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date: 14 December 2017

(p. 747) Subject Index

(p. 747) Subject Index

academic language proficiency, 240, 368–369
academic writing, 108, 552, 553, 555, 556, 559, 565
accuracy, 68, 73, 123, 152, 218, 286, 288–289, 292, 309, 478, 495, 499, 534
achievement, 18, 78, 122, 204, 207, 209, 214, 272, 302, 328, 394, 464, 521, 573
acquisition hypothesis, 166, 176, 276
acrolect, 384, 386
ACT COMPASS Platform, 525
action research, 37, 38, 48, 218
ACTIVE Reading, 340
adaptation of language input, 278
additive, 184, 207, 400, 405, 406, 515
adjacency pairs, 233, 242
adjunct CBI, 283, 289
Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO), 501
A dult Migrant English Language Program, 21
African American Vernacular English (AAVE), 384–385
ALANZ newsletter, 24
American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL), 7, 8, 17, 18, 28, 42
American Translators Association (ATA), 504
analytic negation, 554
analyzing actual patterns of use in natural texts, 548
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (ARAL), 8, 17, 35, 56
anticipation techniques, 492
apartheid, 467
Applied Linguistics (AL), 3–59, 127–140, 233, 235, 244–259, 311, 318, 319, 321, 373–374, 432–434, 572, 574
Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA), 21, 22, 23
Applied Linguistics Association of New Zealand (ALANZ), 24
applied translation studies, 477, 483–486
apprenticeship model, 165
aptitude, 49, 205, 207, 245, 483, 496
Arabic, 150, 281, 398, 402, 404, 407, 410, 456, 492, 495, 502
Articulation, 23, 63, 64, 67–68, 71, 369, 459, 492
Articulator, 336, 337
assessing validity, 537–538
Assessment Engineering (AE), 518–519
assessment of bilingual dominance, 205
assimilation
of ethnic minorities, 205
of immigrant minorities, 294
Association Phonetique Internstionale (International Phonetic Association [IPA]), 29
Attitude, 92, 93, 207, 208, 212, 213, 291, 295, 328, 375, 385, 386, 391, 394, 446, 461
Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB), 208, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216
audiolingual methodology, 102
Australian Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education (AACLAME), 21
Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 23
Australian Telephone Interpreting Service, 500
authentic texts, 279, 489, 524
automated essay evaluation, 529–538
automaticity, 40, 89, 92, 97, 193, 195, 196, 337, 515
autonomic nervous system, 246
aviation English, 426
avoiding verbalism, 169–170
Baby Talk, 219
back channeling, 233
Bahasa, 428
Bahasa Indonesia, 238, 431
Basa, 428
Basilect, 384
basolateral and extended amygdala, 245
Basque, 295, 299, 414, 432, 448
Bay Area [CA] Court Interpreters' (BACI), 501
Bayesian inference networks, 517
Behaviorism, 50, 53, 57, 112, 149, 166, 192, 206, 212, 219
bilingual aphasia, 338
bilingual education, 18, 39, 276, 294–303, 447, 459, 460
Bilingual Interactive Activation Model (BIA), 352–354
bilingual lexicon, 349–370
bilingual signage, 295
bilingualism, 8, 16, 35, 39, 50, 134, 184, 205, 296, 298, 299, 333–370, 400, 406
biliteracy, 296, 297, 298, 299, 388, 419
Bloomfieldian linguistic, 110, 111
Bologna Process, 483, 489
Boundedness, 176, 177
Bourguiba Institute, 5
brain studies, 39
(p. 748) Brigham Young University Humanities Research Center, 512, 524
British-American Scientific International Commercial English (BASIC), 10, 11, 12
British Association of Applied Linguistics (BAAL), 5, 14, 15–17, 18
British Council, 6, 11–15, 17, 27–28, 266
British National Corpus, 550
Brown Corpus, 550
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, U.S. Department of State, 6, 13, 15, 28, 30
Business, 8, 40, 116, 241, 267, 329–330, 407, 408, 446, 460, 467, 472, 505, 511, 557
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 553
Cambridge University Press (CUP), 8, 14
Canada, 4, 5, 18–19, 122, 181, 184–185, 210, 229, 276, 283, 289, 379, 499
Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics (ACLA), 18, 19
Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19
Caribbean creoles, 383
case study research, 46
