- Table of Symbols and Abbreviations
- About the Authors
- The Oxford Handbook of Tense and Aspect
- Philosophy of Language
- Narratology and Literary Linguistics
- Computational Linguistics
- Universals and Typology
- Discourse and Text
- Diachrony and Grammaticalization
- Language Contact
- Creole Languages
- Primary Language Acquisition
- Second Language Acquisition
- Remoteness Distinctions
- The Surcomposé Past Tense
- Bound Tenses
- Embedded Tenses
- Nominal Tense
- Lexical Aspect
- Verbal Aspect
- Perfective and Imperfective Aspect
- Progressive and Continuous Aspect
- Habitual and Generic Aspect
- Habituality, Pluractionality, and Imperfectivity
- Perfect Tense and Aspect
- Resultative Constructions
- Time in Sentences with Modal Verbs
- Evidentiality and Mirativity
Abstract and Keywords
The concept of markedness is often used to formulate the solution to problems that arise in the morphology and/or semantics of tense, aspect, and mood, and is especially prominent in certain fields, one of which is Slavic linguistics. This is perhaps not surprising, given the roles of Roman Jakobson, Nikolai Trubetskoy, and other members of the Prague School in the founding of the theory of markedness and distinctive features. Jakobson's markedness theory is a qualitative theory of oppositional relations, presented not in a comprehensive discussion of markedness in general, but rather in applications to specific problems within the areas of phonology, morphology, and semantics. This article reviews the development of basic concepts in markedness theory and considers some “myths” where that theory is concerned. It also looks at Jakobson's theory of “shifters,” its application to the Russian verb, and its revision by C. H. van Schooneveld and H. I. Aronson, and finally discusses markedness in the study of Russian verbal aspect.
Edna Andrews is Professor of Linguistics and Cultural Anthropology, Director of the Center for Slavic, Eurasian, and East European Studies, at Duke University. She received her Ph.D. from Indiana University (1984) and holds an honorary Ph.D. from St. Petersburg State University (1991). Among her numerous publications are Markedness theory: The union of asymmetry and semiosis in language (1990), Markedness theory: An explication of its theoretical basis and applicability in semantic analysis (1994), Conversations with Lotman: Cultural semiotics in language, literature and cognition (2003), and Semiospheric transitions: A key to modelling translation (2009).
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