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date: 23 March 2019

(p. 1047) Index

(p. 1047) Index

1984 82
a (Papiamentu) 439
a (Sranan) 445
á (Digo) 371
A la recherche du temps perdu 324
a lot 723
“A Tale of the Passions” 87f.
A Tale of Two Cities 83
A Very Private Life 90
A-binding, A-and A′-movement 689f.
A-series 4
a/de (Belizean Creole) 445
a/va(/ava) (French creoles) 440, 453n5
Aarts, B. 386
Abdel-Massih, E. 837
abduction 124
Ability, ability 993, 995, 999–1003, 1007
Ablative case 377, 382, 966
Abney, S. P. 713n16
Abraham, R. 843
Abraham, W. 965, 967, 979n14
absolute tense interpretations 209
absolute tenses 190f., 438
absolute-relative tenses 191, 192
Absolutive case 962
absolutive, the 949
abstract predicates 732
Abusch, D. 71, 195, 196, 197, 208, 209, 264, 612, 613, 617, 622, 623, 639, 645, 653, 663n1, 665n16, 666n26, 687, 693n17
Abusch, D. and Rooth, M. 253f.
acabar (Portuguese) 435
accelerative, the 854
accompli 134, 140
accompli d’aoriste 593
accomplished aorist tense 593
Accomplishment 33, 110, 143, 345–356, 348, 349, 355, 487, 493, 727, 730–732, 734, 781, 828, 914, 919, 920f., 938, 941, 952, 963, 966, 1011
accomplishment/resultative correlation 921
Accusative case 962, 965f., 969, 976, 979n19
Accusative-Dative alternation 971
achevé 134
Achievement 33, 110, 143, 345–356, 487, 890, 727, 729, 733f., 755, 781, 828, 919, 938, 963, 1011
acquaintance relation 649
Acquisition 342–356, 348
action schemas 372
Activity 110, 143, 345–356, 348, 349, 360, 722, 731, 735, 781, 890, 966, 1011
phase 33
use of progressive with an 487, 732, 919, 938, 963
actualization 372
“actualized ability” 1000
ADD TO (feature) 939, 941
add-to relation 740
additivity 736
Adessive case 966
Adive, J. R. 837
Adjoining Time Unit 542–545, 547–551, 552f., 557f.
admirative, the 413f.
Adone, D. 168
adpositions 377
adverbial(s) 147, 155, 194, 237–266, 437, 473f., 578, 579, 722, 723, 854, 857f., 866, 877n7, 883, 961
accusative 969, 979n20, 980n21
agentive 861f., 893
cyclicity 854, 857
of duration 238, 245, 253, 588, 735, 775, 781, 782f.
for- 256, 755, 757, 771f., 774, 781f., 792, 888, 893
‘for X time’ 854, 979n11
of frequency 155, 244, 774f., 854, 856
of habituality 775, 854, 856
in NP 722, 723
‘in X time’ 963, 978n8, 981n30
in- 755, 757, 771, 772, 782f., 792
of iteration 244, 830, 878n10
measurement, grammatical aspect with 771–773
quantificational event 866
of reiteration 859, 869, 873
and tense 194, 241f., 247–264, 278, 893
types of 237–247
Åfarli, T. A. 954
affix-hopping 199–202, 204–206
affixation (creation of an affix) 373, 375
affixes
aspectual 169, 782f., 942
internal and external 37, 771, 782–784
perfectivizing, Slavic 179n30, 404, 575, 578, 581, 973, 974, 976, 980n23, 980n24, 980n26
(p. 1048) African languages 518
Afrikaans 587
Afro-Asiatic languages 523, 710, 714n32
‘after’, after 145–147, 190f., 207, 209, 437, 440, 924
ag/air (Gaelic) 942
again 915
agent-oriented modality 996, 1015n17
agentivity 451, 453n11, 727, 733–735
Agr, AgrO, AgrP 204f., 942
agreement 169, 194
Agrell, S. 725, 978n7
Ahn, D. et al. 107
Aikhenvald, A. Y. 372, 388, 391n15, 707, 965, 966, 970, 971, 978n1, 1023, 1039
Aikhenvald, A. Y. et al. 961, 962, 978n1, 1025
Ainu 1024, 1025, 1041
Aitchison, J. 817
-ájḱi (Macedonian, Meglenoromanian) 400
Akan 532n21, 837
Akhtar, N. and Tomasello, M. 473
Akkadian 140f.
ako (Macedonian) 405
Aksu-Koç, A. A. 461, 464, 520
Aksu-Koç, A. A. and Slobin, D. I. 1025, 1029
Aktionsart 38, 77, 392n15, 403, 404, 459, 463, 464, 466, 474, 475, 508, 510, 520, 726, 753, 789, 877n5, 938, 944, 945, 954, 962f., 978n6, 1011, see also actionality; inner aspect; lexical aspect; situation aspect
acquisition of 466–468
history of the concept 50n8
types of 466f., 475
al-Kāšǧā̄rī, Mahmūd 413
al-māḍī, al-muḍārī 140
Alawa 129
Albanian 137, 399, 401–403, 406, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 416, 417, 419, 423n16, 424n22, 513, 531n16, 587
ale (Louisiana Creole) 440
Alexiadou, A. 700
algebraic event semantics 737
algebraic semilattice 738
Algonquian languages 529, 680
all’ke (Kildin Saami) 399
Allative case 966
allegedly 1031, 1034
Allen, J. 104, 112
Allen, R. L. 723
aller (French) 378, 439, 440
allosemes of verbal forms 519
Almgren, M. and Idiazabal, I. 301
‘already’, already 178n24, 243, 391n6, 443, 444, 473, 524
Altschuler, D. 177n13, 619, 659
Alur 837
always 243, 244, 245, 866
-am (Romani) 401
Amalgamemnon 90–92
Ambe, H. S. A. 544, 560n4
Ambo-Pasco Quechua 385
Amdo Tibetan 1031
Ameka, F. K. 389
American Sign Language 379, 841
Amerindian languages 528, 529, 536, 544
Amharic 714n32
Ammann, W. 586, 587, 603, 606n2, 606n3, 607n16
-an (Romani) 401
An Imaginary Life 83
analepsis 95
analogy 68f., 390, 400, 407, 450, 452
Anceaux, J. C. 540
Ancient Greek 125, 133, 137, 509, 510, 513f., 515, 529, see also Classical Greek; Greek
Ancient Past tense 545
And Juan Lived After All 90
Andersen, H. 214f., 230n9, 229n6, 231n10, 372, 407, 494
Andersen, R. W. 482, 483, 484, 495–497
Andersen, R. W. and Shirai, Y. 484, 485, 489, 492, 495, 496
Anderson, G. D. S. 379
Anderson, J. M. 742
Anderson, L. 131, 1023, 1036
Anderson, S. R. 69, 170
Anderson, S. R. and Keenan, E. 709
Andoke 1025, 1026
Andrews, A. 978n3
Andrews, E. 215, 228n4, 229n5, 231n11, 231n15
Andrews, J. 837
Androutsopoulos, I. et al. 104
Angolar creole 439, 443, 446
(an)ko (Tayo Creole) 446
Annie Dunne 83
Annobonese creole 443, 446
Annual tense 557
antérieur d’aoriste 593
Anterior aspect see Anterior markers; Perfect aspect
anterior futures 410
Anterior markers 372, 373, 380, 381, 386, 391n10
Anterior Past tense 381f., 594
Anterior tense 428
anteriority 75, 81, 95, 147, 156, 163, 167
theories of the perfect 248–251
anteriority/posteriority 145–147
Antinucci, F. and Miller, R. 461, 463, 483, 520
antipassives 937, 949f.
antisubdivisibility 736
Antona, M., and Tsujii, J. 361, 366n24
(an)tran de (Tayo Creole) 446
anza (Swahili) 373
aorist, Proto-Indo-European 532n27, 532n28
Aorist tense 78, 79, 125, 169, 519, 792, 953
aorist/imperfect opposition 403
aorist/perfect distinction 290f.
aoristic, notion of 147
aorists, Surcomposé Past substitutes for 587
Aoun, J. and Choueiri, L. 714n32
(p. 1049) Apache, Chiricahua 1036
Apalai 1031
ap(e) (French-lexicon creoles) 433, 434, 446
Apothéloz, D. 589, 600
Appleyard, D. 714n32
(a)prale (Haitian Creole) 433, 439, 440, 443, 446, 447
après (French) 433, 445
Aquisição 352f., 365n16
Åqvist, L. 65
Arabic languages 141, 164, 165, 169, 179n31, 190, 392n16, 518, 700, 714n32
Arad, M. 970, 979n19
Araona 554
Arce-Arenales et al., M., 949
ARCHER 817, 818
Arends, J. 19, 430
Argentinian Spanish 902
Argument (discourse mode) 316
argument structure 467, 938
argumental status of the result XP 912
arguments 378f., 975
Aristotelian classes 722, 724, 726, 729, 733, 736, 744
Aristotle 161, 176n6, 507, 721, 722, 724
Armenian 137, 139, 513, 531n16
Arnott, D. 842
Aromanian 399, 405, 406, 410, 411, 412, 411f., 412, 414, 417, 421, 423n19, 424n22
Aronoff, M. 69, 626
Aronson, H. I. 223, 399, 403, 1028
Arsenijvič, B. 767
artificial intelligence 104, 106, 111
-as (Romani) 403
(Romanian) 415
ăs (Tsărnarekă Aromanian) 408
as before 883
as yet 243
Ascending Time 23, 50n4, 512, 515, 521f., 524, 526, 528, 531n19
asé (Palenquero) 446
Asenova, P. 404, 407f., 421
Asher, N. 114, 282, 300n12, 317, 625
Asher, N. and Lascarides, A. 282–286, 291, 300n12, 317, 318, 896, 897
Asher, N. et al. 286
Asher, R. E. 1028
Ashton, E. O. 532n31, 843
Aske, J. 913
Aslam, Nadeen 97n20
aspect(s) 37, 75, 128–131, 146, 155, 160, 222, 223, 399, 403, 405, 486, 682, 692n4, 700, 753, 754, 757, 766, 786, 944, 962, see also Continuous aspect; gnomic Imperfective aspect; grammatical aspect; Habitual aspect; Imperfective aspect; lexical aspect; Imperfective/Perfective opposition, the; Perfect aspect; Perfective aspect; Progressive aspect
and Aktionsart, interaction of 458
calculus (Dowty) 732–735
and case 961, 965–977, 979
the compositional structure of 765–771
the concept of 32, 125
definition of 510, 511f., 670, 937, 962–965
and diathesis 946–953, 954
and evidentiality, interaction between 1039
generic 39, 830, 831
history of the concept 32, 50n8
Hypothesis, the 481–486, 497
in L2 acquisition 482f.