causal model, 210, 481, 482
Catalon, 295
Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region, 393
The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA), 291, 525
Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL), 5, 6, 7, 28
Central Institute of English (Hyderabad), 5, 6
centrality of expository discourse, 279
Centre for Information on Language Teaching (CILT), 13, 16
changes in the language behavior of speakers, 401
China, 20, 24, 298, 416, 464, 514
Chomskyan theory, 16, 312
classroom-based discourse analysis, 45, 133
classroom talk, 65
closed-class, functional categories (FCs), 145, 148, 162
closed in-group language, 430
cloze tests, 120, 526
code-switching, 335, 337, 338, 375, 384, 464, 471, 499
C-ORAL-ROM project, 567
Cognitive Linguistics, 59, 176, 476
Cognitive Ontology, 244, 254–256
Collins CoBuild English Language Dictionary, 550, 553
Collocation, 1, 67, 535, 551, 552, 564, 566
Colonial Conference Committee on Education, 12
Common European Framework of Reference for Modern Languages, 271, 272
communicative competence, 38, 113, 114, 120, 122, 123, 128, 139, 144, 276
communicative language ability (CLA), 276, 516
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), 17, 114, 115, 119, 120, 128, 132, 138, 166, 268, 274, 275, 276, 277
communicative movement, 72
community-based education, 417
community language learning, 267
comparative model, 480, 481, 482
competition model, 198, 200
complementizers, 145, 149, 550
complementizer phrase (CP), 145, 147, 148, 149
complex systems theory, 541
comprehensible input theory, 539
computational modeling of writing components, 534–537
computational models, 189–203, 534–537
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), 539–547
computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools, 487
computer-based testing (CBT), 511, 512–514
computer-enhanced language learning (CELL), 75, 76, 80, 86
Computerized Adaptive Placement Test (CAPT) informational website, 513, 523
computer web-based projects, 523–526
conceptual transfer, 310, 316
conceptualizer, 336
concordancing, 287, 564
conference interpreting, 491–494, 495, 498, 501, 504, 505
conflict reducing strategies, 427
connectionist models, 49, 199, 201, 316
consecutive interpreting (CI), 491, 493–494
Consortium for State Court Interpreter, 498
Certification constraining the parallel activity of two languages, 368
constraint-based approaches, 16–203
contact and conflict
essential principles, 378–379
in artificial language, 380–381
in natural language, 379–380
linguistics, 377–378
political language, 376–377
sociology, 375–379
typology, 379–381
contact linguistics, 373, 374–375
content analysis, 48, 52, 531–534
Content-based instruction (CBI), 97, 275, 278, 290, 292
content-based learning, 33–38
content-based syllabus, 268
content vector analysis (CVA), 532, 533, 534
continuity, 115, 313, 430
contrastive rhetoric, 102, 103, 128, 13–31, 138, 140, 308, 315
conversation analysis (CA), 45, 48, 51, 135–136, 233, 319, 323
conversational boundaries, 233
conversational implicature, 232, 233, 234
cooperative learning activities, 277
cooperative principle, 233
coping potential, 246, 247
corpus linguistics, 35, 36, 37, 38–39, 46, 55, 105, 131, 319, 322, 483, 548–567, 575
(p. 749) corpora and ESP/EAP, 565
corpora in language pedagogy, 563–565
corpus-based, 121, 535, 552, 558
corpus-based studies of historical registers, 561–562
corpus-based textbooks, 566
corpus-driven approach
describe historical change, 556
describe linguistic features, 551
describe overall characteristics of a variety, 551
formulaic language, 552
lexical bundles, 553
lexicography, 553
spoken and written registers, 553
studies of collocation, 551, 552
vocabulary studies, 553
corpus-driven MD studies of English registers, 560
corpus-informed language textbooks, 565–566
corpus studies with a grammatical focus, 554–556
corpus studies with a lexical focus, 551–553
cost-effective, 302
Council of Europe, 271, 272, 407, 526
court interpreting, 498–502
creole, 382–397
creole continuum, 384, 386, 387, 391, 392
Criterion application, 531
