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date: 21 February 2019

(p. 537) Index

(p. 537) Index

Abel, Hazel Hempel, 182
Abilene, Texas, 98
abortion:
attitudes on, 238, 239, 240, 241, 246, 248, 250, 251;
and the Christian Right, 134, 139, 143, 148;
and civil rights movement, 143;
and congressional policy coalitions, 492;
and distrust of federal power, 139;
and health care legislation, 503;
and Helms, 140;
and Reagan administration, 518;
and realignment, 308;
and religious resurgence, 510
Abramowitz, Alan, 244
academic study of the South, 9
affirmative action, 172, 246, 247, 249, 323, 419
Africa, 56
African Americans
and affirmative action, 172, 246, 247, 249, 323, 419
in antebellum period, 110
attitudes about, 237, 240, 242–43, 246
attitudes of, 238, 241, 249
and Black Codes, 120, 453
and Carter, 238, 306, 389
and census representation, 73
coalitions of, 72, 89
and the color line, 163
in Congress, 415, 417, 418, 429–33, 435, 502
and convict lease system, 268–69, 279
and cultural resurgence of the South, 510
in the Deep South, 9, 347, 401–2, 403, 419–22
and defining the South, 6, 8
and Democratic Party:
in the Deep South, 347, 420, 421;
in Jim Crow South, 511–12;
political attitudes, 248;
political moderates, 487;
postbellum period, 155–56, 217;
presidential elections, 6, 158;
realignment, 173, 294–95;
in urban areas, 98;
vote manipulation, 155;
voting bloc in, 62–63, 338
demographic trends, 61–63, 62, 72, 255–56, 402
and discriminatory practices, 11, 42, 401–2
and district thresholds, 18
and education levels, 71
at epicenter of southern politics, 4, 5, 37–38
and evangelicals, 341
and the Great Migration, 119, 156, 157
and have-have-not conflict, 42
and Hispanic population, 208–9, 341
incomes of, 71–72, 123, 126
and industry, 269
and isolation index, 97
Key on, 4, 5, 37–38, 40–41
and metropolitan/suburban areas, 55
migration/moving trends of, 49, 50, 52, 53–54, 74n4, 96, 269, 477
and the New Deal, 335, 513, 531n6
and Obama victory, 347, 403–4, 412
as officeholders and political candidates:
and civil rights legislation, 171;
increase in numbers of, 265, 295, 295, 450;
in local government, 6, 447–48;
as president (see Obama, Barack);
racially polarized voting, 171, 172, 176;
in Reconstruction era, 451–52;
and Republican Party, 23;
in state judiciaries, 445–46;
in state legislatures, 6, 435–43, 444–45;
in U.S. Congress, 415, 417, 418, 429–33, 435, 502
and one-party system, 37, 38–39
and partisan conversions, 17
party identification of, 173, 174
and paternalism, 120–21
and planters, 120, 154
and political machines, 98
in postbellum period, 122–23, 126, 154–56, 217–18, 265
and presidential elections, 5–6, 158, 166, 281n11
and property accumulation, 126
and realignment, 173, 290, 293, 293–95, 295, 299
and redistricting
congressional representation, 429–33, 502
in the Deep South, 417
history of, 217–22
and Republican conversion, 229–32, 231, 233
and state legislatures, 435–43, 444
religious affiliations of, 421
and Republican Party:
black Republicans, 173, 332;
and the black vote, 6, 174, 175;
in the Deep South, 420;
postbellum period, 217–18, 265;
racial issues, 294–95;
realignment, 173;
redistricting, 229–33, 231
return of, to the South, 16, 61
in state and local parties, 323, 324
and third-party support, 388, 389
and two-party politics, 38
and urban areas, 53–54, 82
(p. 538) voting rights and trends:
barriers to voting, 11–12;
civil rights movement, 4, 5, 18–19, 169, 170–71, 265, 454;
as cohesive voting bloc, 62–63, 338;
in the Deep South, 9, 403;
disenfranchisement, 263, 264, 279, 331, 402, 452–54, 511–12;
Key's Southern Politics on, 3, 236;
in postbellum period, 154–55;
presidential elections, 158, 166, 281n11;
racially polarized voting, 98–99, 171, 172;
redistricting, 217–22, 229–33, 231, 462, 502, 519;
voter registration, 170–71, 171, 265, 347–48, 454;
voter turnout, 347–48
in World War I, 156
agriculture:
in antebellum period, 111–12, 126;
and the Black Belt, 256–57, 267–68, 279, 281n10;
and boll weevils, 119, 269;
and convergence, 125;
and cultural preservation, 138;
and economy, 5, 104;
and the Great Depression, 333;
and labor, 53–54;
and paternalism, 120;
and postbellum economy, 118, 123;
and poverty, 48;
productivity in, 111–12, 126;
and sharecropping, 115, 118–19, 126, 267–68, 279;
and slavery, 106, 107, 109, 111–13, 115;
technological advances in, 53–54, 269;
and tenant farmers, 264–65, 281n12. See also landowners and planters
Alabama
African American population in, 62, 62, 218, 436–37, 452
attitudes in, 248
and the Black Belt, 256, 258, 262–66, 277
business firms in, 94, 95
civil rights movement in, 160, 160–62, 165, 166, 168–69, 170, 265, 407
congressional representation from, 8, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417
constitution of, 264
convict disenfranchisement in, 429
convict lease system in, 268–69
and defining the South, 6, 7, 7, 8
and Democratic Party, 228, 265, 298, 415, 421
education in, 71, 273, 277
foreign-born residents of, 57, 57, 59, 59, 61
and gambling, 90
gender composition of, 67, 67, 68
and Goldwater, 409
Hispanics in, 206, 211, 350
immigration bills of, 213
income levels in, 70
Key's Southern Politics on, 41
local electoral politics in, 98
local government in, 197, 448
and migration/moving trends, 62, 65
minority populations in, 96
natives of, 65
partisan conversions in, 360, 362, 362, 371
political culture in, 235
population of, 50, 51, 269
in postbellum period, 263
presidential elections, 18, 146, 158, 265
realignment in, 297, 299, 301, 303, 308, 309
reapportionment in, 265, 266
redistricting in, 218, 219–20, 429, 436–37, 453
and Republican Party, 8, 224, 225, 265, 301, 416
retirees in, 63
segregation in, 97, 277, 337
slave economy in, 107, 108
social capital in, 277
sports in, 91
state and local parties in, 324, 325n5
state government:
African Americans officeholders in, 436–37;
and Democratic Party, 228;
Hispanics officeholders in, 211;
professionalism in, 227;
realignment, 263;
and Republican Party, 224;
women officeholders in, 191, 192, 195
urban areas of, 54, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88
voting rights and trends, 12, 170, 171, 211, 429, 452, 455
white supremacy in, 263
women officeholders in, 181, 185–86, 187, 191, 192, 195, 197, 199n4
younger population of, 66
Albany, Georgia, 168
Aldrich, John H., 317–18, 321
alienation, 16
Allen, George, 148
Allen, Ivan, 89
Allen, J. S., 256, 280n6
Allen, Roy, 360
Allen v. State Board of Elections, 220
Alston, Lee, 118, 120, 121
Amarillo, Texas, 83, 85
ambition, political, 184–85, 186, 198, 227, 373
American Independent Party, 385, 472
American National Election Studies (ANES), 162, 167, 167, 173, 294
American Revolution, 105–6, 114
Anaheim, California, 86
Anderson, John, 325n2, 388, 388–92, 389, 390, 391
antebellum South, 104, 106–14, 126, 135–36, 262–63
Applebome, Peter, 509–10
Appleton, A. M., 318–19, 320, 325n4
Arizona, 8, 59, 205, 213
Arkansas:
African American population in, 62;
attitudes in, 237, 250;
and the Black Belt, 258;
business firms in, 93;
civil rights movement in, 136, 160, 160;
and defining the South, 6, 7, 7, 8;
and Democratic Party, 224, 226, 228, 298;
desegregation in, 136;
economic growth in, 93;
(p. 539) education levels in, 71;
and evolution controversies, 136;
foreign-born residents of, 56, 57, 58, 59, 59, 60, 61;
fundamentalism in, 136;
gender composition of, 67, 68;
Hispanics in, 206, 206, 207, 211, 350;
income levels in, 70;
Key's Southern Politics on, 40, 41;
local government in, 197, 448;
and migration/moving trends, 62, 64, 65, 66;
natives of, 65;
partisan conversions in, 362;
political culture in, 235;
population of, 50, 51;
presidential primaries of 2008, 146;
realignment in, 306, 308;
redistricting in, 437;
and Republican Party, 8, 225, 301, 318–19;
retirees in, 63, 64;
and slave economy, 108, 110;
state and local parties in, 318, 325n4, 325n5;
state government, 191, 211, 227, 228, 437;
urban areas of, 54, 82, 83;
voter registration in, 171, 455;
voting trends in, 69, 211;
women officeholders in, 181, 186, 191, 197, 199n4;
younger population of, 66
Arlington, Texas, 83, 84
Armey, Richard, 343, 498
Arnall, Ellis, 31, 299
