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date: 17 February 2019

(p. 891) Index

(p. 891) Index

A
abnormal behavior
detection of, 759
forms of, 759–60
absence of reinforcement, as aversive event, 203–4
absent stimuli, uncertainty response and, 293
absolute encoding
relational encoding v., 370–73, 371f, 372f, 375f
training experience and, 373
of wall length, 369–70
absolute pitch (AP), 67
chroma, 69, 75–77, 76f
height, 76–77
pitch conceptualizing and, 68–69
pitch-range discriminations and, 69–71
absolute positional codes, 644
abstraction
of category-specific features, 500–502, 501f, 502f
of common features, 498
of complex targets, 497
continuum of, 555–56
sequential behavior and, 594
abstract relation processing, 21–22, 533
abstract rules. See also rule-based approach
from hierarchical patterns, 597–98
from interleaved patterns, 598–601
abstract tasks, uncertainty response and, 293
accumulation speed, stimulus similarity and, 96
accuracy functions
SDE and, 645
SME and, 645
acquisition, 425–29, 426f. See also reacquisition
of categories, 530–31
extinction and, 160
faster, 170
new information of, 327–28
in nonhuman animals, 478–80, 479f, 480f
numerosity discrimination and, 478–80
repeated, 764f, 768
simultaneous, 427f
skill, 670
temporal discrimination and, 478–80
acquisition curve, 160, 160f, 607f
acquisition functions, 256
actions
of rats, 186–87
reasoning and, 190–91
self-generated, 186
as special events, 167–68, 170
active memory processes, 218–26
adaptive combination model, 385
adaptive knowledge, social learning and, 832
adaptive response
cognitive flexibility and, 771
to environmental conditions, 652
adaptive specialization hypothesis, 398–99, 401
addition
nonsymbolic, 463–64, 464f
symbolic, 464–66, 465f
additivity of information, 143
adjacency effect, in bottlenose dolphins, 740–41
adjacent move prevention, 585, 585f
adolescents. See also children
drug exposure of, 612
nicotine exposure of, 609–10, 611f
age, geometric knowledge and, 133
alerting, 100
all-or-none conceptions, of animal metacognition, 296
Alzheimer’s patients, 612
reaction times of, 595
amodal completion, 20–21, 25, 34–40, 35f, 43
in baboons, 20f
in five species, 40f
in pigeons, 52
predisposition to, 52
process of, 44
strength of, 49f
subjective contours and, 53
amputated test stimuli, 19f, 20, 20f
analog representation, of list items, 638–39
ancestral state reconstruction, in Corvidae, 400f
anchor value, 453
anecdotal method, 3
angle of action, 148
angles, geometric encoding and, 369
animal behavior
chickens and, 61
human behavior and, 1, 3
imitation in, 833
interpretation of, 48, 84
memory and, 57–58
animal cognition
early events in, 881–82
research on, 48
spatial displacement in, 262, 276–78
temporal displacement in, 261–62, 276–78
animal communication, language and, 616
animal concepts, 555–60
controversy in, 563
animal episodic memory, 261, 319
evidence on question of, 262–63
rats and, 266–67
animal intelligence, 693, 695
Darwin on, 694
experimental study of, 7
limits of, 4
animal memory, 216
future of, 257
human memory compared to, 239
rapid forgetting in, 239–40
research directions for, 257
short-term, 257
testing history for, 239
animal mental state, human mental state and, 7
animal metacognition, 282
all-or-none conceptions of, 296
comparative psychology and, 284
consciousness problem in, 300–301
early perceptual studies of, 283–84
interpretative burden of, 284–85
misconceptions of, 294–96
misunderstandings of, 294–96
models of, 302
theoretical concerns about, 284–86
animals. See also nonhuman animals
anticipation of future events and, 269–72
concept of space and, 272–73
consciousness of, 282–83
difficult and, 301
expected time of reward for, 263
(p. 892)
indeterminacy and, 301
inventive ideation of, 737, 752
mental experience of, 7
as multimodality sequential processors, 610–12
n-series task and, 723
number representation by, 451–52, 460
planning by, 752
self-awareness of, 282–83
symbolic representation and, 277
time and, 262
time-place learning in, 262
uncertainty response of, 301
animal studies, of prototype categories, 519t
animal timing behavior
explanations by general principles of, 409–13, 431
explanations by internal clock characteristics, 413–19, 431
explanations by mathematical models, 420–30, 431
explanations by neural mechanisms, 419–20, 431
explanation types for, 430–31
animal visual list memory, theoretical implications of, 242–44
Anmon’s horn, dorsomedial area and, 763
anointing, 781
anthropocentric approach, 77
anticipation of absence of reinforcement, as aversive event, 205–6
anticipation of effort, as aversive event, 204
anticipation of future events
animals and, 269–72
extended, 270–71
limited, 270
anticipatory contrast, contrast effect and, 209
apes
causal knowledge and, 567–68
longer-term planning in, 271
social cognition of, 851–52
tool use by, 778
ape society, complexity of, 704
appetitive conditioning, 188
applied work, 887
approximate number system (ANS), 453–55
neural basis of, 470
onset of, 456–57
as universal, 456
Weber’s law and, 452
a priori knowledge, 165
Arabic numerals, symbolic meaning of, 103
arbitrary associations, 322, 340
CA3 and, 331–33
numerosities and, 471
responses as, 883–84
arbitrary lists
numerical stimuli and, 637f
representations of, 635–36
arbitrary stimuli, 636f
information processing derived from, 638f
magnitude effects and, 631–34
symbolic distance and, 631–34
arithmetic reasoning
nonsymbolic addition, 463–64, 464f
ordering, 462–63, 462f
subtraction, 466, 466f
symbolic addition, 464–66, 465f
arrays
external directional cues and, 373–74
geometric encoding from, 370–75
arthropods
integration and, 347
landmarks and, 347
map-like navigational behavior of, 347
route behavior of, 347, 356
artificial categories, learning, 513
artificial family-resemblance categories, 524–26, 524f
artificial grammar learning (AGL), 681–83, 681f, 687
artificial life models, neural network and, 384
artificially induced variant spread, 869
in capuchin monkeys, 870f
artificial polymorphous categories, 514, 516f, 517f
feature correlation of, 517–18, 518f
linear feature model of, 517
modal prototypes of, 515–17, 515t
artificial prototype categories, 520–24
early studies of, 518–19
asocial learning, cost of, 835, 843, 846
assimilation effect, 33–34
association, 157–59. See also between-cue associations
discriminative cues and, 602
laws of, 297
association across time, 322, 340
CA1 and, 337–38
association formation, by rats, 804
associationism, 296, 883, 885
association theory, 617
associative accounts, 384
associative approach, 144
Bayesian approach and, 145
causality and, 169–71
temporal relations in, 145–46
associative cues, uncertainty and, 290
associative gradients, trained, 288
associative learning, 686–87. See also development of associative learning theory
in bottlenose dolphins, 741
causal learning and, 157, 159, 168, 170
characteristics of, 803–4
contemporary models of, 188–89, 193
incidental learning and, 384–85
laws of, 170
study of, 580
associative models, 165–69
basic, 285
of TI, 725–26
associative phenomena
causal judgment and, 162–63
causal learning and, 159–62
causal principles as constraint to, 166
associative recognition, ROC analysis of, 313–14, 314f
associative-recognition paradigm, 309
associative theory, 194
causal learning and, 157
reinforcement and, 293–94
stimulus cues and, 293–94
associative values, for n-series task, 728t
atemporal learning, 144–45
attention, 87–88, 98
bias in, 109
cause theories of, 110–11
cognitive theories of, 110
comparative cognition and, 100–101
comparative understanding of, 101
as competition, 102–4
concentration and, 100
control of, 108–12
derived, 110–11
dual function of, 101
effect theories of, 110
environmental constraints on, 108–9, 112
executive constraints on, 110–12
executive function and, 100
experiential constraints on, 109–10, 112
factors in, 100
focused, 112
importance of, 100
influence over, 111–12
limited-capacity, 105–6
metaphors of, 104–8, 112
movement and, 106
in nonhuman animals, 101
perception and, 100
as resource, 105–7
scanning component of, 100, 112
as spotlight, 107–8
sustained, 112
types of, 107
visual search task and, 107
Washburn on, 104
working memory and, 100
attentional behavior, dolphin pointing as function of, 745f
attentional dynamics, 678–81, 679f
attentional tuning, 90
attention deficits, 112
attention-focusing factor, 100
(p. 893) attraction, unpredictable response and, 670
auditory discrimination, 296
auditory list items, inhibition among, 246–49
auditory list memory, 245–46
theoretical implications of, 249
visual list memory compared to, 246f
auditory memory, 245–46
inhibition and, 250–51
auditory perception, 67
in song playback experiments, 68
auditory serial position functions, 247f, 248f
auditory testing apparatus, 245f
auto-association system, 332
automaticity, 110
aversion gradients, 288
aversive event
absence of reinforcement as, 203–4
anticipation of absence of reinforcement as, 205–6
anticipation of effort as, 204
delay to reinforcement as, 203
avian cognition, neural basis of, 757
avian food-caching paradigm, 390
avian hippocampal complex, 763
avian species, eight-range discriminations of, 72, 73f, 74f
avian species differences, sensory array model and, 72–74
avian striatal complex, 767
avian visual pathways, 760, 765
avoidance learning, 410–11
B
Babb and Crustal procedure, 266–67, 266f
baboons. See also nonhuman primates
accuracy of, 13–14
amodal completion in, 20f
attentional processes of, 14
characteristics of, 12
corridor illusion in, 18–19
depth perception by, 12, 21
humans compared to, 20–21
illusory perception in, 19
with joystick, 12f
local precedence in, 21
local processing advantage in, 16
visual information processing by, 11
background perspective cues, 19
backward inferences, 150–51
basal ganglia dysfunction, 767
base rate, 221
base-rate neglect, 215, 221–23, 221t, 222f, 222t, 223f
Bayesian approach, 144
associative approach and, 145
Bayes net, 148–49, 167
beaconing behavior, 361
servomechanism and, 354
beacons, 354–55
bees
dance of, 348, 350
landmarks and, 373
landscape knowledge of, 359, 359f
sensorimotor vectors of, 354
vectors and, 360, 360f
behaving theories, 674
development of, 687–88
behavior. See also animal behavior; animal timing behavior; differential reinforcement of other behavior; human behavior; human S/D behavior; map-like navigational behavior; novel play behaviors; sequential behavior; spontaneous pointing behaviors
abnormal, 759–60
adaptive value of, 199
attentional, 745f
beaconing, 354, 361
as biology, 6
conceptual, 513, 536
control of, 580
developmental history of, 746
feeding, 805–6, 810
flexible, 3
genetic determination of, 701
hyperactive, 759–60
hypoactive, 760
instrumental, 159
landmarks and, 581
