–530
retribution, punishment and, 218–220
retributivists, 100, 101, 102–103, 105
Returning Home Study (Baltimore, Maryland), 914, 934
Retzinger, Suzanne M., 225, 226, 239
Reuter, Peter, 275, 282, 292–293, 304
Reyes, Jessica W., 49
Rhine, Edward E., 930
Rhodes, William, 809
Richards, Henry, 865
Rich, Thomas F., 307
Riedel, Marc, 768
Rierden, Andi, 908
right-to-carry gun laws, 428–431
RISE-UK, 235
risk assessment, on women offenders, 909–910
Risk, Need, and Responsivity (RNR) program (Canada), 836–837
risk perception
adolescent, 641 See also sanctions on risk perceptions
risk principle, 169–170
Rita v. U.S., 709
Roberts, Julian V., 228
Roberts v. Louisiana, 771
Roche, Declan, 233
Rockefeller Drug Laws, 736–737, 747
Rodriguez, Fernando, 399
Roebuck, Julian, 588
Roehl, Jan, 552
Roe v. Wade, 580
Romilly, Samuel, 734
Roncek, Dennis W., 191
Roper v. Simmons, 637, 638–640, 642, 650–651, 774
Rosenbaum, Dennis P., 137, 146
Rosenfeld, Richard, 44, 49, 83, 557–558, 941, 942
Rossi, Peter, 457
Rossman, David, 737–738
Ross, Robert R., 166
Roth, Jeffrey A., 28, 38, 275, 551–552
Rothman, David J., 160, 164, 872–873, 930
Rountree, Pamela Wilcox, 562
Rousseau, Danielle, 722
routine activities theory, 514–515
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 14
Royal Commission, 591
Ruback, Barry, 722
Rubin, Paul H., 186, 777
Rumbaut, Ruben, 395
Rusch, Georg, 110
Rush, Benjamin, 875
Sabol, William J., 469
Sacks, Joann, 913
Safe and Drug-Free Schools program (U.S. Dept of Education), 71
Sampson, Robert J., 326, 393, 395, 396, 455, 561, 568, 721
(p. 973) sanctions on risk perceptions, 192
contextual effect of, 193–194
deterrent effect of risk perceptions on behavior, 194–197
experiential effect of behavior on risk perceptions, 197–199
SARA model (scanning, analysis, response, and assessment), 542, 565, 567
Sayles, Susan, 427
Scalia, John, 803
Scandinavian countries
crime patterns and trends in, 9, 10, 11, 22, 23, 38, 40, 41, 42
criminal justice systems in, 4, 6, 14
imprisonment rates in, 6, 19
prison population in, 882
punishment methods, 17
women prisoners in, 906, 907
Scared Straight program, 60
Schafer, Stephen, 215
Scheff, Thomas J., 225, 226, 239
Schneider, Matthew C., 553
Schneider, William, 163
“Schools and Prisons: Fifty Years after Brown v. Board of Education” (Sentencing Project), 327
Schweinhart, Lawrence, 69
science-led policing, 531–532
Scottsboro boys, 783
Scrivner, Ellen M., 592
secondary crime prevention, 130, 131
Second Chance Act of 2007, 926, 946
second-generation immigrants, 393–395
Section 1983 lawsuits, 606
security guards, 144
selective crime prevention program, 131
self-injury and suicide, 910
Sellin, Thorsten, 777
sentence bargaining, 15, 117, 676–677, 679
sentence credits, 16
sentencing commissions, 704–705, 715
Sentencing Commission, U.S., 109, 709, 731, 732, 739, 932
sentencing disparities, 710–715
gender disparity, 712–713, 716
geographical variation in sentencing, 714–715
indeterminate sentencing, 104–105, 697, 701, 929, 930–931
racial and ethnic disparity, 333–336, 711–712, 716
socioeconomic disparity, 713–714
statutory determinate sentencing, 121n8
sentencing enhancements, for illegal gun possession, 432–433
sentencing guidelines, 705
federal, 707–710
state, 705–707
Sentencing Project, 327, 331, 787
sentencing reforms, 106, 715–717, 718
sentencing systems. See determinate sentencing systems
sentencing zones, 719
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks
color-coded alert system after, 189
immigration since, 386, 400–401, 410n12
terrorist-oriented policing after, 498–499
Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI), 458, 945–946
Serketich, Wendy, 136
sex, gender, and crime, 348–350
gender disparity in sentencing, 712–713, 716
policy implications, 372–374
sex, gender, and criminalization, 367–372
sex, gender, and offending, 350–361
sex, gender, and victimization, 361–367
sex offenders, 5
parole surveillance for, 939
Shadish, William, 65
shall-carry gun laws, 28–29
shaming, 237–238
Shapland, Joanna, 529, 585
Sharpe, Susan, 226, 230
Shaw, Clifford R., 127, 562, 563
Shearing, Clifford, 230, 231
Shepherd, Joanna M., 186, 749, 777