Arthur, J. A., 257
Asians and Asian Americans, 60–61;
coalitions of, 74n17;
and Democratic Party, 23;
and education levels, 71;
migration/moving trends of, 49, 53, 74n4;
population growth of, 16
AT&T, 93
Atack, Jeremy, 115–16
atheists, 239, 241, 245
Atkins, Leah Rawls, 267
Atlanta, Georgia:
African American population in, 96;
arts in, 92;
business firms in, 93, 94;
convention center of, 90;
as cultural capital, 510;
and edge cities, 86;
foreign-born residents of, 57;
growth of, 82;
infrastructure of, 89;
local electoral politics in, 98;
and migration/moving trends, 55, 96;
minority populations in, 97;
political convention in, 93;
population of, 83, 84, 87;
race relations in, 89, 95–96;
residential integration in, 61;
sports in, 91, 92;
suburbs of, 11;
transportation in, 99;
voting trends in, 98
Atlanta, Georgia MSA, 66, 99
Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta MSA, 81, 87
Austin, Texas, 5, 55, 83, 84, 94, 97
Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos, 87
Austin–San Marcos, 87
automobile plants, 5, 11, 93, 95, 528
baby boomer generation, 72
Bailey, Josiah, 298
Baker, Larry, 366
Baker, T. A., 257
Baker, Thurbert E., 171
Baker v. Carr, 218
Balderas v. State, 435, 444
Bank of America, 93
Barbour, Haley, 415
Barnes, Roy, 414
Barone, Michael, 373
Barrow, John, 227, 418
Bartlett v. Strickland, 439–40
Bartley, Numan V., 294
Bass, Jack, 172, 238, 487
Bateman, D. R., 257
Bateman, Fred, 112
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 83, 85, 88, 94
Beale, C. L., 256, 257
Beasley, David, 360
Beaumont–Port Arthur, Texas MSA, 86
Beck, Paul Allen, 302
Beer v. U.S., 461–62
Bellamy, D. L., 257, 271
BellSouth, 93
Benjamin, Gerald, 367, 368
Benton County, Arkansas, 93
Berard, Stanley P., 20–21, 484–503
Berger, P. L., 280n7
Bernstein, Mark F., 373
Besley, Timothy, 120
Bexar County, Texas, 99, 220
Bibby, J. F., 316
Bible Belt, 133. See also Christian Right
Bilbo, Theodore, 36
Birmingham, Alabama:
business firms in, 94;
civil rights protests in, 160, 161, 166, 168–69;
convict lease system in, 268;
minority populations in, 96, 97;
population of, 84, 85, 88;
segregation in, 97;
sports in, 91;
in urban hierarchy, 83
Birmingham–Hoover, 87
birth rates, 59
Black, Earl, 401–22;
on the Black Belt, 257, 273;
on Brown decision, 164;
on the color line, 163;
on competition, 521, 522;
on the Deep South, 8, 9;
on Democratic Party split, 518;
on education, 273;
on electoral influence of the South, 482;
on House leadership of the 1990s, 498;
on ideology and partisanship, 241;
on partisan conversions, 357;
on political attitudes, 238;
on postbellum electorate, 155;
on realignment, 296, 304,340, 520;
on Republican influence, 516, 518–19, 521–22;
on white moderates, 341
Black, Hugo, 218–19, 478, 486
Black, Jim, 377n2
Black, Merle, 401–22;
on the Black Belt, 257, 273;
on Brown decision, 164;
on the color line, 163;
on competition, 521, 522;
(p. 540) on the Deep South, 8, 9;
on Democratic Party split, 518;
on education, 273;
on electoral influence of the South, 482;
on House leadership of the 1990s, 498;
on ideology and partisanship, 241;
on partisan conversions, 357;
on political attitudes, 238;
on postbellum electorate, 155;
on realignment, 296, 304, 340, 520;
on Republican influence, 516, 518–19, 521–22;
on white moderates, 341
Black Belt, 9, 255–80;
defining the Black Belt, 255–62, 260, 261, 279, 280n6, 280n8;
economic development in, 266–69, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276;
landowners in, 262–63, 264, 265, 267;
McLean on, 36;
and New Deal, 486;
and one-party system, 38–39;
politics of, 262–66;
population change in, 269, 270;
proposed initiative, 281n14;
and slavery, 256, 257, 258–59, 277, 279;
term, 280n2
Black Codes, 120
black power movement, 172
Blair, D., 250
Bleakley, Hoyt, 121
“Bloody Sunday,” 169
Bloom, Jack, 533n20
Blue Dog Democrats, 150
Blumer, Herbert, 163, 515
BMW, 95
Bobo, Lawrence, 243
boll weevils, 119, 269
boomburbs, 86
Bossier Parish, Louisiana, 221
Boston, Massachusetts, 92, 105
Bourbon Democrats, 11–12, 155, 273
Bowers, Mike, 360
bowl games, 92
Bowman, Isaiah, 30
Bowman, Lewis, 326n8
Bowring, Eva Kelly, 182
Brace, P., 246
Bradley, Rudy, 360
Breaux, David A., 10, 235–51, 324
Bredesen, Phil, 100
Brewer, Sarah E., 195, 196
Brinkley, Garland, 121
Brooks, L. M., 256
Brown, Edgar A., 33–35, 37
Brown, Thad, 73n1
Brownstein, Ronald, 210–11, 522, 533n19
Brown v. Board of Education, 162–66;
and the civil rights movement, 18, 159, 334;
and the Deep South, 8–9, 405;
and distrust of federal power, 139;
NAACP's role in, 158;
opposition to, 162–63, 163, 164–65, 405;
and Republican Supreme Court, 336;
and Rim/Peripheral South, 8–9
Brown v. Thomson, 219
Bruce, John, 470
Bryan, William Jennings, 136, 291
Bryant, Anita, 141
Buchanan, Pat, 144
Buffalo, New York, 96
Bullock, Charles S., III:
on desegregation, 515;
on gerrymandering, 346;
on partisan trends, 247, 292;
on prospects for Democrats, 521;
on Reagan's election, 307l;
on realignment, 223, 309–10;
on Republicans in Congress, 344;
on women in public office, 196, 198
Burton v. Hobbie, 436–37
Burton v. Sheehan, 432
Busbee v. Smith, 430
Bush, George H. W.:
and the Christian Right, 142–43, 144;
and the Deep South, 411;
and the new Republican Party, 305;
presidential elections, 472, 476, 517;
and realignment, 308, 339;
and state-level Republican parties, 343
Bush, George W.:
and the Christian Right, 135;
and civil rights groups, 461;
and the Deep South, 411–12, 414, 417, 421;
and Hispanic population, 348;
presidential elections, 145, 473, 475, 480, 516;
and Republican Party, 344–45;
and taxes, 419–20
Bush, Jeb, 223, 228
business climate in the South, 89, 93, 94–95
Bussie v. The Governor of Louisiana, 439
Bustamente, Albert, 434
Button, James, 466
Byrd, Harry F.:
and civil rights opponents, 301;
conservatism of, 298, 486;
influence of, 13, 494;
Key's Southern Politics on, 39–40;
and realignment, 296, 303
Byrne, Leslie L., 186
Byrne, Thomas, 517, 531n8
Byrnes, James, 405
California, 8, 57, 59, 86, 96, 205, 226
Callaway, Howard “Bo,” 479
Camp, Lawrence, 298
campaign finance laws, 383
Campbell, Ben Nighthorse, 366
Campbell, Carroll, 225
Campbell, James E., 310, 310n1
Cao, Joseph, 418
capital punishment, 238, 240, 241, 251
Carden, Art, 9, 10, 103–26
Carmines, Edward G., 291, 525
Carroll, Sue, 179
Carsey, Thomas M., 361
Carter, Dan, 510, 517
Carter, Jimmy:
and African Americans, 238, 306, 389;
and the Christian Right, 143, 150n3;
and convergence of the South, 22;
(p. 541) and cultural resurgence of the South, 509;
and the Deep South, 22, 411;
and Democratic Party, 306–7;
and evangelicals, 16, 238, 306;
presidential elections, 472, 516, 517, 518;
and realignment, 296, 306, 308, 338, 479;
religious affiliation of, 145
Carter, Susan B., 107–8
Caselli, Francesco, 125
Cash, W. J., 508, 531n3
Cayton, Horace, 402
Cedartown, Georgia, 82
Central America, 239
Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas, 136, 160, 160
Chambliss, Saxby, 414, 415
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 89
Chapman, F. Williams, 142
Charleston, South Carolina, 82
Charlotte, North Carolina:
African American population in, 96;
arts in, 92;
business firms in, 94;
foreign-born residents of, 57;
local electoral politics in, 98;
and migration/moving trends, 96;
minority populations in, 97;
political convention in, 93;
population of, 84;
and Republican Party, 8;
sports in, 91;
transportation in, 99;
and urbanization, 83
Charlotte-Gastonia–Rock Hill, NC-SC MSA, 66, 87
Chattanooga, Tennessee, 83, 85, 86, 95
Cheeks, Don, 366
Chestnut, J. L., 264–65
Chicago, Illinois, 57, 92, 96
child care, attitudes on, 241
Chisom v. Edwards, 446
Christian Coalition, 135, 147
Christian Right, 16, 133–50;
and anti-gay rights crusade, 135;
Christian Coalition, 135, 147;
distrust of federal power by, 135, 137, 139, 140;
influence of, 142, 150;
and the Kanawha County textbook revolt, 135, 140–41;
mainstream status of, 148–49;
Moral Majority, 134, 135, 139, 140, 142;
origins and development of, 134–37;
perceived assault on, 138;
and presidential elections, 139, 142–47;
prevalence of, 150n1;
and Republican Party, 133, 142–50;
and the Save Our Children campaign, 141–42;