phasal 126
pragmatics of 281–296
vs. relative tense 163
situation(al) see lexical aspect
in Slavic languages 130, 139f., 163, 232n15, 572, 784, 945
subordinate, superordinate 403
systems 403–406
in tenseless languages 680–682
typology of 36, 123f., 126–131
verbal, viewpoint see grammatical aspect
ASPECT3 126, 147
Aspect-sensitive operators 775
aspect-voice infixes (Arabic) 169
aspect markers 378–380, 403–406, 766
aspectual affixes 169, 782f., 942
aspectual categories with aspectual devices 342–356
aspectual class(es) 162, 725, 726, 728, 730, 731, 732, 734, 739, 753f., 760, 766, 768, 800n1
aspectual classifications 739, 755–760
aspectual completeness 575
aspectual composition(ality) 737–739, 740, 741, 940
aspectual concepts, basic 131f., 142–144
aspectual construal 943–946, 950–952, 953, 954
aspectual derivation 782–784
aspectual devices 342–356
aspectual forms and temporal categories, interaction of 953
aspectual habituality 844
Aspectual Interface Hypothesis 939
aspectual leak 572, 576
aspectual metonymy 292
aspectual network 766
aspectual operators 162, 168, 177f.nn1617, 761, 766, 775, 776, 803, 867, 890
aspectual oppositions, classification of 808
aspectual pairs 756
aspectual particles (Mandarin) 763
aspectual projection 942
aspectual values 939, 942
aspectual viewpoints, classes of 286
Aṣṭādhyāyῑ 176n1
(p. 1050) at present 243
at the time of 145–147
Atanasov, P. 404, 415
atelicity 162, 286, 723, 726, 728, 736–738, 743, 745, 754, 763, 963, 1011, see also telicity
Atkinson, M. 520
Atlantic English lexicon creoles 437f.
attenuative, the 725, 854
attestive, the 529
attitude(s) 612, 646, 655, 657, 658, 667n32
attitudinals 860–862, 863, 869, 871, 876, 877n8
attracting force 390
Aucassin and Nicolette 308
auditory evidential, 1024
auf, auf- (German) 163, 467
augment e- (Ancient Greek) 510
augmentative, the 725
aujourd’hui (French) 319
auparavant (French) 858
Austen, Jane 88
Austin, J. L. 3, 516
Austin, P. 1031
Australian English 317, 319, 899, 902
Australian languages 978n3
Austrian German 587
Austronesian languages 946
automatic content extraction 107
auxiliary verb(s) 108, 158, 166, 173, 200–202, 387
auxiliary-incorporation 379, 391n13
(a)va Haitian Creole 434
avere l’abitudine di (Italian) 877n2
avoir (French) 591, 595
avy (Malagasy) 392n22
Awa 837
Awngi (Southern Agaw) 546, 547, 714n32
Axiom on Narration 318
Ayres-Bennett, W., and Carruthers, J. 318
az (Hebrew) 640, 657
B-series 4, 60f., 63f., 70
B/GR-F/GR 897
-ba (Upper Guinea Portuguese creoles) 439, 452n4
Babby, L. 938, 961
Babby, L. and Freidin, R. 961
Babko-Malaya, O. 965, 972, 974
Babungo 546, 549, 550
Bach, E. 33, 127, 177n9, 620, 721, 722, 723, 724, 726, 727, 729, 730, 732, 734, 735, 736 737, 963, 964
Bach, K. 271
Bache, C. 127
Bache, C. and Davidsen-Nielsen, N. 1016n24
back-shifted reading 257, 640, 641, 651, 652, 656, 657, 639, 663n2, 665n11, 666n21, see also shifted reading
background 88, 487
Background (discourse relation) 285–289, 318
backgrounding 77, 82, 84–87, 281, 286, 949, see also grounding
Baddeley, A. 531n14
Badiaranke 847, 848
Baffin Island Inuktitut 686
Bafut 544
bai/bae (Melanesian Pidgin) 440
Bailey, N. 482
Bailey, N. et al. 482
baimbai (Melanesian Pidgin) 440
Bajan (Barbados Creole) 431
Baker, C. F. et al. 105, 109
Baker, M. 168, 357, 945, 952
Baker, M. C. and Vinokurova, N. 878n13
Bakker, E. 953
Bal, M. 75
Balkan languages 398–422, 422n2
Ballweg, J. 248
Bally, C. 313
Baltic languages 139, 513, 524
Balzac, Honoré de 79
Bambara 164
ban (Diola) 453n4
Bandjalang 129
Banfield, A. 79f., 635n28
Banko, M. 105
Bantoid languages 544
Bantu languages 379, 381, 388f., 391n3, 522, 525, 529, 536, 537–539, 544
Bao, Z.-M. 444
Baptista, M. 452n4
Baptista, M. et al. 810
Bar-Shalom, E. 464
Barasano 556f.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. 431, 482, 484, 486–489, 491, 492, 493, 494, 499n1, 499n3
Bardovi-Harlig, K. and Bergström, A. 487
Bardovi-Harlig, K. and Reynolds, D. W. 487f.
bare substantive predicates 677f.
Bare XP vs. ECM contrast 921f., 923
Barentsen, A. 612f., 619, 782, 784, 794
Bargam 871
Barlow, A. R. 526, 527
Barnaby Rudge 89
Barnes, Djuna 92, 1020
Barnes, J. 1029, 1043n10
Barry, Sebastian 83
Bartsch, R. and Vennemann, T. 742
Barwise, J. 114
Basaa 538, 547, 548, 549, 550, 554
Basilico, D. 963
Basque 159, 587, 962, 968, 979n16
Bassnet, S. 336
Basso, E. 1024, 1040
Batibo 543, 546
Battistella, E. 11, 229n5
Bauer, G. 463, 888
Bauer, P. J. 463
Baylon, C. and Fabre, P. 600
Bazzanella, C. 727
‘be’, be 406–412, 407–410, 412, 437, 678
(p. 1051) be (Hebrew) 970
be + V-ing construction, the 174, 725, 806, 816
be able to 996, 1000, 1003
be allowed to 996
be going to 377, 387f., 393n28
‘be located at’ 445
be permitted to 996
be said that 1034
Beauzée, N. 591, 593, 606n4, 606n7, 606n10
Beavers, J. 741, 913, 923, 925, 927, 928n10, 929n19
because 209, 1033
Beck, S. and Snyder, W., 914
BECOME 732–735, 918, 928n9
Beedham, C. 947, 948
been in creoles 435, 437
‘before’, before 190f., 207, 705
before now 243, 473
BEFORE operator 66, 243
before recent memory 545
Behrend, D. A. 461, 462
Behrend, D. A. et al. 461, 462
Beigman, E. 109
Beigman-Klebanov, B. 109
Beja 129
beki (Japanese) 666n26
Bela di supră (Gorna Belica) 406, 414
Belarusian 960, 962, 965, 966, 972, 977
Belizean creole 438, 441, 445, 447, 453n10
Belleti, A. 205
Belyavski-Frank, M. 410
ben (Jamaican Creole, Sranan) 435, 438
benefactive, the 377
Bengali 169f., 946, 965
Benjamin, W. 336
Bennett, M. 127, 133, 162
Bennett, M. and Partee, B. H. 620, 633n8, 731f., 734, 736, 755
Bennett, P. R. 526
Benue-Congo languages 29
Benveniste, E. 78–82, 96n8, 96n12, 123, 130, 139, 147, 281, 407, 593, 594, 595, 596, 606n12, 606n14
Berend, Alice 97n15
Bergström, A. 487, 497
Berko, J. 476n3
Berman, R. 461, 614
Berman, R. and Slobin, D. I. 472, 633n5
Berthonneau, A.-M., and Kleiber, G. 275, 323
Bertinetto, P. M. 126, 144, 167, 171
Bertinetto, P. M. and Delfitto, D. 758, 766, 770
Bertinetto, P. M. and Lenci, A. 844, 861, 878n14
Bertinetto, P. M. and Lentovskaya, A. 878n16
Bertinetto, P. M. et al. 803, 807, 809, 811, 815
Besprechen 6, 81
Beyssade, C., and Marandin, J.-M. 300n8
Bhat, D. N. S. 159
bi-eventive analysis of resultatives 926
Biber, D. et al. 812
Biblical Hebrew 518, 671, see also Hebrew
Bickel, B. 124
Bickerton, D. 19, 428–430, 447, 452, 463, 464
biduonal cycle 540, 547, 558
Biduonal Past tense 540, 541, 546
Bierwisch, M. 291
bin (Guyanese) 438
binary opposition 213
binary tense systems 159, 510, 522
binding of tenses 195, 196, 265
binding relations 740
binding-theoretic account of temporal interpretation 206
Binnick, R. I. 50n8, 96n4, 126, 133, 138, 139, 142, 148, 162, 163, 164, 177n13, 223, 399, 422n2, 671, 752, 760, 811, 814, 834f., 856, 872, 878n11, 878n12, 881, 884, 945, 953
Binyanim 179n31
bioprogram theory 19, 428–430, 447
Birkenmaier, W. 979n14
bis (French) 246, 263
bisantérieur 592
Bisang, W. 375f., 379
Bislama 438, 445, 453n8
Bittner, M. 114, 156, 669, 683–685, 686, 693n14, 713n8, 839, 846f.