Sherman, Lawrence, 76–77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 187, 190, 191, 527, 529, 549–550, 589
Shi, Lan, 188
Shustorovich, Ellen, 186
Siddiqi, Qudsia, 808, 809
Silberman, Matthew, 908
Silverman, Eli B., 601
Simon, Jonathan, 23, 904, 937
Sims-Blackwell, Brenda, 716
simultaneity problem, 183
situational crime prevention, 131, 139–141, 146–147
closed-circuit television (CCTV), 142–143
defined, 140
improved street lighting, 142
nuisance abatement, 141–142
(p. 974) other programs, 144
preventing repeat residential burglary victimization, 143–144
Skipper v. South Carolina, 772
Skogan, Wesley, 547, 558, 560, 561, 564
slave laws/codes, 98, 767–768
Slawson, Donna B., 776
Smith, Douglas A., 190
Smith, Paula, 173
social disorganization theory, 538, 562–565
social learning programs, 168
social-psychological model of police legitimacy, 580
social theories, punishment and, 107–112
Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison, The (Sykes), 883–884
socioeconomic disparities, in sentencing, 713–714
sociological effects, of imprisonment, 882–889
soft crimes, 554
Solomon, Amy L., 933
Sorensen, Jonathan, 779
Sousa, William H., Jr., 557
South Carolina v. Gathers, 772
special groups, capital punishment and treatment of, 773–775
specialty courts, 866–867
beyond drug courts, 862–866
domestic violence courts, 846, 863–864
mental health courts, 846, 864–865
non-drug, 847–848, 865–866
rise of, 846–850
specific deterrence, 179
specific responsivity principle, 171
Spelman, William, 179
Spencer, Herbert, 215
Spohn, Cassia, 334, 335, 336, 713
Spouse Assault Replication Program (SARP), 190
Staff, Jeremy, 455
Stafford, Mark C., 197–198
Stalans, Loretta J., 228
Stamatel, Janet P., 36
Standard Operating Procedures, Rules of Conduct, 577
standard policing model, 520–525
Stanford v. Kentucky, 638, 774
State Court Processing Statistics (SCPS) program, 803, 806, 807
state criminal justice systems (U.S.), 13–17
state sentencing guidelines, 705–707
static risk factors, 169–170
statistical conclusion validity, 63, 64, 66
statutory determinate sentencing, 703–704
statutory systems, 121n8
Steffensmeier, Darrell J., 454–455, 712–713
Steinberg, Laurence, 455
Stemen, Donald, 44
Stoll, Michael A., 465
Stowell, Jacob, 407, 803
Strang, Heather, 79, 80, 226, 230, 235, 238, 529
street lighting, improved, 18
Strickland v. Washington, 772, 783–784
Strong, Karen H., 210, 220, 231
Struggle for Justice (American Friends Service Committee), 634
subjective disorder measures, 561–562
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 284, 285
substantive reforms, for capital punishment, 773
suicide, prisoner, 816, 885, 889, 910
Sullivan, Dennis, 231
summary parole, 939
sunset provisions/clauses, 733, 750
Sunshine, Jason, 584
supermax prisons, 881
supervisors, police agency, 599–601
Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs), 35–36, 324
Supreme Court decisions, U.S., 13, 21, 105
capital punishment, 185, 758, 768, 769–775, 783–784, 788
firearms, 421, 422
mandatory sentencing laws, 731
parole issues, 935, 937
plea-bargaining process, 675, 678–679, 689–690
police lawfulness, 580, 591–592, 603–605, 606
pretrial release, 802
prison conditions, 877
race and ethnicity, 327, 331, 336–337, 338
U.S. sentencing systems, 709, 716, 717
suspended prison sentence, 836
Sutherland, Edwin, 390, 393
Sutton, Adam, 308
Sviridoff, Michelle, 453, 609
“swallowing the gun” (flat bargains), 15
(p. 975) Sweeten, Gary, 468
Sykes, Gary W., 549
Sykes, Gresham, 883–884, 886
systematic reviews, 517, 518–519
systematic social observations (SSOs), 561–562
Tabarrok, Alexander, 184–185, 189, 200
tactical displacement, 140–141
Take Charge of Your Life program, 526
Tankersley, Robby Lee, 785–786
target displacement, 141
Task Force on Community Preventive Services, 134
Task Force on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime (President’s Crime Commission), 633
Tavares, Cynthia, 42
Tavuchis, Nicholas, 239
Taylor, Charlene, 191
Taylor, Laurie, 884
Taylor, Ralph B., 548–549, 561
Taylor, Ted, 133
T-CAP (Texas City Action Plan to Prevent Crime), 127
team policing, 547
technology, police, 486–490