and southern political themes, 137–42;
state and local victories of, 147–49
Citadel Symposium on Southern Politics, 239
cities, 80;
central cities, 55, 60, 86, 96, 99;
“edge cities,” 86;
gentrification of, 99;
Citizens for Quality Education, 140–41
citizenship, 58
city councils, 196, 197
City of Boerne v. Flores, 464
City of Mobile v. Bolden, 220, 428, 445
City of Rome v. United States, 467n10
Civil Rights Act (1957), 165, 453, 455
Civil Rights Act (1960), 453, 455
Civil Rights Act (1964):
and Black Belt politics, 265;
and Congress, 486–87, 497–98;
and the Deep South, 407, 413;
events leading to, 161;
and government employment, 334;
and LBJ, 173;
and one-party system, 39;
opposition to, 478, 487;
passage and effects of, 18, 170, 514;
and political participation of blacks, 454;
and realignment, 14, 303;
and two-party politics, 318;
and voting rights, 453
civil rights and civil rights movement, 507;
aftermath of, 172;
attitudes on, 237, 239;
Birmingham protests, 160, 161, 166, 168–69;
and the Black Belt, 265;
and black power movement, 172;
Central High School's desegregation, 160, 160;
and the Christian Right, 142;
church as engine of, 168;
and Congress, 491;
and the Deep South, 160–61, 163, 163, 164, 169, 405–7, 409–10;
and Democrats(see under Democratic Party);
discrimination(see segregation and Jim Crow South);
effectiveness of, 5, 514–15;
emergence of, 158;
Freedom Riders, 160, 160–61;
Helms, 140;
influence of, 18;
integration, attitudes on, 237, 241, 243, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251;
Johnson's advocacy of, 165, 166, 173, 237, 294, 303, 304, 514;
leadership of, 166;
legislation, 4, 5, 62 (see also Civil Rights Acts; Voting Rights Act);
lunch counter sit-ins, 160, 160;
and migration/moving trends, 52;
Montgomery bus boycott, 160, 160;
murder of civil rights workers, 166, 169;
nonviolent resistance of, 160, 167–68;
Ole Miss's desegregation, 160, 161, 166;
and one-party system, 39;
opposition to, 138, 142, 159, 162–63, 163, 164–66, 176, 487, 515;
overview of, 159–62;
and political poverty, 280n1;
in postbellum period, 155–56;
precursors to mass protests, 157;
public opinion on, 159, 161, 162, 166–69, 167;
and realignment, 42, 143, 173–74, 294–95, 299, 300–301, 303–4;
and redistricting, 219–20;
and religious groups, 136, 137;
and Republican Party, 334–35, 477;
Selma protests, 160, 161–62, 166;
Selma-to-Montgomery march, 169, 265, 454;
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing, 166;
and the southern jeremiad, 169–70;
and States’ Rights Party (Dixiecrats), 42;
Truman's advocacy of, 157–58, 300–301, 332–33, 335–36, 486, 514–15;
voter registration campaign, 161; See also school segregation and desegregation
(p. 542) civil society, 110–11
Civil War, 9–10;
cost of, 115;
and cultural preservation, 138;
economic effects of, 10–11, 114, 114–17, 126;
and planter class, 262–63;
and realignment, 291;
reasons for secession, 116, 154
Civil War Amendments, 155
Clark, Janet M., 196
Clark, Jim, 169
Clark, John A., 15, 314–25, 326n8
class conflict, 35
Clausen, Aage R., 490–91
Clawson, R. A., 324
Cleland, Max, 414
Clelland, Donald A., 141
Clifford, Clark, 300
Clinton, Bill:
and cultural resurgence of the South, 509;
and the Deep South, 411, 412;
and deficit reduction, 384;
and Democratic hegemony, 226;
and moderate white voters, 340;
and partisan conversions, 366;
and Perot, 389;
presidential elections, 144, 472–73, 480, 516, 518;
and realignment, 296, 308–9, 344;
religious affiliation of, 145;
and Republican Party, 343–44
Clinton, Hillary, 68, 476
Clyburn, James, 502
Cobb, J. C., 271
Cobb, M., 244
Cochran, Augustus B., III, 21, 507–31
Cochran, Thad, 413, 415
Colclough, G., 271
Coleman, J. J., 316
Coleman, Wilbur John, II, 125
Colgrove v. Green, 218
college bowl games, 92
college students and graduates, 66, 71, 189
Colleton County Council v. McConnell, 432, 440–41
Colmer, William, 494
colonial and revolutionary periods, 105–6
Colorado, 205
Columbia, South Carolina, 88, 94
Columbus, Georgia, 94
communists, 239, 245, 352n4, 486
commuter rails, 99
Concerned Citizens of Kanawha County, 140–41
Confederate States of America, 6, 117, 154, 176n1
Congress of Racial Equality, 167
Conner v. Waller, 439
Connolly, Michelle, 121
Connor, Eugene “Bull,” 168
Connor v. Finch, 439
Connor v. Johnson, 439
Conrad, Alfred, 108–9
conservatism, 507
and anticommunism, 352n4
attitudes of conservatives, 236–42, 243–46
and the Black Belt, 265
of congressional representatives, 486
Conservative Coalition, 20, 486–87, 489, 490–92, 493–94, 503, 512
in the Deep South, 403, 404, 421
and Democratic Party, 265, 340, 341
economic conservatives
and Clinton administration, 308
and evangelicals, 16
and future of Republican Party, 351
in Mississippi, 36
and Reagan administration, 306–8, 342
and realignment, 15, 340
and States’ Rights Party (Dixiecrats), 301
factors leading to shift toward, 523
and metropolitan/rural areas, 56, 501
and political elites, 324
prevalence of, 242
and race issues, 311n4, 341–42, 525
racial conservatism, 15, 175, 341–42, 343, 345, 525
and Reagan-Bush era, 340
and realignment, 289, 296, 311n4
and religion, 23, 245
and Republican Party, 340–41, 351, 487–88
social conservatism:
and Bush (G. W.) administration, 345;
and Carter administration, 306;
as core constituency of the GOP, 16;
and evangelicals, 15, 16, 340–41;
and future of Republican Party, 351;
growing strength of, 15;
and Hispanic population, 349;
political issues of, 246;
and presidential elections, 144, 146, 147, 148, 150;
and realignment, 15;
in Texas, 251
socioeconomic trends in, 237, 240
in southerners compared to northerners, 10
and suburbs, 501, 524
values of conservatives, 242–46
and white flight, 524
and white supremacy, 236, 486
and women in political office, 184–85, 189, 194
consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs), 81–82
Constitutional Convention of 1787, 154
convention delegates, 322–24
conventions and convention centers, 90, 92–93
convergence, 21–22;
effects of the Civil War on, 117;
in income, 124, 124, 126;
and structural transformation, 125; See also influence of the South on the nation
Converse, Philip E., 73n1
convict disenfranchisement, 429, 452
convict lease system, 268–69, 279
Cooper, C., 241
Cooper, Weldon, 32
corporations, 5, 93
Corpus Christi, Texas, 85
Cosner v. Dalton, 442
Cotter, C. P., 316
Cotter, P., 324
(p. 543) Cotter, Patrick, 248
Coverdell, Paul, 414
Cox, Eugene, 494
Crawley, Mary Helen, 31, 33
Crespino, Joseph, 523
criminals, 240
Cromartie, John, 208, 256, 257
“Cross of Gold” speech (Bryan), 136
Crowe, Rusty, 359
Cubans, 60, 74n11, 74n12
culture of the South:
cultural preservation, 135, 138;
cultural resurgence, 509–10, 531n1;
culture wars, 143, 510, 531n4
Current Population Survey, 52–53, 74n8
Dade County, Florida, 135, 141–42
Dallas, Texas:
African American population in, 96, 264;
arts in, 92;
and boomburbs, 86;
business firms in, 93, 94;
convention center of, 90;
growth of, 82;
infrastructure of, 89;
local electoral politics in, 98;
and migration/moving trends, 96;
minority populations in, 97;
political conventions in, 93;
population of, 83, 84;
presidential elections in, 99;
redistricting in, 220;
and Republican Party, 8;
sports in, 91, 92;
suburbs of, 11, 83;
voting trends in, 98
Dallas Cowboys, 91, 92
Dallas–Fort Worth, 99
Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington CMSA, 82, 87
Dallas–Fort Worth CMSA, 87
Darcy, R., 196
David, Paul A., 109
Davidson, Chandler, 251
Davis, Thomas, 186
Dayton, Tennessee, 136
death penalty, 238, 240, 241, 251
DeCanio, Stephen, 115, 118
Decker, Michael, 359, 377n2
Deep South, 401–22
African American population in, 9, 347, 401–2, 403, 419–22
attitudes in, 247–49, 419
black electorate in, 348
and Carter, 22, 411
and the Christian Right, 143
civil rights movement in, 160–61, 163, 163, 164, 169, 405–7, 409–10
congressional delegations, 412–16, 416–19
conservatism in, 403, 404, 421
and defining the South, 8
and Democratic Party
African American constituency, 347, 421
Democratic legacy, 404–5
presidential elections, 8, 403–4
realignment, 14, 296
strength of, 407–12, 420
white primaries, 12, 402
white supremacy, 403
