Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 15 February 2019

(p. 503) Index

(p. 503) Index

A
Action for Health in Diabetes Trial, 107
action stage, in TTM, 284
action theory, for personality and physical theory, 206
ACTivity PromoTION (ACTION) trial, 452–453
acute exercise, 41
anxiety levels and, 43
body image and, as research topic, 67
cognition and, 77–82. See also cognitive-energetic model
catecholamines and, 82
CBF and, 81–82
central fatigue hypothesis for, 79
duration as influence on, 78
inverted-U hypothesis for, 78–79
mechanisms for, 81–82
serotonin and, 82
theoretical basis for, 78–81
transient hypofrontality hypothesis for, 79–80, 80
adaptive immunity, 137
function of, 176
adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 146–147
adolescents
with disabilities, physical activity for, 338–339
barriers to, 344–346
community disapproval for, 345
competence and, 338, 350
enjoyment levels for, 350–351
environmental barriers to, 345–346
feelings of normalcy from, 338
independence and, 338
individual self-perceptions for, 338
institutional barriers to, 345
institutional predictors for, 351
pain as barrier to, 344–345
parents as barrier to, 345
peer disapproval, 345
among peers, 338–339
PE personnel disapproval, 345
physical construction barriers to, 345–346
predictors for, 350–351
reciprocity and, among peers, 339
self-efficacy from, 350
in social environments, 338–339
type of disability as barrier to, 344
intelligence and exercise in, 410–412
interventions for, 419–425
measurement for, 425
methodologies for, 422–425
NAPSE guidelines for, 410
research findings for, 422–425
physical activity for, 26
with disabilities, 338–339
recommendation guidelines for, in U.S., 29
sedentary behavior among, 26
self-efficacy for, 393
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), 131, 175
adults
with disabilities, physical activity for, 339–343
barriers to, 346–349
competence and, 339
economic costs of, 348
enjoyment levels for, 339–340
environmental barriers to, 348–349
exercise interventions for, with developmental disabilities, 420–421
family influence on, 342–343
fatigue from, 347
fear as factor in, 347
fitness facility personnel disapproval, 348
health care personnel and, 348, 353
illness and, 347
individual self-perceptions for, 339–341
injury and, 347
institutional barriers to, 348–349
lack of knowledge and, 347
lack of opportunity for, 349
neighborhood topography as barrier, 349
pain from, 347
parental influence on, 343
predictors for, 351–353
prior experience as predictor for, 351–352
QoL for, 340–341
relationship complexity and, 341–342
self-concept for, 352
self-efficacy from, 339, 352
siblings as influence on, 343
social barriers to, 348
in social environments, 341–343
social interactions and, 342
time constraints for, 347–348
TPB for, 352–353
TRA for, 353
by type of disability, 346–347
physical activity recommendation guidelines for, in U.S., 28, 253–254
aerobic exercise
anxiety levels and, 42–43
guidelines for, 5
mental health benefits from, 5
for older adults, 369
cognitive impairment and, 374–375
affect
core, 322–323
in decision research, 301
in exercise psychology, 247–248. See also dual-mode theory
(p. 504) as anticipated, 247
associations for, 247
attitudes for, 247
as behavioral motivator, 309–310, 310–311
enjoyment in, 310–311
parameters of, 247
reason in conflict with, 323–324
reassessment of, 311–314
in theories for, 244–245
hedonic well-being and, 118
as heuristic, 301
in exercise psychology, 325
as motivator of behavior, 301, 307
for exercise, 309–310, 310–311
negative, 313
physical activity and, 316–321
“feel worse” effect, 316
meta-analysis for, 321
studies on, 316–321
RE and, 472, 472–479
anxiety and, 472–475
as positive, 475
research for, 475–476
training studies for, 475
self-efficacy and, 281
afferent fibers, muscle pain and, 145
age. See also adolescents; children; older adults
body image and, 64–65
chronic exercise and, 87–88
cerebral structure influenced by, 85
free-radical theory of aging and, 87
physical activity and
cognitive effects, 77
personality and, 214
aging. See also older adults
bodily changes from, 359–360
brain structure changes with, 367, 369–370
episodic memory and, 367
lifestyle factors as influence on, 360
process-based abilities and, 366–367
WHO predictions on, 359
working memory and, 367
agoraphobia
characteristics of, 38–39
prevalence of, 39
agreeableness, physical activity and, 213
allodynia, 144
Alzheimer's disease (AD), 374
ApoE and, 88–89
strength fitness and, 374
American Cancer Society, 102
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
exercise guidelines for, 5
physical activity guidelines for, 28
for intensity of activity, 315–316
American Heart Association (AHA), 5
amotivation, 287, 391
anaerobic exercise
anxiety levels and, 44–45
dose-response approaches in, 44–45
intensity factors for, 44
with resistance exercise, 45
guidelines for, 5
resistance exercise, 25–26
anxiety levels with, 45
angiogenesis, 369, 412
animal studies, on activity and brain development, 412
anomalies, in science, 297
anorexia nervosa, 69
anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), 147
antidepressants, in anxiety disorder treatments, 40
Anti-Seneca (La Mettrie), 304
anxiety. See also stress
biological challenge models for, 45–47
with caffeine, 46
with CCK4, 46
in VC inhalation studies, 46
definition of, 37–38
disorders, 37
prevalence of, 39
exercise and, 41–45
academic literature on, 41–42
acute, 43
aerobic, 42–43
anaerobic, 44, 44–45, 45
change mechanisms for, 50–51
chronic, 43
consensus statements for, 52
distraction/time-out hypothesis for, 51
dose-response approaches to, 44–45, 50
future research applications with, 51–52
pharmacotherapy compared to, 44
practical recommendations for, 51
preventive effects for, evidence of, 42
research on, 41–42
thermogenic hypothesis for, 51
traditional treatment therapies versus, 43–44
measurement of, 40–41
physiological, 41
psychological, 40–41
from negative body image, 56
prevalence of, 39–40
of disorders, 39
in Epidemiological Catchment Area Study, 39
in National Comorbidity Study, 39
RE and, 472–475
sensitivity to, 49
state, 40
stress and, 38
chronic, 37
symptomatology for, 38–39
clinical, 38–39
normal, 38
trait, 40
neuroticism and, 40
treatment therapies, with exercise and, 45–51
with biological challenge models, 45–47
with clinical samples, 47–50
traditional versus, 43–44
anxiety disorders, 37
characteristics of, 38–39
economic costs of, 39–40
generalized, 39
characteristics of, 38–39
in older adults, physical activity and, 364
as preventive therapy, 365
prevalence of, 39
treatment protocols for, 40
with antidepressants, 40
with benzodiazepines, 40
with cognitive-behavioural therapy, 40
exercise versus traditional, 43–44
with physical activity, 40
with psychotherapy, 40
anxiolytic effects, of physical activity, 40, 44
apolipoprotein E (ApoE), 88–89
arginine vasopressin (AVP), 131
Aristippus, 302
Aristotle, on psychological hedonism, 303
arthritis. See also osteoarthritis
muscle pain and, 145
Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial (ADAPT), 101, 109
aspirin, for muscle pain, 161
at-risk populations
body image research for, 68–69
physical activity correlates for, 196
attention, intelligence and, 416
Australia, physical activity paradox in, 299–300
autonomy, 122
in children's motivations for physical activity, 394–396
in PE environments, 394–396
autotelic experience, 121. See also flow
B
Bain, Alexander, 305–306, 307
Baldwin, James Mark, 307
Bandura, Albert, 307
behaviorism, as school of thought, 306
behavioural learning theory, 243
social learning theory and, 243
(p. 505) Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 10, 11
for HRQL and obesity, 106
Bender Motor Gestalt Test, 420
beneception, 307
Bentham, Jeremy, 305
benzodiazepines, in anxiety disorder treatments, 40
best possible self (BPS) intervention, 124
beta adrenergic activation, 171
Binet, Alfred, 413
Binet-Simon Scale, 413
binge eating disorder, 69
biological challenge models, for exercise treatments, 45–47
with caffeine, 46
with CCK4, 46
in VC inhalation studies, 46
BKN. See bradykinin
Blair, Steven, 17–18
blood pressure, after Tai Chi, 494
body composition, 60–61
body concerns, 56–57
body image. See also negative body image
affective dimension of, 55
for at-risk populations, 68–69
baseline, with exercise interventions, 63
behavioural dimension of, 55
body concerns and, 56–57
cognitive dimension of, 55
definition of, 55–56
disturbance, 56
dose-response approach to, 69–70
eating disorders and, 69
exercise interventions for
by age, 64–65
baseline body image with, 63
body composition and, 60–61
for cardiovascular fitness, 61
characteristics of, 65–66
dose-response approach in, 69–70
for eating disorders, 69
environmental influences on, 67
by ethnicity, 65
exerciser characteristics, 63–65
experience level and, 63
focus on body function over appearance in, 71
by gender, 63–64
gender-role orientation and, 64
mechanisms for, 57–60
meta-analytic studies for, 56–57
moderators for, 59–71
multiple dimensions of, measurement criteria for, 71–72
objective improvements from, 60–62
perceived improvements from, 62
recommendations for, 70–72
self-efficacy improvements from, 62
for strength fitness, 61
study design theories for, 70–71
among women, 62, 63–64
future research on, 67–70
for acute exercise on state body image, 67
for at-risk populations, 68–69
media focus on, 55
negative, muscle dysmorphia as, 479
for people with chronic diseases and disabilities, 68
perceptual dimension of, 55
physical fitness and
body composition and, 60–61
of cardiovascular system, 61
objective improvements in, 60–62
perceived improvements in, 62
SPA and, 61
for strength, 61
for women, 62
poor, 56
during pregnancy, 68–69
SPA and, 61
self-efficacy and, 61, 62
among women, 61, 62
state, 67
studies for, 57
subjective satisfaction with, 55
treatment therapies for, 56
body image disorder, 56
body image disturbance, 56. See also negative body image
body mass index (BMI), 29
bone health, with Tai Chi, 492
bounded rationality, 300
BPS intervention. See best possible self intervention
bradykinin (BKN), 146
DOMS and, 151
brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 86–87
HRT and, 89–90
mental health and, 136
brain structures. See also intellect, physical activity and; intelligence
aging and, 369–370
exercise and, 369, 370, 411–412
angiogenesis, 369, 412
animal studies on, 412
infant research on, 411
neurogenesis from, 369
play research on, 411–412
synaptogenesis from, 369, 412
breast cancer, physical activity and, 21
HRQL after exercise, 102
REHAB trial for, 437
in supportive care outcomes, 434–435
in Weight Training and Breast Cancer Trial, 103
WTBS study for, 437
Broaden-and-Build theory, 120
bulimia nervosa, 69
C
Cabanac, Michel, 307
caffeine
in biological challenge models, 46
for muscle pain, 159, 161
RPE and, 471
Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Batter (CANTAB), 418–419
Canadian Fitness Survey, 20
cancer, 431. See also specific types