mobbing, 669
moment-to-moment nature of, 674
neural basis of, 533
occurrence of, 594
psychologists on, 199
route, 347, 356
sequential learning and, 594
serially organized, 615–16, 648
serial order in, 883
as servomechanism, 356
social learning and, 869
spatial, 117–18, 122–25
spread of, 851, 865–66
systematicity and, 579
unobservables in, 569–70
visually guided, 49
behavioral ambassadors, 2
behavioral analysis, language of, 109–10
behavioral development, social learning and, 815
behavioral disposition, intelligence as, 693
behavioral ecologists, 199
behavioral ecology
comparative psychology and, 403
of species, 390–91
behavioral mediation hypothesis, 489
behavioral neuroscience, 595, 612
behavioral psychology, 1, 885
behavioral traditions, 863
behaviorism, 2, 199, 889
behaviorist account, of chimpanzees, 564
behavior stream, 674
continuity of, 688
belongingness, 170
Benussi, Vittorio, 56
benzene ring, 6
BeT, 484
between-cue associations, 378–79
bias
in attention, 109
reward and, 96
RT, 97
bias reversal procedure, 729–30, 730f
bi-cone, 261
Binet, Alfred, 693
biological motion processing, 21
biological relevance, 170
biology. See also evolutionary biology
behavior as, 6
cognition as, 2
birth order, 708
Bischof-Kohler hypothesis
challenges to, 272
suggestions of, 271–72
tests of, 272f
bisection procedure, 417–18, 417f, 481, 482f
power of mean analysis of, 482
blindsight humans, 301
blindsight monkeys, visual-detection task and, 301
blocked condition, 428–29, 428f
blocking, 104–5, 142–43, 162
backward, 163–64
instrumental, 602–4, 604f
blocking design, 123
Boring, E. G., on intelligence, 709
bottleneck metaphor, 104–5
bottlenose dolphins
adjacency effect in, 740–41
associative learning in, 741
flexibility of, 741–42
gestural sequence processing of, 738–42
information processing by, 738–42
language and, 738–40, 751
multiple-weight task of, 746–49, 747f, 748f, 751–52
planning by, 745–49, 751–52
primacy effects in, 741
problem solving of, 736, 738, 745–46, 748–49, 751–52
rule learning in, 741
syntactic abilities of, 738–42
underwater keyboard for, 742, 742f
bottom-up processes, 11
boundaries, landmarks and, 384–85
box densities, 285
brain-area manipulations, 257
brain asymmetry, 53–54
brain manipulations, 257
brain mechanisms, for tool making, 770
(p. 894) brain-mind relationship, 48
brains. See also intelligent brains
allometric study of, 771
common features among, 771–72
genetic mutation in, 701–2
size of, 701–3, 702f
breadth-of-rectangles illusion, 26
broadcast theory of timing, 444
bursting, 146
C
CA1
anatomy of, 335
association across time and, 337–38
CA3 and, 339–40
computational models of, 335
consolidation and, 338–39
environmental cues and, 326
functions of, 322–23, 340
intermediate memory and, 338–39
lesions to, 327
physiological data on, 335
temporal order memory and, 335–37
CA3, 324
arbitrary associations and, 331–33
CA1 and, 339–40
DG and, 322, 334–35
environmental cues and, 326, 334
functions of, 322–23, 340
lesions to, 327–28, 334f
new information and, 329–30
pattern completion and, 333–34
plasticity mechanism in, 330
rapid encoding and, 329–31
role of, 328
short-term memory and, 329–31
cache propensity, 391–92
cache recovery, 119
cognition in, 395–98
social aspects of, 397–98
caching. See also avian food-caching paradigm; food-caching birds; food-caching paradigm
ancestral state reconstruction of, 400f
cognition in, 392–95
by Corvidae, 391–92
episodic memory and, 265–66
evolutionary scenarios for, 401–2, 401f
as future oriented, 395
by Paridae, 391–92
raiding and, 394–95
social aspects of, 393–95
what, when, where, 392–93, 395–97
candidate cause, 142, 150, 158
uncontrolled, 151
canine digestion studies, of Pavlov, 5–6
captive experimentation, 866
capuchin monkeys
artificially induced variant spread in, 870f
distance-based strategy of, 791–92
distribution of, 778
first-order problems of, 788–89, 788f, 789f
group size for, 778
moving objects across irregular surfaces by, 791–94
as omnivorous, 778–79
relations produced by, 787t
second-order problems of, 789–91, 790f
size of, 778
surface constraints on, 792–93, 793f
tool use by, 777–81, 780f, 781f, 782t–786t
tool use in, 787–94
trap-tube problem and, 791–94, 791f, 792f
cardinal knowledge, 626
cardinal numbers, 626–27
card-sorting task, cognitive flexibility and, 766–69
Cartesian dualism, 4
categorical factors, continuous factors and, 549
categorical responding, 545
categories, 513
acquisition of, 530–31
artificial, 513
artificial family-resemblance, 524–26, 524f
artificial polymorphous, 514–18, 515t, 516f, 517f, 518f
artificial prototype, 518–24
classical, 515, 530
exemplars of, 523–24
natural, 499, 513–14, 518, 761
non-classical, 530
numerical, 627–28, 628f
perceptual, 498–99
prototype, 519–21, 519t, 520f, 521f, 522f
categorization. See also category representations; visual categorization
basis of, 498–99, 509–10
benefit of, 497
in cognitive science, 497
competencies of, 513, 531
complexity and, 497
conceptual, 555
exemplar + feature learning model of, 528–29
exemplar model of, 527–28, 528f
feature frequency model of, 527, 527f
feature theory and, 498
MFT of, 499–509
models of, 527–29
multidimensional, 676–78, 677f, 678f
optimality in, 676–78
perceptual, 555
prototype model of, 528
traditional theories of, 497, 509
category discrimination, 497–98
category features, classification and, 498–99
category learning, classic view of, 579–80
category representations. See also categorization
hierarchy of, 507–9, 509f
category-specific features, 509
abstraction of, 500–502, 501f, 502f
caudate-frontal cortical loop, 612
caudate-putamen, 767
causal attribution, 142, 152
conditioning and, 159
causal chain training, 185, 190f, 192
causal cognition
comparative analysis of, 179
rational models of, 176
causal covariations, noncausal covariations v., 177
causal directionality, 177
causal efficacy, contingency and, 142
causal explanations, of children, 565
causal inductions, 176
causal inference, 141. See also rational causal inference
of rats, 182, 186
causal interactions, 147f, 149f
causality. See also psychology of causality
associative framework and, 169–71
attribution of, 141, 149–50
comparative, 152
conditions of, 158
continuous, 152
environmental cues to, 150–52
existence of, 141
hidden, 177
humans and, 168–69
retrospective revaluation and, 163–65
role of, 175
structure of, 165
causality cues
causal judgment and, 152
complexity and, 150
Hume on, 141, 176
observation v. intervention and, 143–44
causal judgment, 153, 158, 169
associative phenomena and, 162–63
causality cues and, 152
contingency models of, 162–63
spatial contiguity and, 149
strong, 146–47
studies of, 143
temporal contiguity and, 149
weak, 145
causal knowledge, 177–79
apes and, 567–68
of humans, 194
causal learning
associative learning and, 157, 159, 168, 170
associative phenomena in, 159–62
associative theory and, 157
in humans, 176–78
theories of, 144, 149
verbal assessment of, 159
(p. 895) causal models, 181f, 189f
of causal relationships, 190, 190f
rats as, 180–82
causal model theory, 170–71, 175, 179
competition and, 166
default assumption of, 186
implementation of, 195
predictions of, 182, 183f, 185f, 187, 187f, 194
test of, 182
causal perception, 152
theoretical issues in, 148–50
causal power, 176, 177
structure and, 165–66
causal power model, 166
causal reasoning, in rats, 179–80, 188, 194–95
causal relationship
causal models of, 190, 190f
complex, 167
environmental cues and, 141
environmental regularities and, 142
inducing, 186
causal representations, 176
parsimony and, 177–78
causal role, of unobservables, 569–70
causal structure, 167, 177, 190
cause, event and, 554
cause-effect relationships
Hume on, 157, 169, 176
rating of, 165
causes, signals v., 167
ceiling effects, 142
central sulcus, 472f
cerebellar cortex, 703, 770
cerebellum, 702
chaining theory. See also simultaneous chaining paradigm
serial learning and, 615–16
serially organized behavior and, 616
change detection, 239
color, 256f
modifications of, 256–57
training animals in, 254–57
transformation in, 255
visual search experiments and, 255
chaotic equations, 660–61
checkerboard pattern, 583, 583f, 586–87
control by, 585f
move types used in, 584–85, 584f
negative information and, 589
chicken (domestic)
animal behavior and, 61
behavioral strategies of, 61
binocular, right-eyed, left-eyed, 61–62, 62f
cognitive abilities of, 48, 63
complete occlusion and, 57–58, 58f
depth perception in, 55f
as early learning study model, 62–63
illusions and, 54–55, 54f
imprinting and, 50f, 54, 56, 57f, 59, 63
information encoding in, 61–62
partial occlusion and, 51, 51f
reorientation in, 61
children. See also adolescents; infants; toddlers
causal explanations of, 565
cognitive shift in, 874
continuous factors and, 548
emulation in, 870–73
feature cues and, 131
geometric knowledge and, 131–32
imitation in, 200, 870–73
problem solving by, 752
chimpanzees, 852f. See also nonhuman primates
begging gesture of, 562f
behaviorist account of, 564
cognitive shift in, 874
comparative approach problems with, 873–74
cultural variations among, 865f
dyadic interactions with, 855–56, 857f, 859
emulation in, 870–73
following other’s gaze and, 855–56, 856f
gaze recognition and, 854–55, 855f
imitation in, 870–73
knowing by, 561–63
local advantage in, 16–17
mother’s face recognition and, 852–53, 853f
mutual gaze and, 854–55, 854f
as observers, 563
overemphasis on, 874
politics of, 704
probe trial conditions of, 562–63, 563f
seeing by, 561–63
shared attention in, 856–59
social cognitive transmission of, 858f
social learning in, 859
tool use by, 858–59
triadic interactions with, 856–59, 857f
choice, control of, 583
choice-percentage bias, 97, 97f
choice RT bias, 97, 97f
chroma, 67, 69f
chroma AP, 69
humans with, 75–77, 76f
phylogenetic hypothesis for, 77
pitch-range discriminations and, 75
chunking processes, 601–2
phrasing cues and, 594
circadian clocks, 263
circadian oscillator, 434
circadian timing, short-interval timing and, 444–48
circular series task, TI design and, 722–23, 726–27
classical categories, 515, 530
classification, 497. See also mechanistic classifications
abstract, 696
category features and, 498–99
classification responses, 31
Clayton and Dickenson experiments, 264–66
cleverness
efficiency and, 693
of humans, 693
coding strategies, retention tests and, 226–36
coefficient of variation (CV), 439
cognition. See also comparative pseudo-cognition; spontaneous numerical cognition tasks
avian, 757
as biology, 2
in cache recovery, 395–98
in caching, 392–95
causal, 176, 179
comparative, 1–7, 100–101, 391, 883–87
evidence of, 2
generality of, 3
of hidden event, 191–93
higher-level, 301
human causal, 175
mentalism and, 5–6
numerical, 469
phylogeny and, 390
of primates, 11
prospective, 395
social, 851–52