and Goldwater, 409–10, 416–17, 478
Hispanics in, 204
and migration trends, 350
minority populations in, 59
moderates in, 408
native southerners in, 406
partisan conversions in, 362, 371–72, 413, 414
party identification of, 175
political culture in, 235
presidential elections, 158
race issues in, 8–9, 401–3
racial differences in, 401–2, 419
realignment in, 14, 175, 292, 296, 300, 305, 309, 409–16
redistricting in, 417–18
religious affiliations in, 406, 421
and Republican Party:
Bush (G. W.) administration, 421;
congressional seats, 416–19;
growth of, 347;
membership, 332;
presidential elections, 8, 336–37, 405, 409–12;
realignment, 409–12, 412–16;
state legislatures, 225, 226, 228;
strength of, 346–47, 407–9, 420
states included in, 176n1, 402
and “The Southern Manifesto,” 165
voting rights and trends, 12, 170–71, 171, 403–4
white supremacy in, 406
defining the South, 6–9, 7
DeFranco, Laurence J., 373
DeGrandy v. Wetherell, 430, 434, 438, 443
Delaware, 6, 7, 7, 108
DeLay, Tom, 227, 228, 343, 498, 499
DeMint, Jim, 414
Democratic Party
and African Americans:
as cohesive voting bloc, 62–63, 338;
in the Deep South, 347, 420, 421;
in Jim Crow South, 511–12;
as moderates, 487;
political attitudes, 248;
postbellum period, 155–56, 217;
presidential elections, 6, 158;
realignment, 173, 294–95;
in urban areas, 98;
vote manipulation, 155
and the Black Belt, 265
Blue Dog Democrats, 150
Bourbon Democrats, 11–12, 155, 273
and Carter presidency, 306–7
and the Christian Right, 143–48, 150
and civil rights:
African American constituency, 62, 407, 487, 519;
and the Christian Right, 143;
and political candidates, 166;
realignment of party, 157, 173, 175, 303, 304, 471, 487;
southerners’ reactions to, 165–66, 335–36
and college students, 66
congressional influence of, 485, 488–92, 495–98, 501–3
congressional policy coalitions, 488–92, 493
(p. 544) and conservatism, 265, 340, 341
Conservative Coalition, 20, 486–87, 489, 490–92, 493–94, 503, 512
conventions of, 92–93
and the Deep South:
African American constituency, 14, 347, 421;
Democratic legacy, 404–5;
presidential elections, 8, 403–4;
realignment, 14, 296;
strength of party, 407–12, 420;
white primaries, 12, 402;
white supremacy, 403
and defining the South, 6
development of, 317–19
and education levels, 69
and foreign policy, 490
gerrymandering by, 217
and Hispanic population, 23, 349
ideological split in, 21
and income levels, 69
influence of, 4
leftward shift of, 165, 300, 477, 486, 489, 495
liberal Democrats, 20–21
and metropolitan/suburban areas, 56
and minorities, 66, 143
and New Deal, 156, 335, 493–94
NOMINATE scores, 488–89, 491, 500, 501–2
organizational structure of, in1940s, 3
partisan conversions, 16–17, 224, 358–61, 366, 371–75, 376, 377n2
and pluralism, 23
and political attitudes, 241, 248, 249
in postbellum period, 11, 155–56
presidential elections, 136, 144–47, 471–73, 475, 479–81
primaries:
multifactionalism, 12–13;
in one-party system, 156, 331;
and political moderates, 519;
Super Tuesday, 475–76;
white primaries, 12, 158, 294, 331, 402, 453
and redistricting, 217–19, 221–22, 228, 229–31, 231, 417
and social issues, 134
and the Solid South, 158
state and local parties, 319, 320, 321, 323, 324, 325n4, 356
and state legislatures, 190–91, 228
strength of, 12, 15, 155, 223, 303, 394, 470–75
and urban areas, 99
and Voting Rights Act (1965), 338, 342
white flight from, 244
and white supremacy, 4, 37, 38, 155, 331, 403, 486
and women in political office, 186–87, 189, 190–91, 194–95, 199n4
and younger population, 66–67See also realignment
demographics of the South, 47–73;
African American and Caribbean black population, 61–63, 62, 72;
and domestic migration, 64–67, 65;
education levels, 69–72, 71;
foreign-born residents, 56–61, 57, 59, 61;
gender composition, 67, 67–69, 68;
growth of population, 49–53;
and historically undercounted populations, 73, 74n18;
income levels, 69–72, 70, 533n24;
and Key's Southern Politics, 48–49;
racial social distance, 71–72;
retiree population, 63–64;
state growth rates, 50, 50 ;
suburban population, 55–56;
urban population, 54, 54;
younger population, 66, 66–67
Denton, Jeremiah, 413
desegregation, 95–96;
of the military, 157, 300, 332, 335, 514;
and religious groups, 137; See also school segregation and desegregation
Detroit, Michigan, 96, 97
De Vries, Walter, 172, 238, 487
Dewey, Thomas, 405
Diaz-Balart, Lincoln, 434
Dies, Martin, 494
District of Columbia, 6, 7, 50
distrust of federal power, 135, 137, 139, 304
diversity, 55–56, 96–97, 529
Dolan, Kathleen, 179
Dolbeare, Kenneth, 527
Dole, Bob, 411
Dornan, Bob, 141
Douglas County, Georgia, 99
Dowdy, Wayne, 413–14
Drake, St. Clair, 402
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 154
Drever, Anita I., 207
Duncan, C. M., 276
Durham, North Carolina, 89
Duval County, Texas, 98
Dyckman, Martin, 229
Eagle Pass, Texas, 82
Eastland, James, 413
economy of the South, 103–26;
and agriculture, 5, 104;
antebellum economy, 104, 106–14;
and the Black Belt, 266–69, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277;
and boll weevils, 119l;
and the Civil War, 10–11, 114, 114–17, 126;
colonial and revolutionary periods, 105–6;
and education, 271, 273;
foreign investment in, 93, 95;
and Hispanics, 209;
and labor market, 122;
and migration/moving trends, 61, 334;
and paternalism, 119–21;
per capita income, 70, 104;
postbellum economy, 104, 107, 118–23, 120, 124–25, 126;
post-Fordist economy, 526–29;
post-World War II growth of, 117, 122, 124, 126;
and Republican Party, 333–34, 477, 529;
and sharecropping, 118–19, 126;
slavery's effect on, 103, 104, (p. 545) 105, 112, 125–26;
and two-party politics, 520;
and unionization, 526;
and urbanization, 93–95
“edge cities,” 86
Edsall, Mary, 517, 531n8
education:
attitudes correlated with, 243, 244, 245;
attitudes on, 239, 240, 241, 242, 246, 248, 249, 250, 251;
in the Black Belt, 271, 273, 274, 277, 279, 280n1;
and busing issues, 172, 238, 239, 241, 516, 525–26;
color line in, 163–64;
and convergence, 125;
demographic trends in, 69–72, 71;
discrimination in, 121 (see also, Brown v. Board of Education);
and economy, 271, 273;
and Hispanics, 210;
and illegal immigration, 20;
and the Kanawha County textbook revolt, 140–41;
and migration/moving trends, 52, 61, 69;
and minorities, 71, 72;
in postbellum period, 11, 120, 121;
and poverty, 273;
and public health, 121;
and realignment, 289;
of retirees, 63–64;
and school uniforms, 144;
and Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act, 448;
and slavery's effect on the South, 104;
and social capital, 277;
and third-party support, 388, 389, 389, 390, 391–92, 394, 396, 398;
Edwards, John, 145
Egerton, John, 507
Egger, Rowland, 32
Eisenhower, Dwight D.:
and civil rights, 336;
and the Deep South, 405;
and presidential Republicans, 332;
and race issues, 173;
and realignment, 14, 15, 300, 302, 304–5;
southern campaigning of, 4, 158, 336;
strength of, in the South, 471
Ekelund, Robert, 109, 117
Elazar, Daniel J., 188–89, 235, 531n2
Electoral College, 21–22, 22, 473, 474, 481, 521
Ellender, Allen, 413, 486
Ellison, C., 245
El Paso, Texas, 84, 88, 94, 99
El Salvador, 74n11
Embry, E., 257
Emerson, F. V., 281n10
employment:
in the Black Belt, 269, 271, 272, 278, 279, 280n1;
and immigrants, 66, 209;
inequality in, 239;
low-wage, low-skill jobs, 269, 271;
and migration/moving trends, 50, 52, 53, 61, 66
Engel v. Vitale, 139, 140
Engerman, Stanley, 109, 111
English as a Second Language programs, 210
entrepreneurship, 207, 238
environmental protection, 241, 242, 246, 249, 251
Erikson, Robert, 291
Europe, 56, 113
evangelicals:
and abortion, 308;
and Carter, 16, 238, 306;
and economic conservatives, 16;
high-commitment evangelicals, 143;
influence of, 16, 341, 510;
in postbellum period, 11;
prevalence of, 150n1;
and racial integration, 515;
and Reagan, 16, 341, 510, 520;
and realignment, 143, 296, 308;
and Republican Party, 307, 340–41;
and social conservatives, 15, 16, 340–41; See also Christian Right
evolution controversies, 136
Exxon Mobil, 93
Falk, W. W., 257, 269, 271
Falwell, Jerry, 16, 135, 140, 142, 143, 147, 148
Farris, Michael, 148
Faubus, Orval, 160, 165
Fauntroy, Michael K., 19, 450–66