causative factors for, 431
epidemiology for, 430–431
obesity as factor for, 253
physiological development of, 431
staging for, 431
treatment therapies for, 431–432
HT, 432
as multi-modal, 432
physical activity and, 434–437
psychological morbidity with, 432
RT, 431
surgery, 431
cancer, physical activity and, 21–22, 433–442
ACTION trial for, 452–453
breast, 21
HRQL after exercise, 102
REHAB trial for, 437
in supportive care outcomes, 434–435
in Weight Training and Breast Cancer Trial, 103
WTBS study for, 437
determinants of, 445–449
ecological models for, 449
hematological, 435
HRQL and, exercise effects on, 98, 101–104
American Cancer Society recommendations for, 102
for breast cancer, 102
with resistance exercise, 103
START study for, 102–103, 435–436
lung, 21
motivation for, 444–454
barriers to, 449–450
for behavior change, 451–454
future research applications for, 454–455
preferences in, 450–451
PACC framework, 433–434
post-diagnosis effects, 22
prevalence of, 444–445
prostate, 21
in supportive care outcomes, 435
psychological stress and, 169
SCT for, 446–448
self-efficacy and, 447–448
SDT for, 448–449
(p. 506) in supportive care outcomes, 433, 434–442
for breast cancer, 434–435
for CRF, 435
for end of life, 439–440
future research applications for, 442–444
maintenance of change in, 441
mediators for, 440–441
moderators for, 440–441
outcome variables for, 441–442
PACC framework for, 433–434
for prostate cancer, 435
QoL in, 436, 436–437
RCTs for, 434–435
REHAB trial, 437
in START study, 102–103, 435–436
survivorship and, 437–439
with treatment therapies, 434–437
WTBS study for, 437
TPB for, 445–446
PBC and, 445–446, 446
TTM for, 448
yoga, 438–439
cancer related fatigue (CRF), 435
Cantril's Life Ladder, 99
cardiorespiratory fitness, 20
muscle pain during exercise and, 158
for older adults, 361–363
cognitive impairment and, 374
measurement methodology for, 362, 363
oxygen utilization for, 362–363
psychological stress and, adaptations to, 170–174
cardiovascular disease (CVD). See also coronary heart disease, physical activity and
among firefighters, 173
HRQL with, exercise influence on, 98, 105–106
with CHAMP, 105–106
primary goals of, 105
immune system and, 176
obesity and, 181–182
physical activity and, 20–21
psychological stress and, 169
Tai Chi and, 495
cardiovascular fitness, 61
Cardiovascular Health and Physical Activity Maintenance Program (CHAMP), 105–106
Carroll, John, 417
case-control studies, for physical activity epidemiology, 14
catecholamines, 82. See also epinephrine; norepinephrine
diurnal neuroendocrine patterns for, 135
stress and
for firefighters, 179–180
hormone activation and, 175
immune system cell redistribution from, 178–180
category scales, for pain intensity, 154
Cattell, Raymond, 414
Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 360
physical activity guidelines for, 28
central fatigue hypothesis, 79
cerebral blood flow (CBF)
cognition and, 81–82
chronic exercise as influence on, 86
TCD for, 81
cerebral structure
chronic exercise as influence on, 84–85
aging and, 85
in enriched environments, 85
Charatan, Fred, 295
chemotherapy (CT), 431–432
children
with disabilities, physical activity for, 338–339
barriers to, 344–346
community disapproval for, 345
competence and, 338, 350
enjoyment levels for, 350–351
environmental barriers to, 345–346
feelings of normalcy from, 338
independence and, 338
individual self-perceptions for, 338
institutional barriers to, 345
institutional predictors for, 351
pain as barrier to, 344–345
parents as barrier to, 345
peer disapproval, 345
among peers, 338–339
PE personnel disapproval, 345
physical construction barriers to, 345–346
predictors for, 350–351
reciprocity and, among peers, 339
self-efficacy from, 350
in social environments, 338–339
type of disability as barrier to, 344
intelligence and exercise in, 410–412
interventions for, 419–425
measurement for, 425
methodologies for, 422–425
NAPSE guidelines for, 410
research findings for, 422–425
motivations for, for physical activity
adult influences on, 386
adult motivations compared to, 386
autonomy and control as, 394–396
biological factors in, 388
CAPA scale for, 397
in competence motivation theory, 389
determinants for, 388
developmental changes and, 386, 388, 403–404
development influences on, 402–404
enjoyment of activity as, 397
in expectancy-value theory, 389–390, 390
friendship-seeking as, 401, 401–402
future research applications for, 404–405
gender influences on, 388, 397
among girls, 388, 397
importance value as, 397
integrative approach to, 405
interventions for, 397–398
intrinsic purposes of, 386
parental influence on, 398–400
peer influence on, 400–402
peer support for, 402
perceived competence as, 392–394, 402–403
physical exertion as, 397
positive affective experiences as, 396–398
prior experience as, 386
in SDT, 390–391
site access as, 388
social influences on, 388
social relationships as, 397, 398–402
theoretical perspectives on, 388–392
physical activity for, 26
with disabilities, 338–339
habit-setting for, 385–386
recommendation guidelines for, in U.S., 29
physical inactivity among, 385
Children's Attraction to Physical Activity (CAPA) scale, 397
cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK4), 46
chronic exercise, 41
anxiety levels and, 43
cognition and, 82–90
aging and, 85, 87–88
ApoE and, 88–89
BDNF and, 86–87
CBF influenced by, 86
cerebral function influenced by, 85–86
cerebral structure influenced by, 84–85
cognitive reserve hypothesis for, 84
(p. 507) free-radical theory of aging and, 87
frontal lobe hypothesis for, 84
gender influences on, 89
HRT and, 89–90
mechanisms for, 84–87
meta-analyses for, 82–83
moderators for, 87–90
RCTs for, 82–83
theoretical basis for, 83–84
chronic illness, in older adults, physical activity and, 370–372
coronary heart disease, 371–372
hypertension, 372
metabolic syndrome, 371
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), HRQL and, exercise influence on, 98, 104
REACT study for, 104
chronic stress, 37
clinical anxiety, 38–39
cognition
acute exercise and, 77–82. See also cognitive-energetic model
catecholamines and, 82
CBF and, 81–82
central fatigue hypothesis for, 79
duration as influence on, 78
inverted-U hypothesis for, 78–79
mechanisms for, 81–82
serotonin and, 82
theoretical basis for, 78–81
transient hypofrontality hypothesis for, 79–80, 80
CBF and, 81–82
chronic exercise and, 82–90
aging and, 85, 87–88
ApoE and, 88–89
BDNF and, 86–87
CBF influenced by, 86
cerebral function influenced by, 85–86
cerebral structure influenced by, 84–85
cognitive reserve hypothesis for, 84
free-radical theory of aging and, 87
frontal lobe hypothesis for, 84
gender influences on, 89
HRT and, 89–90
mechanisms for, 84–87
meta-analyses for, 82–83
moderators for, 87–90
RCTs for, 82–83
theoretical basis for, 83–84
in older adults, physical activity for, 366–369
physical activity and
age as influence on, 77
complexity of relationship between, 77
historical overview of, 76–77
measurement methodology for, 77
mechanisms for, 77
studies on, 76–77
well-being from, 119
Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), 418
cognitive-behavioural therapy, for anxiety disorder treatment, 40
cognitive-energetic model, 80–81
activation in, 80
arousal dimensions in, 80
cognitive sources in, 80–81
computational stages of, 80
controller in, 81
cognitive impairment, in older adults, 373–375
AD, 374
aerobic exercise and, 374–375
cardiorespiratory fitness and, 374
cognitive movement, for intelligence, 415–417
attention in, 416
declarative knowledge, breadth of, 415
executive processes in, 416–417
perceptual tasks in, 416
procedural skill, breadth of, 415
processing capacity in, 415–416
processing speed in, 415
short-term memory in, 416
working memory in, 416
cognitive psychology, intelligence testing and, 417–419
cognitive reserve hypothesis, 84
Colorectal Cancer and Home Based Physical Exercise (CAN-HOPE) trial, 449
community trials, for physical activity epidemiology, 15
competence
for adults with disabilities, 339
for children and adolescents with disabilities, 338, 350
perceived, in children, 392–394
for physical competence, 393, 402–403
self-efficacy from, 393
in SDT, 124, 286–287
competence motivation theory, 389
effectance motivation in, 389
concentric RE, 466
conceptual theory, for personality and physical activity, 206
confidence intervals, for disease, 16
conscientiousness, physical activity and, 213
personality and, 218
contemplation stage, in TTM, 284
contextual-level motivation, in TPB, 233–234
control. See autonomy
Copenhagen City Heart Study, 19–20
coping, in PMT, 289
core affect, 322–323
coronary heart disease, physical activity and, 371–372
corticotrophin releasing factor, 131
cortisol response, 134, 175–176
diurnal neuroendocrine patterns for, 135
dual-stress situations and, 176
during sports performance, 138–139, 139
cross-cultural studies, for physical activity epidemiology, 14
cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis, 171
cryotherapy, for muscle pain, 160
crystallized intelligence, 414
CT. See chemotherapy
culture
personality and, as influence on, 196
physical activity and
personality and, 214
socio-cultural influences on, among older adults, 361
in Rhodes and Smith review, for physical activity and personality, 214
Cyrenaic school, on hedonism, 302
D
Damasio, Antonio, 300–301, 307
Das, J.P., 417–418
CAS and, 418
deafness, as disability, 354
deception studies, for RE, 482, 483
placebos in, 482
research for, 483
declarative knowledge, intelligence and, 415
delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), 144, 149–151
BKN and, 151
inflammation from, 151
from muscle fiber damage, 149–150
onset of, 150–151
pharmacological interventions for, 158–159
repeated-bout effect and, 156–157
symptoms of, 151
dementia, physical activity and, 25
depression
HPA activity and, 135–136
in older adults, physical activity and, 364
as anti-depressive treatment, 365
psychological stress and, 169
resilience and, as buffer to, 121
Descartes, René
on psychological hedonism, 303–304
substance dualism for, 303–304
Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain (Damasio), 300–301
diabetes. See type 2 diabetes, physical activity and (p. 508) disabilities
adults with, physical activity for, 339–343
barriers to, 346–349
competence and, 339
economic costs of, 348
enjoyment levels for, 339–340
environmental barriers to, 348–349
family influence on, 342–343
fatigue from, 347
fear as factor in, 347
fitness facility personnel disapproval, 348
health care personnel and, 348, 353
illness and, 347
individual self-perceptions for, 339–341
injury and, 347
institutional barriers to, 348–349
lack of knowledge and, 347
lack of opportunity for, 349
neighborhood topography as barrier, 349
pain from, 347
parental influence on, 343
predictors for, 351–353
prior experience as predictor for, 351–352
QoL for, 340–341
relationship complexity and, 341–342
self-concept for, 352
self-efficacy from, 339, 352
siblings as influence on, 343