Black English Vernacular 840
Blackburn, P. et al. 114
Blackfoot, as a tenseless language 680
Blakemore, D. 282, 299n3, 588, 606n4
Blansitt, E. L. 166, 809
BLEU evaluation paradigm 361
Blevins, J. P. 68f.
blocking 172–175
Blocking Principle, Gricean 174
Bloom, L. and Harner, L. 461, 476n3
Bloom, L. et al. 461, 462, 467, 483, 520
Bloomfield, L. 213
Blum-Kulka, S. 356f.
Boadi 532n21
Boas, F. 697, 916, 1022, 1043n6
Boas, H. C. 924, 929n20
bǫdǫ (Old Church Slavonic) 408
Bodomo 553
“Body of Work” 84
body part terms 377
Bohnemeyer, J. 156, 160
Bohnemeyer, J. and Swift, M. 463, 682, 691, 763, 963
Bojkovska, S. 404
Bolia 557, 558, 559
Bolinger, D. W. 723, 911
Bolozky, S. 626
Bonami, O. 770
Bondarko, A. V. 784, 793f., 800n5
Boneh, N. and Doron, E. 830, 845, 865, 870f.
Boni 714n32
Bonomi, A. 770, 868
Bonomi, A. and Zucchi, A. 868
Borer, H. 631, 639, 740, 942, 943, 945, 954, 963, 965, 972, 978, 979n19, 980n25
(p. 1052) Borg, A. J. 714n32
Borgman, D. M. 540, 1037f.
Borik, O. 164, 577, 578, 580, 583n15, 757, 758, 767f., 945, 953, 964, 978n7, 978n8
Borillo, A. 607n15
Borjars, K. et al. 173, 298
borrowing 388f., 398
Bosnian, 789
Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian 223, 405, 408, 412, 418f., 789, 960, 965, 972, 973, 976, 977
Bosson, J. 837
Bot, K. de 451
Botne, R. and Kerschner, T. L. 536, 539, 542, 548, 549, 560n7
Bouchard, D. 189
bound future 627
bound pronouns, preference for 662
bound relative tense 618
bound variable analysis 208
boundary 125, 130, 131, 133–135, 140, 143, 144, 145, 721, 726
bounded interval modifiers 288
bounded paths 941
bounded states of affairs 782
bounded/non-bounded distinction 943–945
boundedness 162, 405, 782, 963, 965, 1011
theories 162, 946, 965, 972
Bourdin, P. 392n22
Brecht, R. 963
Brès, J. 276, 314, 760
Bresnan, J. 158
Breu, W. 126, 136
Brink, André 97n20
British National Corpus 496, 924, 1014n5
Broccias, C. 918, 925
Brockway, E. 1031
Bronckart, J.-P. and Sinclair, H. 461, 463, 470, 483
Brooke-Rose, Christine 90–92
Brown corpus 301n19
Brown family of corpora 818
Brown, R. 468, 482, 520
Bruce, B. 104
Brun, D. et al. 461
Brunnhuber, B. 979n14
Brunot, F. 592
Brunot, F. and Bruneau, C. 760
Bruyn, A. 436, 441
bu (Mandarin) 774f.
Bubenik, V. 517
Buchholz, O., and Fiedler, W. 419
Buddenbrooks 97n15
Bulgarian 134, 167f., 178n27, 223, 376, 399, 403, 405, 408, 411, 412, 414–416, 418, 423n18, 490, 582n5, 791, 793, 855, 874, 875, 940, 942, 944, 947, 950–952, 967, 972, 980n26, 1022
Bull, W. 22
Burge, T. 64
Burgess, D. 1032
Burgess, J. P. 61
Buriat (Buryat) 547, 1041f.
Burmese 97n26, 160, 528
Burt, Simon 93
Burton, S. 701, 712n7
Byarushengo, E. R. 532n33
Bybee, J. L. 123, 126, 128–130, 144, 157, 159, 160, 164, 168, 168f., 173, 178n24, 376, 380, 992
Bybee, J. L., and Beckner, C. 386
Bybee, J. L. and Dahl, Ö. 178n24, 380, 447, 449, 452, 496
Bybee, J. L., and Pagliuca, W. 387
Bybee, J. L. et al. 165, 166, 167, 170, 171, 175, 178n18, 178n26, 380, 384, 386, 387, 389, 391n5, 391n6, 429, 437, 440, 443, 445, 447, 453n10, 515, 536, 537–539, 634n21, 809, 812, 824n2, 824n4, 835, 836, 853, 856, 857, 871, 877n5, 882, 883, 884, 937, 1015n17
byt’ (Russian) 399
byvalo (Russian) 789
c-command 265, 377, 646, 659, 912
Čă (Novo Selo Romanian) 415
Cadierno, T. 491
Caenepeel, M. 300n12
Caenepeel, M., and Sandström, G. 362
calques, calquing 399, 406, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 414, 416
Cambridge Grammar of the English Language 991
Camus, Albert 317, 318, 898
‘can’ 379
canonical case 961f.
Canonical Result Constraint 913
Cantonese 444, 805, 807
capability 842
capacitative, the 853, 860
capacitativity 39
Cape Verde creole 439, 443, 452n4, 453n4
Cape Verdean Portuguese creoles 446
Čapek, Karel 794
Capidan, T. 400
Cappelen, H. and Lepore, E. 271
Caragiu-Marioţeanu, M. 400
Carapana 1029
cardinal aspectual operators 803
cardinal count adverbials 723
Carey, K. 280, 294
Caribbean English Creole 441, 453n10
Carlson, G. 713n11, 729, 730, 828, 842, 862, 864, 865
Carlson, G. and Spejewski, B. 839
Carlson, L. 354
Carnap, R. 50n5, 563
Carr, L. and Johnston, J. 461, 462
Carrier, J. and Randall, L. 912, 917
Carston, R. 299n3
Carruthers, J. 6, 96n3, 96n9, 309, 319, 326, 587, 603
case 960–978, 978n3, 979n12
on adverbial phrases 961
lexical 961, 962, 975
markers 170, 382, 458, 470, 680, 960–981
Marking, Exceptional 911, 914, 916–919, 921–923, 924–926, 927, 928n7
-motivated movement 679, 680
quirky 961, 962
structural, syntactic 961, 962
case-by-case approach 917
Casparis, C. P. 97n17
Cassidy, F. 810
Catalan 487, 488
categorial distinctive features, theory of 202–204
categories likely to be copied 402
Catford, J. C. 336–338
Caucasian languages 1029
Caudal, P. 294–296, 770
Caudal, P. and Nicolas, D. 741
Caudal, P. and Ritz, M.-E. 897
Caudal, P. and Roussarie, L. 291, 292, 294–296
Caudal, P. and Vetters, C. 289, 292, 315
causal action 115
causal analysis, the 915, 921, 928n11, 929n13
causal chain 77, 916
causal constructions 1041
causal dependence 103
causal head(s) 917, 919
causal structure 114
causation 734, 919, 923, 927, 952
causative construction 940
causative paraphrase(s) 920, 922
causatives 43, 44, 733, 734, 915f., 919, 923, 927, 929n11, 942, 945
CAUSE (causation) 732–735
CAUSE operator 928n9
Caribbean English creoles 442, 443, 447
Cech, P. and Heinschink, M. 420, 423n8
Céline, L.-F. 327
Celtic languages 513, 524, 801n15, 812
Central Sudanic languages 388
Čertkova, M. Ju. 800n5
Chafe, W. 390
Chafe, W. and Nichols, J., 707, 1023
chain(s)
causal 77, 916
grammaticalization 17, 384–386, 387
narrative 108
Tense 704
Chamicuro 31, 697, 702
Chamorro 837, 949f.
Chang, Y.-L. 675
change(s) 111, 125, 726, 727, 729, 732, 741–745, 927
contact-induced 388–389, 398, 421, 429
change of state 113, 125, 162, 289, 721, 727, 728–730, 731f., 733f., 735, 743, 745, 903, 928, 940
Chaput, P. 963, 979n10
chaque année (French) 857
Chatman, S. 75, 80
Chatterjee, S. K. 169
Chaudenson, R. 436
Cherchia, G. and McConnell-Ginet, S. 903
Chesterman, A. 340, 364n7
Chevalier, J.-C. et al. 600
ChiBemba 136
Chierchia, G. 265, 730, 733, 828, 865, 866
Chilamba 538
child language 464, 465, 520, 529, see also L1 acquisition
Chinantec 549f.