critical assessment practices, 38
critical awareness, 38
critical discourse analysis, 38, 46, 140
critical factors affecting lexical selection, 356–358, 363
critical pedagogy, 38, 108
cross-language activation, 367, 368, 369
cross-language competition, 369, 370
cue competition and convergence, 198–199
cultural capital, 182
cultural turn, 479
Current Issues in Language Planning, 9, 29, 415, 441
curriculum
designers, 264, 270, 541
development, 263–274
innovation, 265–266, 269
models, 267–268
reforms, 264, 265
studies, 264–265
Da Pidgin Coup, 386
data-driven, statistical approaches, 531, 537
declarative/procedural model, 339
decolonization, 12, 30, 409
decreolization, 384, 408
Defense Language Aptitude Battery [DLAB], 521
Deixis, 232, 311
Department of Education (Japan), 10
Department of Education and Training (DEET), 23
Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA), 23
desktop publishing, 382, 487
descriptive translation studies, 477, 478, 479, 480, 482
determiners, 145, 535
developing nations, 463, 464, 467
developmental education, 169, 174, 176
deverbalization, 493
diachronic text-focused analyses, 477
DIALANG Computer Adaptive Test informational website, 526
diffusion paradigm, 399
digital literacy, 187
diagnostic feedback, 529, 530, 531, 534, 538
dialectical materialist philosophy, 164
diglossia, 374, 404, 407
Direct Contrast Hypothesis, 230
Discontinuity, 430
discourse analyses, 38, 53, 129, 130
discourse community, 135, 174, 278, 279, 280, 285
discourse organizing principles, 97
discrete-point tests, 118, 119
display questions, 132, 136
distance learning, 187, 512
Dominica Creole French, 385
dopaminergic innervation, 245
dual learning objectives, 278
dynamic models of bilingual processing, 343–347
Dynamic Systems Theory (DST), 343, 344, 348
DVD, 74
ear-voice span (EVS), 491, 492
Ecole Supérieure d'Interprètes et de Traducteurs (ESIT), 490
ecology of languages paradigm
artificial ecologies, 432
balanced equitable ecologies, 431
competitive ecologies, 431
mixed endemic/exotic ecologies, 431
economic perspective, 301–302
education, 15, 25, 46, 184, 285, 286, 325, 391–394
Educational Praxis and Artificial Development, 165–166
Educational Testing Service (ETS), 119, 513, 523, 530, 531
electroencephalograms (EEGs), 491
endangered languages, 27, 55, 399, 414, 415, 423, 424, 434
English, 4, 7, 12, 19, 25, 27, 43, 52, 71, 77, 78, 80, 83, 101, 112, 129–130, 147, 150, 155, 173, 186, 198, 200, 308, 310, 355, 380, 409, 431, 456–460, 504, 562–563
English as an alternative language, 283, 297, 312, 362, 388
English as a foreign language (EFL), 5, 6, 11, 15, 30, 118, 212, 213, 216, 281, 523
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), 121, 329, 562–563
English as a second language (ESL), 4, 7, 19, 28, 112, 115, 139, 149, 160, 280, 290, 512
(p. 750) English for specific purposes (ESP), 38, 129, 130, 131, 138, 318, 563, 565
English Language Institute (University of Michigan), 4, 5, 13
English Language Teaching (ELT), 10–11, 22, 112, 128, 136, 409
English Teaching Information Centre (ETIC), 13
episodic memory, 492
esotericity, 427, 430
Estonia, 308, 416, 468
ethics in language assessment, 38
ethnomethodology, 43, 45, 48
European Union (EU), 29, 269, 271, 273, 296, 380, 407, 424, 432, 499
Europeans and Languages, 273
Exotericity, 430
Extended Motivational Framework, 208
extrinsic motivation, 207
Failed Functional Features Hypothesis, 150
faithfulness constraints, 160
Fédération Internationale des Traducteurs (FIT), 504
Feedback, 139, 218, 220, 222, 223, 224, 455, 530, 537, 544
feminist research, 48, 324, 479
fluency, 92–93
focus on form movement, 102
Ford Foundation, 6, 11, 12, 13, 27, 28
foreign language learning, 54, 231, 483, 485
Foreigner talk, 219, 231
forensic linguistics, 43, 322, 397
formal linguistics, 28, 35, 37, 143–162
formative assessment, 39
formulator, 336, 337, 341
Freiburg English Dialect Corpus (FRED), 562
French, 77, 85, 157, 205, 224, 284, 300, 404, 504
function-oriented studies, 477
functional linguistics, 36, 128, 139, 170, 275
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 55, 244, 251, 252, 254
