- Table of Symbols and Abbreviations
- About the Authors
- The Oxford Handbook of Tense and Aspect
- Philosophy of Language
- Narratology and Literary Linguistics
- Computational Linguistics
- Universals and Typology
- Discourse and Text
- Diachrony and Grammaticalization
- Language Contact
- Creole Languages
- Primary Language Acquisition
- Second Language Acquisition
- Remoteness Distinctions
- The Surcomposé Past Tense
- Bound Tenses
- Embedded Tenses
- Nominal Tense
- Lexical Aspect
- Verbal Aspect
- Perfective and Imperfective Aspect
- Progressive and Continuous Aspect
- Habitual and Generic Aspect
- Habituality, Pluractionality, and Imperfectivity
- Perfect Tense and Aspect
- Resultative Constructions
- Time in Sentences with Modal Verbs
- Evidentiality and Mirativity
Abstract and Keywords
The English present tense does not exhibit a uniform behavior in all embedded environments. Its ability to receive a simultaneous reading in complement clauses of attitude verbs depends on the matrix tense. Likewise, in relative clauses, the present tense is capable of receiving a simultaneous reading if the matrix tense is future, but not if it is past. However, there are languages (for example, Japanese and Hebrew) where the present tense receives (or can receive) a simultaneous reading in complement clauses of attitude verbs, even when the matrix tense is past. There are also languages (such as Japanese, but not Hebrew) where the present tense can receive a simultaneous reading in relative clauses, even when the matrix tense is past. This article explores the nature of these language-internal and cross-linguistic variations, and the success (or lack thereof) of two particular theories in accounting for it: the theory we refer to as the ULC-based theory (ULC stands for Upper Limit Constraint) and the copy-based theory. It then proposes a theory that borrows insights from both of the aforementioned theories to account for embedded tenses.
Toshiyuki Ogihara is Associate Professor in Linguistics, University of Washington. He received his Ph.D. in 1989 from the University of Texas at Austin. He has published extensively on the tense and aspect systems of English and Japanese and the semantics of tense and aspect. His publications include Tense and aspect in truth-conditional semantics (2007), Adverbs of quantification and sequence of tense phenomena (2003), Double-access sentences generalized (1999), Tense, attitudes, and scope (1996), The semantics of tense in embedded clause (1995), Double-access sentences and reference to state (1995), and Adverbs of quantification and sequence-of-tense phenomena (1994).
Yael Sharvit is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of Linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles. She received her Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1997. She is Associate Editor of the Journal of Semantics, and co-editor of the book series Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy (Springer). Among her publications related to tense are Embedded tense and universal grammar (2003), Aspects of the semantics of tense in Modern Hebrew (in Hebrew, 2008), The puzzle of free indirect discourse (2008), Infinitival superlatives: English vs. Modern Hebrew (2010), and Covaluation and unexpected BT [binding theory] effects (2011).
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