spatial, 48, 59, 117, 468–69
unobservables and, 4–5
visual, 48, 757
cognitive complexity, of uncertainty response, 300
cognitive dissonance, 210
in humans, 200
cognitive dissonance effects, 199
cognitive dissonance reduction, 199
cognitive dissonance theory, 200
cognitive efficiency, 143
cognitive ethology, 1
mentalism and, 6–7
cognitive flexibility, 757
adaptive response and, 771
card-sorting task and, 766–69
environmental intelligence and, 771
examination of, 768–69
innovation and, 769–71
neural basis of, 765–71
origin of, 771–72
social intelligence and, 771
cognitive inflexibility, 767–68
cognitive map, 585–86
content of, 580
flexible nature of, 274
of humans, 274
simultaneous chains and, 617–18, 619f
spatial displacement and, 273
cognitive processes, 3
development of, 887
species generality of, 4
(p. 896) cognitive psychology, 884
cognitive revolution, 48
cognitive science, categorization in, 497
cognitive self-regulation, 282
cognitive shift
in children, 874
in chimpanzees, 874
cognitive sources, of information, 594
cognitive spatial displacement, 272–73
demonstration of, 274
cognitive theories, of attention, 110
collothalamic pathway, 761, 765
color different displays, 534–35
color same displays, 535
common cause models, 180
nose poking and, 182–83
common sample representations, 230–32, 230t
communication, pitch information and, 67
comparative approach problems, with chimpanzees, 873–74
comparative cognition, 1–2, 885–87. See also comparative pseudo-cognition
agenda of, 7
attention and, 100–101
central issues in, 2–7
comparative psychology and, 391
definitional concerns of, 2–3
evolution and, 391
experimental locale in, 4
harbingers of, 883–84
Honig on, 4
natural science approach of, 3
observational concerns of, 2–3
comparative functional neuroanatomy, 305–6
comparative pseudo-cognition, 888
comparative psychologists, 199–200
comparative psychology, 1, 48
animal metacognition and, 284
behavioral ecology and, 403
comparative cognition and, 391
hegemony in, 570
comparator cues, 163
comparator hypothesis, 163–64
comparison choice, 221
basis of, 233–34
comparison choice frequency, 222
comparison-response frequency, 221
competition, 411–12. See also response competition; stimulus competition
attention as, 102–4
causal model theories and, 166
protection from, 170
with reinforcement, 411f
unpredictable response and, 670
complementarity principle, 106
complete occlusion, chickens and, 57–58, 58f
completion, amodal, 20–21, 25, 34–40, 35f, 43
in baboons, 20f
in five species, 40f
in pigeons, 52
predisposition to, 52
process of, 44
strength of, 49f
subjective contours and, 53
completion, modal, 35
completion, occluded contour, 39f
by monkeys, 36f, 37f
by pigeons, 38–39, 44
completion, of cues, 122–23
completion, of patterns, 195, 322, 340
CA3 and, 333–34
completion, perceptual, 39–40
completion ability
determination of, 36–38
in humans, 36, 52
perception and, 49–50
complexity
of ape society, 704
categorization and, 497
causality cues and, 150
in laboratory, 151–52
social learning and, 862
complex targets, abstraction of, 497
compound stimuli, 13f
compression, 147, 147f
computer metaphor, 883
concentration, attention and, 100
concept formation, 554, 561–62, 564–68, 696–97, 697f. See also true concept formation
animal concepts, 555–60
controversy in, 563
concept learning, response to, 758
conceptual behavior, 513
perception and, 536
concurrent item memory, 605–8, 609f
concurrent processes, dissociations of, 608–10, 610f
conditional control, by spatial pattern, 588
conditional emotional response procedure, 415–16, 415f
conditional matching tasks, 12
conditional social learner strategy, 839
conditioned inhibition, 161
conditioned reflex, 615
conditioned responses (CR), 5
mentalistic interpretations of, 6
conditioned stimulus (CS), 264, 410
conditioning
appetitive, 188
causal attribution and, 159
context, 254
delay, 145, 152
instrumental, 170, 176
laws of, 297
observational, 847
operant, 180
Pavlovian, 170, 176, 180
phenomena, 146
sequential behavior and, 594
shadow, 294–95
trace, 145
conditioning procedures, pigeons and, 50, 53
configural knowledge, 126
configural perception, 506–7, 507f
conformity
emphasis on, 840
evidence of, 840–41
transmission of, 844
conjunctive encoding, 324–25
of multiple sensory inputs, 322, 340
consciousness, 296
of animals, 282–83
James on, 533
working, 301
consciousness problem, in animal metacognition, 300–301
consistent mapping, 107
consolidation, 322, 340
CA1 and, 338–39
conspecifics, 67
discrimination of, 760–61
mental inference of, 851
contact, as notion, 565t, 566
contention scheduling, 109–10
context conditioning, 254
context cues, 347, 361
contextual imitation, 845t
contextual psychophysics, 482–84, 483f
contingency, 157–59
causal efficacy and, 142
stimulus competition and, 165
contingency assessment mode, 165
contingency models, of causal judgment, 162–63
contingency table, for event frequencies, 158f
continuous factors
categorical factors and, 549
children and, 548
continuous perceptual entities, 14
contrafreeloading, 209
contrast, 210. See also anticipatory contrast
relative delay reduction or, 207–8
role of, 199
contrast effect, 208. See also incentive contrast effects
anticipatory contrast and, 209
failures to obtain, 206
generality of, 207
in humans, 207, 211
relational learning and, 211
control, 296. See also conditional control; spatial control mechanisms; specificity of control
of behavior, 580
by checkerboard pattern, 585f
of choice, 583
(p. 897)
of response variability, 652
by spatial pattern, 583–84, 590f
control by stimulus onset, RT distributions and, 91–92
controlled decision making, uncertainty tasks and, 297
controlled variability. See variability
control system, 347
converging lines, short lines and, 29–30
Cook simultaneous S/D discrimination, 534–35, 538t, 541f, 542
Cook successive S/D discrimination, 537–39, 538f, 538t
copying. See imitation
corridor illusion, 18f
in baboons, 18–19
Corvidae, 390
ancestral state reconstruction of, 400f
cache contents of, 396–97
caching amount of, 391–92
Paridae compared to, 402–3
spatial capacity comparison among, 402
costly information hypothesis, 835
covariation, 141. See also causal covariations
Hume on, 176
rats and, 193
critical flicker frequency, 45
critical social learner strategy, 838–39
cross-modal matching, 451, 461–62, 462f
cross-modal representations, of number, 461–62, 461f
CS-US interval, 410–11, 410f
cue competition, 122–25
absence of, 586
facilitation and, 375–80
cue completion, 122–23
cue-outcome contiguity, 158
cues. See also between-cue associations; depth cue perception; object-cued spatial location recall
additivity of, 143
associative, 290
background perspective, 19
causality, 141, 143–44, 150, 152, 176
comparator, 163
context, 347, 361
directional, 57
discriminative, 601, 654
distance, 133–35
egocentric, 117, 133
environmental, 141, 150–52, 326, 334
external directional, 373–74
extra-maze, 273
feature, 125–29, 131
geocentric, 117
geometry, 125–29, 135
gradient, 18
human, 819
invalid, 108
junction, 19
non-human, 821–22
occlusion, 18–20, 19f
odor, 581
phrasing, 594, 602–5, 605f, 606f
pictorial depth, 12, 17–18
priming, 107–8
self-motion, 117–22, 133, 135
in serial pattern learning, 612
shading, 18
spatial, 118, 123, 133
stimulus, 293–94
time-interval, 269
time-of-day, 269
visual flow, 133
cue validity, 521–22
cultural assemblage, 869
culture, 863. See also cumulative culture
identification of, 864–66
cumulative culture, 869–72, 874
direct tests of, 873
cyan/yellow discrimination performance, 291–92, 291f
D
Darwin, Charles
on animal intelligence, 694
on mental continuity, 3
mentalism and, 2
dead reckoning, 117, 135, 273
landmarks and, 581
decisionally controlled processes, 297
declarative memory, 322
declarative reports, 296
deductive reasoning, TI as, 718, 731
deferred-rearranged feedback
reinforcement and, 290
within sparse/dense discrimination performance, 289
uncertainty response and, 293
deformation of pliable objects, 146
delay-ambiguity hypothesis, 232–33
delay conditioning, 145, 152
delayed causation, 145, 151f
variability and, 151
delayed conditional discrimination, 229–30
delayed discriminations
numerosity discrimination and, 490–92
simple v. conditional, 229–30
temporal discrimination and, 490–92
delayed duration discrimination, 232, 233f
delayed matching, 226–28, 231f
memory and, 235–36
delayed matching-to-sample, 215, 226
accuracy, 227f, 228f
matching accuracy in, 216f
PI and, 250–51
delayed nonspatial matching-to-sample, 216
delayed relations, 149
delayed response problem, 58–59
delayed simple discrimination, 229–30, 230f
delay functions, 251f
delay of reinforcement, 218
delay-reduction hypothesis, 207–8
delay to reinforcement, as aversive event, 203
deliberative reasoning, intelligence and, 709–10
density, effect of, 15
density discrimination tasks, 298–99
dentate gyrus (DG), 323f
CA3 and, 322, 334–35
disruption of, 325
functions of, 322, 340
lesions to, 324–27, 325f, 327f
role of, 327
V-shaped area and, 763
depth cue perception, 11
in baboons, 12, 21
in chickens, 55f
depth indicators, occlusion cues as, 19–20
depth stratification, direction of, 54–55
derived lists
composition of, 623f, 624f
ordinal position and, 623–24
desert ants
global vector of, 353f
landmarks and, 357f
local vectors of, 352–53, 353f
route following in, 353f
deterministic causes, 186
developmental time-course, species variation in, 52
development of associative learning theory, retrospective revaluation and, 163–65
dialectic, reconciliation and, 544–46
difference, as concept, 533
similarity and, 552–53, 570
difference limen (DL), 416
different displays, 534–36, 536f, 539–40, 544
differential incentive motivation, 218–19
differential outcomes, 228–29
differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), 208
difficulty, animals and, 301
diffusion pattern modeling, 866
diffusion studies, 869
directed forgetting, 215, 218–20
omission procedure, 218f
reallocation procedure, 219f
substitution procedure, 219f
direction
encoding of, 374–75
telling, 349
directional cues, 57
directionality, of ordinal lines, 644–45
discrete code model, 455
(p. 898) discrimination. See also density discrimination tasks; left/right discrimination performance; pseudo-discrimination procedure; sparse/dense discrimination performance; time-discrimination experiments; top/bottom discrimination performance; two-choice discrimination paradigm
auditory, 296
category, 497–98
conceptual nature of, 533
of conspecifics, 760–61
Cook simultaneous S/D, 534–35, 538t, 541f, 542
Cook successive S/D, 537–39, 538f, 538t
delayed, 229–30, 490–92
delayed conditional, 229–30
delayed duration, 232, 233f
delayed simple, 229–30, 230f
eight-range, 67, 70t, 72, 73f, 74–75, 74f, 75f
