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date: 23 March 2019

(p. xi) Table of Symbols and Abbreviations

(p. xi) Table of Symbols and Abbreviations

–, —

precedes

,

coincides with; overlaps

!

unacceptable/ungrammatical with the presumed meaning

?

of questionable acceptability/grammaticality

?

underspecified discourse relation

??

of very questionable acceptability/grammaticality

?(α,β,λ)

indicates that β is to be attached to α within constituent λ

[[a]], ⟦a⟧

the meaning (semantic value) of a

[[a]]α, ⟦a⟧ α

the meaning (semantic value) of a relative to α

[T α]

constituent labeled T (tense) consisting of α

[Tense Ø]

empty constituent labeled Tense

[x ACT<a> ]

x acts in manner a

[α](y = F(n))

executing α always results in a state where y = F(n)

[αβ]

a well-formed expression of type b if and only if α is a well-formed expression of type <a,b>, and β is a well-formed expression of type a

[λxα]

a well-formed expression of type <a,b> if and only if x is a variable of type a, and α is a well-formed expression of type b

@

variable over temporal relations

*

reconstructed or hypothetical

*

unacceptable/ungrammatical

*

zero or more occurrences of the preceding expression

&

and

&

general compositional operator

#

infelicitous; certain interpretations are excluded

#

not well-formed

the logical translation of the preceding expression

⟦a⟧

the meaning of a

⟦a⟧α

the meaning of a relative to α

⟨α⟩(y = F(n))

executing α sometimes results in a state where y = F(n)

§

section

§§

sections

implies/entails

is re-written as

does not imply/entail

is interpreted as

implies/entails

does not imply/entail

universal quantifier (for all …)

universal quantifier over subintervals

existential quantifier (there is/are …; for at least one/some …)

∃!

there is exactly one

existential quantifier over subintervals

∅, Ø

empty; the empty set; null

is a member of; is an element of

<

an interpreted past tense

<

an uninterpreted past tense

<, ≺

precedes

<a,b>

a type in a logical language, if and only if a and b are types

<a,b>

an ordered list containing a, b

<a>

manner a

=

is identical to

>

became

>>

has a unidirectional diachronic trajectory

¬

it is not the case that; not

|i|

the duration of the time i

‖S‖

the proposition expressed by S

‖ϕ‖r,e

the meaning of ϕ relative to r and e

~

alternates with

the respective tense-Aktionsart-combination exists

infinity

and

is synchronous to

is equivalent to; translates

if and only if; entails and is entailed by; is equivalent to

is greater than or equal to; is at or later than

does not follow (precedes or is at)

is a proper sub-interval of; is a proper subset of

⊃⊂

abuts

⊃⊆

abuts and includes the right border

is a sub-interval of; is a subset of

is included within

has common content with

mereological sum

the respective tense – Aktionsart – combination does not exist

Girard’s linear implication operator (“lolly”)

necessity (modal operator)

possibility (modal operator)

(logical) union (operator)

0

false (truth value)

0

index for the local evaluation time or utterance time

1

first person

1

true (truth value)

½

first or second person

1M

one million

1P, 1pl

first person plural

1s, 1SG, 1Sg, 1sg

first person singular

2

second person

2pl

second person plural

2S, 2sg

second person singular

3

third person

3M

third person masculine

3MS, 3ms

third person masculine singular

3pl

third person plural

3rd

third person

3s

third person singular

3SF, 3sf

third person singular feminine

3Sg, 3sg

third person singular

3sgposs

third person singular possessive

3SM

third person singular masculine

A

adjective

A

agent

A

non-stativity (feature)

A

transitive subject

a

action

a. o.

among others

ABL

ablative (case)

ABS, Abs

absolutive (case)

ACC

accomplishment

ACC, acc

accusative (case)

ACE

automatic content extraction

ACH

achievement

ACL

Association for Computational Linguistics

ACT

act in (such-and-such a manner)

ACT

active (voice)

ACT

activity

ADD

additive

ADES, ADESS

adessive (case)

Adj

adjective

AdjP

adjectival phrase

AdjTU

adjoining time unit

(p. xiv) ADV, Adv

adverb

Adv*

any number of adverbs

AdvP

adverbial phrase

aff.decl

affirmative declarative

Agr

agreement; category for subject agreement

Agr-O

category for object agreement

Agr-S

category for subject agreement

AgrP

agreement phrase

AH

aspect hypothesis

ALL

allative (case)

ALL/INSTR

allative/instrumental (case)