Fayetteville, Arkansas, 94
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, Arkansas MSA, 93
federal government, 135, 137, 139, 240, 243, 304
Feig, Douglas, 245
Felton, Rebecca Latimer, 181
Ferguson, Jim, 193
Ferguson, Miriam A. “Ma,” 37, 193, 195, 199n8
Ferrie, Joseph P., 120, 121
Fesler, Jim, 30
Fifteenth Amendment, 11, 12, 155, 156, 263, 451, 453
Figures, Vivian, 415
Fineman, Howard, 510
Fink, Leon, 209
Fishback, Price, 118–19, 122
Flagler County, Florida, 81
Fleischmann, Arnold, 11, 80–100
Fleming, Erik, 415
Florida
African American population in, 62, 62, 96, 218, 438, 444–45
arts in, 92
attitudes in, 250–51
and the Black Belt, 258
and the Christian Right, 135
and defining the South, 6, 8
and Democratic Party, 229
education levels in, 71
and evolution controversies, 136
foreign-born residents of:
Asian population, 61;
elderly population, 58;
Hispanic population, 59, 59, 60, 74n11, 74n12
rates of (1950–2007), 57, 57
fundamentalism in, 136
gender composition of, 67, 68
Hispanics in, 204, 205, 206, 211, 212, 348, 350
income levels in, 69, 70
(p. 546) Key's Southern Politics on, 40
local government in, 196, 197, 448
and migration/moving trends, 65, 74n7;
African American population, 62, 96;
net migration rates, 50;
out-migration, 51, 74n14;
and Republican Party, 350;
retiree population, 63, 64, 74n14
minority populations in, 55, 96, 97
and Nader candidacy, 382
natives of, 65
partisan conversions in, 360, 363
political culture in, 235
population of, 49, 50, 51, 74n7
presidential elections:
black mobilization, 347;
and gender of voters, 69;
and minorities, 99;
Obama's victory, 146, 339, 347, 404, 480;
swing state status, 228, 480;
and values voters, 144
realignment in, 299, 301, 303, 305, 306, 308, 309
redistricting in, 228, 229, 430, 434, 438, 443
and Republican Party, 225;
congressional seats, 8, 223, 228;
and migration/moving trends, 350;
presidential Republicanism, 301;
and professionalized legislature, 226;
realignment, 344;
redistricting, 228;
state legislature, 229;
strength of party in, 223
retirees in, 63, 63, 64
and slave economy, 108
state government:
African Americans officeholders in, 438, 444–45;
and Democratic Party, 229;
Hispanics officeholders in, 211, 212, 443;
professionalism in, 226, 227;
and Republican Party, 223, 226, 228, 229;
women officeholders in, 191–92, 192, 195
urban areas of, 54, 54, 82, 83
and Voting Rights Act, 20
voting rights and trends, 170, 171, 211, 211, 429, 455
women officeholders, 181;
in Congress, 185, 186, 187;
in local government, 196, 197;
in state government, 191, 192, 195
younger population of, 66
Fogel, Robert, 104, 106, 107, 109, 110–11
Folsom, Jim, 37, 299
Ford, Gerald, 517
Ford, Johnny, 360
Ford, Lynne E., 179
Fordism, 526–27, 533n25
foreign-born population, 56–61;
and antebellum economy, 107–8, 108;
Asians, 60–61, 61;
definitions and measurement of, 74n10;
and employment opportunities, 66;
Hispanics, 59, 59–60, 74n11, 74n12;
migration/moving trends of, 50;
naturalization rates, 58;
population characteristics, 57–58; See also immigrants and immigration
Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 92
Fortune 500 companies, 93, 94–95
Fort Worth, Texas:
arts in, 92;
and boomburbs, 86;
business firms in, 94;
growth of, 82;
infrastructure of, 89;
local electoral politics in, 98;
population of, 84, 97;
sports in, 92
Fort Worth–Arlington, Texas, 57
Foster, Mike, 360
Fourteenth Amendment:
and Jim Crow, 156;
passage of, 155, 263;
and redistricting, 218, 220, 221;
and school desegregation, 526;
and white primaries, 453
Fowler, Wyche, 413, 414
Fox, Richard L., 184–85, 194
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth, 103, 110
Frank, Thomas, 532n16
Franklin, John Hope, 110
Frazier, John W., 210
Freedom Riders, 160, 160–61
Freeman, J. Leiper, 43n1
Frendreis, J. P., 319
Frey, William, 57, 64
Frist, Bill, 498
fundamentalism, 136. See also Christian Right
Gaddie, Ronald Keith, 14, 236, 292, 307, 309–10
Gadsden Purchase, 154
Galef, David, 509
Gallman, Robert, 115
gambling, 90
Garreau, Joel, 86
Gary, Indiana, 96
Garza, Kika de la, 434
gateway cities, 57
gay and lesbian populations:
attitudes on, 240, 241, 245, 246, 248, 249–50;
and the Christian Right, 134, 135, 141–42, 143;
in the military, 343;
and religious resurgence, 510;
and southern cities, 97
gender and gender roles:
adherence to gender roles, 197;
attitudes correlated with gender, 10, 244;
attitudes on gender roles, 193–94, 239, 240, 245, 246, 248;
demographic trends, 67, 67–69, 68;
and local government, 196;
and political ambition, 185;
and political cultures, 189;
and population size/composition, 186;
and widowed congresswomen, 184
General Motors, 528–29
General Synod of the United Church of Christ, 142
Genovese, Eugene, 103, 110
gentrification, 99
George, Walter F., 298
Georgia
African American population in, 62, 62, 96, 218, 438, 444–45, 452
(p. 547) attitudes in, 249–50
and the Black Belt, 256, 258
business firms in, 93, 95
civil rights movement in, 136, 168
congressional representation from, 8, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418
and defining the South, 6, 7, 8
and Democratic Party, 298, 319, 421
and destination development, 90
education levels in, 71
foreign-born residents of, 56, 57, 58, 59, 59, 60, 61
gender composition of, 67, 67, 68
and Goldwater, 409
Hispanics in, 205, 206, 206, 209, 211, 350, 350
immigration bills in, 213
income levels in, 69, 70
Key's Southern Politics on, 40
local government in, 196
and migration/moving trends, 50, 62, 64, 65, 96
minority populations in, 55, 97
natives of, 65
partisan conversions in, 358, 360, 362, 363, 371
political culture in, 235
population of, 50, 51
and postbellum economy, 119, 122–23
presidential elections, 69, 99, 144, 146, 347
race relations in, 95–96
realignment in, 299, 308, 309
redistricting in, 219, 220, 221–22, 227–28, 429, 430, 438
and Republican Party, 225;
congressional seats, 8, 228, 416;
governor's seat, 225;
party organizations, 319;
presidential Republicanism, 301;
state legislature, 224;
strength of party in, 420
retirees in, 63, 63
and Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act, 458–59, 461
and sharecropping, 119
slave economy in, 107, 108
state and local parties in, 318, 326n6
state government:
African Americans officeholders in, 438, 444–45;
Hispanics officeholders in, 211;
professionalism in, 226, 227;
and Republican Party, 224, 225, 226, 228
Talmadge machine in, 13
transportation in, 99
urban areas of, 54, 54, 83
voting rights and trends in, 171, 211, 348, 452, 455
women officeholders in, 181, 182, 185, 186, 187, 196, 199n4
younger population of, 66
Georgia v. Ashcroft, 221–22, 229
gerrymandering. See redistricting
Gerster, Patrick, 138
Gertzog, Irwin, 182
Gibbs, R. M., 257, 271, 273
Gibson, J. L., 319
Gilbert, Christopher P., 385
Gilens, M., 244
Giles v. Harris, 218
Gilmore, James, 148
Gilmour, Terry L., 179
Gingrich, Newt, 309, 310, 343, 352n6, 417, 498, 499
Glaser, Jim, 361
Glass, Carter, 298, 486
Glasser, James, 518
Goldfinger, J., 323
Goldin, Claudia, 106, 109, 115–16
Goldman, Nathan C., 43n2
Goldwater, Barry:
and civil rights movement, 14, 173, 407, 409, 471, 478, 487, 519;
and conservatism, 523;
and the Deep South, 409–10, 416–17, 478;
presidential bid, 8, 471–72, 516;
and realignment, 14, 17, 296, 303–4;
and Republican Party, 173, 407, 409;
“Southern Strategy” of, 336, 477–78;
and states’ rights platform, 294, 295, 296, 304, 477;
and two-party politics, 318
Gollott, Tommy, 359
Gomez, B. T., 323
Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 219, 453
Gonzalez, Henry B., 434
Goodall, Merrill, 31
Gore, Al:
and the Deep South, 412;
presidential election of 2000, 144–45, 473, 516;
presidential elections of 1992 and 1996, 144, 145, 472–73, 480
governors:
gubernatorial elections, 17;
and partisan conversions, 366, 367, 368, 369, 372, 377n3;
and realignment, 308, 309;
and Republican Party, 228;
women as, 193
Graham, Hugh D., 294
Graham, Lindsey, 414, 415
Gramm, Phil, 498
Great Depression, 82, 296, 333–34, 512–13
Great Migration, 119, 156, 157
Greece, ancient, 103
Green, Daniel, 179
Green, John C., 137, 143, 384, 398n3
Greenback Party, 385