functional-notional syllabus, 268, 271
Functional Pragmatic framework, 494
functionalist approach to translation, 484
Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception, 497
garden path sentences, 191
Generation 1.5, 57, 107
General Service List, 549, 553
generalized theta attachment (GTA) model, 203
generative grammar tradition, 190
genre-based language input, 116
genre studies, 103, 129
germ-cell model, 169, 171, 173, 216
German, 31, 146, 149, 310, 380, 442, 488, 492
Globalization, 399, 400, 403, 404, 405, 409, 472, 480
Graduate Record Examination (GRE), 514, 537–538
grammar knowledge as a graded probabilistic system, 197, 202
grammatical competence, 114
graphization, 387, 466
Gullah, 385
Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, 162
Hedging, 129, 556
Helsinki Corpus of British English Dialects, 562
heritage language education, 299
high-rainfall language, 429
high status professions, 32, 325, 326
hippocampus, 245, 248
holistic scoring, 529, 530, 531, 537
Hong Kong Corpus of Spoken English, 567
Hungarian Ministry of Education, 270
iBT TOEFL, 513, 514
IELTS, 105, 525
ILEA Afro-Caribbean Language and Literacy Project, 393
illocutionary force, 233, 240, 243
imagined communities, 184–185, 187
immersion, 123, 173, 264, 276, 282, 284, 289, 290
implicature, 232, 233, 234, 237
impoverishment, 427
indigenous languages, 281, 297, 414, 415, 417, 447, 467, 469, 502
Indigenous languages of Mexico, 414
Indigenous languages of Nigeria, 414
individual processes in reading, 91–92
Industrial Language Training Project (UK), 325
Inflectional Phrase (IP), 145
information processing, 37, 76, 79, 345, 346, 347, 348
information theory, 476
inhibitory control, 226, 228, 363–364, 370
innate learning mechanism, 217
input, 160, 197, 203, 218–220, 276, 278, 506
Institute for International Education (IIE), 7, 28
instrumental motivation, 209, 210, 296
instrumentalization, 387, 390, 391
Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), 530
interactional instinct, 245
interactionist perspective, 217–231, 544
interactive process, 90, 196, 198
interconnectedness of spoken and written language, 138
integrated language teaching, 110, 115, 116–118, 119, 120, 121, 123
integrative motivation, 210, 211, 212, 248
Interactionist Hypothesis, 220
interlanguage pragmatics (ILP), 58, 128, 140, 234–237, 238, 239
International Association for Applied Linguistics/Association Internationale de Linguistique Appliquée (AILA), 5, 15, 16, 28, 29, 30, 35
(p. 751) International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), 5, 15, 30
International Corpus of English (ICE), 162, 163, 562
International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), 563, 564
International Criminal Court (ICC), 502
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), 502
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 502
International Journal of the Sociology of Language (IJSL), 414
international keypals, 545
International Language Testing Association, 9
International Medical Interpreter Association, 503
international tribunals, 502
international turn, 480
interpretation, 6, 37, 39, 43, 50, 58, 65, 82, 192, 490–507
interrelated dialects, 424
interview research, 51–52
intrinsic motivation, 207
investment, 181–182, 183, 184
IRF (initiation, reply, follow-up), 131, 134, 139
Irish, 296, 314, 379, 414, 448
Jargon, 383, 427
job interview, 116, 329, 560
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (JMMD), 9, 414, 441, 420
Journal of Second Language Writing (JSLW), 9, 106, 109
Judicial Improvements and Access to Justice Act (1988), 507
“killer language,” 457
Koran, 398
Language Acquisition Device (LAD), 36, 313
language-and-identity ideology, 418
language-as-human-resource planning, 455
language assessment, 40, 51, 509–526
language awareness, 16, 18, 37, 108, 397
language choice, 272, 273, 327, 338–339, 409, 446, 464
language contact, 40, 43, 332, 373–397, 408, 420, 422, 426, 575
language/content interface, 287–288
language death, 406, 413
language for specific purposes (LSP), 129, 318, 393
language-in-education planning, 459