at extreme exemplars, 519–20, 520f
numerosity, 477–84, 486–92, 640f
of paintings, 758–59
of pigeons, 50, 759
at prototype categories, 519–20, 520f
same/different, 533
same/different density, 288
spatial, 763
three-range, 67
visual, 762–63
discrimination breakpoint, 288
difficult trials near, 289
discrimination-learning procedure, 100, 104–5
discriminations, pitch-range, 67, 69–71, 74–75, 77
discriminative cues
associations and, 601
in serial learning, 601
variability and, 654
discriminative processes, RT distributions and, 90–98
dishabituation, 109, 148
displacement. See also spatial displacement; temporal displacement
language and, 261
display oddity, 542, 545
S/D discrimination and, 548
display-size functions
horizontal, 86
RTs and, 85–86, 85f, 88f
slope of, 87
dissociation
of concurrent processes, 608–10, 610f
between perception and physical reality, 25
distance computation, 349–50
distance cues, 133–35
distance effect. See symbolic distance effect
dithering, as objective cue, 288
diversity. See also psychological diversity
without hierarchy, 568–69
of species, 552
two faces of, 552–53
dizocilpine (MK-801), 596, 608
serial pattern learning and, 610f
do-as-I-do experiments, imitation and, 868
dog responses, to human cues, 819
dogs
breed differences among, 828–29
dependence of, 819
feral, 826–27
humans and, 819, 828–29
imitation in, 829
learning in, 822–23
ontogeny and, 825–28
as pet, 819
phylogeny and, 823–25
shelter, 824–25, 825f, 827
socialization of, 826–27
social learning in, 827
visual acuity of, 822
dog sensitivity
domestication and, 824–25, 827
to human stimuli, 820, 821f
to non-human cues, 821–22
dog success
in object-choice task, 819–22, 825f, 826f, 829
strongest predictor of, 822
dolphin cooperation, 746
dolphin monitoring, 743–44, 744f
dolphin play, 749f
number of different types of, 751f
problem solving and, 749–51
dolphin pointing, 736, 742–45, 744f
as function of receiver’s attentional behavior, 745f
dolphins. See bottlenose dolphins
dolphin syntax, 736
domestication
dog sensitivity and, 824–25, 827
selection pressure and, 828
dominance, 560
dopamine receptor subtype, 59
dorsal pathway, 757
dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), 760
dorsomedial area, Anmon’s horn and, 763
dorsomedial telencephalon, 761
DPSD model, of recognition, 306, 307f, 308–9
dual-process signal detection (DPSD), 306
dual-process theory, 310
dual-store model, 249
dual-task research paradigm, 106
Duchamp, Marcel, 56
durability, short-term memory and, 254
duration, numerosity discrimination and, 477
dyadic interactions
basis for, 859
with chimpanzees, 855–56, 857f, 859
dynamic interactive systems theory
assumptions of, 686–87
theoretical successes of, 687–88
dynamic object interactions, 141
E
Ebbinghaus illusory figures, 15, 16f
Ebbinghaus-Titchener circles illusion, 31, 33f, 34
in pigeons, 34f, 44
education by master-apprenticeship, 858–59
efficiency, cleverness and, 693
egocentric cues, 117, 133
egocentric frames of reference
geocentric frames of reference and, 121–22
self-motion cues and, 119
eight-range discriminations, 67, 70t
of avian species, 72, 73f, 74f
of mammals, 74–75, 75f
training in, 75
elasticity, of numerical representations, 642–43
elemental perception, 506–7, 507f
emission process, as stochastic, 671
emotional intelligence, 704–5
emulation, 845t
in children, 870–73
in chimpanzees, 870–73
enabling, 148
encoding
absolute, 369–73, 371f, 372f, 375f
conjunctive, 322, 324–25, 340
of direction, 374–75
experience and, 380–82, 380f
geometric, 61
information, 62, 129–30
metric, 361
rapid, 322, 329–31, 340
relational, 370–73, 371f, 372f, 375f
relative, 369–70
about sequential items, 594
of spatial information, 322
training experience and, 380–82, 380f
enculturation, problem of, 851–52
end-anchor effect, 719
endogenous oscillations
in long-interval timing, 446–48, 448f
in short-interval timing, 445–46, 446f, 447f
enforced disintegration, 146, 147f
entopallial lesions, 764f
hippocampal lesions and, 762, 762f
(p. 899)
impairment of, 764
in pigeons, 760–61
visual discrimination and, 762–63
entopallium, 762f, 763–64
hyperpallium and, 764f
entorhinal cortex, 323
parahippocampalis area and, 763
entraining, 146, 147f
entropy, 540–41, 540f, 541f
humans and, 549
S/D discrimination and, 544, 548
stimulus control and, 543
environmental conditions
adaptive response to, 652
intelligence and, 708
environmental cues
CA1 and, 326
CA3 and, 326, 334
to causality, 150–52
causal relationship and, 141
environmental intelligence
cognitive flexibility and, 771
social intelligence and, 771
environmental regularities, 142
environmental size, effects of, 370, 370f
episodic memory, 215, 223–25, 224f, 252–53, 257, 322. See also animal episodic memory
caching and, 265–66
comparative analysis of, 305
contents of, 314
evolution of, 305
features of, 311
in humans, 305
impairment in, 311
in rats, 266–67
semantic memory and, 262
temporal basis of, 267–69
tests for, 268f
for what, where, when, 265, 278
episodic recollection
familiarity and, 306, 309–10
hippocampus and, 310–16
ethology, 882, 889
event, cause and, 554
event base rates, 142
event-related potentials (ERPs), 468
prefrontalis role and, 766
event retrieval, 223
evoked response potentials (ERPs), 310
evolution
biological, 700
comparative cognition and, 391
importance of, 398–402
of intelligence, 700–701, 771–72
of language, 552, 709–10
of mate-choice copying, 837
number and, 451
of pluricellular organisms, 700–701
evolutionary biology, 1
evolutionary ecology, 889
evolutionary game theory, 652
executive function, 612
attention and, 100
exemplar. See also pattern exemplar
experimental choice of, 582
of numerical stimuli, 629f
exemplar + feature learning model, of categorization, 528–29
exemplar model, of categorization, 527–28, 528f
expansion tests, 127, 127f, 128f
expectation, 87–89
expected time, to reinforcement, 415–16, 425f
experience
encoding and, 380–82, 380f
training and, 380–82
explanation by general principle, of animal timing behavior, 409–13
exploration
tool use distinguished from, 778
unpredictable response and, 670
external directional cues
arrays and, 373–74
importance of, 373–74
exteroceptive sources, of information, 594
extinction, 165, 425–29, 426f
acquisition and, 160
avoidance, 619
as retroactive interference, 162
extra-maze cues, 273
extreme exemplars, discrimination at, 519–20, 520f
extrinsic reinforcement, intrinsic reinforcement v., 210
F
facilitation
cue competition and, 375–80
potentiation and, 379–80, 380f
familiarity, 257
characterization of, 309–10
criterion, 254
enhancement of, 313–14
episodic recollection and, 306, 309–10
human memory and, 252–53
PI and, 253–54
recollection and, 311
suppressed activation signal of, 318
family resemblances, 513, 524f, 531. See also artificial family-resemblance categories
distinctiveness from contrasting categories of, 518
representations of, 525f
representativeness within a category of, 518
fatigue, 2
Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV), 780, 780f, 781f, 794
fear gradients, shock and, 414f
featural analysis, 53
feature correlation, of artificial polymorphous categories, 517–18, 518f
feature creation, 499
feature cues
children and, 131
in geocentric frames of reference, 125–29
feature displays, 535, 535f
feature frequency model, of categorization, 527, 527f
features, 86. See also exemplar + feature learning model; linear feature model; Modified Feature Theory
category, 498–99
category-specific, 500–502, 501f, 502f, 509
of episodic memory, 311
global, 504–6, 505f
local, 504–6, 505f
low-level, 503–4, 503f
feature selection, 499
feature theory
categorization and, 498
MFT compared to, 510
feature trials, 130–31, 130f
feed-forward sequential processing system, 322
feeding behavior, of Norway rats, 805–6, 810
fiddler crabs, path integration in, 351–52, 351f
field experiments, 866
field site differences, 864–65
figure recognition control, 38
filial imprinting. See imprinting
filter metaphor, 104–5
first-order associates, 164
first-order object relations, 556–57
first-order problems, of capuchin monkeys, 788–89, 788f, 789f
fitness, 700
fitting parameters, treatment of, 93–94
fixed-interval (FI), 263, 480
reinforcement, 424–25
temporal gradients of, 427f, 429f
fixed ratio (FR), 479, 487–88, 488f, 491
flexibility. See also cognitive flexibility
of bottlenose dolphins, 741–42
MFT on, 499, 502–7
in S/D discrimination, 544
flexible information use, 165
floor effects, 142
focal attention, 22
focused attention. See attention
focusing, 100
following other’s gaze, chimpanzees and, 855–56, 856f
(p. 900) food
as natural category, 761
social learning about, 807–8, 811–12
traditional exploitation of, 810, 810f
food-caching birds
comparative work on, 390–91
in harsh climates, 390–91
social structure among, 393–94
food-caching paradigm, 403
strength of, 390
food choice. See also self-selection of nutritionally adequate diets
of humans, 804
in Norway rats, 806–7, 806f
in rats, 804
social influences on, 803–4, 808, 812, 845t
food communication sophistication, in rats, 809
food recovery preferences, 265
foraging, 868
innovation in, 770–71
by Norway rats, 811
seasonal changes and, 771
TI and, 731–32
foraging information, cost of, 836
foraging metacognition paradigms, 282
force dynamics model, 149
force dynamic theory of causation, 148–49, 149f
formal-mathematical models, 285
formal models, of metacognition, 294
forward inferences, 150
fostering experiments, 298
fourth-item performance, 248
single-item performance compared to, 249f
FR. See fixed ratio
free-body diagram, 175
free recall, by humans, 598
frequency-dependent biases, 839
functional equivalence, 230–32
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 468
functional organization, of hippocampal memory system, 316–19
future consequences, 271–72
future planning
experiments, 271
nonhuman primates and, 271–72
G
gap procedure, 418–19, 418f
gaze recognition
chimpanzees and, 854–55, 855f
mutual gaze and, 854–55
general intelligence, 706
inhibition of, 707–8
generalization gradients, 526
of responding, 757
genetic mutation
in brain, 701–3
stochastic nature of, 703–4
geocentric cues, 117
geocentric frames of reference
egocentric frames of reference and, 121–22
establishment of, 125
feature cues in, 125–29
geometry cues in, 125–29
landmarks and, 119
geometrical configuration, 278
geometrical model, 60
geometrical representations, schematic representations of, 60f
geometric displays, 535, 535f
geometric encoding, 61
angles and, 369
from arrays, 370–75
comparative investigations of, 366
developmental investigations of, 366
from different environments, 367–69
hypotheses of, 384–85
models of, 384–85
navigable 3-D enclosures and, 367, 367f
for spatial navigation, 366
from surfaces, 369–70
3-D models and, 368