Chindali 542, 543
Chiricahua Apache 1036
Chklovski, T. and Pantel, P. 108
Chol 979n16
Chomsky, N. 185, 199f., 203, 204, 207, 447, 572, 574, 633n3, 655, 678, 700, 703, 704, 711
chronology 87–90, 146
Chung, S. 127, 134, 136, 158
Chung, S. and Timberlake, A. 429, 536, 692n2, 803f.
Chvany, C. 229n5
Cimwera 540f.
Cinque, G. 168, 700, 714n23, 1023
Cipria, A. 175
Cipria, A. and Roberts, C. 759, 766, 770
circumstantial, the 838f.
Clark, H. 107
Clark, S. 105
Classical Arabic 190, 518
Classical Greek 791, 960, 970, see also Ancient Greek
Classical Nahuatl 837
clause types 961
clitics, cliticization 169, 373, 392n15, 1028, 1032
clock-calendar adverbials 238
closed scale 741, 743
closing of the event-time interval 856
Coates, J. 990, 995, 996, 997, 998, 1003, 1005, 1009, 1014n2, 1016n23, 1017n36, 1017n38, 1033
Cobuild Corpus 1014n5
COCA (The Corpus of Contemporary American English) 815
coercion, aspectual/type 104, 272, 342–356, 364n5, 463, 755, 769–771, 861, 862, 890, 943
Coetzee, J. M. 83
cognitive linguistics 736
cognitive prototypes 463
cognitive universals 448f.
Cohen, D. 140f.
Cohen, M. 532n28
Cohn, D. 324
coincidence 186
Collier, G. 84
Collins Cobuild Grammar 1009, 1014n2
Collins, C. 914
Collins, L. 923
(p. 1054) Collins, M. 106
Collins, P. 1014n2
Comajoan, L. 497
combined theory of embedded tenses 661–663
‘come’, come 377, 437
Common Bantu 447
common ground 277, 298, 699
commonsense entailment, reasoning 105, 283, 292, 896
Compact 92
companion schemas 372
complement clause(s) 208, 264, 289, 648, 666n26
under an attitude verb 638, 639, 642, 655, 661
complete events 134
complete paradigms 388
complete vs. completed 139f.
complete vs. incomplete 140–142
completed events 134
completed/non-completed 943
completedness 156, 167
completely 924
completeness 485
completion 134, 471, 575, 886
Completive aspect marker(s) 372, 373, 379, 380, 389, 391n6
completive function 75
Completive Perfect aspect 441
completives 129, 373–376
compositional analysis of the perfect 167
compositional approach to lexical aspect 494
compositional bottom-up approach 945
compositional semantics of the absolute-relative tenses 193
compositional structure of aspect, the 765–771
compositionality 26, 41, 71f., 68f., 143, 188f., 493f., 579, 587, 939
Fregean/principle of 24, 50n5, 509, 564, 575, 581
compound Past tense 319
computational linguistics 4, 102–115, 360
Comrie, B. 3, 22, 30, 40, 65, 75, 87, 96n2, 97n21, 97n26, 123, 124, 126f., 128, 137, 139, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 166, 170, 171, 177n14, 178n19, 178n22, 198, 200, 208, 380, 429, 494, 508, 509, 511, 515, 516, 518, 519–522, 529, 531n11, 531n13, 532n27, 532n33, 536, 557, 579, 580, 626, 634n19, 670, 692n2, 700, 712n3, 727, 729f., 752, 755f., 756, 757, 761, 762, 770, 784, 806, 807, 808, 815, 817, 824n10, 829, 835, 855, 856, 872, 882, 886, 887, 900, 901, 937, 938, 943, 947, 952, 965, 968, 976, 979n15
critique of Reichenbach’s theory 188f.
definition of tense 185
theory of the perfect 248
theory of tense 190f., 197, 208
typology of aspects 36, 37, 38
on uses of the perfect 42
conative case alternation 968
control resultative 918
conative function 78
conceptual semantic map 132, 142f.
conclusives 129
concomitance 145–147
Condicional tense (Portuguese) 353
Conditional mood, Russian 222
Conditional tense 92, 275, 353, 365n17, 410, 789
conditional-iterative 401
conditionals, modal 223
Conditional mood, Russian 222
conditional situation 147
Conditionnel tense 92
Condoravdi, C. 167, 992, 1011, 1014n8
Conev, V. 413
confirmative, the 413f.
confirmativity 413, 423n21
connectives 898
consecutive marker, from ‘finish’ 379
consequent state 890, 891, 892
consecutive tense marker 381
construals of speaker experience or subject control 553
Construction Grammar 943
constructional view of the periphrastic perfect 173
constructionist approaches 942, 943
constructivity 111
contact, language 388, 398–422, 437, 440–447, 450
CONTEMPORAL dimension 548, 550
Contemporal tense 550
context set 277
context-change potential 270
contextual occasion 803
contextualism 13, 270, 271, 277, 281
contingent (non-permanent) stative predicates 862
Contini-Morava, E. 532n31
continuance of result 883
Continuation (discourse relation) 319
Continuative aspect 812, 843
continuative interpretation 762, 763, 887
continuative/non-continuative contrast 888
continue 812
Continuous aspect 128, 165, 803–824, see also Progressive aspect
continuous meaning 165
continuous process 136
control resultatives 911–913, 916f., 919, 921–925, 927, 929nn1617, 929n20
conventional implicature 902
conventionalization 275f.283, 292, 373, 817, see also grammaticalization
conversation 78
conversational background 279
conversational implicatures 274–276
conversational narrative 86, 94, 95
Cook, E. 1026
Coon, J. 979n16
Cooreman, A. 949
Copley, B. 689
copula 677f.
Copy Theory of Movement 655
Copy-Based Theory of embedded tense, the 639, 645, 654–656, 660, 661
copying 399, 400–403
correlative constructions 853
Corne, C. 439, 446, 447
Cornu, M. 590, 596, 599
Corongo Quechua 386
Corpus of Contemporary American English 815
corpus of written police reports 321
could 989, 996, 999f., 1004, 1010, 1012, 1016n22
Coulthard, M. 365n20
“count” or “mass” feature on verbs 723
count/mass distinction 736
counterfactive, the 434
counterfactual meaning 992, 1011
counterfactuality 710
Cover, R. T. 847f.
Cox, R. 290
cóngqián (Chinese) 682
CP and DP, parallel treatment assumed in syntax 713n16
CR Theory 886–888
Crastinal Future tense 537, 543
CREATION/CONSUMPTION verbs 964
Creek 544, 545, 547
creole formation 19, 430–436
creole languages 428–452
creole prototype 428
creole TMA systems 429, 447–452
Cresswell, M. J. 742
Cresswell, M. J. and von Stechow, A. 649, 742
Croatian 408, 789, 793, 874
Croft, W. 124, 943, 951
Crouch, R. 104
Cruse, D. 927
Csirmaz, A. 965, 966
Culioli, A. 123, 131, 147
culminating/non-culminating opposition 943
culmination 890f.
cumulativity 736, 738, 951
current relevance 75, 872, 883, 884
Current Relevance Theory 886–888
current result 883, 884
Current Time Unit 542, 543, 545, 547, 548, 549, 551, 552, 554, 557
Currently Relevant Time Unit 541, 558
Cushitic languages 714n32
Cusic, D. D. 852
Cuzco Quechua 384f., 1024
cuz’ (Kalaallisut) 693n16
CYC project 105
cycle(s) 537–541, 544, 545, 554, 558
Cypriot Arabic 714n32
Czech 411, 510, 725, 767, 775, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792–799, 874, 875, 952, 960, 965, 972, 975, 977
D-domain(s) 549, 550, 550f., 552, 553, 557
D-T analysis 703
da (Balkan Slavic languages) 401–403, 405
da (Jamaican Creole) 810
Dabrowska, E. 943
Daga 837
Dagaare 553
Dagan, I. et al. 109
Dagbani 538, 539, 553, 558
Dahl, Ö. 123, 126, 128–130, 131, 137, 143, 144, 157, 159, 160, 161, 164, 166, 170, 171, 173, 175, 178n22, 178n24, 178n26, 282, 429, 447, 485f., 494, 536, 541, 756, 758, 784, 811, 836, 839, 841, 870, 881, 882, 883, 903, 937, 938, 943, 953
Dahl, Ö. and Hedin, E. 883, 884
Dahl, Ö. and Karlsson, F. 966
Dahl, Ö. and Velupillai, V. 160f., 164, 536, 761, 824n6
daily cycle 537–539
daily solar cycle 554
Dallı, H. 401
Damourette, J. and Pichon, E. 588, 589, 590, 592, 597, 599
Danielsen, S. 871
Danish 491
Dankoff, R. 413
Dardic 1040
Das, P. K. 968
database update 111f.