ANS

answer

ANT

anterior

ANTIP

antipassive

ANu

activity nucleus

AOR

aorist (tense)

AP

adjectival phrase

AP

antipassive

Apr

atemporal use of the present

ARCHER

A Representative Corpus of Historical British Registers

Art

article

ASL

American Sign Language

ASP

aspectual (marker); aspectual functional head

Asp, asp

aspect(ual) (particle)

Asp

aspect; head of the aspect phrase

AspP

aspect phrase

ASS

assertive

ASSOC

associative (case)

at

is simultaneous with

AUD

auditory evidential

AUG

augmentative

AUX, Aux

auxiliary (component); auxiliary (verb)

AuxP

auxiliary phrase

AV

attitude verb

B-LOB

“before LOB” (a 1930s corpus of British English)

B/GR

background

BA

marker for preposed object NP

BCE

before current era

BCS

Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian

BEN

benefactive; beneficiary

BNC

British National Corpus

BR

Balkan Romance

BrE

British English

BS

Balkan Slavic

code

C

complementizer

C

consonant

C

variable for a contextual restriction

C

variable for a contextually determined predicate identifying the normal “felicity” conditions

c

variable for a context

c

variable for constituents

C-T

relation expressing clausal finiteness

c.

century

C. E.

current era

C/C

code referring to code

C/F

complementizer/“focus marker”

C/M

code referring to message

Carib.

Caribbean

CAV

complement of an attitude verb

CBT

copy-based theory

CEC

Caribbean English Creoles

Ceh

the coercion of an event predicate into a homogeneous description

cf.

see; compare

CG

common ground

CL, cl

classifier

CL

computational linguistics

CLA

classifier

CM

class marker

CMPL

completive (aspect)

cn

common noun

COCA

Corpus of Contemporary American English

Comp

complementizer

COMPL

completive (aspect)

COMPL

completive non-main clause

CONN

connective

CONSTR

construct (case)

CONT

continuous (aspect)

CONV

converb

COP

copula

CP

complementizer phrase, sentence

CR

current relevance

CS

consequent state

Csd

coercion operator mapping a stative description onto a dynamic one

CurTU

currently relevant time unit

CUST

customary (aspect)

determiner

D

set of denotations

D-domain

conceptually dissociated mental world beyond the contemporal P-domain

D-T

relation expressing nominal finiteness

D<a,b>

the set of functions with arguments in Da and values in Db = DbDa.

D<i,st>

the domain of semantic type <i, st>

d1, d2

day 1, day 2

Da

the set of denotations of type a

DAR

dual-aspect reading

dat

dative (case)

DCP

double composed past time

DCPSE

Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English

DD

direct discourse

decl

declarative

DE-RE

de re reading

DEF

definite

defF

definite feminine

defM

definite masculine

DELIC

Description Linguistique Informatisée sur Corpus

DEM, dem

demonstrative

DEM/DIST

distal demonstrative

DET, det, det

determiner

detF

feminine determiner

Di

the set of times

DIR

direct evidential

DIR

directive transitivizer

DIRECT

direct evidential

DIS.PAST

distant past

DL

Dynamic Logic

DO

prefix do

DOR

Direct Object Restriction

DP

determiner phrase; noun phrase

DR

discourse relation

DRC

Democratic Republic of the Congo

DRS

discourse representation structure

DRT

Discourse Representation Theory

Dt

the set of truth values = {0, 1}

DTSP

Discourse Temporal Sequencing Principle

DUAL

dual (number)

DUB

dubitative

DUR

durative (aspect)

dur

function delivering the duration of a time

event; time of the event

E

eventuality; time of the eventuality

E

existential

e, e, e

event; time of the event

e

trace which is a variable over times

e

variable for linguistic expressions

e-reading

existential reading

e1, e2, e3, e4

variables for eventualities

ECCTD

elliptical canonical calendar time designator

ECM

Exceptional Case Marking

EEC

European Economic Community

EL

extensional language

EM

epistemic morpheme

EMPH

emphatic

En

narrated event

Ens

narrated speech event

EP

embedded past

ERG, erg

ergative (case)

Es

speech event

ET

event time

EU

European Union

ev

eventuality

excl

exclusive

expl

expletive

EXT.FOC

extended focus

F, f, f.

feminine (gender)

F

function

F

future tense (operator)

F

interpretation function for constants

F-LOB

Freiburg update of LOB

f.

and following page

F/GR

foreground

F1, F2, F3, F4

future tenses varying in remoteness

FCT

factual (mood)

FDD

free direct discourse

FEM, fem

feminine (gender)

ff.

and following pages

FID, fid

free indirect discourse

fin

finite

FL

foreign language

FOC

focus (marker)

FR, Fr.