2-D schematic environments and, 367–68, 367f
virtual reality and, 368–69
wall length and, 369
geometric illusions, 25–31, 43
geometric knowledge
age and, 133
children and, 131–32
two-dimensional object arrays and, 129–33
geometric modularity
evidence against, 377–78
evidence supporting, 376–77, 377f
geometric module, 384
geometric shape, reorientation and, 366
geometry cues, 135
in geocentric frames of reference, 125–29
local, 129
geometry task, information encoding in, 129–30
geometry trials, 130f, 131
Gestalt psychology, 48
Gestalt tradition, 48
disappearance of, 49
gestural sequence processing, of bottlenose dolphins, 738–42
global analysis, 688
global features, 504–6, 505f
global precedence, local precedence v., 13–14, 21
global precedence hypothesis, 13
global stimulus structure, perception of, 15–16
global trials
mean accuracy for, 13f
mean response times for, 13f
global vector
of desert ants, 353f
of path integration, 361–62
search pattern and, 348–49
globus pallidus, 767
goal locations, landmarks and, 580
go/no-go task, 12, 14, 20, 331
with pigeons, 39
good transfer, 3
gradient cues, 18
gradient of discriminative control, 91, 91f
grating targets
RTs and, 89, 89f
search-image and, 89f
gravity bias, 55–56
Griffin, D. R., 2
group contrasts method, 810
group size
for capuchin monkeys, 778
of Norway rats, 805
TI and, 732
H
habituation, 109, 148
heading determination, 126
hedonic state, 203f
height AP, 76
phylogenetic hypothesis for, 77
hesitation, as objective cue, 288
heterogeneity, gradations of, 548
hidden event cognition, 191–93
hierarchical patterns, 599f
abstract rules from, 597–98
3-level, 598f
hierarchical stimuli, 13–14
animal processing of, 16
hierarchy, diversity without, 568–69
higher-level cognition, indeterminacy and, 301
higher-order revaluations, 164–65
hippocampal lesions, 764f, 767, 768f
entopallial lesions and, 762, 762f
hyperpallial lesions and, 763
impairment of, 764–65
trial-unique stimulus set and, 764–65
hippocampal memory system, 612
anatomy of, 323f
functional organization of, 316–19
hippocampus, 135, 762f, 764f. See also avian hippocampal complex; CA1; CA3; dentate gyrus
anatomical description of, 323–24
(p. 901)
anatomical structure of, 322, 340
compromised, 313–14
damage to, 311–12
episodic recollection and, 310–16
firing rates of, 315
information in, 314–16
internal clock and, 420f
item-context representation and, 316f
lesions or inactivation of, 123
memory and, 768
outputs of, 317f
of primates, 761
role of, 762
spatial discrimination and, 763
specific global functions of, 322
subregions of, 322, 328
what, where, when and, 314–15, 315f
homing pigeons, 761
homology, 399
homoplasy, 399
homunculus, 111
Honig, W. K., on comparative cognition, 4
horizontal-vertical illusion, 26
How Long Ago group (HLA), 267–69
when strategies v., 269f
human behavior, 200
animal behavior and, 1, 3
ontogeny and, 825
human brain, symbolic representation of, 261
human causal cognition, 175
human cues, dog responses to, 819
human intelligence, 705
human memory
animal memory compared to, 239
familiarity and, 252–53
human mental state, animal mental state and, 7
humans
abilities of, 200
baboons compared to, 20–21
blindsight, 301
causality and, 168–69
causal knowledge of, 194
causal learning in, 176–78
with chroma AP, 75–77, 76f
cleverness of, 693
cognitive dissonance in, 200
cognitive map of, 274
completion ability in, 36, 52
contrast effect in, 207, 211
dogs and, 819, 828–29
entropy and, 549
environmental alteration by, 552
episodic memory in, 305
food choice of, 804
free recall by, 598
justification of effort in, 200–201
learning in, 106–7
magnitude effects in, 634–35
memory processing of, 239
without number systems, 456
object permanence in, 57
Ponzo illusion in, 28, 30f
recognition memory in, 305
retention in, 106–7
ROC functions in, 306, 307f
search asymmetry in, 87f
simultaneous chaining paradigm and, 635f
spatial patterns and, 590–91, 590f, 591f
symbolic distance in, 634–35, 634f
uncertainty responses in, 294
variability and, 549
human S/D behavior, stimulus control of, 546–47, 546f, 547f
human stimuli, dog sensitivity to, 820, 821f
human visual system, 17, 40, 44–45
Hume, David
on causality cues, 141, 176
on cause-effect relationships, 157, 169, 176
on covariation, 176
on illusions, 176
on relation between events, 157
Huntington’s disease, 595, 612
hyperactive behavior, 759–60
hyperpallial lesions
hippocampal lesions and, 763
visual discrimination and, 762–63
hyperpallium, entopallium and, 764f
hyperpallium accessorium (HA), 760
hyperpallium dorsale (HD), 760
hyperpallium intercalatus superior (HIS), 760
hyperpallium ventrale, 770–71
hypoactive behavior, 760
I
ideal list learner, logical errors and, 622
identity, 252–53
concept demonstration of, 3
identity matching tasks, 12, 226
illusions. See also Ebbinghaus illusory figures; Kanizsa’s triangle; Ponzo illusion
breadth-of-rectangles, 26
chickens and, 54–55, 54f
corridor, 18–19, 18f
Ebbinghaus-Titchener circles, 31, 33f, 34, 34f, 44
geometric, 25–31, 43
horizontal-vertical, 26
Hume on, 176
Kanizsa’s, 39, 39f
Müller-Lyer, 26, 31–34, 33f, 44
numerical, 451, 454
other, 31
regular-random numerosity, 454, 455f
reversed, 33
size, 18
Zöllner, 26
illusory perception
in baboons, 19
causes of species differences in, 34
image matching. See landmark-based image matching
imitation, 736–38, 862. See also contextual imitation; production imitation
in animal behavior, 833
in children, 200, 870–73
in chimpanzees, 870–73
do-as-I-do experiments and, 868
in dogs, 829
formal theory on, 832–33
learning by, 829
social learning strategies and, 845t
uncertainty and, 837–38
when strategies and, 833–39
imitation if better strategy, 838, 846t
imitation if rare strategy, 840
imitation if uncertain strategy, 837–38, 843–44
imitation in proportion strategy, 838
imitation of elders strategy, 842
imitation of friends strategy, 842
imitation of kin, 842
imitation of majority strategy, 840, 844, 846, 846t
imitation of successful strategy, 844, 846t
imitation when dissatisfied strategy, 838–39, 844, 846t
imprinting, 40, 48
with artificial objects, 50–51
chickens and, 50f, 54, 56, 57f, 59, 63
incentive contrast effects, 228
incidental learning, associative learning and, 384–85
indeterminacy
animals and, 301
higher-level cognition and, 301
indeterminacy resolution, uncertainty response and, 296
indeterminate memory traces, 297
inducers, 16f
infants. See also children
number representation by, 458
inferential problem, 150–51
inferior parietal lobule (IPL), 472f
information. See also new information; public information use
cognitive sources of, 594
exteroceptive sources of, 594
in hippocampus, 314–16
interoceptive sources of, 594
negative, 588–89
paired-associate, 331–32
positive, 588–89
social learning and, 843–44
temporal processing of, 322, 335, 340
information encoding, 62
in geometry task, 129–30
(p. 902) information gain, through visual search experiments, 300
information processing
arbitrary stimuli and, 638f
by bottlenose dolphins, 738–42
intelligence test and, 707
natural selection and, 25
numerical stimuli and, 638f
spatial, 707
verbal, 707
information production, through tool use, 793–94
inhibition, 143. See also conditioned inhibition
among auditory list items, 246–49
auditory memory and, 250–51
interference v., 250
release from, 250
retroactive, 247
inhibition of delay, 410–11
inhibition of return, 108
innovation
cognitive flexibility and, 769–71
in foraging, 770–71
insight, in problem solving, 737–38
instructional failure, 215
instructions
memory and, 236
question of, 236
instrumental blocking, 602–4, 604f
instrumental conditioning, 170, 176
instrumental designs, 145
integration, arthropods and, 347
intelligence. See also Machiavellian-intelligence hypothesis; social intelligence hypothesis
animal, 4, 7, 693–95
as behavioral disposition, 693
Boring on, 709
deliberative reasoning and, 709–10
development of, 708–9
emotional, 704–5
environmental, 771
environmental conditions and, 708
evolution of, 700–701, 771–72
general, 706–8
hallmark of, 737
human, 705
individual, 708
measurement of, 765
origins of, 703
practical, 705–6
social, 703–5, 771
special intellectual abilities and, 706
species differences in, 694–97, 708–9
tool use and, 777
types of, 533
intelligence test, 693–94
information processing and, 707
learning set as, 765
outward success and, 709
standard, 706–7
working memory and, 707
intelligent brains, 701–3
intensity, RTs and, 84
interference, 216–17. See also intertrial interference; proactive interference; retroactive interference
inhibition v., 250
from previous memory items, 250–51
interference effects, 162
interleaved patterns, 605–8, 607f, 609f
abstract rules from, 598–601
intermediate memory, 322
CA1 and, 338–39
short-term memory and, 340
internal alleys tests, 276
internal clock
characteristics of, 417–18
control of, 418–19
hippocampus and, 420f
stopping of, 418f
variability of, 416–17, 416f
interoceptive sources, of information, 594
interpolated modal contours, minimization of, 55
interpretation. See also reinterpretation hypothesis; Relational Reinterpretation hypothesis
of animal behavior, 48, 84
higher-level uncertainty response, 297
mentalistic, 1
of mentalistic CRs, 6
psychological uncertainty response, 296–97
interpretation problems, in TI research, 723–31
interspecific communication, 6
inter-stimulus interval (ISI), 537
intertrial interference, 216–17
interval timing, time and, 163
intervention, 178f
causality cues and, 143–44
effectiveness of, 194
observation v., 143–44, 167–68, 168f
possible transfer effects of, 187
reasoning and, 190–91
interventional learning, observational learning and, 191
interventional reasoning, in rats, 187–88
intervention-based predictions, observation-based predictions and, 178
intervention variable, 186
intrahippocampal connectivity, 323f
intraparietal sulcus (IPS), 471, 472f, 639
intrinsic reinforcement, extrinsic reinforcement v., 210
invading novel environments, rats and, 809–10
invalid cues, cost of, 108
inventive ideation
of animals, 737, 752
species differences in, 752–53
inverse hypothesis, 105
inversion effect, 55–56
isomorphism, uncertainty and, 284
item-context representation, 315–16
hippocampus and, 316f
item memory, 602–4. See also concurrent item memory
item-recognition task, 308f
ROC analysis of, 213f, 311, 313f
item variability, stimulus control and, 543
J
James, William, on consciousness, 533
Jennings, H. S., 7
jumping spiders, route planning in, 355–56
junction cues, 19
justification of effort, 199, 209–10
animal model of, 202–3
in humans, 200–201
in pigeons, 201–2
K
Kanizsa’s illusion, 39, 39f
Kanizsa’s triangle, 25, 26f, 35, 52f, 53
Kant, Immanuel, 165
Kekule, August, 6
ketamine, 760
kinematics, 148
knowing
by chimpanzees, 561–63
seeing and, 561–63
