- Preface to the First Edition
- Procedural Notes
- Preface to the Second Edition
- Whence Applied Linguistics: The Twentieth Century
- Applied Linguistics: A Twenty-First-Century Discipline
- Research Approaches in Applied Linguistics
- Listening: Sources, Skills, and Strategies
- Reading in a Second Language
- Second Language Writing in English
- Integrating the Four Skills: Current and Historical Perspectives
- Discourse Analysis and Applied Linguistics
- Perspectives from Formal Linguistics on Second Language Acquisition
- Sociocultural Theory and the Pedagogical Imperative
- Language Learner Identities and Sociocultural Worlds
- Computational Models of Second Language Sentence Processing
- Second Language Acquisition: A Social Psychological Perspective
- Interactionist Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition
- Pragmatics and Second Language Acquisition
- Applied Linguistics and the Neurobiology of Language
- Curriculum Development in Foreign Language Education: The Interface between Political and Professional Decisions
- Content-Based Second Language Instruction
- Bilingual Education
- Language Transfer and Cross Linguistic Studies: Relativism, Universalism, and the Native Language
- Language Uses in Professional Contexts
- Cognitive Processing in Bilinguals: From Static to Dynamic Models
- The Bilingual Lexicon
- Language Contact
- Pidgins and Creoles
- Language Spread and Its Study in the Twenty-First Century
- Language Shift and Language Revitalization
- Ecology of Languages
- Methodologies for Policy and Planning
- Unplanned Language Planning
- Perspectives on Language Policy and Planning
- Technology in Standardized Language Assessments
- Progress and New Directions in Technology for Automated Essay Evaluation
- Computer-Assisted Language Learning
- Research in Corpus Linguistics
- Where to from Here?
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
Rapid technological advances in natural language processing over the past ten years have made it possible for computer systems to evaluate student essays in high-stakes testing, as well as low-stakes writing practice environments. This article describes some of the linguistic and computational bases for automated essay evaluation. Computer systems have been developed for holistic scoring and for the generation of diagnostic feedback. For holistic scoring, a reader assigns a single numerical score to the quality of writing in an essay. For diagnostic feedback, a reader identifies features in writing. When people rate essays, they are instructed to follow a set of scoring criteria that characterize different aspects underlying the writing construct. Specifically, these are the aspects that can be measured in a writing task. For expository writing tasks, for instance, readers are typically instructed to focus on a number of features in writing that contribute to a high-quality essay.
Jill Burstein received a PhD in linguistics from the City University of New York, Graduate Center, in 1992. Dr. Burstein is currently a researcher at Educational Testing Service. Her research applies natural language processing methods to the development of text assessment applications. Dr. Burstein is a coinventor of e-rater, an automated essay scoring system, currently used to score essays on the Graduate Management Admissions Test, and of Criterion, a web-based writing instruction system. She may be reached at http://firstname.lastname@example.org.
Martin Chodorow received a PhD in cognitive psychology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1976. After completing a postdoctoral research assignment at IBM's Thomas Watson Research Center, he joined the faculty of the Psychology department at Hunter College of the City University of New York. Dr. Chodorow has worked on a number of natural language processing projects at IBM, at Princeton University's Cognitive Science Laboratory, and, most recently, at Educational Testing Service. He can be reached at http://email@example.com.
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