Dative case 228, 949, 962, 968, 970f., 975
Dauses, A. 878n14
Dauzat, A. 589, 590
Davidson, D. 3, 62, 282, 705, 713n16, 733, 735, 865, 892
Davis, H. and Demirdache, H. 946
day cycle 558
de (Jamaican Creole) 810
de (Pidgin English) 445
de (Suriname creoles) 446
(Krio) 809
(Miya) 838, 839
de Bot, K. 451
de dicto interpretation 196, 446, 648
de Haan, F. 1023, 1026, 1027, 1032, 1033, 1034, 1035, 1038
de Jonge, B. 769
De lingua latina 507
de nunc reading 617
dé pàn (Krio) 809
de se reading 617
De Vogüé, S. 314
debeo (Latin) 408
Decaen, V. 29, 684, 669
decategorialization 373, 375f., 387
(p. 1056) Declerck, R. 75, 87, 96n2, 96n4, 97n21, 162, 725, 739, 842, 887, 1000, 1012, 1016nn2728, 1017n33
Declerck, R. et al. 1011
decomposition analysis 732
decompositional framework 733
deduction from evidence 1033
defamiliarization 97n19
default Aspect 682, 763
default case 961
defeasability 874
Defective Tense hypothesis 484
definite (feature) 242
Definite aspect (Awngi) 546
Definite Future tense 547
definiteness effects 967
Degraff, M. 432, 436, 446
degree 741–745
degrees of remoteness 160, 388, 536, 546, 547, 559, 1038
Deibler, E. 837, 842
deictic adverbials 238
deictic category, evidentiality as a 1038
deictic center 80, 160, 536, 537–539, 550, 557
deictic expressions 82
deictic tense see tenses, deictic
deictic/anaphoric reference points 147
deixis 84, 214, 219, 221, 222, 223, 231n12, 416, 1037
dèjà (French) 137, 314, 858
DeLancey, S. 321, 741, 903, 951, 965, 968, 1040
Delatour, Y. et al. 592
Delavrancea, Barbu 420f.
delayed orientation 88, 95
Dalbart, A. R. 313
Delbrück, B. 169
deleted tenses 618, 619, 622, 623, 630, 634n14, 646f., 650, 654, 665n14, 665n19, 667nn3435
“deletion”
parameter 646, 654
Delfitto, D. 126, 868
deliberately 861
Delidakis, S. and Varlokosta, S. 474, 475
DELIMITATION 972
delimitation, eventuality, 979n19
delimitative, the 725
delimited/non-delimited opposition 943
delimitedness 939
Dembetembe, N. 837
Demirdache, H. 708
Demirdache, H. and Lungu, O. 665n10
Demirdache, H. and Uribe-Etxebarria, M. 186, 992, 1011
Denison, D. 816, 948
Dennis, L. 816
“denotation of a process” meaning variant 789
Deo, A. 166, 167, 168, 172, 174, 178n19, 179n35
deontic modality 146, 378, 379, 392n21, 1004, 1014n9, 1015n13, 1016n30, 1033
deontic to epistemic change 372, 391n7
depictive attribute 908
Depraetere, I. 162, 766, 891, 990, 1010
Depraetere, I. and Langford, C. 1012
Depraetere, I. and Reed, S. 1015n11, 1015n12, 1016n25, 1017n34
Derbyshire, D. C. 1026
Descending Time 23, 50n4, 512, 515, 521, 522, 524, 526, 528, 531n19
Desclés, J.-P. 127, 133, 137, 145–147
Description (discourse mode) 316
descriptive universals 447
descriptive verbs 360
desemanticization 373, 375, 387
desiderative, the 434
detensers 4f., 59f., 63f., 71
Determinability 859, 860
Detgers, U. 436, 438, 442, 453n5
Detges, U. 275, 293, 299f.n7
devoir (French) 78
di (Guyanese Creole) 445
-DI (Turkish) 402, 413, 1029
Di Sciullo, A. M. and Slabakova, R. 767
Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English 820, 823f.
diachronic studies of perfect usage in discourse 898
diachronic trajectories 171
diachrony 155, 169f., 278, 293–296, 370–390, see also grammaticalization
diathesis 44, 137, 139, 938, 951f., 954
diathetic alternations 946, 950
Diaz, Junot 93
Dickens, Charles 79, 83, 89
Dickey, S. 790, 794, 795, 796, 945, 978n7, 979n9
Die Bräutigame der Babette Bomberling 97n15
diegesis 308
Diesing, M. 866, 889
Diessel, H. 710
Dietrich, R. et al. 482
diffusion, distinguished from transmission 400
Digo 371, 381f.
Dik, S. 127
dimensionality 222f.
Dimitrova-Vulchanova, M. 940, 942, 943, 944, 946, 947, 951, 952, 954
Dimitrova-Vulchanova, M. et al. 940
Dinsmore, J. 22
Diola 453n4
Diola-Fogny 837
direct and indirect evidence types 707
direct causation 915
direct evidence 1023, 1031
direct evidential(s) 711, 1024, 1026
direct internal arguments 972
Direct Object Restriction 912, 928n7
directionality 228f.n5
directionals 384, 391n6
discontinuative, the 853
discourse 66, 76–96, 96n7, 145–147, 277, 282, 283, 284, 306–329, 343, 355, 472, 492, 625, 896
free direct 324
Hypothesis, the 485f.
indirect and free indirect 612, 629, 630, 631, 635n28
modes 306, 315, 316
relations 282–284, 286, 288, 291f., 300n12, 315, 317, 625
Representation Structure 281–286
Representation Theory 253, 280f., 315, 318, 735, 891, 895
signatures, of aspectual classes of tenses 286–288
structural contextualism 281f.
structural parameters 282, 290
Temporal Sequencing Principle 278f., 292
temporal structure of 315–321
temporality 145–147
tense in 307–315
discrete process 136
discursive processes 147
Disgrace 83
dispersive/ambulative opposition 854
disposition(al)s 841–843, 845, 848, 861, 869
disquotational T-theories 62
dissociative framework, model 550, 556, 559
distality 31, 83f., 475, 543, 547, 550, 559, 709, 710, 711
distinctive features 202–204, 213, 215
distributional bias hypothesis, the 495
distributive property of states 620
distributive/non-distributive pluractionality 853
distributivity 978n6
Dittmar, N. 482
diurnal cycle 539f., 547, 558
Dixon, R. M. W. 360, 371, 391n2, 391n4, 949, 961, 962, 965, 968, 979n15
Dīwān Luǧāt at-Turk 413
Diyari 1031
dja (Upper Guinea Portuguese creoles) 443
DO (agentivity) 732, 733
do (Albanian) 409, 732
Do-Hurinville, D. T. 900
Dolphyne, F. A. and Kropp Dakubu, M. E. 837
don (Jamaican Creole, Nigerian Pidgin) 441, 443
Doron, E. 614, 635n28, 862
Dorr, B. J. 104
dóu (Hokkien) 444
Double Access readings 71, 196, 210, 264, 300n10, 622, 623, 643, 647, 655, 660, 661, 664n7
Double Anterior tense 592
Double Definiteness Effect 714n21
double Surcomposé Past tense hypothesis 590
“doubly relative” modality 709
Doughnut Gram 174
Douthwaite, J. 97n19
Dowty, D. 71, 114, 126, 133, 162, 164, 165, 173, 176f.nn89, 178n17, 178n19, 178n23, 179n28, 179n34, 253, 259, 260, 262, 278, 279, 288, 459, 484, 583n13, 620, 621, 692n2, 722, 724, 725, 726, 727, 728, 729, 730, 731, 732–735, 736, 737, 738, 739, 740, 741, 742, 744, 745, 754, 755, 761, 788, 828, 888, 889, 893, 911, 914, 916, 917, 920, 921, 927, 928n3, 928n4, 938, 940, 946, 978n8
Doyayo 528
drama 75
Dravidian languages 29, 812
dream, information came in a 1026
Dressler, W. U. 852
Dretske, F. 711
drift 400, 406
Drolc, U. 391n10
dual aspect readings see Double Access readings
dual category membership 387
dubitative 413, 434
Ducrot, O. 322
Dugast, I. 552
duginnan (West Germanic languages) 408
Dulay, H. and Burt, M. 482
Duras, Marguerite 92
duration 403, 813
Durative aspect 939
durative perfectivity 576, 578
durative-punctual 938
durativity 104, 126f., 156, 162, 927
‘during’ reading 924
Durst-Andersen, P. 127
Dutch 275, 318, 461, 467, 470, 491, 577, 578, 579, 581, 582n11, 762, 811, 855, 898, 900, 998, 1027, 1032, 1034
Dyadic operator 40, 865
Dyirbal 160, 529, 714n27, 949
dynamic atelic predicates 731
dynamic expressions 829
Dynamic Logic 113
dynamic modality 996, 1015n14, 1016n30
dynamic semantics 702, 713n13
dynamic/stative distinction 729
dynamicity 126f., 135
e (Surinamese creoles) 435, 444, 445
-é/ájk´i (Macedonian) 405
each week 244, 245
‘earlier today’ 542
East Caribbean creoles 438, 439f., 446
East Caribbean French creoles 439, 453n5
East Cushitic languages 709, 710
East Slavic languages 789, 790
East Tucanoan languages 1039
Eastern Caribbean French creoles 439, 446
Eastern Pomo 1037
Eastern Tucanoan languages 1037f.
