- Table of Symbols and Abbreviations
- About the Authors
- The Oxford Handbook of Tense and Aspect
- Philosophy of Language
- Narratology and Literary Linguistics
- Computational Linguistics
- Universals and Typology
- Discourse and Text
- Diachrony and Grammaticalization
- Language Contact
- Creole Languages
- Primary Language Acquisition
- Second Language Acquisition
- Remoteness Distinctions
- The Surcomposé Past Tense
- Bound Tenses
- Embedded Tenses
- Nominal Tense
- Lexical Aspect
- Verbal Aspect
- Perfective and Imperfective Aspect
- Progressive and Continuous Aspect
- Habitual and Generic Aspect
- Habituality, Pluractionality, and Imperfectivity
- Perfect Tense and Aspect
- Resultative Constructions
- Time in Sentences with Modal Verbs
- Evidentiality and Mirativity
Abstract and Keywords
Tense/aspect systems tend to be more resistant to contact-induced change than modal systems. Thus, for example, the tense/aspect system of Romani—whose adult speakers are all bi- or multi-lingual in a broad range of languages—is extremely stable, whereas the modal system is always calqued or borrowed. This article examines tense/aspect contact phenomena in the first linguistic area to be recognized, the Balkans, but the principles involved have broad applicability. It focuses on the classic Balkan languages—Albanian, Greek, Balkan Slavic (Bulgarian, Macedonian, and the Torlak dialects of Southeast Serbia and Southern Kosovo), and Balkan Romance (Romanian, Aromanian, and Meglenoromanian), as well as the Balkan dialects of Romani, Turkish, and Judezmo. Taken together, this group of distantly related or unrelated languages gives ample demonstration of the variety of tense and aspect phenomena to be found in language-contact situations. Contact-induced language change is essentially a surface phenomenon. The article also considers the morphology of tense markers, perfectivity in Slavic and Greek, auxiliaries and particles, evidentiality and contact, narrative imperative and expressive tense, and areality versus typology.
Victor A. Friedman is Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Slavic Department and the Linguistics Department at the University of Chicago. He holds an associate appointment in the Anthropology Department and is Director of Chicago’s Center for East European and Russian/Eurasian Studies. He is a member of the Macedonian Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Academy of Sciences of Albania, the Academy of Arts and Sciences of Kosova, Matica Srpska, and he holds the “1300 Years of Bulgaria” Medal. His recent books are Macedonian (2002), Turkish in Macedonia and beyond (2003), Studies on Albanian and other Balkan languages (2004), an annotated edition of Aleko Konstantinov’s Bai Ganyo (2010), and Očerki lakskogo jazyka (2011).
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