Telles, Edward, 409
temporal displacement, 140
Tennessee v. Garner, 591–592, 595
Terblanche, Stephan, 742
Terrill, William, 599
territorial displacement, 141
terrorism
color-coded alert level, 189
terrorist-oriented policing as innovation, 497–499
tertiary crime prevention, 130
Thacher, David, 558, 561–562, 565, 568
Thatcher, Margaret, 745, 879
therapeutic integrity, 172
Thibaut, John W., 582
Thinking about Crime (J.Q. Wilson), 829
Thomas, Timothy, 328
Thomas, W. I., 352
Thompson, James W., 453
Thompson v. Oklahoma, 774
Thornberry, T. P., 454
three-strikes laws, 16, 105, 160, 675, 677, 704, 731–732
California’s, 5, 115–117, 180, 181, 184–185, 748–749
in other countries, 742–743
Thurman, Quint, 553
Tifft, Larry, 231
Tilley, Nick, 82, 130
tipping points, 293, 307
Tison v. Arizona, 773
tobacco, 296–297
Toch, Hans, 884–885
Tombs, Jacqueline, 914
Tomuschat, Christian, 237
total institution, 884
tough-on-crime legislation, 829
Transitional Aid Research Project (TARP), 457
transitional justice, 232
Travis, Jeremy, 838
treatment, effective correctional, 167–173
Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC), 301
Treatment Outcome Prospective Study (TOPS), 849
Tremblay, Richard, 132
trial penalty, 679, 680
Trojanowicz, Robert, 548
Trumbull, William N., 461
Trupin, Eric, 865
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), South Africa’s, 211, 233
truth commissions, 207, 230, 232–233
truth-in-sentencing laws, 16, 105, 160, 702–703, 740, 831, 908
Tuch, Steven A., 581–582, 586, 587, 596
Turner, Susan, 938
Tutu, Desmond, 233
Tyler, Tom R., 238, 255, 262–265, 267, 580, 582–585, 611
ubuntu, 233
Uggen, Christopher, 455
Umbreit, Mark S., 235, 236
undocumented immigrants, 396–397
unemployment, 459–460, 936, 940
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 28, 30–31, 35, 36, 324, 348, 352–353, 396
uniformed police, early, 543–545
United Kingdom
Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 61
evidence-based approach to crime policy, 78–79
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 73
(p. 976) prison population in U.S. and, 872, 878–882, 884, 887–888, 890–892 See also England and Wales
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 637
United Nations Council Resolution (2002), 218
United Nations Economic and Social Council, 210, 217–218
United Nations General Assembly (2006), resolutions adopted by, 208, 212, 216–218, 242n9
United Nations International Law Commission, 212
United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (UNCS), 36
United States
capital punishment and race in, 767–770
crimes committed against immigrants in the, 398–401
crimes committed by immigrants in the, 390–397
criminalization in the, 368–369
data on imprisonment of women and men, 899–905
death penalty in the, 757–760, 763–770
development of plea bargaining in the, 680–685
growth of U.S. prison population, 872, 874–877, 943
gun ownership in, 420–425
imprisonment/incarceration rates in, 5–6, 17–23, 444, 698–699, 799
internal structure of police organizations, 483–486
intimate partner violence in the, 364
jail inmate population, 795, 797–800
LWOPs, 786–787
mandatory penalties, 735–741
stability and change in American policing, 497–499
structure of U.S. policing industry, 480–483
violent/nonviolent offending in the, 352–355
violent victimization in the, 361–363
women’s imprisonment in, 899–905, 906–907
United States v. Emerson, 422
United States v. Miller, 421
universal crime prevention program, 131
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 216
University of York, Centre for Criminal Justice Economics and Psychology, 79
Urban Institute, 776, 933, 934, 936
U.S. v. Booker, 709, 717
U.S. v. Salerno, 802
utilitarians, 102–103, 104, 121n7
validity, in evaluation studies, 63–65
Van de Kamp v. Goldstein, 690
van den Haag, Ernst, 780
van Dijk, Jan J. M., 130
vanishing trials, 679
van Ness, Daniel, 210, 220, 227–228, 231, 236
VanNostrand, Marie, 803, 807, 808, 809
Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Communities (J.Q. Wilson), 492–493
Vera Institute of Justice, 607, 802
Verdeja, Ernesto, 237
victimization
characteristics of female and male victims, 366