social barriers to, 348
in social environments, 341–343
social interactions and, 342
time constraints for, 347–348
TPB for, 352–353
TRA for, 353
by type of disability, 346–347
body image with, 68
children and adolescents with, physical activity for, 338–339
barriers to, 344–346
community disapproval for, 345
competence and, 338, 350
with developmental disabilities, 419–420
enjoyment levels for, 350–351
environmental barriers to, 345–346
feelings of normalcy from, 338
independence and, 338
individual self-perceptions for, 338
institutional barriers to, 345
institutional predictors for, 351
pain as barrier to, 344–345
parents as barrier to, 345
peer disapproval, 345
among peers, 338–339
PE personnel disapproval, 345
physical construction barriers to, 345–346
predictors for, 350–351
reciprocity and, among peers, 339
self-efficacy from, 350
in social environments, 338–339
type of disability as barrier to, 344
deafness as, 354
physical activity and, 25
for adolescents, 338–339, 344–346
for adults, 339–343, 346–349
barriers to, 344–350
for children, 338–339, 344–346
future research applications for, 353–354
general benefits of, 337
participation recommendations for, 344
patterns for, 344
predictors for, 350–353
diseases. See also cardiovascular disease; osteoporosis, physical activity and; type 2 diabetes
body image and, 68
confidence intervals for, 16
hazard ratio for, 16
incidence rates for, 15
person-time incidence rates for, 15
physical activity and, in prevention of, 4, 19
physical inactivity and, 9
prevalence rates for, 15
ratio score for, 16
sedentary behavior and, 26
well-being and, from physical activity, 119
displeasure
in dual-mode theory, 312–313
psychological hedonism and, 302
dispositional optimism, physical activity and, 216
distraction/time-out hypothesis, for anxiety-reducing effect of exercise, 51
diurnal neuroendocrine patterns, 135
for catecholamines, 135
for cortisol, 135
dose-response approach, to health and physical activity, 27
anxiety and, 44–45, 50
for body image, 69–70
duration in, 27
future research for, 29–30
intensity in, 27
minimal limits in, 27
optimal limits in, 27
physical activity dose components, 27
regularity of activity in, 27
dual-mode theory, 311–314
displeasure in, 312–313
evolutionary influences in, 313
negative affect in, 313
pleasure in, 312
VT/LT in, 312–314
duration, of physical activity, 27. See also FITT principles of exercise
cognition influenced by, 78
duration neglect, 323
dynamic constant external RE, 466
E
eating disorders
anorexia nervosa, 69
binge eating disorder, 69
body image and, 69
exercise interventions for, 69
bulimia nervosa, 69
Ebbinghaus, Hermann, 415
ecological model, for physical activity, 262–263
community influences on, 263
public policy and, 263
effectance motivation, 389
Ekman, Paul, 307
elaboration likelihood model (ELM), 264
central route in, 264
messages in, 264
peripheral route in, 264
elderly. See older adults
elicited beliefs, in TPB, 276, 277
emotions. See also affect; feelings; mood
physical activity influence on, 120
in positive emotions theory, 120–121
in psyching strategies, for RE, 481
state anxiety and, 40
thought-action repertoires from, 120
emotion hypothesis, 481
employment, physical activity and. See occupational studies
endothelial dysfunction, 177
obesity and, 181
endothelial dysfunction, stress and, 177
enjoyment
of adults with disabilities, physical activity and, 339–340
as affect, in exercise psychology, 310–311
in children, for physical activity, 397
environmental mastery, PWB and, 122
mental health and, 122
EPI. See epinephrine
Epicurus, 303
Epidemiological Catchment Area Study, 39
epinephrine (EPI), 174–175
episodic memory, aging and, 367
Erasmus, 303
estrogen
muscle pain and, 155–156
psychological stress and, dysregulation from, 169
ethnicity, body image and, 65
eudaimonic well-being, 119
PWB as, 122
(p. 509) event related potentials (ERPs), 78–79
evolution, physical activity and, 10
executive processes, for intelligence, 416–417
exercise. See also acute exercise; aerobic exercise; anaerobic exercise; chronic exercise; exercise psychology; psychosocial influences, on exercise; resistance exercise
ACSM guidelines for, 5
AHA guidelines for, 5
anxiety and, 41–45
academic literature on, 41–42
with acute exercise, 43
with aerobic exercise, 42–43
anaerobic exercise and, 44, 44–45, 45
change mechanisms for, 50–51
with chronic exercise, 43
consensus statements for, 52
distraction/time-out hypothesis for, 51
dose-response approaches to, 44–45, 50
future research applications with, 51–52
pharmacotherapy compared to, 44
practical recommendations for, 51
preventive effects for, evidence of, 42
research on, 41–42
thermogenic hypothesis for, 51
traditional treatment therapies versus, 43–44
treatment therapies with, 45–51
anxiolytic effects of, 40, 44
assessment measures for, 5–6
BDNF expression with, 136
body image and
by age, 64–65
baseline body image with, 63
body composition and, 60–61
cardiovascular fitness and, 61
characteristics of exercise, 65–66
dose-response approach in, 69–70
for eating disorder therapy, 69
environmental influences on, 67
by ethnicity, 65
exerciser characteristics, 63–65
experience level, with exercise, 63
focus on body function over appearance in, 71
by gender, 63–64
gender-role orientation and, 64
mechanisms for, 57–60, 58–59
meta-analytic studies for, 56–57
moderators for, 63, 59–71
multiple dimensions of, measurement criteria for, 71–72
objective improvements to, 60–62
perceived improvements from, 62
recommendations for, 70–72
self-efficacy improvements from, 62
strength fitness and, 61
study design theories for, 70–71
among women, 62
brain structure after, 369, 370, 411–412
angiogenesis, 369, 412
animal studies on, 412
infant research on, 411
neurogenesis from, 369
play research on, 411–412
synaptogenesis from, 369, 412
definition of, 4, 360
dependency, 6
FITT principles of, 65
health risks from, 6
HRQL influenced by, 100–108
appropriateness of interpretation for, 111–112
with cancer, 98, 101–104
with COPD, 98, 104
future research for, 111
gender and, 108
mediators for, 108
moderators for, 108
for multiple sclerosis, 98, 109
with obesity, 98, 106–108
with osteoarthritis, 98, 100–101
social and behavioural characteristics for, 112–113
intelligence and, in children, 419–425
intention and, 225
kinesiophobia and, 308
methodological parameters for, 5–7
muscle pain and, 149–153
as analgesic intervention, 156–158
BKN and, 146, 151
cardiorespiratory increases as analgesic, 158
definition of, 144
distraction as analgesic, 158
DOMS and, 144, 149–151
during exercise, 151–153
5-HT serotonin and, 146
gate-control theory for, 148–149, 158
gender and, 155–156
H+ ions in, 145–146
noxious chemicals and, 145–146
opioid mechanisms during, 158
performance influenced by, 161–162
possible mechanisms for, 152
proton ions in, 145–146
repeated-bout effect from, 156–157
by type of exercise, 157–158
neuroticism levels influenced by, 42, 48
overuse injuries from, 6
for panic disorder, 48
physical activity compared to, 4–5
PMT for, 289–290
positive psychology and, 123–125
BPS intervention for, 124
hedonic adaptation theory for, 123
SDT for, 123–124
set point theory for, 123
strengths-based approach to, 124–125
psychophysiological stress responses during
HPA activity, 133
with physical activity, 133–136
SNS activity, 133
in SCT, 281–282
SDT and, 123–124
physical activity with, 287–288
self-efficacy from, 62
TPB and, 229–235
advantages of, 230
comparison studies for, 229–230
control beliefs in, 229
dual route models in, 231
explicit processes in, 232
flexibility of, 230–231
implementation strategies in, 232
implicit processes in, 231–232
integrated approaches to, 232–235
intention in, 230–231, 232
limitations of, 230, 231
perceived control in, 229
planning strategies for, 232
SCT and, 227
SDT and, 233, 233–234
social beliefs in, 229
in social psychology, 230
subjective norms in, 229
testing limitations of, 231
tranquilizer effects of, 44
exercise dependency, 6
exercise psychology
affect in, 247–248. See also dual-mode theory
as anticipated, 247
associations for, 247
attitudes for, 247
as behavioral motivator, 309–311
enjoyment in, 310–311
parameters of, 247
reason in conflict with, 323–324
reassessment of, 311–314
theories for, 244–245
affective processes in, 247–248
as anticipated, 247
associations for, 247
attitudes for, 247
as behavioral motivator, 309–311
enjoyment in, 310–311
parameters of, 247
reassessment of, 311–314
in theories for, 244–245
dominant paradigm in, 298
(p. 510) anomalies in, 298–300
dual-mode theory for, 311–314
displeasure in, 312–313
evolutionary influences in, 313
negative affect in, 313
pleasure in, 312
VT/LT in, 312–314
ecological framework for, 247
future research in
basic behavioural research as component of, 248–249
fidelity of theories in, 249
testing of theories in, 248
theory expansion in, 248
hedonic perspective on, 308, 321–325
affect as motivational construct in, 309–310
as affect heuristic, 325
core affect in, organization of, 322–323
duration neglect in, 323
peak-end rule in, 323
as pleasurable experience, 308
reason versus affect in, 323–324
somatic markers in, 324–325
historical development of, 5
journals on, 5
literature on, focus of, 5
overview of, 241–242
physical activity interventions for, 253–254
research in, 242
terminology for, 242–243
concepts, 242
constructs, 242
frameworks, 242
models, 242
theories, 242
variables, 242–243
theories for, 243–246. See also self-determination theory; social cognitive theory
affective process-based, 244–245
behavioural learning theory, 243
belief-based, 243–244
definition of, 242
expansion of, in future research for, 248
fidelity of, in future research for, 249
foundations for, 243
HAPA, 246
HBM, 243
importance of, 241
maintenance stage theory, 246
new trends in, 246–248
parallel process model, 244–245
self-efficacy theory, 244
social learning theory, 243
stage, 245–246
temporal self-regulation theory, 248
testing of, in future research for, 248
TRA, 227–229, 244
attitudes in, 227
criticism of, 228–229
intention in, 227
subjective norms in, 227
support studies for, 228
expectancy-value theory, 389–390
social influences in, 390
extraversion, physical activity and, 213, 216–217, 218
extrinsic motivation, 245, 287, 391
F
families, of adults with disabilities, 342–343
fatigue
central fatigue hypothesis for, 79
CRF, 435
disability and, from physical activity, 347
fear, of physical activity, for adults with disabilities, 347
feelings, 247
“feel worse” effect, 316
females. See women
fibromyalgia, 145
“fight or flight” response, 183
Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, 18
fire fighting
cardiorespiratory adaptations to, 173–174
cardiovascular disease and, 173
during FSTDs, 174
mortality rates for, 173
stress hormone activation with, 174
immune system influenced by, 178, 179–180
catecholamine induced cell redistribution in, 179–180
during FSTDs, 178
Fire Strategies and Tactics Drills (FSTDs), 174, 178
Fitness and Arthritis in Seniors Trial (FAST), 101, 109