French

FUT, fut, fut

future (tense) (operator)

fut0

absolute future operator

ti follows the evaluation time t0

g

assignment of denotations to variables

G.PRS

general present

g(i)

assignment to variables applied to the index for tense

gc

contextually given assignment to variables

GEN, gen

generic (operator)

GEN

genitive case

GEN

habitual (quantifier)

gen’l

general

Gn

gnomic operator

GSP

general situation possibility

GuyFrCr

Guyanese French-lexifier Creole

H

hypothesis

HAB, hab

habitual (aspect, operator)

HAB

pluri-actional (quantifier)

HAB(P)

stative predicate corresponding to the predicate P

Hab1

adverbial null modal habitual operator within the Aspect Phrase

Hab2

nonmodal HAB operator occupying the position of head of the Aspect Phrase

HC

Haitian Creole

HCE

Hawai’i Creole English

HOD

hodiernal (past tense)

HP, HPR

historic(al) present (tense)

Hr(s)

hour(s)

I, I, i

imperfective (aspect)

I, i, i

interval; variable for an interval

i

index

i

the semantic type of (time) intervals; the type of times

i

individual-level

I-PRINCIPLE

informativeness principle

I’

I-bar structure

I1, I2

variables for intervals

ibid.

the same reference as the previous one

ICE-GB

British component of the International Corpus of English

ICP

intransitive copy pronoun

ID

indefinite past

ID

indirect discourse

idem

the identical reference to the previous one

idL

identity function

IE

Indo-European

iff

if and only if

IFV

imperfective (aspect)

II

noun class 2

individual-level

IL

interlanguage

IMM.PAST

immediate past

IMP

imparfait (tense)

IMP

imperfect (tense)

imp, imp

imperfective (aspect)

IMPER, IMPERF

imperfective (aspect)

Imperf.

imperfect (tense)

IMPF, Impf, IMPFCT

imperfective (aspect)

IMV

imperative

inan.

inanimate

incl

is included in

IND, ind, INDIC

indicative mood

INDIR

indirect evidential

INESS

inessive (case)

INF, inf

infinitive

INFER

inferential

Infl

inflectional component

INSTR

instrumental (case)

INT

intensifier

INTENS

intensive

INTR

intransitive marker

IP

inflection(al) phrase

IPF, ipf, ipf, IPFV, IPV

imperfective (aspect)

IR

information retrieval

IRR

irrealis

ITER, ITR

iterative

IV, iv

intransitive verb

IVP, IVP

illocutionary viewpoint (function)

JC

Jamaican Creole

K

kilobyte(s)

k

kind-level

Kπ

propositional content of clause π

L1

first language

L2

second language

LB

left boundary

ldbt

long-distance-bound-tense

le

the aspectual particle le

LF, lf

logical form

LIC

logic of information content

LIG

ligature

LIP

logic of information packaging

lit.

literal(ly)

lModE

late Modern English

Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen (corpus of British English)

LOC

locative (case) (marker)

loc

location

LOT

language of thought

M

a modal meaning

M

marked

M

masculine (gender)

M

message

M

modal case marker

M

variable for models

m

Masculine (gender)

m

variable for meanings

M-situation

the modal meaning; the time of the modal meaning

M/C

message referring to code

M/M

message referring to message

MASC, masc, masc, masc.

masculine (gender)

MDP

mediopassive (voice)

Melan.

Melanesian

Mem. Pres.

Memorial Present

MIR

mirative

MOD

modificant

mod-fut

covert modal component

Modal

modal component

ModE

Modern English

Mpl

masculine plural

MQP

Mais que Perfeito (tense)

ms

masculine (gender)

N

neuter gender

N

nominal

N

north

N

noun

n

head of nP

n

point of speech

n

topic of speech

n

time of speech

n

narrated

n.d., n. d.

no date

n*

nominal functional head introducing a genitive/possessive argument

n*P

genitive/possessive phrase

N&K

Nishiyama and Koenig

NC

Niger-Congo

NC1, NC10

noun class 1, noun class 10

northeast

NEG, Neg, neg

negation; negative

Neg

negative particle

NegP

negative phrase

NF

nonfinite

NFUT

near future (tense)

NFUT

non-future (tense)

NIMP

narrative imperfect (tense)

NLP

natural language processing

NOM, nom, nom

nominal

NOM, Nom

nominative case

NOMIN

nominalizer

Non-mem.