Ebira 837
Eckardt, R. 372, 387
Eckert, E. 775
Eckhardt, R. 172
-ed (English) 468, 520, 558
Edgerton, F. 1036
Edmonds, P., and Hirst, G. 360
Edo 440
efficiency 111
Egyptian, Old 391n4
Ehrich, V. 238, 248
Ehrman, M. E. 1043n9
Ejagham 521
ékho (Greek) 407
ekphrastic passages 84
EL (extensional language) 239
Elaboration (discourse relation) 283–286, 318, 320, 897
Elative case 966
elh (Halkomelem) 701
Elimelech, B. 837
Eliot, George 85
Elkins, R. 842
Elman, J. L. et al. 476n2
Elšík, V., and Matras, Y. 401, 404, 423n10
embeddability principle 667n35
embedded and bound tenses, theory based on few languages 27–29
embedded clauses 278f., 616
Embedded Past (EP) Theory 886f.
embedded tenses, theory of 27, 661–663
Embick, D. 172, 173, 916, 919, 928n9
Emma 88
Emmott, C. 75, 77
Emonds, J. 205
-en (English) 203–205, 520
Enç, M. 66, 71, 179n28, 195, 196, 197, 206, 209f., 264, 612, 701–703, 714n21
encoding 155, 156f.
encore (French) 137
end see boundary; limit
energeia(i) 176n6, 721, 722
enestōs suntelikós see extended present
Engel, D. M. 6
Engenni, 837
England, N. 102
English 27, 36, 75, 80, 131f., 157, 165, 174, 175, 177n14, 190, 205, 290, 318, 342–356, 359f., 362, 364n6, 366n23, 371, 414, 434f., 459, 461, 465, 467f., 470, 473–475, 482f., 487–490, 492, 494f., 514–516, 519, 521, 524, 529, 550, 558, 577, 578, 579, 582n5, 586, 587, 605, 606, 612, 613, 621, 622, 631, 634n13, 634n17, 634n19, 635n30, 638, 639, 640, 641, 642, 644, 645, 646, 647, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 656, 660, 661, 662, 663, 665n11, 665n13, 667n31, 667n33, 667n34, 669, 671, 678, 684, 687, 688, 689, 692n3, 693n17, 700, 701, 705, 710, 722–724, 725, 729, 760–763, 752–755, 759, 761, 763, 764, 766, 768, 769, 781, 785, 786, 788, 796, 801n15, 804, 806, 810, 812, 813–822, 829–834, 837–840, 844–847, 852–874, 881–904, 908–928, 929n20, 948, 953, 962, 976, 989–1013, 1027, 1031, 1032–1034, 1035, 1040
American 1014n2
Australian 317, 319, 899, 902
British 814, 824n9
Early Modern 810, 817
Guyanese 837
as a lexifier language 429, 431, 437f.
Middle 173, 175
Old 293, 948
Singapore colloquial 444
énonciation 321
ensuite (French) 319
entry into a process or state 127
enunciative act/process, the 145–147
enunciative perspective 81
enunciator (énonciateur) 322
EP theory 886f.
epic preterite 82–84
episodic (category) 837
episodic predicates 864
epistemic meaning, paraphrased 990, 1014n8
epistemic modality/modals 146, 372, 378, 392n17, 676, 677, 687, 707, 989f., 992, 995f., 997–999, 1011f., 1014n2, 1015n17, 1021, 1023, 1024, 1032f., 1043nn910
epistemic necessity with must 1015n21
epistemic possibility 989, 1007
epistemic reading, of a modal 392n21
epistemic separation 550
epistemic value 546, 547, 558
epistemic/root distinction 997
Ergative case 962
Ergative-Absolutive languages 946, 949, 960, 962, 965, 968
Ergative/Absolutive case marking 170
eȓi (Tangoa) 445
Ernst, T. 774f.
erosion, phonetic 373, 375f., see also phonetic/phonological reduction
Erzählen 6, 81
espoir (French) 275
Ess-Dykema, C. van 309
Essegby, J. 377
esser solito + Infinitive (Italian) 877n2
estado 347–351
estan (Iberian) 440
estar (Iberian) 439, 440, 446
Estonian 69, 960, 965, 966
était (French) 433, 436, 438
été (French) 433
Ethnologue 536
être (French) 591, 595
être après à (French) 433
être en train de (French) 446
Etsako 837
Etzioni, O. 105
Etzioni, O. et al. 105
European languages 881
EUROTYP Tense and Aspect Theme Group 882
evaluation time 611
(p. 1059) evaluative must 1035
Evans, G. 62, 712n3
Evans, N. 382, 712
Evans, N. and Levinson, S. 441, 449
Even-Zohar, I. 340, 364n2
Evenki 1029
event(s) 125, 127, 133, 135–137, 244, 278, 286, 288, 463, 740, 727, 735, 741, 744, 790, 803, 875, 896, 922, 925, 945, 946, 949, 996
complete(d) 134, 143, 144
composition 178n26, 908, 914–919, 927
decomposition approach 941
extended 345–356
instantaneous, punctual 135f., 143, 345–356, 516f.
and objects, homomorphism between 942, 946
result of an 345–356
semantics 282, 744
structure(s) 916, 952, 962–964, 972, 975, 976
eventive sentences 278
eventualities(s) 33, 178n17, 735, 962, 963, 969, 979n19
ever since 247
evidential categories, typological study of 1023
evidential deixis 416, 422n4, 1043n6
evidential marker 871
evidential reading of a noun phrase 709
evidential systems 1023
evidentiality, evidentials 103, 132, 223, 403, 411, 413–416, 528, 529, 587, 707, 714n23, 1020–1042
direct 711, 1024, 1026
forms, evolution of 160, 280, 293f.
history of its study 1021–1024
indirect 792, 1026, 1030, 1040
inferential 413, 423n21, 707, 1025f., 1034, 1043n6
and modality 1021, 1026, 1032–1035
and tense/aspect 1020f., 1029, 1035–1039
understood as present 529
Ewe 171, 178n24, 377, 389, 635n27, 810, 842
Ewegbe 432
Ewondo 540, 541, 546, 550f.
exaggerative, the 854
Exceptional Case Marking 911, 914, 916–919, 921–923, 924–926, 927, 928n7
exclusion/dissociation 709, 711
existential closure 889
existential perfect 167, 245, 883
existential quantifier 179n28, 239
e[xistential]-readings 238f.
expected vs. unexpected course of events 1041
experiential particle 764, 901
experiential perfect 166, 883, 901, 902, 903
experiential reading 887, 902
Explanation (discourse relation) 286, 290, 292, 318, 625
Explanation vs. Narration (discourse relations) 290f., 897
expletive subjects, lacking in Chinese 678f.
explicatures 276
expressive function 78
expressiveness constraint 175
Extended Now (XN) 254f., 278, 894
adverbials 237, 238, 247, 248
Theory 178n23, 248f., 251, 278, 886, 887, 888, 890, 893
extended present 137
extension 222f., 229n5
extensional language EL 239
extensional models 868, 869
external affixes 37, 783, see also external prefixes
external argument 942, 946
external perfect 991
external prefixes 767, 768, 783, 798
external view 36, see also perfective aspect
F (Future tense) operator 615
Fa d’Ambô (Lower Guinea) 443
Fabian, G. et al. 541, 551
Fabricius-Hansen, C. 238, 366n23
factitive, the 518f.
factive ability 1016n23
factive constructions 659
factives 928n3
factum 727
Faller, M. 714n23, 743, 1023, 1026, 1033
Far Future tense 525
Far Past tense 381, 525, 528, 545, see also Remote Past tense
Faraclas, N. 810
Farr, C. J. M. 539
Fasold, R. 840
Fasu 1024
Fattier, D. 433
features 215, 313, 939
Fellbaum, C. 105
Felser, C. 279
-(fe)lulo- (Korowai) 538
Fenson, L. et al. 467
Fernald, T. 828, 840
Fernando, T. 114
Ferraz, L. 443
Ferro, L. et al. 107
fi (Romanian) 415
ficar (Portuguese) 440, 445, 446
FID operator 630, 631
figural narrative situation 83
fika (French Guyana Creole) 440, 446
Fikes, R. 111
Filatova, E. 107
Filip, H. 127, 162–164, 177n9, 725, 734, 737–739, 743f., 752, 766f., 943, 945, 946, 964, 978n7
Filip, H. and Carlson, G. 832, 875
Filip, H. and Rothstein, S. 743f.
Fillmore, C. 733
Fillmore, C. and Atkins, B. T. 943
fin (Haitian Creole) 434
final boundary 140
fini (creoles) 433, 436, 442
finir (French) 433, 436, 442, 589, 599
finish 129, 178n24
‘finish’ 372–376, 379, 391n6, 437, 441, 442, 443
Finnic languages 411
Finnish 159, 362, 458, 470, 475, 768, 809, 929n21, 960, 961, 965f., 967, 969, 970, 979n12, 979n20, 980n20, 1027
Finno-Ugric languages 139, 965, 966
von Fintel, K. 1014n6
von Fintel, K. and Matthewson, L. 726
First language acquisition, see L1 acquisition
first-order logic 732
firsthand evidentials 1024
Fischer, O. 377, 390, 392n17, 393n28, 436, 449
Fischer, S., and Gough, B. 379
flashback 95
Flashner, V. E. 483, 485
Fleischman, S. 6, 97n16, 147, 282, 307, 324f., 380, 494, 536
Flemish 587
Fletcher, P. 520
Flier, M. S. 583n16
florescence 390
Fludernik, M. 6, 77, 79, 86f., 88, 89, 95, 96n3, 96n10, 97n16, 97n18, 97nn2223, 309
focalization 321, 323–329, 803
Foley, W. A. 136
Foley, W. A., and Van Valin, R. D. 378, 392n18, 1014n8
Folli, R. and Harley, H., 913, 916, 919, 926, 927
Fong, V. 929n21
Fongbe 432
for/in-modifiers 924
force 390, 913, 927
Fore 837
Foreground (discourse relation) 320
foreground Accomplishments 487
foreground(ing) 77, 82, 84–87, 89, 95, 281f., 308, 309, 485, 489, 493, see also grounding
foregrounding/backgrounding 147, 281
Foris, D. P. 550
form-meaning correspondences 168–170
form-oriented approaches to L2 acquisition 482
formal correspondence between property scales and paths 743
formal semantic approaches 572
Forsyth, J. 164, 232n15
Fortescue, M. 693n15, 1025
Fortuin, E. 775, 978n4
forward-shifted reading 652, 663n2
Foulet, L. 281, 282
Fowler, G. 974
Fowler, H. W. 97n19
Fradkin, R. 231n14
Frame Semantics 943
frame setter 633n8
FrameNet corpus 105, 109
framing adverbial 857–859
Francez, N. 104
Franco-Provençal 591, 605, 606n10
Frasheriote Aromanian 406, 414
Frawley, W. 546
Frayn, Michael 90f.