fitness facilities, adults with disabilities in
institutional barriers in, 348–349
personnel disapproval of, 348
FITT principles of exercise, 65
five-factor model for personality, 196
flourishing scale, 120
flow
elements of, 121
in positive emotions theory, 121
fluid intelligence, 414
frail individuals, physical activity for, 372–373
free-radical theory of aging, 87
frequency of exercise. See FITT principles of exercise
Freud, Sigmund
pleasure principle for, 301, 306
on psychological hedonism, 306
reality principle for, 306
Friedman, Richard, 295
frontal lobe hypothesis, 84
functional balance, with Tai Chi, 492
G
Gallup Strengths Finder, 124
Galton, Francis, 412–413
gate-control theory, for muscle pain, 148–149, 158
gender. See also women
children's motivations for physical activity and, 388, 397
chronic exercise and cognition by, 89
HRQL and exercise and, 108
muscle pain and, 155–156
DOMS and, 156
estrogen role in, 155–156
with exercise, 155–156
for pain thresholds, 155
for pain tolerance levels, 155
negative body image by, 56
exercise interventions for, 63–64
gender-role-orientation and, 64
personality and physical activity by, 213–214
psychological stress and, cardiorespiratory adaptations to, 171
generalized anxiety disorder
characteristics of, 38–39
prevalence of, 39
Gorgias (Plato), 302
H
happiness
purpose of, 117
subjective happiness scale, 120
well-being and, 119
hazard ratio, for disease, 16
HeadMinder, 419
health, physical activity and, 195
for adolescents, 26
all-cause mortality and, 18–20, 19
assessment measures for, 13–17
association evaluation in, 15–16
cancers and, 21–22
cardiovascular disease and, 20–21
for children, 26
dose-response issues with, 27
anxiety and, 44–45
duration as, 27
future research for, 29–30
intensity as, 27
(p. 511) minimal limits as, 27
optimal limits as, 27
physical activity dose components, 27
regularity of activity as, 27
experimental studies for, 14–15
future research for, 29–31
on activity accumulation, 30
on activity patterns, 30
on BMI, 29
on dose-responses, 29–30
on sedentary behavior, 30–31
health risks, 6
historical perspectives on, 17–18
myocardial infarction prevalence and, 17
in physical activity epidemiology, 13–17
recommendation guidelines for, 28–29
by ACSM, 28
for adolescents, in U.S., 29
for adults, in U.S., 28, 253–254
background for, 28
by CDC, 28
for children, in U.S., 29
for older adults, in U.S., 28–29
with resistance exercise, 25–26
sedentary behavior and, 26–27
among adolescents, 26
disease and, 26
future research on, 30–31
mental activity and, 26
study designs for, 14
health action process approach (HAPA), 246
Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey (HBSC), 10–11, 12
health belief model (HBM), 243
behavioural evaluation in, 288
cognitive revolution and, as product of, 298
for physical activity, 261–262, 288–289
cues to action in, 262, 288
perceived benefits in, 262
procedures for, 267
self-efficacy in, 262
susceptibility in, 261
threat perception in, 288
health care personnel, adults with disabilities and, 348, 353
health-related quality of life (HRQL)
baseline values for, 108
after cancer, with exercise, 98, 101–104
American Cancer Society recommendations for, 102
for breast cancer, 102, 103
with resistance exercise, 103
START study for, 102–103
Cantril's Life Ladder for, 99
with cardiovascular disease, exercise and, 98, 105–106
with CHAMP, 105–106
primary goals of, 105
conceptual issues for, 98–100
consistency within, 111
with COPD, exercise and, 98, 104
REACT study for, 104
development of, as concept, 97–98
dimensional value and, among individuals, 108–109
exercise as influence on, 100–108
appropriateness of interpretation for, 111–112
after cancer, 98, 101–104
with cardiovascular disease, 98, 105–106
with COPD, 98, 104
future research for, 111
gender and, 108
mediators for, 108
moderators for, 108
for multiple sclerosis, 98, 109
obesity and, 98, 106–108
with osteoarthritis, 98, 100–101
social and behavioural characteristics for, 112–113
individual differences in perception of, 112
measurement methodology for, 98, 98–100
categories of, 99
consistency for, 111
multidimensionality of, 99
with multiple sclerosis, 98, 109
obesity and, with exercise, 98, 106–108
in BRFSS, 106
in LIFE-P, 107
in Look Ahead trial, 107
multi-component interventions with, 107
for weight management, 106
for older adults, 98
with osteoarthritis, and exercise, 98, 100–101
ADAPT for, 101, 109
FAST for, 101, 109
for older adults, 109
Satisfaction with Life Scale for, 99
WHO definition of, 99
Healthy People 2010, 42, 254
hedonic adaptation theory, 123
40% solution in, 123
hedonic calculus, 301
hedonic perspective, as cognitive paradigm, 300–308
exercise behavior and, 308, 321–325
affect as motivational construct for, 309–310
as affect heuristic, 325
core affect in, organization of, 322–323
duration neglect in, 323
peak-end rule in, 323
as pleasurable experience, 308
reason versus affect in, 323–324
somatic markers in, 324–325
psychological hedonism in, 301–308
Aristotelian perspective on, 303
Bain on, 305–306, 307
behaviorism as influence on, 306
Bentham on, 305
Cartesian perspective on, 303–304
contemporary perspectives on, 307
criticism of, as school of thought, 307
Cyrenaic perspective on, 302
definitions of, 302
displeasure and, 302
Epicurean view on, 303
Freudian perspective on, 306
Hobbesian approach to, 304
Hume on, 304
Jamesian view on, 306, 307
law of effect and, 306–307
Mill on, 305
Platonic view of, 302–303
pleasure and, 302
pleasure principle and, 301, 306
reality principle and, 306
Spencer on, 305
Utopian view on, 303
hedonic well-being, 118
affect and, 118
life satisfaction and, 118
SWB and, 118
Helvétius, Claude Adrien, 304–305
higher-order personality traits, physical activity and, 198–199
H+ ions, 145–146
Hobbes, Thomas, 304
hormone-replacement therapy (HRT), 89–90
BDNF and, 89–90
hormone therapy (HT), 432
Horn, John, 414
5-HT serotonin, 146
Hull, Clark L., 307
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 169
Hume, David, 304
hyperalgesia, 144
hypertension, physical activity and, 372
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity, 131
AVP and, 131
corticotrophin releasing factor and, 131
depression and, 135–136
(p. 512) individual differences, 132–133
behavioural factors for, 132
genetic factors for, 132–133
physical activity and, 134
in psychoneuroimmunology, 137
during sports performance, 139–140
during psychophysiological stress responses, 133
during sports performance, 139–140
stress hormones and, 174, 175
I
immune system. See also adaptive immunity; innate immunity
CVD and, 176
stress and, 176–182
catecholamine induced cell redistribution, 178–180
endothelial dysfunction and, 177
for firefighters, 178, 179–180
inflammatory cytokine responses, 176–178
LPS stimulation and, 177
occupational factors for, 177–178
oxidative responses, 180, 180–181, 181
with Tai Chi, improvements from, 494
ImPACT test, 419
implementation intention, in TPB, 232
industrialization, physical activity after, 10
industriousness, physical activity and, 217
infants, movement research on, 411
inflammation
DOMS and, 151
obesity and, 181–182
endothelial dysfunction and, 181
leptin elevation and, 181–182
oxidative stress and, 180–181
inflammatory cytokine responses, stress and, 176–178
innate immunity, 137
function of, 176
intellect, physical activity and, 563.e 210
intelligence. See also brain structures
Binet-Simon Scale for, 413
CAS for, 418
cognitive movement for, 415–417
attention in, 416
declarative knowledge, breadth of, 415
executive processes in, 416–417
perceptual tasks in, 416
procedural skill, breadth of, 415
processing capacity in, 415–416
processing speed in, 415
short-term memory in, 416
working memory in, 416
cognitive psychology and, testing methodology influenced by, 417–419
battery tests in, 418–419
PASS theory, 417–418, 418
crystallized, 414
development for, 409–410
experiences as influence on, 409, 409–410
as holistic process, 409
individual factors for, 409
neurophysiology for, 411
exercise and, in children, 410–412
interventions, 419–425
measurement for, 425
methodologies for, 422–425
NAPSE guidelines for, 410
research findings for, 422–425
fluid, 414
PASS theory of, 417–418
CAS and, 418
psychometric movement for, 413–415
constructs in, 413–414
crystallized dimension in, 414
factor structure analysis in, 414
fluid dimension in, 414
testing methodology for, 414
scientific study of, 412–419
cognitive movement in, 415–417
cognitive psychology as influence on, 417–419
mental-task approach in, 413
nature versus nurture debate in, 412–413
test-battery approach in, 413
triarchic theory of, 417
Weschler Intelligence Scales, 414
intensity, of physical activity, 27. See also FITT principles of exercise
ACSM guidelines for, 315–316
for anaerobic exercise, anxiety levels and, 44
future research on, 29–30
intention
exercise and, 225
in TPB, 217, 230–231
implementation intention in, 232
in TRA, 227
International Association for the Study of Pain (ISAP), 144
International JournaI of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5
International Positive Psychology Association (IPPA), 119–120
interventions
analgesic, for muscle pain, 158–161
with aspirin, 161
with caffeine, 159, 161
cryotherapy as, 160
exercise as, 156–158
massage therapy as, 160
with NSAIDS, 158–159
with nutraceuticals, 159–160
with nutritional supplements, 159–160
pharmacological, 158–159, 160–161
TENS as, 160
ultrasound as, 160
for body image, with exercise
by age, 64–65
baseline body image with, 63
body composition and, 60–61
for cardiovascular fitness, 61
characteristics of, 65–66
dose-response approach in, 69–70
for eating disorders, 69
environmental influences on, 67
by ethnicity, 65
exerciser characteristics, 63–65
experience level and, 63
focus on body function over appearance in, 71
by gender, 63–64
gender-role orientation and, 64
among males, 63–64
mechanisms for, 57–60
meta-analytic studies for, 56–57
moderators for, 59–71
multiple dimensions of, measurement criteria for, 71–72
objective improvements from, 60–62
perceived improvements from, 62
recommendations for, 70–72
self-efficacy improvements from, 62
for strength fitness, 61
study design theories for, 70–71
for women, 62, 63–64
BPS, 124
for children's motivations for physical activity, 397–398
for DOMS, 158–159
for exercise and intelligence, in children, 419–425
with developmental disabilities, 419–420
in exercise psychology, with physical activity, 253–254
for HRQL, with obesity, 107
among males, for negative body image, 63–64
for personality and physical activity, 220
with physical activity. See physical activity
in positive psychology, with physical activity, 119–120
measurement tools for, 120
physical risks in, 125
in positive emotions theory, 120
well-being and, 119
SDT for, 288
TPB and, 279
for women, for negative body image, 63–64
(p. 513) intrinsic motivation, 245, 287, 391
inverted-U hypothesis, 78–79
ERPs in, 78–79
P300 components of, 78–79
isokinetic RE, 466
isometric RE, 466
Izard, Carroll, 307
J