knowledge
adaptive, 832
cardinal, 626
configural, 126
geometric, 129–33
landscape, 359–61, 359f
ordinal, 645–48
of ordinal position, 623–25
a priori, 165
of self, 296
unpredictable response and, 670
knowledge states, reasoning about, 561
L
laboratory experimentation, 4
landmark-based image matching, 357–58, 361
landmarks
arthropods and, 347
bees and, 373
behavior and, 581
boundaries and, 384–85
dead reckoning and, 581
density of, 353–54
desert ants and, 357f
geocentric frames of reference and, 119
goal location and, 580
launching and, 147–48
local vectors and, 353
(p. 903)
roles of, 362
self-motion cues and, 122, 135
to set course, 356–57
vectors and, 118, 125
landscape knowledge
of bees, 359, 359f
mechanistic basis of, 359–61
language. See also artificial grammar learning
animal communication and, 616
associationist, 100
of attention, 100
of behavioral analysis, 109–10
bottlenose dolphins and, 738–40, 751
displacement and, 261
evolution of, 552, 709–10
as medium, 61
spatial, 60
species differences in, 699
latent learning experiments, 273
lateral entorhinal area (LEA), 317f
neurons in, 317
lateral geniculate-visual cortex pathway, 760
lateral intraparietal region (area LIP), 471–72, 472f
lateralization, of brain functions, 63
lateral striatum, 767
launching, 146, 147f
landmarks and, 147–48
law of effect, 157, 411–13
learned industriousness, 210–11
learned stimulus sequence, production of, 264
learning. See also associative learning; causal learning; development of associative learning theory; discrimination-learning procedure; exemplar + feature learning model; latent learning experiments; pattern learning paradigm; pattern-learning process; positive frequency-dependent social learning; reversal learning sets; social learning; social learning mechanisms; social learning strategies; theories of causal learning
artificial categories, 513
artificial grammar, 681–83, 681f, 687
asocial, 835, 843, 846
atemporal, 144–45
avoidance, 410–11
category, 579–80
concept, 758
in dogs, 822–23
by imitation, 829
incidental, 384–85
interventional, 191
mazes, 616–17, 648
mediational, 181–82
observational, 191, 194, 845t
passive avoidance, 48
path integration and, 352
pattern, 579, 584–91
as pattern detection, 579–80
in pole box task, 581–84
prenatal, 807
relational, 211
response, 584–86
reversal, 765–66
rules, 604, 605f, 741
selection pressure for, 701–2
sequential, 594–95, 604–8
serial, 220, 601, 615
serial pattern, 610f, 611–12
spatial, 580–81, 591
spatial pattern, 579, 587, 587f, 591
study of, 579
survival and, 701
theories of, 361
throughout life, 807–8
time-place, 262
trial-and-error, 737–38, 746, 751, 804–5, 812
from unhealthy demonstrators, 811
while nursing, 807
while weaning, 807
learning accuracy, 126–27
learning by rote, 2–3
learning criterion, 50
learning set, 766
as intelligence test, 765
learning-set paradigm, uncertainty response and, 290–91
learning sets, 695–96
learning-to-learn ability, 695–96
learning trials, 180, 181f, 189f
Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes (Pavlov), 5
left/right discrimination performance, 291–92, 291f
lemnothalamic pathway, 760, 765
life, learning throughout, 807–8
life detector mechanism, 55
linear feature model, of artificial polymorphous categories, 517
linear pattern, 599f
linear scale
of numerosities, 452
ratio effects and, 452
linear timing, 434–39, 435f, 436f, 437f, 438f, 439f
line-drawn perspective
effects of, 27–28
Ponzo illusion with, 29f, 30f
relative strength of, 43
line pattern, 583, 583f, 585
list items, analog representation of, 638–39
list linking, in TI design, 723, 723f, 729
list memory tasks, 239
repeated-item interference in, 251–52
lobus parolfactorius, 767
local analysis, 688
local enhancement, 845t, 847
local features, 504–6, 505f
local precedence
in baboons, 21
global precedence v., 12–13, 21
local processing, 22
local temporal context, serial response times and, 683–86, 685f
local trials
mean accuracy for, 13f
mean response times for, 13f
local vectors, 361
of desert ants, 352–53, 353f
landmarks and, 353
logarithmic scale, ratio effects and, 452
logical errors, 620
accuracy on partially completed trials and, 622–23, 622f
ideal list learner and, 622
long-interval timing, endogenous oscillations in, 446–48, 448f
long retention delays, 247
long-term memory (LTM), 637
short-term memory and, 254
low-level features, 503–4, 503f
M
Machiavellian-intelligence hypothesis, 851
magnitude effects. See also range magnitude; symbolic magnitude effect
arbitrary stimuli and, 631–34
in humans, 634–35
numerical stimuli and, 630–31, 632f, 633f
stimuli and, 647–48
symbolic distance and, 628–39
magnitude functions, 615, 636, 637f, 638f, 648
mammals
eight-range discriminations of, 74–75, 75f
pitch-range discriminations in, 74–75, 77
visual pathways of, 760
many-to-one matching, 231f, 232f
map-like navigational behavior, 358–59
by arthropods, 347
mapping task, 130
matching-to-sample task, 108, 217f
accuracy of, 42f, 226f
delays in, 286
numerical, 469f
popularity of, 555
schematic of, 293f
spatiotemporal boundary formation and, 41f
mate-choice copying
evolution of, 837
predation risk and, 836
maturation, 2
maximization framework, 294–95
maze learning, 648
successive chaining paradigm and, 616–17
mechanical advantage, of tool use, 777
mechanistic classifications, 847
medial entorhinal area (MEA), 317f
specialization of, 318
medial prefrontal cortex, 612
medial striatum, 764f
function of, 768
lesions to, 767–68, 768f
searching and, 768
medial temporal lobe, 318
mediation, of sequential learning, 595
mediational learning, 181–82
memory, 882, 884. See also active memory processes; hippocampal memory system; indeterminate memory traces; list memory tasks; metamemory; reference memory task; spatial memory performance
accurate measure of, 235–36
animal, 216, 239–40, 257
animal behavior and, 57–58
animal episodic, 261–63, 266–67, 319
animal visual list, 242–44
auditory, 245–46, 250–51
auditory list, 245–46, 246f, 249
brain areas for, 257
concurrent item, 605–8, 609f
decay, 242
declarative, 322
delaying, 58–59
for duration of interval, 215
hippocampus and, 768
human, 239, 252–53
instructions and, 236
intermediate, 322, 338–40
item, 602–4
long-term, 254, 637
for multiple simultaneous items, 254–57
navigation and, 361
in nonverbal organisms, 215–16
of numerical categories, 627–28, 628f
for order of events, 263–64
performance, 244f, 287f
reallocation of, 219–20
in real world, 240
recognition, 305–10
recovery, 225
retrieval, 247
rule-based, 223
semantic, 223, 262
sequential behavior and, 594
serially organized behavior and, 648
short-term, 242, 254, 257, 329–31, 340
spatial information and, 135
of stimuli, 627–28, 628f
temporal, 419
temporal order, 322, 340
as term, 4
for time, 232
TMS and, 292–93
trials, 225
variability and, 661–62
visual list, 240–50, 246f
visual working, 239
weakening of, 312
working, 59, 100, 215, 217–18, 263, 589–90, 637, 707
memory-based operant variability, 659–62
memory flexibility, in rats, 267
memory metacognition paradigms, 282
memory processing
of humans, 239
of nonhuman animals, 239
nonverbal, 257
type of, 254
memory retrieval. See also recollection
dynamics of, 305
navigation and, 361
memory traces, strength of, 263
mental continuity, Darwin on, 3
mental experience, of animals, 7
mentalism
cognition and, 5–6
cognitive ethology and, 6–7
Darwin on, 2
mentalistic interpretations, 1
of conditioned responses, 6
mentalistic terms, daily usage of, 5
mental representation, of stimuli, 686
mental rotation, 699f
mental states
nonhuman primates and, 561–63
as unobservables, 564–65
mental time travel, 261, 269
advances in, 271
metacognition. See also animal metacognition; foraging metacognition paradigms; memory metacognition paradigms; perceptual metacognition paradigms
aspects of, 296
capacity for, 282
comparative study of, 302
formal models of, 294
literature on, 282
misconceptions of, 294–96
misunderstandings of, 294–96
ontogenetic roots of, 302
paradigms, 302
phylogenetic roots of, 302
toward present, visible stimuli, 295
reflective mind and, 282–83
self-awareness and, 302
species of parsimony in, 295–96
traditional measures of, 283
metacognitive capacity spread, phylogenetic restrictions in, 297–300
metamemory, 215
converging, 287
literature on, 282
in pigeons, 225–26, 297–98
metaphors
of attention, 104–8, 112
bottleneck, 104–5
filter, 104–5
resource, 104
spotlight, 104, 107–8
meta-representation, 296
methamphetamine, 759–60
metric encoding, path integration and, 361
mind
regulatory functions of, 282
sophisticated aspects of, 282
theory of, 5, 560–63, 851
MK-801. See dizocilpine
mobbing behavior, 669
modal completion, 35
Modified Feature Theory (MFT), 498
of categorization, 499–509
feature theory compared to, 510
on flexibility, 499, 502–7
as polymorphous, 509
visual categorization and, 497
moment-to-moment nature
of behavior, 674
of thought, 674
monitoring, 296
monkeys. See also capuchin monkeys
blindsight, 301
simultaneous chaining paradigm and, 620, 620f, 621f
subset tests on, 625f
Morgan, C. Lloyd, 3
Morris water maze, 762
mossy fiber projections, 323
mother’s face recognition, chimpanzees and, 852–53, 853f
motion benefit recognition, 40–43
in chimpanzees, 42f
in humans, 43f
motivation, 2
movement, attention and, 106
moving objects across irregular surfaces, by capuchin monkeys, 791–94
Müller-Lyer illusion, 26, 31–34
in pigeons, 33f, 44
reversed, 33f
standard, 33f
multicellular organisms. See pluricellular organisms
multidimensional categorization, 676–78, 677f, 678f
multi-electrode recordings, 257
multimodality sequential processors, animals as, 610–12
multiple oscillator theory
ramped interval procedure and, 423–24, 424f
of timing, 443–44
multiple sensory inputs, conjunctive encoding of, 322, 340
(p. 905) multitasking, uncertainty response and, 291–92
Munduruku, number representation by, 456, 457f
mutual gaze
chimpanzees and, 854–55, 854f
gaze recognition and, 854–55
N
natural categories, 499. See also perceptual categories
food as, 761
organization of, 518
structure of, 513–14
natural geometry, 59–62. See also spatial cognition
naturalistic study, problems of, 4
natural selection, information processing and, 25
navigable 3-D enclosures, geometric encoding and, 367, 367f
navigation. See also map-like navigational behavior
memory and, 361
memory retrieval and, 361
self-motion cues and, 117–18
servomechanism and, 347
near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), prefrontalis role and, 766
negative information
checkerboard pattern and, 589
square configuration and, 588
negative patterning designs, 143
neocortex, species differences in, 317
neostriatum caudolaterale (NCL), 59
nervous system, 771
nest construction, 770
neural basis
of ANS, 470
of avian cognition, 757