free alternation between Imperfective and Progressive 175
free direct discourse 324
free indirect discourse 79f., 83, 86, 323, 324, 326, 614 629, 630, 631, 635n28
Frege, G. 3, 62, 572
Fregean compositionality 24, 50n5
French 129, 171, 175, 205, 275f., 286, 288, 289, 290, 292, 296, 307–315, 317, 323–329, 359, 378, 381, 431, 432, 434, 442, 445, 446, 458, 461, 470, 483, 487, 488, 491, 492, 516, 519, 582n5, 586–606, 665n10, 700, 758–760, 762, 764, 768f., 773, 774, 791, 792, 836, 855–860, 861, 863, 867, 872–874, 877n3, 884, 898, 1030
as a lexifier language 429, 431, 436, 437, 439, 442, 445f., 453n5
Middle 290f., 296
French Guyanese Creole 439, 442, 443, 446, 873
frequentative form 830
frequentative verbs 39, 51n12, 853
frequentativity 39, 832
Frey, J. R. 97n16
Friedman, V. A. 399, 402f., 407, 413, 414, 422n7, 423n20, 423n21
Friedman, V. A., and Dankoff, R. 403
Fries, C. C. 86
Fries, U. 97n16
Friulan 587
Fuentes, Carlos 90
Fula 842
full-cycle resettable 727
functional load 390
functional transfer 451
functional typology of antipassives 949
FUT operator 616f., 627
futur simple 1016n26
futurate Present tense 258, 662, 689
future (time) 146, 447
Future, semantic 258
future ability 1016n28
future and modality 159
future form, Hebrew 626
future generics 838
future gram-type 144
Future mode (Navaho) 529
future operator 615f., 627
future path, the 440
Future Perfect tense 187f., 189, 193f.
future reference 161
future shifting 198
Future tense 25, 78, 128, 129, 198, 372, 407f., 437, 507, 510, 524, 526, 529, 547, 614, 623
(p. 1061) acquisition of 474f.
analytic 399, 408
in Balkan languages 407–410
irrealis properties of 474
markers, marking 160, 171, 405, 408, 421, 437, 440, 447
meaning of 163, 186, 208
modal uses of 372, 519
in narration 90–92
future time 158f., 446, 674, 793, 1000
future will 878n11
future worlds 198
future/non-future tense system 159
futurity, as a mood 399, 529
Gabbay, D. and Moravcsik, J. M. 723
Gaelic 532n30, 784, 942
Gagnon, M. 104
Gahuka 837, 842
Gaiffe, F. et al. 600
gal (Woleaian) 837
Galloway, B. D. 701
Galton, A. P. 892
Galton, H. 127, 133, 979n10
gán (Cantonese) 805, 807
García, E. C. and van Putte, F. C. M. 491
Garey, H. B. 133, 162, 176n7, 721f., 734, 737, 754, 963
Garo 159
Garrett, E. 1023
Gass, S. and Ard, J. 499n1
Gavruseva, E. 467
Gawron, J. M. 741
Gawrońska, B. 354
Gbe languages 432, 434, 441, 444, 451
“Gegenangriff” 92
Gehrke, B. 37, 757, 767f., 783, 945, 974
Geis, J. 733
GEN operator 40, 730, 866, see also generic operator; habitual operator
GEN quantifier 292, 864, 865, 866
“general-factual” meaning 789, 790, 796, 800n9
general situation possibility 993, 994, 995, 1006–1008
general states of affairs, 828
general truths 147
generalization 373, 407
generalized versions of aspects 171
generally 245
Generative Semantics 732–734
generic aspect 39, 830, 831
“generic” expressions 830
generic noun phrases 830, 831, 878n9
generic operator 839, 842, 864, 866
generic sentences 830, 865, 878n9
genericity 730, 837, 843
generics 860, 861, 864–868, 876
Genette, G. 75
Geneva School 27, 282
Genitive of negation 962
Gennari, S. 264, 641
genre and translation 362f.
George, K. M. 158
Georgian 69, 137, 139, 159, 170, 582n5, 968, 1028
gerade ‘right now’ (German) 805, 811
German 38, 80, 159, 165, 171, 177n14, 275, 359, 360, 362, 366nn2223, 381, 411, 467, 490, 491, 582n11, 586–606, 622, 692n3, 701, 710, 726, 762, 804f., 811, 824n3, 878n17, 898, 900, 913, 944, 947, 954, 960, 965, 967, 996, 998, 1030
Old High 967
Germanic languages 167, 408, 515, 528, 531n16, 572, 578, 581, 586, 587, 953, 965, 1021, 1027, 1032, 1034
gerund, Aromanian 405
gerundial clauses 279
Gestalttheorie 281
gestern (German) 240
Geuder, W. 918
gha (Edo) 440
Ghanaian pidgin English 439, 441, 445, 452n3, 453n6, 453n7
Giacalone Ramat, A. 487, 491
Gibson, J. 114
Gibson, Maik 392n16, 393n30
Gide, André 325
Gikuyu 538
Gimbala 540, 541
Ginet, G. 915
Giorgi, A. 71
Giorgi, A. and Pianesi, F. 890, 892, 893
Girard, J.-Y. 113
Givón, T. 169, 376, 712n2, 1023, 1032
Gjeçov, Shtjefën 409
Glasbey, S. 114
Glasperlenspiel 81
Glovinskaja, M. Ja. 800n3, 800n5
Glue Language 284
Glue Logic Axioms 284
Gn operator 864f., see also generic operator
gnomic Imperfective aspect, imperfectivity 39f., 829, 841–848, 852, 860–877, 877n8
‘go’, go 377, 379, 435, 437, 447
go on 812
Goajiro 159
Godié 166, 175
Gołąb, Z. 399, 405, 407, 410, 411, 412
Goldberg, A. 299n7, 911, 912, 913, 916, 918, 919, 923, 929n17, 943, 954
Goldberg, A. and Jackendoff, R. 909, 910, 912, 913, 916, 918, 920, 921, 922, 926, 929n18
gonna 387f.
Gooniyandi 1030
Gordon, L. 1036
Gorna Belica (Bela di supră) 406, 414
Gosselin, L. 275, 314
Gothic 408
Government-Binding theory 202, 207
(p. 1062) gradience 386
Gradual Patient 737
gradual relaxation 903
Graff, D. 896
gram-types 128f., 144
Grammaire Larrousse du XXe siècle 600
grammar 726, 744, 509
grammatical aspect 32, 34, 131, 155, 163, 472, 723, 725, 766, 771, 781, 783, 784–791, 962, see also viewpoint aspect
acquisition of 468–473
vs. Aktionsart (lexical aspect) 468–470, 753
definition of 161, 163, 459, 784, 785, 963
expression of 161–164
and lexical aspect 126, 131, 142–144, 767
and Measurement Adverbials, interaction of 771–773
Russian 221–227
and/vs. tense 470–472, 760, 791–796
theories of, classification of 162
grammatical categories, core (A, O, S) 961
grammatical operator 342f., 345, 357
grammatical transfer 451
grammatical-morphological aspect 960, 962, see also grammatical aspect; viewpoint aspect
grammaticalization 130, 132, 134, 145–147, 155–157, 158, 163, 169, 170, 173, 293, 294, 321, 370–390, 391n8, 392n19, 407, 450, 451, 606, 804, 809, 810, 883, 937, 954, 1029
chains 384–386
cline of 128f., 171, 384, 437, 438, 440, 447, 1023
contact-induced 437, 440–447, 450
in the creation of creole tense-aspect systems 436–447
definition of 372, 436f.
internally-induced, in creoles 437–440
literature of, the 157, 172
path(s) 128f., 171, 384, 437, 438, 440, 447, 812, 1023
primary 372–379, 392n19, 710, 812, 822
processes 129, 131, 430, 447
secondary 372, 379–383, 392n19
grams 128
Graur, A. et al. 408, 415, 420f.