James, William, 306, 307
JournaI of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5
K
Kahneman, Daniel, 307
kinesiophobia, 308
Kuhn, Thomas, 296–298. See also science, revolutions in
L
Laertius, Diogenus, 302, 303
La Mettrie, Julien Offray de, 304
law of effect, 306–307
Skinner and, 307
Lazarus, Richard, 300
leptin, elevation of, 181–182
life satisfaction, 118
Lifestyle Interventions for the Elderly-Pilot (LIFE-P), 107
lipid profile, Tai Chi and, 494
lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 177
Look Ahead trial, 107
lower-order personality traits, physical activity and, 197, 200–205, 215–218
dispositional optimism, 216
extraversion, 216–217
industriousness, 217
measurement methodology for, 215
mediators of, 217–218
sociability, 217
in TPB, 217–218
for Type A personality, 215–216
lung cancer, 21
Luria, Alexander, 418
M
magnitude estimation scales, for pain intensity, 154
maintenance stage theory, 246
males, negative body image among, 56
exercise interventions for, 63–64
Man a Machine (La Mettrie), 304
massage therapy, for muscle pain, 160
McClelland, David C., 307
McDougall, William, 307
McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), 155
mental activity, sedentary behavior and, 26
mental health
aerobic exercise and, benefits from, 5
BDNF expression and, 136
environmental mastery and, in PWB, 122
from physical activity, 4, 24–25
BDNF expression and, 136
psychoneuroendocrinology and, 135–136
Mental Health and Physical Activity, 5
metabolic syndrome, 371
mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 373–374
Mill, John Stuart, 305
Minnesota Heart Health Program, 15
mood, psychoneuroendocrinology and, 135–136
More, Thomas, 303
Morgan, William, 308
Morris, Jeremy, 17, 298
mortality rates
cardiorespiratory fitness, 20
physical activity and, for all causes, 18–20
motivation. See also protection motivation theory
affect and, 301, 307
for exercise behavior, 309–310
after cancer, physical activity and, 444–454
barriers to, 449–450
for behavior change, 451–454
future research applications for, 454–455
preferences in, 450–451
in children, for physical activity
adult influences on, 386
adult motivations compared to, 386
autonomy and control as, 394–396
biological factors in, 388
CAPA scale for, 397
in competence motivation theory, 389
determinants for, 388
developmental changes and, 386, 388, 403–404
development influences on, 402–404
enjoyment of activity as, 397
in expectancy-value theory, 389–390, 390
friendship-seeking as, 401, 401–402
future research applications for, 404–405
gender influences on, 388, 397
among girls, 388, 397
importance value as, 397
integrative approach to, 405
interventions for, 397–398
intrinsic purposes of, 386
parental influence on, 398–400
peer influence on, 400–402
perceived competence as, 392–394, 402–403
physical exertion as, 397
positive affective experiences as, 396–398
prior experience as, 386
in SDT, 390–391
SDT for, 390–391
site access as, 388
social influences on, 388
social relationships as, 397, 398–402
theoretical perspectives on, 388–392
in competence motivation theory, 389
effectance, 389
in SDT, 287–288
amotivation, 287, 391
extrinsic, 245, 287, 391
intrinsic, 245, 287, 391
for physical activity in children, 390–391
self-efficacy and, 283
in TPB
as autonomous, 233
at contextual-level, 233–234
motivational hedonism. See psychological hedonism
Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL), 41
multiple sclerosis, HRQL with, 98, 109
muscle dysmorphia, 479
muscle pain
allodynia and, 144
analgesic interventions for, 158–161
with aspirin, 161
with caffeine, 159, 161
cryotherapy as, 160
exercise as, 156–158
massage therapy as, 160
with NSAIDS, 158–159
with nutraceuticals, 159–160
with nutritional supplements, 159–160
pharmacological, 158–159, 160–161
TENS as, 160
ultrasound as, 160
definition of, 144
DOMS and, 144, 149–151
analgesic interventions for, 158–161
BKN and, 151
(p. 514) gender and, 156
inflammation from, 151
from muscle fiber damage, 149–150
onset of, 150–151
pharmacological interventions for, 158–159
repeated-bout effect and, 156–157
symptoms of, 151
exercise and, 149–153
as analgesic intervention, 156–158
BKN and, 146, 151
cardiorespiratory increases as analgesic, 158
distraction as analgesic, 158
DOMS and, 144, 149–151
during exercise, 151–153
5-HT serotonin and, 146
gate-control theory for, 148–149, 158
gender differences in, 155–156
H+ ions in, 145–146
noxious chemicals and, 145–146
performance influenced by, 161–162
possible mechanisms for, 152
proton ions in, 145–146
repeated-bout effect from, 156–157
by type, 157–158
fibromyalgia and, 145
future research on, 163–164
gate-control theory for, 148–149, 158
gender differences in, 155–156
DOMS and, 156
estrogen and, 155–156
with exercise, 155–156
for pain thresholds, 155
for pain tolerance levels, 155
hyperalgesia and, 144
intensity scales for, 153–155
category, 154
magnitude estimation, 154
ISAP guidelines for, 144
measurement of, 153–155
intensity scales for, 153–155
multidimensional, 155
threshold for, 153
tolerance levels, 153
nociception and, 144, 145–149
through ACC, 147
activation of, 145
afferent fibers for, 145
ATP and, 146–147
5-HT serotonin and, 146
gate-control theory for, 148–149
modulation of, 147–149
neural pathways for, 147
noxious chemicals and, 145–146
opioid therapy for, 149
PGE2 and, 146
processing of, in brain and spinal cord, 147–149
skeletal muscle nociceptors, 145
through SMT, 147
substance P and, 146
opioids for, 149
prevalence of, 145
RPE and, 470
threshold for, 153
assessment of, 153
for women, 155
tolerance levels for, 153
for women, 155
muscle strength, from Tai Chi, 491
myocardial infarction, physical activity and, by employment, 17
N
Naglieri, Jack, 417–418
CAS and, 418
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NAPSE), 410
National Comorbidity Study, 39, 42
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 13
nature versus nurture, for intelligence, 412–413
negative affect, in dual-mode theory, 313. See also displeasure
negative body image, 56
anxiety from, 56
body image disorder and, 56
by gender, 56
gender-role-orientation and, 64
among males, 56
exercise interventions for, 63–64
muscle dysmorphia and, 479
among women, 56
environmental influences on exercise for, 67
exercise interventions for, 63–64
physical fitness and, 62
during pregnancy, 68–69
SPA, 61, 62
neurogenesis, 369
neuroticism
exercise influence on, 42, 48
in personality and physical activity, 218–219
in Rhodes and Smith review, 206–213
trait anxiety and, 40
nociception
as motivator, 307
muscle pain and, 144, 145–149
through ACC, 147
activation of, 145
afferent fibers for, 145
ATP and, 146–147
BKN and, 146
5-HT serotonin and, 146
gate-control theory for, 148–149
H+ ions in, 145–146
modulation of, 147–149
neural pathways for, 147
noxious chemicals and, 145–146
opioid therapy for, 149
PGE2 and, 146
processing of, in brain and spinal cord, 147–149
proton ions in, 145–146
skeletal muscle nociceptors, 145
through SMT, 147
substance P and, 146
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
aspirin, 161
for muscle pain, 158–159
norepinephrine (NE), 174–175
normal anxiety, 38
“normal science,” 296–297
paradigms within, 296–297
nutraceuticals, for muscle pain, 159–160
nutritional supplements, for muscle pain, 159–160
O
obesity, physical activity and, 23. See also weight management
calorie restriction with, 23
cancer and, 253
HRQL with, exercise influence on, 98, 106–108
in BRFSS, 106
in LIFE-P, 107
in Look Ahead trial, 107
multi-component interventions with, 107
for weight management, 106
in U.S., rates of, 253
obesity, stress and, 181–182
CVD and, 181–182
inflammation as link between, 181–182
endothelial dysfunction and, 181
leptin elevation and, 181–182
psychological stress and, 182
obsessive-compulsive disorder
characteristics of, 38–39
prevalence of, 39
occupational studies. See also fire fighting
for myocardial infarction and, by physical activity levels, 17
for psychological stress, 170
cardiorespiratory adaptations to, 173–174
for stress
hormones and, activation of, 175
immune system influenced by, 177–178
(p. 515) older adults
aerobic exercise for, 369
with cognitive impairment, 374–375
aging for
bodily changes from, 359–360
brain structure changes with, 367, 369–370
episodic memory and, 367
lifestyle factors as influence on, 360
process-based abilities and, 366–367
WHO predictions on, 359
working memory and, 367
cognitive impairment in, 373–375
AD, 374
aerobic exercise and, 374–375
cardiorespiratory fitness and, 374
HRQL for, 98
with osteoarthritis
in ADAPT study, 101, 109
in FAST, 101, 109
with osteoarthritis, HRQL for, 109
physical activity for
with AD, 374
with aerobic exercise, 369
as anti-anxiety therapy, 365
as anti-depressive treatment, 365
anxiety disorders and, 364
brain structure changes and, 367, 369–370
cardiorespiratory fitness and, 361–363, 374
with chronic illnesses, 370–372
cognitive health and, 366–369
with cognitive impairment, 373–375
with coronary heart disease, 371–372
demographics for, 360–361
depression and, 364
for frail individuals, 372–373
with geriatric syndromes, 372–373
with hypertension, 372
with MCI, 373–374
with metabolic syndrome, 371
psychological health and, 363–366
QoL and, 365–366
recommendation guidelines for, in U.S., 28–29, 375–376
socio-cultural factors for, 361
with strength training, 361
well-being as result of, 366
physical inactivity among, 360, 360–361
Tai Chi for, 490–499
benefits of, 498–499
blood pressure after, 494
bone health with, 492
with chronic diseases, 495, 495–496, 496
falling and, 492–493, 493
features of, 490–491
functional balance improvement from, 492
future research applications for, 496–498
immunity system improvement from, 494
lipid profile and, 494
muscle strength from, 491
physical function improvement from, 493–494
self-efficacy from, 494–495
self-esteem improvements and, 495
sleep quality with, 494
styles of, 491
well-being and, 495
openness to experience, physical activity and, 213
opioids, for muscle pain, 149
as analgesic, 158
osteoarthritis
HRQL with, exercise effects on, 98, 100–101
ADAPT for, 101, 109
FAST for, 101, 109
for older adults, 109
Tai Chi for, 495–496
osteoporosis, physical activity and, 23–24
for women, 24
overuse injuries, from exercise, 6
oxidative stress, 87
activation of, 180
immune system and, 180
dual stressors, 181
inflammation and, 180–181
P
Paffenbarger, Ralph, 17
pain. See also muscle pain
for adolescents with disabilities, physical activity for, 344–345
for adults with disabilities, physical activity for, 347
for children with disabilities, physical activity for, 344–345
pain intensity scales, 153–155
category, 154
magnitude estimation, 154
pain threshold, 153
assessment of, 153
for women, 155
pain tolerance levels, 153
for women, 155
panic disorder
characteristics of, 38–39
exercise treatment for, 48
prevalence of, 39
parallel process model, 244–245
parents
children's motivations for physical activity and, 398–400
disability with physical activity and
as barrier to, 345