language inequity, 39, 388, 502
language in professional contexts, 318
language intermixing, 356–357, 358
language in the workplace, 318, 319, 320, 326, 330, 331, 332, 446
Language Learning, 4, 34, 37, 40, 113, 128–129, 178–188, 205, 208, 281, 295
language management, 405, 410
language naming practices, 424
language pathology, 40, 43
language planning, 295–298, 387–391, 408, 433, 439–441, 452–462
language policy, 415, 437–451, 463–472
language preservation, 433, 449
Language Problems & Language Planning, 9, 420, 441
language production, 64–68, 229, 335, 339, 364
language revitalization, 295, 412–420
language shift, 404, 412–420
language spread, 398–411, 470
language spread policy, 408
Language Study Center (Philippine Normal College), 5
Language Testing, 9, 22, 49, 83, 119, 516
Language Testing Research Colloquium, 9
Language Threshold Hypothesis, 94
languaging spread, 400, 411, 420
large recognition vocabulary, 89, 94, 95, 96, 97
Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), 531
Latin, 177, 257, 271, 402, 415
Latvia, 468
learner-centered, 277, 485, 486, 488
learner corpora, 563–564
legal language, 321, 331
lemmas, 67, 336, 339, 340, 360
lexemes, 67, 336, 338, 340
Lexical-Functional Grammar, 162
lexical syllabus, 268
lexico-grammatical features, 69, 129, 555
lexicography, 35, 43, 447, 553, 575
lexifier, 382, 384, 385, 386, 387, 389, 395, 397
limited English proficient (LEP), 276, 278, 499–500
lingue franches, 426, 428, 431
linguistic diversity, 8, 317, 400, 426, 431, 432, 470, 572
in Melanesia, 425
linguistic human rights, 416, 417, 458, 469
linguistic imperialism, 403, 457, 466
linguistic prehistory, 425
linguistic relativity, 308, 309, 311, 315, 316
Linguistic Society of America (LSA), 8, 111, 415
listening experience, 74, 75–76
listening strategy instruction, 86, 87
literacy, 4, 19, 21, 22, 23, 34, 35, 40, 41, 43, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 59, 95, 107, 108, 109, 121, 130, 138, 140, 1863, 185, 296, 297, 299, 327, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 405, 416, 417, 419, 433, 448, 464, 470, 575
Lithuania, 443, 468
LOB Corpus, 550, 558
London-Lund Corpus, 558, 567
longitudinal research, 46, 59, 85
LPP publications, 438, 442
macroaquisition, 400, 405
main verb/reduced relative clause ambiguities, 192
(p. 752) maintenance of ethnic identity of a minority group, 205
manner maxim, 233
manufacturing/engineering, 326–28
Mäori, 23–4, 25, 414, 419, 430
Mäori Language Commission, 24
maritime English, 426
mass media, 54, 295, 299, 330, 407, 413, 470, 472
Maximum Entropy (ME), 536
meaning transfer, 316
media discourse, 138, 557
medial orbital cortex, 245
mediation, 38, 166–68, 175, 176, 180, 496
medical/healthcare interpreting, 503
medicine, 52, 253, 320, 322–25, 332
mesolect, 384, 387
message conceptualization, 65, 66
metacognitive awareness, 84, 97
metrical template, 76
migration, 6, 24, 26, 374, 468, 480
military courts, 502
minimal attachment heuristic, 191, 192
Ministry of Education (UK), 13
Ministry of Maori Development (New Zealand), 24, 25, 415, 417, 419, 430
minority language, 4, 50, 295, 296, 297, 298, 300, 325, 412, 413, 418, 420, 449
Missing Surface Inflection' (MSIH), 150
Modality, 59, 255, 311, 555, 556
Modern Language Aptitude Test, 521
Modern Language Association (MLA), 6, 7, 15, 22
Modern Language Centre, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), 5, 18
mother-in-law language, 426
motivation, 44, 50, 67, 80, 93, 97, 98, 103, 130, 134, 138, 183, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 216, 239, 246, 248, 249, 250, 273, 277, 278, 282, 287, 292, 296, 319, 394, 483, 496
MP3 players, 75
MultiCAT informational website, 524
multi-dimensional analyses of register variation, 550, 557–561
Multi-Dimensional (MD) analysis, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561
multi-dimensional patterns across discourse domains and languages, 559–561
multilingual ecologies, 422
multilingualism, 39, 291, 373–374, 381, 402
multimedia software, 76
multinational corporations, 472
multiple-choice items, 118, 513