Non-memorial present (tense)

non-past, NONPST

non-past (tense)

nP

noun

NP

noun phrase

NPa

present tense in lieu of the passé tense

NPAH

Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy

NPR

narrative present (tense)

NPv

present tense in lieu of the imparfait tense

NVIS

non-visual evidential

o

overlap(s)

o

undeleted present tense

deleted present tense

o, ο, o

overlaps with

O&S

Ogihara and Sharvit

OBJ

object

OBJ/LOC

objective/locative (case)

OBL

oblique (case)

OCS

Old Church Slav(on)ic

OF

Old French

OM

object marker

OMPD

“oh my poor darling”

OPT, opt

optative (mood)

P

participant(s)

P

past tense operator

P

perfective (aspect)

P

process

p

proposition

P

proposition representing a particular situation

P

set of preconditions

P

variable for a predicate

P

variable for an eventuality (or eventuality description)

p

variable for propositions

perfective (aspect)

P-domain

contemporal perspective

p. c., p.c.

personal communication

P{S}Q

set P of preconditions for a program statement S and the resultant state Q

P1

hodiernal past tense

P1, P2, P3, P4

past tenses differing in remoteness

P2

hesternal past tense

P3

pre-hesternal past tense

PA

passé antérieur (tense)

Pal.

Palenquero

Pap.

Papiamentu

PAR

particle

PART

participle

PART

partitive (case)

PASS

passive (voice)

PAST, past, past

past (tense) (operator)

past

deleted past tense

PastFut

past-in-the-future operator

PASTi

ti precedes the evaluation time t0

PB

Proto-Bantu

PC

passé composé (tense)

PC

past continuous tense

PE

Pidgin English

PERF, Perf, perf, perf

perfect; the feature Perfect

Perf-P

perfect phrase

PerfP

perfect phrase

PF, Pf, pf, PFCT

perfective (aspect)

PFM

Performative

PFV, pfv

perfective (aspect)

PL, Pl, pl, pl., PLU

plural (number)

pmw

per million words

Pn

participant(s) of a narrated event

PNG

Papua New Guinea

POSS, Poss, poss

possessive (case)

POST

the residue (VP) is posterior to the M-situation

POT

potential

PP

past participle

PP

prepositional phrase

PP

present perfect

PPC

Pretérito Perfeito Composto (tense)

PPC prog

Pretérito Perfeito Composto progressivo

PR, Pr, Pr.

present (tense)

PRdeR, PRdR

présent de reportage

predicative

PrefixP

prefix phrase

PREP

preposition

PRES, pres, pres

present (tense) (operator)

pres

deleted present tense

PresFut

present-in-the-future operator

PRESi

ti overlaps the evaluation time t0

PRET

preterite (tense)

prét

pretérito (tense)

PREV

preverb

PRF

perfect

PRG

progressive (aspect)

PRMT

purpose complement with motion verb

PROG, prog

progressive (aspect); progressive marker

prog, prog.

the feature Progressive

Prog-P

progressive phrase

PRON

pronominal agreement marker

PRON

pronoun

PROP

proprietive

PROS

prospective

PrPr

present tense as marker of present time

PRS

present (tense)

PRT

particle

PRX

proximate

Ps

participant(s) in a speech event

PS

passé simple (tense)

PST

passé surcomposé tense

PST, pst

past (tense)

PST

posterior

PST.P

pluperfect (tense)

PST.R

recent past (tense)

PT

participle

PTQ

On the Proper Treatment of Quantification in English

Q

a variable for a predicate (or a proposition)

Q

question word

Q

resultant state

QA

question-answering

QR

Quantifier-Raising

QRC

Quantifier-Raising Constraint

QUD

Question-Under-Discussion

QUOT

quotative evidential

q

a variable for a proposition

R, r, r

reference time, point of reference

R

a variable for a discourse relation

(p. xxiv) R-state

resultant state RB

RB

right boundary

RC

relative clause

Rcp

reciprocal

REC.PAST

recent past (tense)

REFL

reflexive

rel

relative

REL

relativizer

REL, Rel

relative clause marker

REP

reportative evidential

restr

restrictive agreement

rn

relational noun

RRG

Role and Reference Grammar

RST

Rhetorical Structure Theory

RT

Relevance Theory

RTE

recognizing text entailment

RTR

retrospective (aspect)