as beneficial influence on, 343
Parkinson's disease, Tai Chi with, 496
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PVVT), 420
peak-end rule, 323
PE environments. See also physical education environments
perceived behavioural control (PBC), 274–275
for cancer, physical activity and, 445–446, 446
perceived competence, in children, 392–394
for physical competence, 393, 402–403
self-efficacy from, 393
personal growth, for PWB, 123
personality
cultural influence on, 196
for physical activity, 214
five-factor model of, 196
higher-order traits, 198–199
physical activity and, 196–197. See also lower-order personality traits, physical activity and; Rhodes and Smith review, for physical activity and personality
action theory for, 206
age factors for, 214
analysis of, 206
conceptual theory for, 206
conscientiousness for, 218
cultural influences in, 214
extraversion and, 218
future research applications for, 219–221
by gender, 213–214
higher-order traits for, 198–199
intervention studies for, 220
mediating and moderating mechanisms for, 206, 207–209, 210–212, 218–219
methodology for, 197–206
neuroticism and, 218–219
synthesis of, 206
psychology of. See also lower-order personality traits, physical activity and
research limitations for, 196
taxonomies in, 196
trait theory in, 196
three-factor model of, 196
Type A, 196
physical activity and, 215–216
PGE2. See prostaglandin
Phaedo (Plato), 302
pharmacotherapy. See also antidepressants; benzodiazepines
exercise treatment compared to, 44
Philebus (Plato), 302
physical activity. See also cancer, physical activity and; exercise; health, physical activity and; physical activity epidemiology; sports performance
accumulation of, 30
ACSM guidelines for, 28
for adolescents, 26. See also adolescents
with disabilities, 338–339, 344–346
for adults, recommended U.S. guidelines, 28, 253–254. See also adults
affective responses and, 316–321
“feel worse” effect, 316
meta-analysis for, 321
studies on, 316–321
age and
cognitive effects of, 77
personality and, 214
agreeableness and, 213
in anxiety disorder treatment, 40
as anxiolytic, 40, 44
assessment measures for, 5–6
in BRFSS, 10, 11
cardiovascular disease and, 20–21
CDC guidelines for, 28
for children, 26. See also children
with disabilities, 338–339, 344–346
habit-setting for, 385–386
recommendation guidelines for, in U.S., 29
classifications of, 10
cognition and
age as influence on, 77
complexity of relationship between, 77
duration as influence on, 78
historical overview of, 76–77
measurement methodology for, 77
mechanisms for, 77
studies on, 76–77
conscientiousness and, 213
personality and, 218
coronary heart disease and, 371–372
correlates of, 195–196, 274
for at-risk populations, 196
definition of, 4, 360
dementia and, 25
disability and, 25. See also disabilities
for adolescents, 338–339, 344–346
barriers to, 344–350
for children, 338–339, 344–346
future research applications for, 353–354
general benefits of, 337
participation recommendations for, 344
patterns for, 344
predictors for, 350–353
disease prevention and, 4, 19
dispositional optimism and, 216
duration of, 27
cognition influenced by, 78
ecological model for, 262–263
community influences on, 263
public policy and, 263
ELM for, 264
central route in, 264
messages in, 264
peripheral route in, 264
emotions influenced by, 120
exercise compared to, 4–5
extraversion and, 213, 216–217
personality and, 218
for frail individuals, 372–373
functional health and, 25
HBM for, 261–262, 288–289
cues to action in, 262, 288
perceived benefits in, 262
procedures for, 267
self-efficacy in, 262
susceptibility in, 261
in HBSC, 10–11, 12
health risks from, 6
HPA activity and, 134
during sports performance, 139–140
hypertension and, 372
industriousness and, 217
intellect and, 213
intensity of, 27
lower-order personality traits and, 197, 200–205, 215–218
dispositional optimism, 216
extraversion, 216–217
industriousness, 217
measurement methodology for, 215
mediators of, 217–218
sociability, 217
in TPB, 217–218
for Type A personality, 215–216
mental health from, 4, 24–25
BDNF expression and, 136
in NHANES, 13
obesity and, 23
for older adults
with AD, 374
with aerobic exercise, 369
as anti-anxiety therapy, 365
as anti-depressive treatment, 365
anxiety disorders and, 364
brain structure changes and, 367, 369–370
cardiorespiratory fitness and, 361–363, 374
with chronic illnesses, 370–372
cognitive health and, 366–369
with cognitive impairment, 373–375
with coronary heart disease, 371–372
demographics for, 360–361
depression and, 364
for frail individuals, 372–373
with geriatric syndromes, 372–373
with hypertension, 372
with MCI, 373–374
with metabolic syndrome, 371
psychological health and, 363–366
QoL and, 365–366
recommendation guidelines for, in U.S., 28–29, 375–376
socio-cultural factors for, 361
with strength training, 361
well-being as result of, 366
openness to experience and, 213
osteoporosis and, 23–24, 24
overuse injuries from, 6
PAPM for, 263–264
stages of, 263–264
paradox of, 298–300
in Australia, 299–300
SCT and, 299
TPB and, 299
TTM and, 299
in U.S., 299
personality and, 196–197. See also lower-order personality traits, physical activity and; Rhodes and Smith review, for physical activity and personality
action theory for, 206
age factors for, 214
analysis of, 206
conceptual theory for, 206
conscientiousness and, 218
cultural influences on, 214
extraversion and, 218
future research applications for, 219–221
gender influences on, 213–214
intervention studies for, 220
mediating and moderating mechanisms for, 206, 207–209, 210–212, 218–219
methodology for, 197–206
neuroticism and, 218–219
synthesis of, 206
PMT for, 289–290
exercise intention and, 289–290
in positive emotions theory, 120
as positive psychology intervention, 119–120
(p. 517) measurement tools for, 120
physical risks in, 125
in positive emotions theory, 120
well-being and, 119
psychoneuroimmunology and, 137–138
HPA activity and, 137
immune responses, 137, 137–138
mental stress and, 137
psychophysiological stress responses with, 133–136
HPA activity, 133
SNS activity, 133
SCT for, 257–259, 279–283
with cancer, 446–448
environmental factors for, 258–259
with exercise, 281–282
outcome expectations in, 281
personal factors for, 258
self-efficacy and, 279–281, 447–448
theoretical application of, 282
SDT for, 286–288
with cancer, 448–449
with exercise, 287–288
interventions with, 288
motivation types for, 287–288
theoretical application of, 288
in self-efficacy theory, 256–257
outcome expectancies in, 256–257
social persuasion in, 226, 257
vicarious experiences in, 257
sociability and, 217
social benefits of, 118
surveillance of, 10–13
theoretical interventions for
approaches to, 252–253
behavioural theory in, 254–255
bias in, 267
components of, 267
data analysis for, 268
design analysis for, 268
development of, 254
discussion of, 269
dissemination of, 267–268
evaluation studies for, 255
in exercise psychology, 253–254
introduction to, 255–256
measurements for, 266–267
methodology for, 264–267
participants for, 265–266
procedures for, 267
RE-AIM framework for, 268
research applications for, 254–255
results for, 268–269
with SDT, 288
settings for, 265–266
with TPB, 279
TPB and, 217–218, 261, 274–279
attitude constructs of, 261, 275–276
breadth of model in, 278–279
with cancer, 446–448
depth of model in, 277–278
elicited beliefs for, 276, 277
expectancy-value model for, 275
external variables for, 276–277
in interventions, 279
meta-analytic findings for, 276
procedures for, 267
subjective norms for, 261
theoretical application of, 277–279
TRA for, 261
attitude constructs of, 261
subjective norms for, 261
TTM for, 259–260, 283–286
action stage in, 284
with cancer, 448
change stage of, 259–260
contemplation stage in, 284
criticisms of, 286
flexibility of, 260
maintenance stage in, 284
precontemplation stage in, 284
preparation stage in, 284
procedures for, 267
processes for, of change, 284, 285
self-efficacy in, 284
stages of change for, 259–260, 284
termination stage in, 284
theoretical application of, 286
type 2 diabetes and, 22
Type A personality and, 215–216
weight management and, 4
guidelines for, 23
well-being and, 119
for cognitive function, 119
for disease prevention, 119
with passive leisure activities, 119
physiological mechanisms for, 119
positive emotions theory for, 120
Physical Activity and Cancer Control (PACC) framework, 433–434
physical activity epidemiology
association evaluation in, 15–16
with BRFSS, 10, 11
case-control studies for, 14
causation evaluation in, 17
community trials for, 15
cross-cultural studies for, 14
definition of, 9
in evolution, 10
experimental studies for, 14–15
focus of, 9
with HBSC, 10–11, 12
health assessment in, 13–17
industrialization's influence on, 10
methodology in, 15–16
with NHANES, 13
observational studies for, 14
prospective cohort studies for, 14
purpose of, 10
randomized control trials for, 14–15
for sedentary behavior, 30–31
study designs for, 13–15
surveillance in, 10–13
physical activity paradox, 298–300
in Australia, 299–300
SCT and, 299
TPB and, 299
TTM and, 299
in U.S., 299
physical competence, 393
physical education (PE) environments
children's motivations for physical activity in, 394–396
personnel for, 345
physical fitness
body composition and, 60–61
of cardiovascular system, 61
definition of, 360
objective improvements in, 60–62
perceived improvements in, 62
SPA and, 61
for strength, 61
for women, 62
physical inactivity. See also sedentary behavior
as cause of death, 3, 4
among children, 385
chronic diseases and, 9
financial costs of, 4
among older adults, 360, 360–361
poor QoL and, 19
Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP), 122
Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) theory, 417–418
CAS and, 418
Plato, 3, 302
psychological hedonism for, 302–303
play research, 411–412
pleasure
in dual-mode theory, 312
psychological hedonism and, 302
pleasure principle, 301, 306
poor body image, 56. See also negative body image
poor quality of life, physical inactivity, 19
positive affect, RE and, 475
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), 120
positive emotions theory, 120–121
Broaden-and-Build theory and, 120
flow in, 121
physical activity in, 120
thought-action repertoires in, 120
positive psychology
criticisms of, 117, 125
definition of, 117
exercise and, 123–125
BPS intervention for, 124
hedonic adaptation theory for, 123
set point theory for, 123
strengths-based approach to, 124–125
interventions for, 120
physical activity as, 119–120
key concepts of, 117, 118
overview of, 118
developmental history in, 118
physical activity interventions, 119–120
measurement tools for, 120
physical risks in, 125
in positive emotions theory, 120
well-being and, 119
positive emotions theory in, 120–121
Broaden-and-Build theory and, 120
flow in, 121
physical activity in, 120
thought-action repertoires in, 120
purpose of, 117
PWB and, 121–123
autonomy as part of, 122
environmental mastery for, 122
as eudaimonic well-being, 122
personal growth for, 123
