- Table of Symbols and Abbreviations
- About the Authors
- The Oxford Handbook of Tense and Aspect
- Philosophy of Language
- Narratology and Literary Linguistics
- Computational Linguistics
- Universals and Typology
- Discourse and Text
- Diachrony and Grammaticalization
- Language Contact
- Creole Languages
- Primary Language Acquisition
- Second Language Acquisition
- Remoteness Distinctions
- The Surcomposé Past Tense
- Bound Tenses
- Embedded Tenses
- Nominal Tense
- Lexical Aspect
- Verbal Aspect
- Perfective and Imperfective Aspect
- Progressive and Continuous Aspect
- Habitual and Generic Aspect
- Habituality, Pluractionality, and Imperfectivity
- Perfect Tense and Aspect
- Resultative Constructions
- Time in Sentences with Modal Verbs
- Evidentiality and Mirativity
Abstract and Keywords
The categories of evidentiality and tense/aspect overlap in various respects. On a formal level, it is frequently the case that evidentials are expressed with tense or aspect morphemes. They also share certain semantic features. Evidentiality and tense/aspect are much closer related than is sometimes assumed in the literature (which tends to focus on the relations between evidentiality and epistemic modality). This article is concerned with the nature of evidentiality, the marking of the source of information, or where the speaker got his or her evidence for making a statement from. It lays out the reasons for treating evidentiality and mirativity (the marking of unexpected information) as part of tense/aspect, and, after briefly outlining the various types of evidentiality that can be found in the world's languages, considers the semantics of evidentiality. The article then looks at two groups of evidentials—direct and indirec—and also discusses modal verbs, verbal affixes, clitic, mood, and particles. Finally, it describes three aspects of the interaction between visual evidentiality and tense and aspect.
Ferdinand De Haan is Computational Linguist at Oracle, Inc., in Washington, DC. His publications on evidentiality include: Encoding speaker perspective: evidentials (2005), The relation between modality and evidentiality (2001), The place of inference within the evidential system (2001), Evidentiality and epistemic modality: Setting boundaries (1999), and the chapters on Semantic distinctions of evidentiality and Morphological coding of evidentiality for the World Atlas of Language Structures. He is currently working on modality in a number of languages, with an emphasis on corpus linguistic approaches.
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