Greenberg, Stanley, 522
Greene, Kathanne W., 180
Green Party, 382
Greensboro, North Carolina, 85, 97
Greensboro–High Point, 88, 94
Greensboro–Winston-Salem–High Point, 87
Greenville, South Carolina, 94
Greenville–Spartanburg, 95
Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson, 88
Griffin, Larry, 508, 531n7
Grisham, Vaughn, 276
Grose, Christian, 361
gross domestic product (GDP), 125
gross national product (GNP), 115
(p. 548) Haag, S., 251
Hacker, Jacob S., 529
Hadley, Charles, 237, 323, 326n8
Haiti, 74n11
Hall, Grover C., 336
Hall v. Virginia, 433
Hamilton, Milton, 359
Hamilton, Shane, 533n25
Hargis, Peggy G., 531n7
Harlan, John Marshall, 526, 533n22
Harper, R. M., 256
Harris County, Texas, 99
Hartsfield, William, 89
Harvey, David, 533n25
Harvey, Paul, 137, 142, 527
Hastert, Dennis, 499
“have-have-not” conflict, 41–42
Hawkey, Earl W., 240
Hayes, Rutherford B., 11, 155
He, Wan, 64
health care, 237–41, 246–51, 280n1, 503
Heard, Alexander:
dissertation of, 44n8;
on the genesis of Southern Politics, 31;
and Key's papers, 43n2;
methods of investigation, 32, 37;
on one-party system, 42;
on realignment, 296;
on state chapters, 45n11
Helms, Jesse, 135, 140, 142, 151n4, 498, 509
Herbert, F. Edward, 496
Heyes, Patricia L. F., 184
Hialeah, Florida, 85
Higgs, Robert, 105, 118, 119, 122–23
Hill, Lister, 413, 486
Hilliard, Earl F., 430
Hilton Head Island–Beaufort, South Carolina (micropolitan statistical area), 82
Hispanic/Latino population, 204–13
and African Americans, 208–9, 341
birth rates of, 59
and Carter, 306
coalitions of, 72
and Democratic Party, 23, 349
demographic trends, 58–60, 59, 206, 350
and discriminatory practices, 11
and diversity trends, 55
and education levels, 71
and employment opportunities, 66
foreign-born population, 59, 59–60, 74n11, 74n12
gender differences in, 69
immigration, 59, 205, 207, 209, 212
and income trends, 71–72
and labor market, 207, 209, 212
as largest minority group, 58, 205
migration/moving trends, 49, 52, 53, 62, 74n4, 205–8, 206, 212–13
as officeholders and political candidates:
in Congress, 433–35;
in local government, 448;
in state judiciaries, 445–46;
in state legislatures, 211, 212, 443–44, 444–45
political organizing, 210
population growth, 16, 20, 205–8, 210–11, 212
and recession of 2008–09, 58
and redistricting, 220, 221, 222, 433–35, 438, 442, 443–44
and Republican Party, 348–50
and urbanization, 97
and Voting Rights Act, 19–20, 428, 433–35, 438, 443–44, 448
voting trends of, 69, 210–12, 211, 348–50
Hodges, Jim, 359
Hoffman, Donna R., 292, 307, 309–10
Hollings, Ernest, 413
Holmes, Thomas J., 136
Honduras, 74n11
Hood, M. V., III, 15, 330–51
Hoover, Herbert, 156, 471
Hoovercrats, 42
Horton, Willie, 517
housing, 53, 239, 251
Houston, Texas:
arts in, 92;
business firms in, 93, 94;
convention center of, 90;
and edge cities, 86;
growth of, 82;
infrastructure of, 89;
local electoral politics in, 98;
minority populations in, 97;
political convention in, 92, 93;
population of, 83, 84;
presidential elections in, 99;
residential integration in, 61;
sports in, 91, 92;
suburbs of, 11;
transportation in, 99;
voting trends in, 98
Houston–Galveston–Brazoria CMSA, 87
Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, 87
Howard-Pitney, David, 169
Howell v. Mahan, 442
Huckabee, Mike, 135, 146, 150
Hull, J. W., 279
Hummel, Jeffrey Rogers, 106, 114, 117, 119–20
Humphrey, Hubert, 306, 410, 472, 479
Hunter v. Underwood, 429
Huntsville, Texas, 82
Hurlbert, Jeanne S., 240–41
Hurricane Katrina, 49, 51, 83, 90
Hyundai, 95
Illinois, 157, 205, 258
immigrants and immigration:
and amnesty, 207;
and antebellum economy, 107–8, 108;
attitudes on, 249;
and census representation, 73;
entrepreneurship of, 207;
factors influencing, 207–8, 212–13;
gender composition of, 67;
Hispanic immigration, 59, 205, 207, 209, 212;
illegal immigration, 20;
and the Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986), 207, 212;
legal permanent residents (LPRs), 205;
“magnet states” for, 57;
and political machines, 97, 98;
in postbellum period, 11;
and recession of 2008–09, 58;
and Republican Party, 20, 349;
state laws on, (p. 549) 213;
undocumented immigrants, 205, 209, 213;
and urban/metropolitan areas, 55, 82;
and xenophobia of the South, 206; See also foreign-born population
Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986), 207, 212
income:
in antebellum period, 106;
attitudes on, 237;
in the Black Belt, 269;
and census representation, 73;
in the Civil War period, 114, 114, 115, 116, 126;
in colonial and revolutionary periods, 106;
convergence in, 124, 124, 126;
demographic trends, 69–72, 70, 533n24;
divergence in, 124, 125;
inequality in, 239;
in Jim Crow South, 123, 127n5;
and labor market, 122
;
median family income, 70;
national minimum wage, 333;
per capita income, 70, 104;
in postbellum period, 120, 123;
slavery's effect on, 154
Indiana, 96
individualistic political culture, 188–89, 235, 238
industry and manufacturing:
and the arts, 92;
attitudes on, 249;
automobile plants, 5, 11, 93, 95, 528;
in the Black Belt, 267, 269, 271, 273, 279;
and business climates, 89;
and the Civil War, 116;
and convergence, 125;
and convict lease system, 268;
and cultural preservation, 138;
and income levels, 122
and labor market, 267;
in postbellum period, 10, 11, 120;
recruitment of, 333;
relocation of, 5;
and slavery, 104, 107, 109, 112–14, 113;
and unionization, 513;
and urbanization, 82, 301
influence of the South on the nation, 507–31;
causation questions, 508–9;
cultural resurgence of the South, 509–10, 531n1;
Jim Crow, 514–15;
peculiar southern issues, 511–14;
post-Fordist economy, 526–29;
racism, 508–9, 525–26;
Republicanism, 516–22, 523–25;
slavery, 511;
“southernization,” 507, 508
infrastructure, 89, 112
innovation by the government, 236
Iowa caucuses, 476
Isakson, Johnny, 414
isolation index, 97
Jackson, Andrew, 111
Jackson, Jesse, 323, 428
Jackson, Maynard, 98
Jackson, Mississippi, 83, 85, 95, 97
Jacksonville, Florida:
arts in, 92;
business firms in, 94;
population of, 84, 87;
residential integration in, 61;
sports in, 91, 92;
and urbanization, 83
Jefferson, William, 418
Jeffers v. Clinton, 437
Jeffers v. Tucker, 437
Jeffords, Jim, 24n4, 358
Jelen, Ted G., 15, 244, 382–98
Jewett, Aubrey, 226
Jindal, Bobby, 418
Johnson, Charles A., 235–36
Johnson, Lyndon B.:
civil rights advocacy, 165, 166, 173, 237, 294, 303, 304, 514;
and the Deep South, 405, 410;
and Goldwater, 14;
presidential elections, 173, 303, 304, 336;
progressive policies of, 299;
and realignment, 14, 17, 303, 306;
religious affiliation of, 145;
and Senate rules, 497;
as southern candidate, 471;
and “The Southern Manifesto,” 165;
and Voting Rights Act, 18, 162, 407, 454
Johnson, Richard, 520, 532n14
Johnston, Olin, 413
Jones, Alice Hanson, 106
Jones, Bob, Sr., 136
Jordan v. Winter, 431
Kaine, Tim, 224
Kanawha County textbook revolt, 135, 140–41
Kandel, William, 208, 210
Karcher v. Daggett, 219
Karlan, Pamela, 458
Karnig, Albert K., 196–97
Katznelson, Ira, 507, 513, 531n6
Kefauver, Estes, 471
Kellstedt, Lyman A., 340–41
Kelly v. Bumpers, 437
Kennedy, John F.:
and civil rights movement, 14, 161, 168, 303, 336, 514;
and Congress, 495;
and the Deep South, 405, 409;
and realignment, 14, 302, 303
Kennedy, John (Louisiana politician), 361, 416
Kennedy, R. C., 256
Kentucky, 6, 7, 7, 108, 207, 258
Kerrville, Texas, 82
Kerry, John, 145, 403, 412
Kessel, J. H., 326n12
Key, Luella Gettys, 43n2
Key, V. O., Jr.:
background of, 30;
on the Black Belt, 133, 257, 265, 276;
on congressional trends, 490;
on economic development, 508;
and genesis of Southern Politics, 13–14, 29–31;
and methods of investigation, 32;
and origins of the field, 3;
papers of, 43n2;
on party organizations, 317;
on perceptions of the South, 37, 508;
on problem of politics, 37, 531;
publications of, 44n7;
on race issues, 4–5, 43, 155, 342, 402;
“racial threat” thesis of, 8, 18, 173, 175, 176;
on realignment, 14, 290, (p. 550) 291, 292, 303, 518;
on Republican Party, 42, 43, 299;
on size of black population, 402;
on Solid South, 522;
on urbanization of the South, 53, 80, 100, 508; See also Southern Politics in State and Nation (Key)