positive social relationships for, 122
purpose in life for, 123
self-acceptance and, 122
resilience in, 121
somatopsychic principle and, 117
well-being and, 118–119
enhancement criteria for, 118
eudaimonic, 119
happiness and, 119
hedonic, 118
physical activity and, 119
purpose of, 117
SWB, 118
positive social relationships, for PWB, 122
post-traumatic stress disorder
characteristics of, 38–39
prevalence of, 39
precaution adoption process model (PAPM), 263–264
stages of, 263–264
precontemplation stage, in TTM, 284
pregnancy, negative body image during, 68–69
preparation stage, in TTM, 284
The Principles of Psychology (Spencer), 305
processing capacity, intelligence and, 415–416
processing speed, intelligence and, 415
Profile of Mood States, 41
Promoting Lifestyle Activity for Youth (PLAY), 395
prospective cohort studies, for physical activity epidemiology, 14
prostaglandin (PGE2), 146
prostate cancer, 21
physical activity and, in supportive care outcomes, 435
Protagorus (Plato), 302
protection motivation theory (PMT), 227, 243–244
coping efficacy in, 289
development of, 289
for physical activity, 289–290
exercise intention and, 289–290
threat appraisal in, 289
proton ions, 145–146
psyching strategies, for RE, 480–482
emotion hypothesis in, 481
imagery in, 481–482
research for, 482
reversal theory for, 481–482
psychological hedonism, 301–308
Aristotelian perspective on, 303
Bain on, 305–306, 307
behaviorism as influence on, 306
Bentham on, 305
Cartesian perspective on, 303–304
contemporary perspectives on, 307
criticism of, as school of thought, 307
Cyrenaic perspective on, 302
definitions of, 302
displeasure and, 302
Epicurean view on, 303
Freudian perspective on, 306
Hobbesian approach to, 304
Hume on, 304
Jamesian view on, 306, 307
law of effect and, 306–307
Mill on, 305
Platonic view of, 302–303
pleasure and, 302
pleasure principle and, 301, 306
reality principle and, 306
Spencer on, 305
Utopian view on, 303
psychological stress
cancer and, 169
cardiorespiratory adaptations to, 170–174
beta adrenergic activation in, 171
cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis for, 171
for efficient energy production, in specific populations, 170
for fire fighting, 173–174
fitness level and, 171–173
gender influences on, 171
heart rate and, 172
mental challenge type as influence on, 171
occupational models for, 173–174
for trained versus untrained individuals, 171–172
cardiovascular disease and, 169
depression and, 169
factors for, 169
fire fighting and, 173–174
cardiovascular disease and, 173
during FSTDs, 174
mortality rates for, 173
stress hormone activation with, 174
health implications of, 169–170
HIV and, 169
neuroendocrine system during, 170
obesity and, 182
occupational epidemiology for, 170
cardiorespiratory adaptation and, 173–174
stress hormone activation and, 175
SAM activation from, 170
sex hormone production influenced by, 169
stress hormones, 174–176
ACTH, 131, 175
catecholamines and, 175
cortisol, 134, 135, 138–139, 139, 175–176
during fire fighting, 174
fire fighting and, activation of, 174
HPA activation, 174, 175
occupational studies for, 175
SAM activation, 174
stress response from, 169–170
psychological well-being (PWB), 121–123
autonomy as part of, 122
environmental mastery for, 122
mental health and, 122
as eudaimonic well-being, 122
personal growth for, 123
positive social relationships for, 122
purpose in life for, 123
self-acceptance and, 122
PSPP for, 122
Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5
psychometric movement, for intelligence, 413–415
constructs in, 413–414
crystallized dimension in, 414
factor structure analysis in, 414
fluid dimension in, 414
testing methodology for, 414
psychoneuroendocrinology
ACTH release, 131
diurnal neuroendocrine patterns, 135
for catecholamines, 135
for cortisol, 135
foundations of, 131
HPA activity, 131
AVP and, 131
corticotrophin releasing factor and, 131
individual differences, 132–133
(p. 519) physical activity and, 134
during psychophysiological stress responses, 133
during sports performance, 139–140
mental health and, 135–136
mood and, 135–136
physical activity and, psychophysiological stress responses with, 133, 133–136
psychophysiological stress responses, 133–135
in animal studies, 134
cortisol response in, 134
HPA activity during, 133
neuroendocrine system during, 170
with physical activity, 133, 133–136
SNS activity during, 133
stress testing for, 133–134
SNS in, 131
during psychophysiological stress responses, 133
sports performance and, 138–140
cortisol increases with, 138–139, 139
hormonal variations by activity, 138–139
HPA activity and, 139–140
recovery response after, 139–140
psychoneuroimmunology
adaptive immunity, 137
innate immunity, 137
physical activity and, 137–138
HPA activity and, 137
immune responses, 137, 137–138
mental stress and, 137
psychophysiological stress responses, 133–135
in animal studies, 134
cortisol response in, 134
HPA activity during, 133
with physical activity, 133–136
SNS activity during, 133
stress testing for, 133–134
psychosocial influences, on exercise, 225–227
assumptions for, 225
information processing, 225
intention, 225
future research for, 235
in SCT, 225–227. See also self-efficacy
legacy of, 226–227
protection motivation theory and, 227
reciprocal determinism in, 225, 257
TPB and, 227
TTM in, 227
vicarious experience in, 225, 226
in TPB, 229–235
advantages of, 230
comparison studies for, 229–230
control beliefs in, 229
dual route models in, 231
explicit processes in, 232
flexibility of, 230–231
implementation strategies in, 232
implicit processes in, 231–232
integrated approaches to, 232–235
intention in, 230–231, 232
limitations of, 230, 231
perceived control in, 229
planning strategies in, 232
SCT and, 227
SDT and, 233, 233–234
social beliefs in, 229
in social psychology, 230
subjective norms in, 229
testing limitations of, 231
in TRA, 227–229, 244
attitudes in, 227
criticism of, 228–229
intention in, 227
subjective norms in, 227
support studies for, 228
psychotherapy, in anxiety disorder treatment, 40
P300 components, of ERPs, 78–79
purpose in life, for PWB, 123
Q
quality of life (QoL)
for adults with disabilities, physical activity and, 340–341
with cancer, physical activity and, 436, 436–437
for older adults, physical activity and, 365–366
physical inactivity and, 19
R
radiation therapy (RT), 431
randomized control trials (RCTs)
for cancer, physical activity and, 434–435
for cognition and chronic exercise, 82–83
for physical activity epidemiology, 14–15
rating of perceived exertion (RPE), 466–472
caffeine intake and, 471
muscle action and, 471
muscle pain and, 470
research studies for, 472
training adaptation for, 472
variables for, 469–470
ratio score, for disease, 16
RE. See also resistance exercise
Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, 268, 443
reality principle, 306
reciprocal determinism, 225, 257
Reconditioning and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Trial (REACT) study, 104
recovery response, after sports performance, 139–140
Rehabilitation Exercise for Health After Breast cancer (REHAB) trial, 437
relatedness, in SDT, 124, 286–287
repeated-bout effect, 156–157
The Republic (Plato), 302
resilience
components of, 121
definition of, 121
depression and, as buffer from, 121
in positive psychology, 121
resistance exercise (RE)
affect and, 472, 472–479
anxiety and, 472–475
positive, 475
research for, 475–476
training studies for, 475
ambiguous conditions for, 483
research for, 483
concentric, 466
deception studies for, 482, 483
placebos in, 482
research for, 483
dynamic constant external, 466
health and, 25–26
anxiety levels with, 45
after cancer, 103
isokinetic, 466
isometric, 466
muscle dysmorphia and, 479
psyching strategies for, 480–482
emotion hypothesis in, 481
imagery in, 481–482
research for, 482
reversal theory for, 481–482
recommendations for, 465–466
RPE responses to, 466–472
caffeine intake and, 471
muscle action and, 471
muscle pain and, 470
research studies for, 472
training adaptation for, 472
variables for, 469–470
self-concept and, 476–478, 479
research on, 479–480
(p. 520) self-perception and, 476–479
self-esteem from, 476–479
reversal theory, 481–482
Rhodes and Smith review, for physical activity and personality, 197, 206–215
age influences in, 214
agreeableness in, 213
conscientiousness in, 213
cultural influences in, 214
design for, 215
extraversion in, 213
gender influences in, 213–214
higher-order personality traits in, 198–199
intellect in, 213
methodology for, 206
neuroticism in, 206–213
openness to experience in, 213
type of activity in, 214–215
Roberts, Robert, 308
RT. See also radiation therapy
S
satisfaction with life scale (SWLS), 99, 120
Scale of Positive and Negative Experiences (SPANE), 120
science, revolutions in, 296–298
anomalies in, 297
crises in, role in, 297
developments of, 297
“normal science” and, 296–297
paradigms within, 296–297
sedentary behavior, health and, 26–27. See also physical inactivity
among adolescents, 26
disease and, 26
future research on, 30–31
mental activity and, 26
self-acceptance, 122
PSPP for, 122
self-concept
for adults with disabilities, 352
RE and, 476–478, 479
research on, 479–480
self-determination theory (SDT), 122, 245
amotivation in, 287, 391
autonomy in, 123–124, 286–287
for children's motivations for physical activity, 390–391
competence in, 124, 286–287
development of, 286
exercise and, 123–124
physical activity with, 287–288
extrinsic motivation in, 245, 287, 391
intrinsic motivation in, 245, 287, 391
for physical activity, 286–288
with cancer, 448–449
with exercise, 287–288
interventions with, 288
motivation types for, 287–288
theoretical application of, 288
relatedness in, 124, 286–287
TPB and, 233–234
autonomous motivation and, 233
contextual-level motivation and, 233–234
self-efficacy
in adults with disabilities, from physical activity, 339, 352
affective responses and, 281
in children and adolescents
with disabilities, from physical activity, 350
perceived competence from, 393
definition of, 225
from exercise, 62
in HBM, 262
in SCT, 225–226, 244
affective responses from, 281
with cancer, physical activity and, 447–448
factors for, 280–281
limitations of, 227
motivation and, 283
multiple types of, 282–283
outcome expectations and, 225–226
for physical activity, 279–281
physiological state and, expectations of, 226
as predictor of behavior, 225–226, 226
from prior experience, 226, 281
from socially persuasive messages, 226, 257, 281
from vicarious experience, 225, 226, 281
SPA and, 61, 62
from Tai Chi, 494–495
in TTM, 284
self-efficacy theory (SET)
for physical activity, 256–257
outcome expectancies in, 256–257
social persuasion in, 226, 257
vicarious experiences in, 257
in SCT, 244
self-esteem
RE and, 476–479
Tai Chi and, 495
self-perception
for people with disabilities
among adults, 339–341
among children and adolescents, 338
PSPP, 122
RE and, 476–479
self-esteem from, 476–479
Seligman, Martin, 118
serotonin, 82
5-HT, 146
SET. See also self-efficacy theory