Great Expectations 83
Grebo 537–539, 558
Greek 137, 164, 167, 176n2, 361, 399, 401–403, 405, 407, 410, 411, 461, 467, 474, 475, 507, 508, 509f., 517, 531n4, 531n16, 714n32, 953
Ancient 125, 133, 137, 509, 510, 513f., 515, 529
Classical 791, 960, 970
Modern 667n35, 724, 725, 726
Green, G. 97n19, 909, 911, 928n3, 929n21
Greenberg, J. 123, 124, 216, 229n6, 230n9, 447
Greenberg, Y. 840
Grevisse, M. 588, 589, 597, 598, 606n6, 606n7
Grice, H. P. 3, 174, 188, 274, 276f., 288, 293, 317, 796, 895, 899
Gricean principle of economy 728, 922
Grinevald Craig, C. 130
Grinstead, J. et al. 474
grounding 84, 87, 485, 486, 492, see also background(ing), foreground(ing)
Gruber, J. S. 741
Grønn, A. 639, 758
Grønn, A. and von Stechow, A. 639, 659
Guaraní 29, 31, 700, 712n3, 713n13, 713n18
Guasch, A. 712n3
Guyanese Creole 438, 443, 453n9
Guyanese English 837
Guyanese French Creole 439, 442
Guentchéva, Z. 137, 140, 147, 1023
Guenther, F. 65
Guéron, J. 700
Guéron, J. and Hoekstra, T. 704, 909
Guillaume, G. 23, 50n3, 124, 508, 511–513, 520, 530, 531n8, 531n10, 595f., 600, 606nn1113
Guinea Bissau Kriyol 439, 443, 446, 453n4, 810
Gumperz, J. 366n26
guo, guò (Mandarin, Chinese) 673, 674, 764
Guthrie, M. 391n3
Guyanese Creole 443, 445, 453n9
Guyanese English 837
Gwari 838
Gwere 381
Göksel, A. 168
ha (Iberian) 439
Haan, F. de 1023, 1026, 1027, 1032, 1033, 1034, 1035, 1038
Haarmann, H. 49, 1021, 1023
HAB operator, implicit 844, 846, 865, see also habitual operator; habitual (GEN/HAB) quantifier
haban (Gothic), habeo (Latin) 408
ha:bis (Malayan) 443
habits 841, 847
habitual (GEN/HAB) quantifier 288, 292, 447, 532n21
Habitual aspect 38, 126, 136f., 161, 165, 444, 445, 447, 760, 761, 828–848
habitual event 949
habitual expressions, 790
habitual interpretation 757, 760, 761
habitual markers 440, 446, 836, 837, 842
habitual meaning 445, 862
Habitual mood 846
habitual operator 208, 844, 845, 864, 865
Habitual Present tense 837
habitual sentences 845, 862, 870, 876, 877
habitual states 90, 345–356
habitual/generic meaning 165
habituality 156, 447, 830, 831, 833, 841, 852–877, 877n2, 877n6
definition of 808, 845, 877
in English 872–874
expression of, the 831, 832–838, 847
as gnomic imperfectivity 852–877, 789, 871
(p. 1063) vs. iterativity 854–860
in Slavic languages 874–876
habituative, the 836
habitus 845, 847
Hacquard, V. 836, 1014n8
had used to 878n12
háidouh (Cantonese) 805
Haiman, J. 952
Haitian Creole 430, 431, 432–434, 436, 439f., 443, 446, 447
Hakulinen, L. 966
Hale, K. 714n20, 965, 968
Hale, K. and Keyser, J. 916, 928n4, 943, 952
Halkomelem 31, 696, 701, 713n8
Hallaga Quechua 384
Halliday, M. A. K. 908, 1014n6
Hamburger, K. 6, 82–84
Hamlet 810
Hamm, F. 114
Hamp, E. 421
Handbook of American Indian Languages 1022, 1043n6
Hanks, W. F. 147
Hansen, B. 1027
Hardt, D. 114
Hardy, Thomas 89
Hare Slave 1040, 1041
Harel, D. 113
Harley, B. 494
Harries, L. 541
Harrington, B. 105
Harris, M. 380
Harrison, R. 901
Harrison, W. 951
Haspelmath, M. 11, 131, 148, 391n11, 436, 947, 948
Hatav, G. 98, 613, 634n16
Hatch, E. and Wagner-Gough, J. 482
Hatcher, A. G. 281
Hausa 839, 842, 843
have 203, 263, 264, 991, 992, 1005, 1009f.
‘have’ 380, 406–412, 437
have/be raising 205
Hawai’i Creole 438, 439, 442, 444, 445
Hay, J. et al. 741f., 923, 927
Hayes, P. 112
Healey, A. et al. 843
hearsay 1025, 1031, 1032, 1043n13
Heath, J. 400
Hebdomal tense 556
Hebrew 27, 132, 223, 362, 398, 461, 612, 613, 614f., 618, 619, 621, 622, 623, 626, 630, 631, 633n5, 634n17, 635n30, 639–642, 644–646, 651–654, 656–662, 664n6, 664n9, 665n13, 666n26, 840, 845, 871, 960, 970
Biblical 518, 671
Modern 458
Heidolph, K. E. et al. 237f.
Heim, I. 265, 623, 646, 650–652, 665n16, 666n24, 702, 742
Heim, I. and Kratzer, A. 667n31
Heinämäki, O. 965
Heine, B. 169, 372, 373, 380, 384, 391n5, 996, 1015n17
Heine, B. and Kuteva, T. 377, 380, 391n6, 436, 437, 440, 441, 450, 451, 710, 996, 1015n17
Heine, B. and Narrog, H. 386f., 392n20
Heine, B. and Reh, M. 391n13
Heine, B. et al. 384
Helbig, G. and Buscha, J. 238
Henderson, J. 552, 559n2
Heny, F. 253, 258, 262f.
herewith 243
Herman, D. 75, 77
Hesse, Hermann 81
Hesternal tense 554, 556
Hesternal Past tense 537, 552, 557
heterogeneity/homogeneity opposition 1011
Hetzron, R. 546, 547, 714n32
Hewings, M. 1000
Hewitt, C. 111
Hewson, J. 531n6, 532n29
Hewson, J. and Bubenik, V. 511, 513, 514, 516, 531n4, 531n6, 532n27
Hewson, J. and Francis, B. 529
Hewson, J. and Nurse, D. 531n4, 532n35
Hewson, J. et al. 524
hier (French) 295
hierarchical correlational opposition 12
Higdon, L. 538
Higginbotham, J. 71, 733, 734, 740, 941
Hill, K. C. 1025
Hindi 157, 165, 166, 168, 174, 175, 960, 965, 968
Hindi/Urdu 137
Hinrichs, E. 65, 104, 254, 279, 620, 692n2, 726, 735, 941, 978n8
Hintz, D. 384–386, 390
Hiraiwa, K. 704, 713n16
Hirtle, W. H. 510, 516, 532n20
histoire 6, 78–82
Historic Present tense 550
historical narrative 80
Historical Past tense 555
Historical Present tense 84, 86, 417, 664n9, 790, 793f., 800n5, 801n18
Hittite 531n16
Hitzeman, J. 104, 247, 253, 889
Hixkaryana 1026
Hjelmslev, L. 227n2, 509
Hoare, C. A. 113
Hoare Logic 113
Hockett, C. 712n3
Hodge, C. T. 391n4
hodiernal cycle 558
Hodiernal Future tense 537, 541, 543, 548, 550, 551, 555, 556, 557
Hodiernal Past tense 381f., 537, 544, 548, 549, 550, 552, 553, 557, 587, 605
Hodiernal tense 550, 554, 556
(p. 1064) Hodiernal-(Hesternal-)Remote past pattern 538
hodiernal/hesternal 541
hodiernal/pre-hodiernal 160, 540–544
hodiernality 547
Hoekstra, T. 910, 912, 917
Hoekstra, T. and Hyams, N. 461, 467, 912, 917
Hoenigswald, H. 508
Hoepelman, J. P. 726
Hohenstein, J. and Akhtar, N. 468
Hoijer, H. 1036
Hokkien 444
Holenstein, E. 213
Holmes, P. and Hinchliffe, I. 1027
Holt, J. 138, 508, 511
homogeneity 162, 620, 681, 730f., 941, 1011
homomorphicity 923–926
Hopper, P. J. 77, 85, 97n19, 147, 281, 285, 380, 392n19, 485
Hopper, P. J. and Thompson, S. A. 97n19, 281, 467
Hopper, P. J. and Traugott, E. C. 436f.
horé (Somali) 705, 713n17
Hornstein, N. 65, 71, 177n10, 189, 615
Horrocks, G. 407, 410f.
Horrocks, G. and Stavrou, M. 918
hortative (target category) 377
hortative particle 405
Hot News perfect 245, 883, 887, 1040
Houston, Pam 90f.
Hout, A. van 463, 465, 467, 470, 497, 725, 733, 942, 945, 963, 978
Hovy, E. 107
“How to Date a Browngirl, Blackgirl, Whitegirl, or Halfie” 93
“How to Talk to a Hunter” 90
how-type WH-XPs 918
Hoye, L. 1016n24
Hrabal, Bohumil 757
hu- (Swahili) 837
Hu, J.-H. et al. 679
Huang, C. 490, 495
Huang, C.-T. J. 679
Huang, C.-T. J. et al. 679, 693n10
Huaylas Quechua 385
Huber, M. 441, 445
Huddleston, R. 886, 990, 996, 1000, 1011, 1014n8
Huddleston, R. and Pullum, G. 806, 995, 1014n8
huì (Chinese) 674, 675, 676, 677, 682, 690
Hundt, M. 817f.
Hundt, M., and Smith, N. 290
Hungarian 129, 139, 960, 965, 966, 978n3
Hupa 547
Hyams, N. 461
Hyman, L. 548
Hyman, L. and Magaji, D. 838
Hymes, D. 556
hypothetical 434
hypothetical epistemic may 1017n37
i (Russian) 801n18