mutually beneficial links, 421
mutually intelligiblity, 423, 424, 450, 489, 573
MXPOST part-of-speechtagger, 535
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), 496
nation-states, 422, 423, 431, 572
National Association for Foreign Student Affairs (NAFSA), 7, 28
National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators (NAJIT), 498
National Center for State Courts (NCSC), 498
National Coalition on Health Care Interpreter Certification, 503
National Core Curriculum (Hungary), 264, 269, 270–271, 274
National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME), 519
national languages, 408, 422, 423, 424, 425, 428, 431, 432, 443, 472, 573
national languages are cultural artifacts, 423–424, 573
National Language and Literacy Institute of Australia (NLLIA), 22
natural approach, 166
natural language processing (NLP), 43, 56, 497, 529, 543
naturally occurring discourse, 137, 140
Navajo, 302, 414, 417, 418, 505
negative evidence, 217, 218, 224, 230, 231
neologisms, 494
Neurobiology of Language, 244–259, 575
neuroimaging technologies, 244
neurolinguistics, 38, 40, 98, 317
neurophysiology, 252, 491
Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English, 562
New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics (NZSAL), 24
Nonselectivity, 367, 368
Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 118
Northern Australian Kriol, 383
Northern Territory Department of Education (Australia), 392
Noticing, 218, 226, 228, 231, 394, 540, 543, 544
Nuremberg Trials, 502
observational research, 49, 176
OECD, 269
Official Committee on the Teaching of English Overseas, 12, 13
official English, 456–460
official languages of the ICC, 502
Ontogeny Model, 157
Optimality Theory, 157, 160
oral discourse, 65, 545
orientation to contexts for writing, 102, 107–108
origins and definitions of pidgin and creoles, 383–385
Orthographic Depth Hypothesis, 95
Orthography, 41, 75, 90, 352, 359, 365, 367, 388, 389, 391
Output, 53, 66, 68, 72, 107, 133, 160, 191, 203, 218, 220, 222, 226, 228–230, 336, 337, 338, 343, 344, 345, 366, 367, 491, 493, 494, 505, 506, 544
Over-the-Phone Interpreting (OPI), 500
(p. 753) P & P (paper and pencil tests), 513
Papiamentu, 389, 393
Parsing, 76, 94, 150, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 534
Perceptual Assimilation Model, 157
perlocutionary force, 233
phonetic plan, 336, 337
pidgin
expanded, 383, 385, 397
stable, 383
Pitcairn Island, 429
policy constraints, 266
policymakers, 265, 266, 270, 272, 274, 331, 471
politeness theory, 71, 136, 234, 330, 556
political discourse, 138, 470
Polysystems approach, 478
Portal, 518
Portuguese, 237, 397, 404, 494, 567
Positioning, 50, 52, 103, 185–186, 187
positive evidence, 217
positron emission tomography (PET), 55
postcolonial research, 12, 50, 52, 56, 188, 400, 431, 463, 479, 480
postmodern research, 50, 101, 108, 178, 180, 185, 326, 399, 400, 458
poststructural research, 48, 50, 54, 57, 179, 181, 449
power, 49, 78, 80, 100, 108, 109, 140, 163, 177, 179, 181, 212, 245, 269, 271, 298, 301, 303, 319, 320, 323, 330, 376, 389, 399, 406, 408, 409, 412, 424, 428, 431, 448, 449, 453, 458, 462, 467, 471, 472, 479, 545
power to impose reception, 179
PPP (Presentation, Practice, Production), 113
pragmalinguistic failure, 240
pragmatics, 232–243, 249–251, 308, 314, 346, 374, 393, 540
pre-nation-state language ecologies, 425
presupposition, 232
preverbal message, 336
Principled Assessment Design for Inquiry (PADI), 518
principled collection of natural texts, 548
Principles and Parameters paradigm (P&P), 144
principles for CALL pedagogy, 546–547
process-based orientations, 102, 105–107
process model, 209, 211, 480, 481
process oriented descriptive studies, 477
process-oriented research, 541, 543–546
process syllabus, 268
product-oriented studies, 477
product-oriented research, 541, 542–543
promotion of trade, 205
propaganda, 476
psycholinguistic research, 49
psychometric measurement, 118
Puluwat, 424
purpose of theory, 164–165
quality maxim, 233
quantity maxim, 233
qualitative research, 47, 48, 50–51, 52, 55
quantitative research, 47, 48, 49–50, 51, 52