of behavior, 533
of cognitive flexibility, 765–71
of numerical cognition, 469
of numerical representation, 647
of spatial representation, 647
of WM, 707
neural network, artificial life models and, 384
neural network model, of TI, 729
neural systems, 27
pyramidal, 323
neurobiological mechanisms
of nonverbal inferences, 718
of number representation, 468–72
of TI, 730–31
neurobiology, 887–88
neurogenesis, 327
neurological mechanisms, of ordinal knowledge, 645–48
neurons
granular, 323
in LEA, 317
in PRC, 317
new information
acquisition of, 327–28
CA3 and, 329–30
consolidation of, 322, 340
nicotine. See adolescents
NMDA receptors, 324
deletion of, 331
disruption of, 329
nominal numbers, 626–27
noncausal covariations, causal covariations v., 177
non-classical categories, 530
nonhuman animals
acquisition in, 478–80, 479f, 480f
attention in, 101
memory processing of, 239
numerosity discrimination in, 477–78
temporal discrimination in, 477–78
tool use by, 777, 794
non-human cues, dog sensitivity to, 821–22
nonhuman primates
future planning and, 271–72
mental states and, 561–63
object unity perception in, 35–36, 35f
Ponzo illusion by, 26–27
S/D discrimination in, 548
social cognition in, 851
social learning in, 862–63
temporal myopia in, 270
tool use by, 565–66, 777
visual information processing by, 11
nonlinear dynamic equations, 660–61
nonlinear timing hypothesis, 434, 439–42, 440f, 441f, 442f, 448
non-matching-to-sample (NMTS), 555
non-ordered TI tasks, in TI design, 720, 721t
nonsymbolic addition, 463–64, 464f
non-transitive inferences, 718
nonverbal inferences. See also transitive inference
neurobiological mechanisms of, 718
nonverbal organisms, memory in, 215–16
nonverbal TI research, 733. See also transitive inference
methodology of, 719–23
Norway rats
behavioral observations of, 806
as dietary generalists, 805
feeding behavior of, 805–6, 810
food choice in, 806–7, 806f
foraging by, 811
group size of, 805
olfactory meeting interaction of, 814, 814f
social learning by, 803, 805–7
social learning strategies of, 836
nose poking, 182–85, 184f, 186f, 192–93
mean, 189f, 190f, 192f
novel alleys test, 276, 277f, 278f
novel play behaviors, 750–51
novel search test, 130
novelty hypothesis, 235–36
n-series task, 719, 720f
animals and, 723
associative values for, 728t
length modification of, 720, 722
TI and, 733
nucleus accumbens, ventromedial area and, 767
number. See also random number generation
cross-modal representations of, 461–62, 461f
evolution and, 451
importance of, 451
manipulation, 472
numerosities and, 489
properties of, 626–27, 627f
representation of, 451
time and, 492
understanding, 472
utility of, 459–61, 460f
number representation
by animals, 451–52, 460
indirect, 458
by infants, 458
by Munduruku, 456, 457f
neurobiological mechanisms of, 468–72
shared systems for, 452–56, 472–73
territorial disputes and, 459–60
utility of, 459–60
numerical categories, memory of, 627–28, 628f
numerical change detection paradigm, 457–58
numerical change detection task, 457f, 458f
numerical cognition, neural basis of, 469
numerical illusions, 451, 454
numerical lists, representations of, 635–36
numerical ordering task, 453f
numerical ratio effects, 452f
numerical representations
elasticity of, 642–43
neural basis of, 647
numerical sequences, 625–28
numerical stimuli, 636f
arbitrary lists and, 637f
exemplars of, 629f
information processing derived from, 638f
magnitude effects and, 630–31, 632f, 633f
in range manipulation, 643f
symbolic distance and, 630–31, 632f, 633f
numerosities, 286
arbitrary associations and, 471
linear scale of, 452
number and, 489
pair-wise test with, 629f
in range manipulation, 643f
time and, 489
(p. 906) numerosity discrimination, 640f
acquisition and, 478–80
delayed discriminations and, 490–92
duration and, 477
in nonhuman animals, 477–78
parsimony and, 492
psychophysics and, 480–84
stimulus control and, 486–90
stimulus information and, 477
numerosity-selective neurons, 469–72, 470f
nursing, learning while, 807
O
object-choice task
dog success in, 819–22, 825f, 826f, 829
testing layout for, 820f
traditional method for, 823–24
object-cued spatial location recall, 332f, 333f
object displays, 535, 535f
object files, 456–59
object-location recognition, 318
object movement reenactment (OMR), 868–69
object permanence, in humans, 57
object recognition impairment, 318
object unity perception
in nonhuman primates, 35–36, 35f
in pigeons, 38–39, 39f
observables, unobservables v., 565t
observation, 170, 178f
causality cues and, 143–44
intervention v., 143–44, 167–68, 168f
observational conditioning, 847
observational learning, 194, 845t
interventional learning and, 191
observation-based predictions, intervention-based predictions and, 178
observing RT bias, 97, 97f
occluded contour completion, 39f. See also completion ability
by monkeys, 36f, 37f
by pigeons, 38–39, 44
occlusion cues, 18, 19f
as depth indicators, 19–20
oddity. See display oddity
odometry, 349–50
odor cues, 581
one-response design, 145
ontogeny
dogs and, 825–28
human behavior and, 825
of problem solving, 749–51
operant conditioning, 180
operant designs, 145
operant response, variability as, 652–54
operant stochasticity, 671
operant variability. See also memory-based operant variability
stochastic nature of, 662–63, 669
optical blur theory, 27
optic flow, 349
servomechanism and, 350
optimality, in categorization, 676–78
ordered series, nature of, 719–20
ordered TI tasks, in TI design, 720, 721t
ordering, 462–63, 462f
order of events, memory for, 263–64
ordinal knowledge, neurological mechanisms of, 645–48
ordinal lines, directionality of, 644–45
ordinal numbers, 626–27
ordinal position
absolute model of, 644f
derived lists and, 623–24
knowledge of, 623–25
relative model of, 644f
subset tests and, 624–25, 625f
ordinal representations, properties of, 642–45
ordinal sequences, representations of, 645–48
orientation, 89
decline in, 108
spatial frequency and, 90
orienting, 100
outcome contingencies, stimuli and, 290
outcome expectation, as cue, 228
outward success, intelligence test and, 709
overall recognition performance, 312–13
overshadowing, 162, 601–2
overt rehearsals, 234–44
P
packet theory, 424–25
paedomorphosis, 828
paired-associate information, 331–32
pair-wise test, with numerosities, 629f
paleostriatum augmentatum. See lateral striatum
paleostriatum primitivum. See globus pallidus
parahippocampal cortex (PHC), 317f
specialization of, 318
parahippocampalis area, entorhinal cortex and, 763
parallel processing, 86
parallel search strategy, 14
Paridae, 390
caching amount of, 391–92
Corvidae compared to, 402–3
raiding by, 397–98
parietal cortex, spatial cognition and, 468–69
parieto-occipital sulcus (POS), 472f
Parkinson’s disease, 595–96, 612
parsimony, 3, 169–70. See also species of parsimony
causal representations and, 177–78
numerosity discrimination and, 492
temporal discrimination and, 492
partial occlusion
chickens and, 51, 51f
recognition and, 49–55
passive avoidance learning, 48
passive disorientation, 59
path integration, 278, 348, 581
in fiddler crabs, 351–52, 351f
global vector of, 361–62
learning and, 352
metric encoding and, 361
pattern completion, 195, 322, 340
CA3 and, 333–34
pattern detection
deficits in, 760
learning as, 579–80
pattern exemplar, location of, 588–89
pattern learning, 579, 584–85. See also spatial pattern learning
spatial control mechanisms and, 586–87
spatial performance and, 590–91
spatial search and, 587–90
pattern learning paradigm, 603
pattern-learning process, spatial pattern learning as, 587, 587f
pattern-recognition mechanisms, 579
pattern representation, response learning or, 584–86
pattern separation, 322
Pavlov, I. P., 3
canine digestion studies of, 5–6, 158
Pavlovian conditioning, 170, 176, 180
Pavlovian events
first-order, 184
second-order, 184
Pavlovian relationships, 167
peak procedure, 430f
scalar timing theory and, 422–23, 423f
penetration, 146
perception
attention and, 100
as bottleneck, 110
conceptual behavior and, 536
configural, 506–7, 507f
elemental, 506–7, 507f
factors in, 11
perception-action theory, 794
perception-action view, of tool use, 781, 787, 794
perceptual approach, 146–48
perceptual categories. See also natural categories
as polymorphous, 498–99
perceptual completion, in nonhumans, 39–40
perceptual grouping, 11
difficulty in, 14–15
perceptual metacognition paradigms, 282
perceptual patterns, 579–80
perceptual psychology, 148–50
perceptual studies, concerns with, 285
(p. 907) perceptual threshold, 284
performance, in pole box task, 581–84, 584f
perirhinal cortex (PRC), 317f
neocortical input to, 317
neurons in, 317
responses of, 317–18
perspective taking, 200
Petter’s rule, 55
phenomenal-awareness sequelae, 301
phenomenal uncertainty, uncertainty response and, 301
photo displays, 535, 535f
photographic perspective, 28
Ponzo illusion with, 30f, 31f
relative strength of, 43
photopic systems, 84–85
phrasing cues, 602–3
chunking processes and, 594
rule learning and, 604, 605f
serial position of, 604–5, 606f
phylogenetic development, 67–68
phylogenetic hypothesis, 77
phylogenetic restrictions, in metacognitive capacity spread, 297–300
phylogenetic scale view, 570
phylogeny, 68
cognition and, 390
dogs and, 823–25
physical causality, 564–68
Piagetian framework, 57
pictorial depth cues, 12
monocular, 17–18
pictorial depth perception, 17–22
pictorial representations, of three-dimensional scenes/objects, 17–18, 56
pigeons. See also homing pigeons
amodal completion in, 52
complex visual concept in, 758
conditioning procedures and, 53
discrimination of, 50, 759
entopallial lesions in, 760–61
memory recovery in, 225
metamemory in, 225–26, 297–98
perception of, 50
S/D discrimination in, 534–39
simultaneous chaining paradigm and, 618–20, 620f, 621f
triangle concept in, 758f
pitch. See also absolute pitch; relative pitch
chroma, 69
geometrical model of, 69f
height, 69
pitch conceptualizing, AP and, 68–69
pitch information, communication and, 67
pitch perception, hypothesis of, 67–68
pitch-range discriminations, 67
AP and, 69–71
chroma AP and, 75
in mammals, 74–75, 77
place cells, 315
place-finding servomechanisms, 347–48, 348f
place representation, response and, 122–25
planning
by animals, 752
by bottlenose dolphins, 745–49, 751–52
nature of, 752
in problem solving, 737–38
trial-and-error learning compared to, 746
plasticity mechanism
in CA3, 330
time course of, 331
pluricellular organisms, evolution of, 700–701
point-light displays, 21
point-light stimulus, 55, 56f
point of subjective equality (PSE), 453–54, 454f, 481–82
point of subjective equivalence (PSE), 16
poison avoidance. See traditional poison avoidance
pole box task
learning in, 581–84
performance in, 581–84, 584f
revisit avoidance in, 589
square configuration in, 581–82, 582f, 583f