Rx, Ry

variables for reference points

S

program statement

S

sentence, clause

S

south

S

speech act time, speech point, speech time

S

state

s

speech

s

result state

s

perfect state

s

speech

s

stage-level

s*

the point of speech time

s1

variable for a state

SBJ

subjunctive (mood)

SBJV

subjunctive/optative marker

SC

small clause

SD

signified

SDRS

Segmented Discourse Representation Structure

SDRT

Segmented Discourse Representation Theory

SE

southeast

self

…self

SENS

sensory evidential

SEQ

sequential

sf

singular feminine

SG, Sg, sg, sg

singular (number)

SL

source language

SLA

second language acquisition

Specific Language Impairment

SM

singular masculine

SN

Sranan Tongo

SOT, sot

sequence of tense(s), Sequence-of-Tense (rule)

SP

simple past (tense)

Spec

specifier

SpecTP

specifier of the tense phrase

SPT

surcomposé past tense

SQN

specified quantity of the noun (feature)

SR

signifier

ss

same subject

ST

speech time

st

the semantic type of propositions, i.e., sets of possible worlds.

STA

state; stative

STAT

stative

SUB

subjunctive (mood)

SUBJ

indicative subject

SUBJ

subjunctive (mood)

Subj

subject

SYN

synchronous

T

head of the tense phrase (TP)

T

tense; tense constituent; the feature Tense

T

terminative (feature)

T

the set of times (intervals) = Di

T

the type of truth values

T

text

t

reference time

t

type in a logical language; the type of truth values

t

variable for a time

t

temporal reference point

t, t

index for a time

T-sentence

sentence of the form “X is true iff … is the case”

T0, T0, To

time of speech

t0

evaluation time

T1

variable for (the time of) an event

T1

variable for a time

T2

second-order time

TA

tense and aspect; tense/aspect; tense-aspect

TAG

tag question marker

TAM

tense, aspect and modality; tense, aspect, and mood

tc

utterance time

Tense

tense component

TERN

temporal expression recognition and normalization

reference time

TL

target language

TMA

tense, modality, and aspect; tense, mood, and aspect

TN

translation network

TNM

translation network model

To1

“repère-origine fictive”, an illusory “now”

TOP

topic (marker)

TP

tense phrase

TPP

temporal perspective point

TSit

time of situation

TSP

Temporal Sequencing Principle

TT

topic time

tTop

topic time

TU

time of utterance

tv

transitive verb

u

index denoting utterance time

U

universal

U

unmarked

u

utterance time

u-reading

universal reading

UCP

Unique Path Constraint

UG

Universal Grammar

ULC

Upper Limit Constraint

UNM

unmarked

USSR

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

UT

utterance time

V

verb

v

causal head

v

visualizing

v*

voice

v*P

transitive verb phrase

VEN

venitive (denotes motion towards the deictic center)

VERBSUF

unspecified verbal suffix

VIS

visual evidential

VoiceP

voice phrase constituent

VP

verb phrase

vs.

versus, as opposed to

VTT

voltooid tegenwoordige tijd

w, w, w

a possible world; variable or index for a possible world

w.r.t.

with respect to

WALS

The World Atlas of Language Structures

WIT

witnessed evidential

WOLL

abstract root of the future modal

woll

verb will

(p. xxvii) WYSIWYG

“what you see is what you get”

X

perfect state description

X

phrase head, zero-level category of type X

X

subject

x

prior accompli

X’

combination of the phrase head with its complements, non-maximal projection of the phrase head, level one category of type X

X”

combination of the phrase head with its specifiers, maximal projection of the phrase head, level two (maximal) category of type X

X0

zero-level category of type X

XN

extended now

XP

phrase with head of type X

XP

result phrase

YP*

any number of complements of the phrase head (i.e., X)

ZA

prefix za

ZP

Zeit-Phrase

ZP*

any number of specifiers of the non-maximal projection of the phrase head (i.e., X’)

α

first moment of the future

α, β, γ

variables (for, e.g., clauses or events)

ε

state resulting from an eventuality E

λ

lambda operator/abstractor

π

variable for a clause

τ

temporal trace

τ(e)

the running time of the event(uality) e

τ(u)

reference time interval

φ

a variable (e.g., for an eventuality description)

φ

variable for a tenseless clause

ω

last moment of the past

Ω

that the simple u/e-ambiguity is attested

(p. xxviii)