- Table of Symbols and Abbreviations
- About the Authors
- The Oxford Handbook of Tense and Aspect
- Philosophy of Language
- Narratology and Literary Linguistics
- Computational Linguistics
- Universals and Typology
- Discourse and Text
- Diachrony and Grammaticalization
- Language Contact
- Creole Languages
- Primary Language Acquisition
- Second Language Acquisition
- Remoteness Distinctions
- The Surcomposé Past Tense
- Bound Tenses
- Embedded Tenses
- Nominal Tense
- Lexical Aspect
- Verbal Aspect
- Perfective and Imperfective Aspect
- Progressive and Continuous Aspect
- Habitual and Generic Aspect
- Habituality, Pluractionality, and Imperfectivity
- Perfect Tense and Aspect
- Resultative Constructions
- Time in Sentences with Modal Verbs
- Evidentiality and Mirativity
Abstract and Keywords
Analyses dealing with tense in language may use different terms for the same concept, or the same term for different concepts. To avoid confusion, this article provides some informal definitions for the key terms evaluation time, reference time, and event time. Unlike English, languages such as Russian, Japanese, and Hebrew allow the present tense under attitude verbs to overlap times excluding the speech time. Languages like English are referred to as sequence of tense (SOT) languages, while languages such as Hebrew are non-SOT languages. Shifted tenses whose evaluation times are outside their respective clauses are called long-distance bound tenses. This article, which discusses tense interpretation and considers the semantics of free tenses and bound tenses, shows that pragmatics may also have a role in tense interpretation. A number of theories have been suggested within formal semantics to account for tense interpretation in language, including tense logic and the referential theory of Partee (1973). The article also examines bound relative past, bound relative present, and bound relative future, as well as syntactic and semantic binding.
Galia Hatav is Associate Professor in the Department of Linguistics, University of Florida. She received her Ph.D. in 1990 from Tel-Aviv University. She has held visiting positions at Utrecht University, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and York University (Canada). She is author of The semantics of aspect and modality: Evidence from English and Biblical Hebrew (1997) and editor of Theoretical Hebrew linguistics: An anthology of articles on Hebrew within the framework of Generative Grammar (2008). She has published on tense-aspect in Hebrew, English, and in general, including (Free) direct discourse in Biblical Hebrew (2000), The aspect system in English—An attempt for a unified analysis (1993), and Aspects, Aktionsarten and the time-line (1989).
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