polymorphous
MFT as, 509
perceptual categories as, 498
Ponzo illusion, 26f
comparative, 26–31
with dot context, 32f, 43
experimental stimuli for, 27f
in humans, 28, 30f
with line context, 32f, 43
with line-drawn perspective, 29f, 30f
by nonhuman primates, 26–27, 28f
perception of, 32f, 43
with photographic perspective, 30f, 31f
by pigeons, 26, 28f
pop-out phenomenon, 86, 92, 107
positional codes, relative v. absolute, 644
positive frequency-dependent social learning, 839–40. See also conformity
positive patterning designs, 143
potential response bias, 97
potentiation, facilitation and, 379–80, 380f
power of mean analysis, of bisection procedure, 482
practical intelligence, 705–6
precuing, effects of, 108
predation risk, mate-choice copying, 836
predictive relations, toddlers and, 191
prefrontalis role
event-related potentials and, 766
NIRS and, 766
Premack, David, 252
prenatal learning, 807
pretraining, 256
preventative causes, 161
prevention, 148
primacy effects, 239, 242
in bottlenose dolphins, 741
emergence of, 244
increase in, 243–44
recency effects and, 246
primary somatosensory area (S1), 472f
primary stimulus qualities, 285
primate cognition, early researchers of, 11
primates. See also humans; nonhuman primates; specific species
hippocampus of, 761
teaching in, 874
tool use by, 778
traditions of, 874–75
visual system of, 761
primed target, reinforced target compared to, 90f
priming, 109–10
priming cues, 107
visual search paradigms and, 108
priming effect, 88
priming stimulus, 89
private experience, 6
proactive interference (PI), 162, 216–17, 239
delayed matching-to-sample and, 250–51
effect of, 248
familiarity and, 253–54
mitigation of, 251
recollection and, 253–54
release from, 250
probabilistic causation, 145, 186
probabilistic tasks, sequential behavior in, 675–76
probe tests, 120, 562–63, 563f
problem solving
automatic, 736
of bottlenose dolphins, 736, 738, 745–46, 748–49, 751–52
by children, 752
dolphin play and, 749–51
insight in, 737–38
nature of, 736
ontogeny of, 749–51
planning in, 737–38
trial-and-error learning in, 737–38, 751
production imitation, 845t
proportional timing, 413–15
proportions, 466–67
proposed inference mechanisms, 360
prosimians, 874
prospective coding, retrospective coding v., 226–30
(p. 908) prospective cognition, 395
prospective design, 150
prospect/plan ahead, 215
protection, unpredictable response and, 669–70
prototype categories
animal studies of, 519t
central tendencies of, 520–21, 521f, 522f
discrimination at, 519–20, 520f
prototype effects, 513, 515, 529
prototype model, of categorization, 528
pseudo-discrimination procedure, 540
pseudo-transitive inferences, 718
psychical secretions, 6
psychological diversity, 552
psychological phenomena, as predictable, 652
psychologists. See also comparative psychologists
on behavior, 199
psychology of causality, 141–42
psychology of threshold, 300–301
psychophysics, 416. See also contextual psychophysics
numerosity discrimination and, 480–84
temporal discrimination and, 480–84
public information use, in sticklebacks, 832, 842–45
pulling, 146, 147f
punctate events, 141
assumption of, 142
relations among, 142–44
punishing responses, to sample-display stimuli, 256–57
putamen-supplementary motor area cortical loop, 612
R
raiding
caching and, 394–95
by Paridae, 397–98
ramped interval procedure, multiple oscillator theory and, 423–24, 424f
random, 653
randomizing heuristics, 671
random number generation, 661–62
random walk, pigeon (RWP), 94, 96, 98
implementation of, 95
process in, 95f
random-walk model, RT distributions and, 94–96
range magnitude, effect of, 643
range manipulation
numerical stimuli in, 643f
numerosities in, 643f
rapid encoding, 322, 340
CA3 and, 329–31
rat breath, 808
ratio dependence, 451, 453–54, 453f
ratio effects. See also numerical ratio effects
linear scale and, 452, 452f
logarithmic scale and, 452, 452f
rational causal inference, 175
rational models, of causal cognition, 176
rats. See also Norway rats
actions of, 186–87
aged, 311
animal episodic memory and, 266–67
anticipated events and, 193–94
association formation by, 804
causal inferences of, 182, 186
as causal models, 180–82, 181f
causal reasoning in, 179–80, 188, 194–95
changing food preferences in, 808
covariation and, 193
elapsed time and, 267
episodic memory in, 266–67
food choice in, 804
food communication sophistication in, 809
fornix-lesioned, 327
interventional reasoning in, 187–88
invading novel environments and, 809–10
memory flexibility in, 267
serial multiple-choice task for, 596–97, 596f
social learning in, 803, 812–15
spatial relations and, 275–76
when strategies of, 814–15
who strategies of, 813–14, 813f, 815f
Raven scales, 693–94, 694f
reacquisition, 426f. See also acquisition
reaction time (RT). See also serial response times
of Alzheimer’s patients, 595
bias, 97
display-size functions and, 85–86, 85f, 88f
frequency distributions in, 90
grating targets and, 89, 89f
intensity and, 84
linear rise in, 98
measurement of, 83–84
parameters of, 95, 96f
Pavlovian association of, 96–98
reinforcement and, 685f
stimulus luminance and, 84f
utility of, 83
variation in, 97
visual processes and, 84–85
rearing effects, 382–84, 383f
reasoning. See also arithmetic reasoning; causal reasoning; deductive reasoning; deliberative reasoning; interventional reasoning
actions and, 190–91
interventions and, 190–91
about knowledge states, 561
as path independent, 187
about unobservables, 554–55
receiver operating characteristic (ROC), 306
recency effects, 220, 239, 242–43
primacy effects and, 246
recognition memory
in humans, 305
ROC analysis of, 306–9
support of, 310
recollection, 257, 305. See also episodic recollection; memory retrieval
familiarity and, 311
PI and, 253–54
reduction of, 314
spatial memory performance and, 311
reconciliation, dialectic and, 544–46
redundant responses, 300
reference memory task, 126, 262, 264. See also semantic memory
reflective mind, metacognition and, 282–83
reflex action, 2
regularity rule, 37–38, 37f, 38f
regular-random numerosity illusion (RRNI), 454, 455f
rehearsal
overt, 220–21
in serial learning, 220
as surprising event, 220
reinforced target, primed target compared to, 90f
reinforcement. See also delay of reinforcement; extrinsic reinforcement; intrinsic reinforcement
associative theory and, 293–94
changing rates of, 484–86, 485f, 486f
competition with, 411f
deferred-rearranged feedback and, 290
differential, 412–13
expected time to, 415–16, 425f
probability of, 722
random-interval schedules of, 424–25
RT and, 685f
secondary, 286
selective, 412f
(p. 909)
of stochastic distributions, 654–59, 657f, 658f, 659t
uncertainty response and, 290
variability and, 653–54, 671
reinforcement-based model, of TI, 718–20, 727–30, 733
reinforcement history, 285
reinstatement, 160
reinterpretation hypothesis, 564
relatability rule, 36–37, 37f
relational cognitive task, 534. See also S/D discrimination
relational encoding
absolute encoding v., 370–73, 371f, 372f, 375f
training experience and, 373
relational learning, contrast effects and, 211
Relational Reinterpretation hypothesis, 558–59
relational representations, multifaceted nature of, 547–49
relational transfer, 539
relations
higher-order, 549
produced by capuchin monkeys, 787t
relative delay reduction, contrast or, 207–8
relative delay-reduction hypothesis, 207–8
relative delay-reduction theory, 208
relative encoding, of wall length, 369–70
relative magnitude, judgment mechanisms for, 637–38
relative numerousness task, 103
relative pitch (RP), 69
relative positional codes, 644
relative stimulus validity effect, 162
renewal phenomenon, 160
reorientation
geometric shape and, 366
as malleable, 384
repeated-item interference, 250, 251f
in list memory tasks, 251–52
locus of, 251–52
representational abilities, tool use and, 566
representational insight, 497
resource, attention as, 105–7
resource metaphor, 104
response. See also comparison-response frequency; conditional emotional response procedure; delayed response problem; evoked response potentials; one-response design; potential response bias; serial response times; stimulus-response-outcome triad; uncertainty response
adaptive, 652, 771
as arbitrary association, 883–84
base rate of, 686
classification, 31
to concept learning, 758
conditioned, 5–6
dog, 819
facilitation, 845t
inhibition, 768
operant, 652–54
place representation and, 122–23
punishing, 256–57
redundant, 300
short-latency, 412–13, 412f
stochastic nature of, 666t
trial-blank, 301
unpredictable, 669–71
response alternatives, stochastic responding and, 663–68, 664f, 665f, 667f, 668f, 669t
response competition, evidence against, 183–86
response latencies, 83
response learning, pattern representation or, 584–86
response rule, 686
response-shock intervals, unsignaled avoidance and, 415f
response variability, control of, 652
retention delay. See also variable retention delays
increase in, 248–49
retention functions, 231–32, 236f
divergent, 234
retention interval, 266
reward and, 168
in temporal discrimination, 419
retention tests, 229f
coding strategies and, 226–36
retrieval failure, serial position function and, 249
retrieval memory, 247
retroactive interference (RI), 169, 216
extinction as, 162
retroactive interference, serial position functions and, 248–49
retrospective coding, prospective coding v., 226–30
retrospective design, 150
retrospective revaluation
causality and, 163–65
development of associative learning theory, 163–65
as empirical effect, 163
reversal learning, 765
deficits in, 766
reversal learning sets, 765–66
revisit avoidance
in pole box task, 589
working memory and, 589–90
reward
bias and, 96
reaction interval and, 268
reward-maximization account, 294
ribonucleic acid, 700
ROC analysis
of associative recognition, 313–14, 314f
of item-recognition tasks, 311, 312f, 313f
of recognition memory, 306–9
ROC functions
deadline, 310
in humans, 306, 307f
ideal, 307f
recollection component of, 312
rodent test chambers, 180, 180f
root mean square (RMS) error, 72, 73f
rotational errors, 366
rotation invariance, 699–700, 699f
route behavior, of arthropods, 347, 356
route following, 352
in desert ants, 353f
route planning, in jumping spiders, 355–56
RT distributions, 93f
control by stimulus onset and, 91–92
dichotomy among, 92
discriminative processes and, 90–98
mean, 94f
pattern of, 91–92
random-walk model and, 94–96
in visual search, 92–94
rule-based approach, 158. See also abstract rules
criticism of, 159
rule induction, 605–8, 609f
rule learning
in bottlenose dolphins, 741
phrasing cues and, 604, 605f
S
salience, 170
same/different (S/D), 534
same/different density discrimination, 288
same/different discrimination, 533
same/different judgment, 287, 288f
same displays, 534–36, 536f, 539–40,