Key West–Marathon, Florida (micropolitan statistical area), 82
Kia, 95
Kidd, Quentin, 15, 330–51
Kilgore, Jerry, 229
Kimberly-Clark, 93
Kincaid, Diane, 183
King, Gary, 367, 368, 373, 378n17
King, Martin Luther, Jr.:
and black power movement, 172;
and Helms, 140;
and jeremiad, 169–70;
and Kennedy, 14, 303;
leadership of, 4, 166;
and Montgomery bus boycott, 160, 265;
and nonviolent resistance, 18, 168;
and opposition to movement, 166–67;
party identification of, 294;
and power of publicity, 166;
religious background of, 136
King-Meadows, Tyson, 232
Kingsport-Bristol, 94
Knotts, H. G., 241, 244
Knoxville, Tennessee, 85, 88, 92
Knuckey, Jonathan, 309
Krause, Kevin, 524
Krehbiel, Keith, 484
Krysan, Maria, 243
Kuklinski, J., 244
Ku Klux Klan, 96, 165
Kuzenski, John, 249
labor, 122;
in the Black Belt, 267, 271, 272;
and convict lease system, 268–69, 279;
and Hispanic immigrants, 207, 209, 212;
in Jim Crow South, 120, 123, 127n5;
labor costs, 52;
and race, 269;
and slavery's effect on the South, 104;
standards and regulations for, 333;
and unionization, 237, 271, 513, 526, 527
Ladd, Everett, 237
LaFollette, Robert M., Sr., 386
LaGrange, Georgia, 95
Lakeland–Winter Haven, 94
Lamare, James, 20, 204–13
Lamis, Alec, 306–7
Lamis, Alexander P., 13–14, 43n2, 238, 239
Lancaster, South Carolina, 82
landowners and planters:
in antebellum and Civil War periods, 262–63;
attitudes of, 236;
in the Black Belt, 262–63, 264, 265, 267;
and black disenfranchisement, 263, 264;
and convict lease system, 268–69, 279;
economic influence of, 120, 267, 273;
influence of, 154, 262–63;
and laborers, 267, 268, 271;
and the New Deal, 298;
paternalism of, 120;
and productivity, 111;
and sharecropping, 115, 118–19, 126, 267–68;
and slavery, 105, 107, 109, 154;
and taxes, 264, 267;
and tenant farmers, 264–65;
and traditionalistic political culture, 235;
wealth of, 107;
and white supremacy, 263
Landrieu, Mary L., 199n4, 416, 419, 503
Lang, Robert E., 86
Lange, Fabian, 119
Laredo, Texas, 83, 85
Larios v. Cox, 219
Larsen, A., 241
Larson, Carin, 139
Lassiter, Matthew, 524, 531n8
Las Vegas, Nevada, 8
Lawless, Jennifer L., 184–85
League of Latin American Citizens Council #4434 v. Clements, 446
League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry, 433, 435
Leatherman, Hugh, 359
Lebergott, Stanley, 109, 111, 116
LeFurgy, Jennifer B., 86
legal permanent residents (LPRs), 205
Leighton, Melissa Vorhees, 184
Lenoir, Thomas, 127n11
Lenoir, William, 127n11
“Letter from a Birmingham Jail” (King), 136
Lewis, Frank, 115
Lewis, John, 169
liberalism:
attitudes of liberals, 236–42;
in Congress, 486, 491, 495;
leftward shift of Democratic Party, 165, 300, 477, 486, 489, 495;
as liability for Democrats, 486;
McLean on, 36;
in Mississippi, 36;
and political elites, 324;
prevalence of, 242;
regional differences in, 10, 24n1;
and urban areas, 54
libertarianism, 251, 342–43
Lieberman, Joseph, 144–45
lieutenant governors, 193
Lilley, William, III, 373
Lincoln, Alabama, 95, 117, 154
Little Rock, Arkansas, 94, 136
Little Rock–North Little Rock, 88
Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway, 88
local government, 99–100, 181, 196–98, 446–48
Lodge Force Act, 12
Long, Huey P., 13, 37, 40, 237, 486
Long, Russell, 413
Longino, Charles F., Jr., 64
Los Angeles, California, 57, 86, 96
Lott, Trent, 306–7, 413–14, 415, 498
Louisiana:
African Americans in, 62, 218, 451, 452;
attitudes in, 237, 248–49;
and the Black Belt, 258–59;
civil rights movement in, 170;
(p. 551) congressional representation from, 49, 413, 414, 416, 417, 418;
and defining the South, 6, 7;
and Democratic Party, 228, 420;
education levels in, 71;
and Eisenhower, 405;
foreign-born residents of, 57, 58, 59, 61;
gambling in, 90;
gender composition of, 67, 67, 68;
and Goldwater, 409;
Hispanics in, 206, 207, 211, 350;
income levels in, 69, 70;
Key's Southern Politics on, 40;
and Long Machine, 13;
and migration/moving trends, 51, 62, 65, 66;
natives of, 65;
partisan conversions in, 360, 361, 362, 363, 371;
political culture in, 235, 236;
political machine in, 98;
population of, 51;
in postbellum period, 11;
presidential elections, 69, 144, 158;
realignment in, 299, 301, 306, 308, 309, 311n3;
redistricting in, 220, 222, 430–31, 438–39, 461–62;
and Republican Party, 8, 225, 301, 319, 332, 416, 420;
retirees in, 63, 63;
slave economy in, 107, 108, 110;
state and local parties in, 318;
state government, 211, 227, 228, 438–39, 444–45, 445–46;
and States’ Rights Party (Dixiecrats), 471;
urban areas of, 54, 54, 82, 83;
voting trends in, 68, 69, 170, 171, 211, 428;
women officeholders in, 181, 187, 199n4;
younger population of, 66
Louisiana Purchase, 154
Loveland, Anne C., 135
Lowndes, Joseph, 523
Lowndes County, 264
Lublin, David:
on democratization, 530;
on Democrats’ strength, 226;
on ideological polarization, 520;
on metropolitan social activism, 501;
on race in voting trends, 420, 520, 532n15;
on redistricting, 17–18, 216–33;
and Republican ascendance, 532n18;
on women in public office, 195, 196
Lucker, Andrew, 43n1
Luckmann, T., 280n7
lunch counter sit-ins, 160, 160
Lyson, T. A., 257, 269, 271
machine politics, 97–98, 315
MacManus, Susan, 16, 47–73, 196, 198
Maddox, Lester, 96
Maggiotto, M. A., 324
Majewski, John, 117
Major v. Treen, 431
manufacturing. See industry and manufacturing
March on Washington Movement, 157
Margo, Robert A., 121, 123, 124–25
Marshall, Jim, 227
Martin, Jim (Georgia Democrat), 415
Martin, J. (researcher), 247
Martin, Roscoe C., 13–14, 29–31, 37
Martin, William, 143
Martinez v. Bush, 430, 434, 438, 443
Martin v. Allain, 445
Martin v. Mabus, 445
Maryland, 6, 7, 105, 108, 110
Masters, Nicholas, 493
Mather, Mark, 64, 66
Matthews, Donald R., 405–6
Mattingly, Mack, 413
Mayhew, David R., 291, 310n1, 318
mayors, 196, 197
McAllen–Edinburg–Mission, 88
McCain, John:
and the Christian Right, 145, 146, 147;
and the Deep South, 412, 418;
and gender of voters, 69;
presidential bid of, 175, 473, 480;
and white voters, 404
McCormick, R. P., 317
McDaniel, Paul N., 207
McDonald, Laughlin, 463
McDonnell, Robert, 149
McIntire, Carl, 141
McKee, Seth C., 153–76;
on civil rights movement, 18;
on the Deep South, 403;
on impact of African American votes, 6;
on Jim Crow's defeat, 5;
on Republicans in Congress, 344
McLean, George A., 35–36, 37
McLean, Ian, 124
McLean, W., 241
Medicare, 237
Melancon, Charles, 418
melting pot, South as, 55, 57, 72
Memphis, Tennessee:
business firms in, 94;
infrastructure of, 89;
local electoral politics in, 98;
minority populations in, 96, 97;
political machine in, 98;
population of, 84, 87;
sports in, 91;
voting trends in, 98
Menard, Russell, 105
Meredith, James, 161
Meridian, Mississippi, 82
metropolitan areas:
and the Black Belt, 277, 278;
categories of, 81–82;
definitions and measurement of, 81–82;
economic growth in, 93;
Hispanic population, 208;
largest metropolitan areas, 87–88;
metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), 66, 81, 83, 84, 93;
and migration/moving trends, 55, 64;
population of, 52, 83, 87–88;
and realignment, 300, 301–2;
retirees and older movers in, 64
Mexico, 205, 207–8, 212–13
Meyer, John, 108–9
Mezey, Michael, 239
Miami, Florida:
arts in, 92;
and edge cities, 86;
foreign-born residents of, 57;
growth of, 82;
infrastructure of, 89;
minorities in, 97;
population of, 83, 84, 97;
segregation in, 96–97;
sports in, 91, 92
Miami Beach, Florida, 92–93
(p. 552) Miami–Fort Lauderdale, 87, 94
Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Miami Beach CMSA, 82
Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach, 87
Michigan, 96
micropolitan statistical areas, 82
Middleton, Russell, 242–43
migration:
amount of, 49;
and antebellum economy, 107–8;
and the Black Belt, 259, 277;
definition and terminology, 51;
and diversification, 96;
domestic migration, 64–67, 74n15;
economic and social effects of, 334;
and education, 52, 61, 69;
and ethnicity, 74n4;
and income trends, 69, 72;
intrastate migration, 64;
net migration, 74n4, 74n6;
and political attitudes, 73n1, 239, 246;
race-specific migration, 55;
and Republican Party, 350, 477;
return migration of oldest old, 64;
trends in, 50, 52
military:
attitudes on, 237, 238, 239, 241, 244, 247;