set point theory, 123
40% solution in, 123
sex hormones, psychological stress and, 169
shear stress, 180
Sheehan, George, 37
short-term memory, 416
siblings, of adults with disabilities, 343
Simon, Herbert, 300
Simon, Theodre, 413
skeletal muscle nociceptors, 145
Skinner, B.F., 306
law of effect for, 307
sleep, with Tai Chi, 494
SMT column tract. See also spinomesencephalic column tract
sociability, physical activity and, 217
social cognitive theory (SCT), 244
assumptions in, 244
cancer, physical activity and, 446–448
self-efficacy for, 447–448
cognitive revolution and, as product of, 298
development of, 279
legacy of, 226–227
outcome expectations in, 281
for self-efficacy, 225–226
for physical activity, 257–259, 279–283
environmental factors for, 258–259
with exercise, 281–282
outcome expectations in, 281
personal factors for, 258
self-efficacy and, 279–281
theoretical application of, 282
physical activity paradox and, 299
protection motivation theory and, 227
reciprocal determinism in, 225, 257
self-efficacy in, 225–226, 244
affective responses from, 281
with cancer, physical activity and, 447–448
factors for, 280–281
limitations of, 227
motivation and, 283
multiple types of, 282–283
outcome expectations and, 225–226
for physical activity, 279–281, 447–448
physiological state and, expectations of, 226
as predictor of behavior, 225–226, 226
from prior experience, 226, 281
from socially persuasive messages, 226, 257, 281
from vicarious experience, 226, 281
(p. 521) self-efficacy theory within, 244
TPB and, 227
TTM in, 227
vicarious experience in, 225
self-efficacy from, 226, 281
social learning theory, 243
behavioural learning theory and, 243
social persuasion, self-efficacy from, 226, 257, 281
social phobias
characteristics of, 38–39
prevalence of, 39
social physique anxiety (SPA), 61
self-efficacy and, 61, 62
among women, 62
exercise environment and, 61
somatic markers, in hedonic perspective, 324–325
somatopsychic principle, 117
specific phobias, prevalence of, 39
Spencer, Herbert, 305
spinomesencephalic (SMT) column tract, 147
sports performance
cardiorespiratory adaptations to, 171–172
psychoneuroendocrinology and, 138–140
cortisol increases with, 138–139, 139
hormonal variations by activity, 138–139
HPA activity and, 139–140
recovery response after, 139–140
stage theories, in exercise psychology. See also health action process approach; maintenance stage theory; transtheoretical model
state anxiety, 40
state body image, 67
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 41, 45
Sternberg, Robert, 417
triarchic theory of intelligence, 417
strength fitness, 61
AD and, 374
strength training, for older adults, 361
stress. See also psychological stress; stress hormones, activation of
anxiety compared to, 38
arousal stimuli for, 38
chronic, 37
immune system and, 176–182
catecholamine induced cell redistribution, 178–180
endothelial dysfunction and, 177
for firefighters, 178, 179–180
inflammatory cytokine responses, 176–178
LPS stimulation and, 177
occupational factors for, 177–178
oxidative responses, 180, 180–181, 181
obesity and, 181–182
CVD and, 181–182
inflammation as link between, 181–182
psychological stress and, 182
oxidative, 87
activation of, 180
immune system and, 180, 180–181, 181
psychoneuroimmunology and, with physical activity, 137
shear, 180
stress hormones, activation of, 174–176
ACTH, 131, 175
catecholamines and, 175
cortisol, 134, 175–176
diurnal neuroendocrine patterns for, 135
dual-stress situations and, 176
during sports performance, 138–139, 139
“fight or flight” response, 183
fire fighting and, activation of, 174
HPA activation, 174, 175
occupational studies for, 175
SAM activation, 174
subjective happiness scale, 120
subjective vitality, 120
subjective well-being (SWB), 118
substance dualism, 303–304
substance P, 146
Supervised Trial of Aerobics and Resistance Training (START) study, 102–103, 435–436
supportive care outcomes, for cancer, 433, 434–442
for breast cancer, 434–435
for CRF, 435
for end of life, 439–440
future research applications for, 442–444
maintenance of change in, 441
mediators for, 440–441
moderators for, 440–441
outcome variables for, 441–442
PACC framework for, 433–434
for prostate cancer, 435
QoL in, 436, 436–437
RCTs for, 434–435
REHAB trial, 437
in START study, 102–103, 435–436
survivorship and, 437–439
with treatment therapies, 434–437
WTBS study for, 437
SWB. See also subjective well-being
sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) activation, 170
stress hormones and, 174
sympathetic nervous system (SNS), 131
during psychophysiological stress responses, 133
synaptogenesis, 369, 412
T
Tai Chi, for older adults, 490–499
benefits of, 498–499
blood pressure after, 494
bone health with, 492
with chronic diseases, 495–496
heart disease, 495
osteoarthritis, 495–496
Parkinson's disease, 496
type 2 diabetes, 495
falling and, 492–493
prevention of, 493
reduced fear of, 492–493
features of, 490–491
functional balance improvement from, 492
future research applications for, 496–498
immunity system improvement from, 494
lipid profile and, 494
muscle strength from, 491
physical function improvement from, 493–494
self-efficacy from, 494–495
self-esteem improvements and, 495
sleep quality with, 494
styles of, 491
well-being and, 495
temporal self-regulation theory, 248
termination stage, in TTM, 284
theory of planned behavior (TPB). See also theory of reasoned action
for adults with disabilities, physical activity for, 352–353
cognitive revolution and, as product of, 298
development of, 274
exercise and, 229–235
advantages of, 230
comparison studies for, 229–230
control beliefs in, 229
dual route models in, 231
explicit processes in, 232
flexibility of, 230–231
implementation strategies in, 232
implicit processes in, 231–232
integrated approaches to, 232–235
(p. 522) intention in, 230–231, 232
limitations of, 230, 231
perceived control in, 229
planning strategies for, 232
SCT and, 227
SDT and, 233, 233–234
social beliefs in, 229
in social psychology, 230
subjective norms in, 229
testing limitations of, 231
intention in, 217, 230–231
personality and, 217–218
physical activity and, 217–218, 261, 274–279
attitude constructs of, 261, 275–276
breadth of model in, 278–279
with cancer, 445–446
depth of model in, 277–278
elicited beliefs for, 276, 277
expectancy-value model for, 275
external variables for, 276–277
in interventions, 279
meta-analytic findings for, 276
procedures for, 267
subjective norms for, 261, 275–276
theoretical application to, 277–279
physical activity paradox and, 299
SCT and, 227
SDT and, 233–234
autonomous motivation and, 233
contextual-level motivation and, 233–234
theory of reasoned action (TRA), 227–229, 244. See also theory of planned behavior
for adults with disabilities, physical activity for, 353
attitudes in, 227
cognitive revolution and, as product of, 298
criticism of, 228–229
intention in, 227
physical activity and, 261
attitude constructs of, 261
subjective norms in, 227
for physical activity, 261
support studies for, 228
thermogenic hypothesis, for anxiety-reducing effect of exercise, 51
Thorndike, Edward Lee, 306–307
law of effect for, 306–307
thought-action repertoires, 120
threat perception
in HBM, 288
in PMT, 289
three-factor model for personality, 196
time of exercise. See also FITT principles of exercise
Tolman, Edward C., 307
Tomkins, Silvan S., 307
trait anxiety, 40
neuroticism and, 40
transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), 81
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), 160
transient hypofrontality hypothesis, 79–80
performance assessment for, 80
transtheoretical model (TTM), 227, 245–246
cognitive revolution and, as product of, 298
development of, 283
for physical activity, 259–260, 283–286
action stage in, 284
with cancer, 448
contemplation stage in, 284
criticisms of, 286
flexibility of, 260
maintenance stage in, 284
precontemplation stage in, 284
preparation stage in, 284
procedures for, 267
processes for, of change, 284, 285
self-efficacy in, 284
stages of change for, 259–260, 284
termination stage in, 284
theoretical application of, 286
physical activity paradox and, 299
triarchic theory, of intelligence, 417
Trier Social Stress Test, 134
Troland, Leonard T., 307
type 2 diabetes, physical activity and, 22
Tai Chi, 495
Type A personality, 196
physical activity and, 215–216
type of exercise. See also FITT principles of exercise
U
ultrasound, for muscle pain, 160
United States (U.S.)
obesity rates in, 253
physical activity paradox in, 299
physical activity recommendation guidelines, 253–254
for adolescents, 29
for adults, 28, 253–254
for children, 29
for older adults, 28–29, 375–376
Utilitarianism, 305
Utopia (More), 303
V
Values in Action (VIA), 124
VAS. See also visual analog scales
VC inhalation studies. See also vital capacity inhalation studies
ventilatory or lactate threshold (VT/LT), 312–314
VIA. See also Values in Action
vicarious experience
in SCT, 225
self-efficacy and, 226, 281
in self-efficacy theory, 257
visual analog scales (VAS), 153–154
vital capacity (VC) inhalation studies, 46
W
walking, 19
weight management
HRQL and, with exercise, 106
with physical activity, 4
physical activity guidelines for, 23
Weight Training for Breast Cancer Survivors (WTBS) study, 437
well-being
eudaimonic, 119
PWB as, 122
happiness and, 119
hedonic, 118
affect and, 118
life satisfaction and, 118
SWB and, 118
in older adults, from physical activity, 366
physical activity and, 119
for cognitive function, 119
for disease prevention, 119
with passive leisure activities, 119
physiological mechanisms for, 119
positive emotions theory for, 120–121
Broaden-and-Build theory and, 120
flow in, 121
physical activity in, 120
thought-action repertoires in, 120
positive psychology and, 118–119
enhancement criteria for, 118
purpose of, 117
PWB, 121–123
autonomy as part of, 122
environmental mastery for, 122
as eudaimonic well-being, 122
personal growth for, 123
positive social relationships for, 122
purpose in life for, 123
self-acceptance and, 122
SWB, 118
Tai Chi and, 495
Weschler Intelligence Scales, 414
women
HRT for, 89–90
motivations for, for physical activity among girls, 388, 397
muscle pain for, 155–156
DOMS and, 156
(p. 523) estrogen role in, 155–156
during exercise, 155–156
thresholds, 155
tolerance levels, 155
negative body image among, 56
environmental influences on exercise for, 67
exercise interventions for, 63–64
physical fitness and, 62
during pregnancy, 68–69
SPA, 61, 62
osteoporosis in, physical activity and, 24
pain tolerance levels for, 155
personality and physical activity for, 213–214
physical fitness for, 62
psychological stress for, cardiorespiratory adaptations to, 171
SPA among, 62
exercise environment and, 61
work, physical activity and. See also occupational studies
working memory
aging and, 367
intelligence and, 416
World Health Organization (WHO)
aging demographic predictions, 359
HRQL definition of, 99
Y
yoga, after cancer, 438–439
Young, Paul T., 307
Z
Zajonc, Robert, 300