Quechua, 413, 414, 416, 417, 471
Quichua, 414, 418
Q-value, 403
reading
for basic comprehension, 89
for general understanding, 89, 90
neurobiology of, 251
to critique and evaluate, 89
to find information, 89
racial identities, 186
racist discourse, 138
Rasch item response theory (IRT) model, 513
Recasts, 133, 224–225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 276
reflective conversation, 460
Reform Movement, 9–10, 13, 26, 70
register variation, 39, 464, 555, 557, 560, 561
Regional English Language Centre (RELC), 5
relation maxim, 233
remote interpreting, 491, 500
research article introductions, 130
research methodology
anthropological studies, 448
attitudinal studies, 214, 446
comparative studies, 234, 236, 237, 239, 269, 447
corpus studies, 447
cost-benefit studies, 449–450
descriptive studies, 451
evaluative studies, 446
historical studies, 443–446
poststructuralist studies, 449
pre-planning studies, 442
pre-policy studies, 442
sociolinguistic studies, 448–449
Research New Zealand, 24
response generative modeling (RGM), 520
reversing language shift, 295, 404, 413, 414, 419, 443
Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM), 350–352
rhetorical moves, 129
right hemisphere involvement, 492
right to speech, 179
role-plays, 123, 236
Rough Rock School, 418
rule-based methodology, 531
rule-space methodology, 517
sausage model, 191
Scandinavia, 298, 416, 423, 464, 573
Scanning, 89
School of Applied Linguistics (University of Edinburgh), 5, 13, 14
scientific concepts, 167, 169, 175
scientific utility, 205
second language acquisition (SLA), 9, 19, 34, 43, 55, 103, 133, 143–162, 183, 204–243, 246–247, 276, 308, 312, 315, 316, 326, 384, 394, 400, 449, 483, 540, 575
(p. 754) second language CBT instruments, 512–514
second language (L2) learning, 88, 144, 189, 511, 539
self-correction, 544
self-cultural development, 205
self-monitoring, 330, 544
semantic constraints, 156
sheltered CBI, 281, 282, 283
short-term memory, 67, 83, 492
silent way, 267
simple recurrent network (SRN) model, 199
simulated adjunct model, 285
simultaneous interpretation (SI), 490, 491
Situated Model of Confidence and Affiliation, 208
situated utterances, 179
situational approach, 71, 113
Skopos theory, 478
SLA-focused interactional research, 133
social-constructivist educational epistemology, 486
Social Context Model, 208
social engineering, 453, 454–456, 457
social factors influencing reading, 92–93
social lag, 266, 269
Social Psychological Model, 207–209
social psychological perspective, 204–216
social service, 39, 40, 325–326, 506
sociocognitive approach to language testing, 516
sociocultural theory (SCT), 163–177, 485, 541, 545
Socio-Educational Model, 208, 209, 211, 212, 214, 215
sociohistorical theory, 135, 137
sociolinguistic competence, 114
sociopragmatic failure, 240
source language (SL), 475, 491
South Africa, 29, 108, 126, 136, 379, 417, 446, 448, 449, 453, 457, 469, 480, 499
Spanish, 78, 78, 80, 81, 95, 154, 177, 184, 228, 236, 238, 281, 286, 296, 302, 310, 313, 340, 361, 368, 398, 399, 404, 406, 410, 413, 416, 431, 438, 442, 448, 494, 498, 560
speaking model, 335, 336, 339
specific L2 reading issues, 92–96
speech act theory, 128, 232
speech acts
representatives, 232
directives, 232
commissives, 232
expressives, 232
declarations, 232
speech community, 139, 179, 400, 404, 406, 414, 455
spontaneous knowledge, 167
stance, 129, 165, 309, 331, 489, 553, 555, 556, 560
standardized tests, 118, 120, 282, 515, 519, 520, 531
statistics
nonparametric, 49
parametric, 49
strategy/skill relationship, 81–82
struggle for existence metaphor, 422
Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9
Subjacency, 151
subliminal language learning, 540
subset hypothesis, 338
substratum languages, 423
subversion, 301
suggestopedia, 267, 485
Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL), 4, 27
superstratum languages, 423
Suprasegmentals, 158–160
Survey, 46, 47, 49, 50, 56, 133, 164, 207, 233, 269, 273, 316, 319, 375, 419, 427, 437, 555, 565
Sustained-content language teaching /instruction (SCLT/I), 284
Swahili, 384, 410