explanations of sex differences in, 367
immigrant, 398–400
intimate partner violence, 364–365
over the centuries, 365–366
prevention of repeat residential burglary, 143–144
racial disparities in victimization and offending, 323–326
sex, gender, and, 361–367
surveys/rates, 7–10, 11, 14, 36
violent, 361–364
of young people, 365
victim-offender mediation (VOM), 235
Victim-Offender Reconciliation Project, 223, 244n35
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, 128, 550, 551, 596–597, 607, 848, 850
violent crimes
historical data on, 28–33
link between drugs and, 46
violence by females, 358–359, 374n13 See also sex, gender, and crime
Visher, Christy, 946
Vogel, Mary E., 684
Vollmer, August, 546
volunteer community treatment services, 945
von Hirsch, Andrew, 106, 230, 231, 746, 932
voting issues, prisoners and, 5, 940
Wacquant, Loïc, 107–108, 109, 110, 116, 117, 119, 878
waivers of counsel, juveniles’, 648–650, 653n5
(p. 977) waiver trials, 738
Waldfogel, Joel, 197, 468
Walgrave, Lode, 220, 230
Walker, Allison, 42
Walker, Laurens, 582
Walker, Samuel, 329, 548, 607, 608, 609, 610
Wallman, Joel, 942
Wandersman, Abraham, 146
Waples, Sam, 142
Ward, Geoff, 722
war indemnities, 216
“war on drugs”, 109, 119, 322, 833, 844, 848, 880–881, 892
war on terrorism, 400, 410n12
Warr, Mark, 197–198
Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 77–78, 84n8
Waters, Tony, 392
Watson, David, 210, 228
Weber, Max, 683
Webster, Cheryl, 199, 744, 746
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn, 133
Weikart, David, 69
Weil, Douglas S., 425
Weiman, David, 456
Weimer, David, 69
Weinberg, Bruce A., 456, 461
Weinberg, Ehsan, 461
Weisburd, David, 141, 184, 189, 190, 191–192, 513, 526–527, 566
Weiss, Carol, 70, 71
Weitzer, Ronald, 581–582, 586, 587, 596
welfare policies, and incarceration rates of women, 904
Welsh, Brandon C., 137, 139, 142
Western, Bruce, 197
Wetherington, Gerald, 844
“what works”
movement in corrections, 171–172
for prisoner re-entry programs, 945, 946
for women offenders, 911, 913–914, 915
“What Works? Questions and Answers about Prison Reform” (Martinson), 105, 165, 828
Wheatley, Michael, 887
White, Michael D., 810, 817
Whitley, John E., 435
Why People Obey the Law (Tyler), 262
Wickersham Commission, 607
Wickersham report, 392, 410n6
Wiersema, Brian, 747–748
Wilkins v. Maryland State Police, 595
Wilkins v. Missouri, 774
Williamson, Ronald Keith, 786
Willingham, Cameron Todd, 783
Wilson, David B., 854
Wilson, Dean, 142
Wilson, Doris James, 943
Wilson, James Q., 492–493, 495, 496, 548, 593, 829, 932
Wilson, Richard, 233
Wilson, William J., 326
Winkel, Frans W., 239
Winship, Christopher, 434
Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 460
Witte, Ann Dryden, 456
Wolfers, Justin, 186
Wolfgang, Marvin, 768
women’s prisons, 897–899, 914–915
cross-national perspective of women’s imprisonment, 905–907
gender responsive programs, 911–913
nature of women’s imprisonment, 907–914
prisoner re-entry, 913–914
U.S. data on the imprisonment of women and men, 899–905
Woodson v. North Carolina, 771
Worden, Robert E., 592, 593
work and crime, 444–447, 470–471
economic conditions, labor market incentives, and crime, 452–462
employment and stigma on ex-offenders, 464–465
employment consequences of incarceration, 465–470
how does serving time affect employment prospects, 462–470
incarceration and the accumulation of work experience, 463–464
opportunity cost of crime, 448–452
unemployment, 459–460, 936, 940
wages, 460–462
World Health Organization (WHO), 36
Worrall, John L., 554
Wright, Bradley R. E., 195
Wright, John P., 455
Yarborough v. Alvarado, 646
Yeo, Helen, 586
Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 671
youth courts, 4
youth justice conferences, 235
(p. 978) youth offenders
offending by young people, 355–356
rise in youth homicide, 42
youth gangs, 192
Zant v. Stephens, 772
Zatz, Majorie S., 334
Zdenkowski, George, 743
Zedner, Lucia, 215–216, 227
Zehr, Howard, 208, 218, 220, 221, 223
zero-tolerance policing, 559–560
Zhao, Jihong, 553
Zhou, Min, 395
Zimring, Franklin E., 42, 47, 48, 106, 179, 195, 397, 762, 763
Zingraff, Matt, 596