Syllabus, 71, 73, 122, 174, 263, 264, 266, 268, 271, 272, 273, 276, 283, 292, 483, 566
Symbols, 53, 190, 493
synchronic text-focused analyses, 477
synchronous interactive written communication, 545
syntax-based approaches, 190–196, 198, 200, 201, 202
syntactic processes role in driving comprehension, 190
Syntactic, 11, 14, 67, 76, 92, 94, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 155, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 195, 196, 199, 202, 219, 220, 257, 276, 313, 316, 336, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 345, 346, 347, 492, 515, 530, 532, 534, 535, 549, 554, 556, 571, 572
synthetic negation, 554
Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), 139, 170
System-D, 544
systems approach, 46, 466, 471, 478
target language, 107, 111, 132, 133, 183, 184, 219, 222, 228, 229, 240, 247, 248, 289, 338, 354, 367, 475, 482, 489, 494, 539, 565
target text, 475, 478, 479, 480, 482, 484, 485, 489
task-based learning, 37, 38, 483
task-based syllabus, 268
task construction, 512, 519–520
teacher training, 6, 19, 35, 36, 93, 98, 121, 294, 573, 575
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 22, 28, 50, 51, 109, 136, 186, 437
Teaching English as an Additional Language, 19
team interpreting, 500, 501
technical specialists in LPP, 465
telephone interpreting, 500, 503
terminological elaboration, 466
TESL CANADA, 19
TESOL Newsletter (later TESOL Matters), 7
TESOL Quarterly (TQ), 7, 9, 50, 51, 186, 437
test design, 119, 120, 512, 517–519, 522, 542
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), 77, 242, 513, 514, 521, 523
test purpose, 512, 521–522
test security, 512
text-based language input, 116
text linguistics, 128, 484
(p. 755) the study of language spread, 401–405
the beginnings (1970s to 1980s), 399
the critical period (1990s), 399
the postmodern period (21st century), 399
theme-based CBI, 280, 281
theoretical translation studies, 477
theory in instructed SLA, 540–541
theory/research interface, 164
thinking-for-speaking approach, 315, 316, 317
three-stage comprehension model
Perception, 76
Parsing, 76
Utilization, 76
TOEFL score, 77
Tok Pisin, 383, 388, 389, 391, 392, 393, 397, 413
Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, 502
top-down perspective, 466
Torres Strait Creole, 385, 392, 393, 395
total physical response, 267–268
transcodage, 491
transfer, 94, 95, 96, 103, 106, 148, 194, 197, 200, 239, 291, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 316–317, 341, 342, 350, 392, 394, 475, 494, 564
transglossia, 404, 407
translanguaging, 400, 406, 407, 409
translation
aids, 477
policy, 477
translator training, 477, 481, 483, 484
transportation, 328
Trukese, 424
turn taking, 43, 79, 232, 327
Type I [test] application or sustaining Technology, 511, 512, 514
Type II [test] application or disruptive technologies, 511, 512, 514, 522
United States Information Agency (USIA), 13, 28, 266
Universal Grammar (UG), 146, 151, 152, 157, 160, 217, 251, 258, 311, 315, 316, 345, 572
University of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate (UCLES), 119, 526
UNESCO, 18, 391, 424
unplanned (accidental) planning, 454, 455, 456, 460
usage-based, 179, 180, 181, 197, 201, 203
the use of concordancing activities in the classroom, 564
U.S. English, 457, 462
vagus nerve, 246
validity, 39, 40, 44, 49, 51, 58, 78, 103, 118, 205, 210, 213, 214, 215, 216, 449, 491, 520, 530, 537–538, 548
variance in overtness, 401
variance in domain specificity, 402
variance in role-relationship specificity, 402
vernacularization, 387, 447
videoconferencing, 491
Vienna Oxford International Corpus of English (VOICE), 563
Vygotskyan theory, 140
Wales, 294, 295, 299, 401, 471, 499
Welsh, 281, 299, 417, 472
willingness to communicate, 208, 247–248, 249
wh-questions, 145, 151, 152
word recognition, 89, 91, 94, 95, 352, 354, 355, 356, 357, 365, 366, 367, 368, 515
Words Per Minute (WPM) reading rate, 89
working memory capacity, 193, 195, 227, 228, 481
World Englishes, 9, 53, 562–563
Writer's Workbench (WWB), 530
Yehuda Military Court, 502
Yugoslavia, 24, 377, 431, 468, 502
ZPD, 176