and census representation, 73;
confidence in, 238;
defense spending, 237, 239, 241, 244;
desegregation of, 157, 300, 332, 335, 514;
gay and lesbian populations in, 343
Miller, K., 258
Miller, Kathleen, 141
Miller, Warren E., 292, 302, 303, 304, 307, 308
Miller, Zell, 281n14, 414
Miller v. Johnson, 463
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 96
minorities:
attitudes of, 245;
attitudes on, 239, 240;
and Democratic Party, 66, 143;
and education levels, 71, 72;
and government assistance, 239, 240;
and income levels, 71;
largest minority group, 58 (see also Hispanic/Latino population);
and migration/moving trends, 55;
and Republican Party, 149, 150;
in suburbs, 55, 96, 99;
and whites, 209;
younger population of, 67; See also specific minoritiy groups
Mississippi
African American population in, 62, 218, 439, 444–45, 452
attitudes in, 247
and the Black Belt, 256, 258
business firms in, 93, 95
civil rights movement in, 160–61, 166, 170, 514–15
congressional representation from, 8, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418
Constitution of, 12
convict lease system in, 268
and defining the South, 6, 7, 8
and Democratic Party, 12, 228, 421
education in, 71, 210
and evolution controversies, 136
foreign-born residents of, 57, 59, 61
fundamentalism in, 136
gambling in, 90
gender composition of, 67, 67, 68
and Goldwater, 409
Hispanics in, 206, 210, 211, 350
income levels in, 70
Key's Southern Politics on, 33–35, 39, 40
and migration/moving trends, 62, 65, 66
natives of, 65
partisan conversions in, 361, 362, 363, 366, 371
political culture in, 235
population of, 50, 51
in postbellum period, 11
presidential elections, 69, 158
prohibition in, 298
realignment in, 299, 301, 302, 303, 306, 308, 309
redistricting in, 218, 220, 431, 439
and Republican Party, 8, 225, 301, 319, 416, 420
retirees in, 63, 63
slave economy in, 107, 108
social capital in, 276
as southern archetype, 523
state and local parties in, 324
state government:
African Americans officeholders in, 439, 444–45;
and Democratic Party, 228;
Hispanics officeholders in, 211;
impact of Section 2 on, 439, 444–45, 445–46;
professionalism in, 227;
women officeholders in, 191, 192
and States’ Rights Party (Dixiecrats), 471
urban areas of, 54, 82, 83
voting rights and trends in, 12, 69, 170–71, 171, 211, 428, 454, 455
women officeholders in, 181, 185, 186, 191, 192
younger population of, 66
Mississippi State University, 36
Missouri, 6, 7, 7, 108, 258
Missouri Compromise, 154
Mitchener, Kris James, 124
Mobile, Alabama, 83, 84, 85, 86, 98
moderates, political, 242, 408, 499, 503, 519
Mondale, Walter, 143
Montgomery, Alabama:
bus boycotts in, 160, 160;
business firms in, 95;
civil rights movement in, 162, 169, 265;
local electoral politics in, 98;
population of, 85;
in urban hierarchy, 83
Moore, Alice, 140–41
moralistic political culture, 188–89, 235, 236
Moral Majority, 135, 139, 140, 142, 147, 148
Moreland, Laurence W., 15, 239, 257, 421, 470–82
Morgan City, Louisiana, 82
Mormon religion, 146
Morris, Irwin L., 15, 330–51
Morris, L. V., 257
Moser, Bob, 530
Moss, Thomas, 359
movers, 52–53
multifactionalism, 12–13
(p. 553) multigenerational family households, 58
Murray, Richard, 98
Musgrove, Ronnie, 415
Musick, M., 245
Nadeau, Richard, 302
Nader, Ralph, 382, 383, 399n4
Naidu, Suresh, 123
Naipaul, V. S., 9–10
Naples, Florida, 66
Nardulli, Peter F., 292, 298
Nashville, Tennessee, 83, 85, 91, 92, 94, 95
Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, 87
Nashville-Davison, 84, 87
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 157–58
National Association of Latino Elected Officials, 73
National Conference of State Legislatures, 213
National Rifle Association, 69
native southerners:
attitudes of, 237–38, 243, 245, 246;
attitudes on, 251;
and conservatism, 237–38, 246;
in the Deep South, 406;
Hispanic population, 204, 205, 206, 212;
and Jim Crow, 155;
and migration/moving trends, 64, 73n1, 204, 350;
percentage of, by state, 65
Nebraska, 182
neighborhoods, development of, 73n1
Ness, Gary C., 44n2
Nevada, 8, 59
New Deal, 507;
and African Americans, 335, 513, 531n6;
congressional support for, 485, 486, 490, 492, 493–94;
in the Deep South, 404;
and Democratic Party, 156, 335, 493–94;
and Goldwater, 409;
long-term effects of, 508, 512, 526;
opposition to, 236–37;
and realignment, 291, 292, 296, 297–99, 300, 335, 512;
support for, 237;
and tax burdens, 531n8;
and white supremacy, 513
New England, 105–6, 135–36
New Hampshire, 191, 199n7, 382, 476
New Jersey, 205
Newman, Jody, 184
New Mexico, 8, 205
New Orleans, Louisiana:
business firms in, 94;
convention center of, 90;
as cultural capital, 510;
growth of, 82;
and Hurricane Katrina, 90;
political convention in, 93;
population of, 84, 85, 87;
redistricting in, 461–62;
and slave economy, 108;
sports in, 91, 92;
voting trends in, 98;
World's Fair in, 92
New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner, 87
New Right, 16, 142
New South/Nuevo South:
and Helms, 140;
and immigrants, 207;
and the labor market, 122;
and minorities, 61, 204;
race in, 209;
transition to, 206
Newton County, Georgia, 99
New York City, 57, 92, 96, 105
New York State, 59, 96, 205, 222
Nicaragua, 74n11
Nie, N., 237
Nieto-Studstill, Laura, 209
Nissan, 95
Nixon, Richard:
and civil rights, 294, 336–37;
and conservatism, 523;
and the Deep South, 405, 409, 410;
and realignment, 303, 306;
and Republican convention, 92;
“Southern Strategy” of, 478–79, 516–17;
strength of, in the South, 471;
and Wallace, 517;
Watergate scandal, 223, 338, 411, 472, 479
Norfolk, Virginia, 61, 83, 84, 85, 99
Norfolk–Virginia Beach–Newport News, 87
Norpoth, Helmut, 307
Norrander, Barbara, 241
Norris, J. Frank, 136
North, Douglass C., 121
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 208
North Carolina
African American population in, 62, 62, 96, 439–40, 444–45
arts in, 92
attitudes in, 249–50
and the Black Belt, 256, 258
business firms in, 93, 95
civil rights movement in, 160, 160
convict lease system in, 268
and defining the South, 6, 7, 7, 8
and Democratic Party, 228, 298
education in, 71, 210
foreign-born residents of, 56, 57, 58, 59, 59, 60, 61
gender composition of, 67, 68
Hispanics in, 205, 206, 206, 210, 211, 213n1, 349, 350
income levels in, 70
Key's Southern Politics on, 41
local electoral politics in, 98
local government in, 197
and migration/moving trends, 50, 62, 64, 65, 96, 350–51
minority populations in, 97
natives of, 65
partisan conversions in, 364, 370
political culture in, 235, 249
population of, 50, 51
Populists’ success in, 11
presidential elections, 18, 69, 146, 339, 347, 404, 480
realignment in, 305, 306, 308, 309
redistricting in, 220–21, 222, 431–32, 439–40, 462–63
and Republican Party, 8, 223, 225, 226, 301, 344
(p. 554) Research Triangle, 5, 89
retirees in, 63, 63
and slave economy, 108
state government:
African Americans officeholders in, 439–40, 444–45;
and Democratic Party, 228;
Hispanics officeholders in, 211;
professionalism in, 226, 227;
and Republican Party, 226;
women officeholders in, 191–92, 192, 193, 195
transportation in, 99
urban areas of, 54, 83
voting rights and trends in, 12, 171, 211, 455
women officeholders in, 181, 185, 187, 191–92, 192, 193, 195, 197
younger population of, 66, 67
North Port–Bradenton–Sarasota, 88
Northwest, 93
Northwest Austin Municipal Utility District Number One v. Holder, 464–65
Norwood, Charlie, 458–59
Nunn, Sam, 413
Nuwer, Deanne Stephens, 184, 186
Obama, Barack:
and black mobilization, 63, 347, 403–4, 412;
and the Christian Right, 145–46;
and the Deep South, 8, 403–4, 412;
and gender of voters, 68–69;
and primaries, 476;
southern campaigning of, 5–6, 339, 529–30;
states won by, 15;
and suburbs, 99;
and U.S. Department of Justice, 461;
and victory of 2008, 145–46, 350–51, 479–81;
voter registration and turnout for, 347–48;
and Voting Rights Act, 450–51
Oceania, 56
O’Connor, Sandra Day, 463
O’Daniel, W. Lee, 37
Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 81
Ogden, Frederic D., 31
Ohio, 96
Ohio River, 122
Oklahoma, 6, 7, 7, 8, 136
Oldfield, Duane Murray, 135, 138, 139
Ole Miss's desegregation, 160, 161, 166
Olmstead, Alan L., 111–12, 119, 126
Olympic Games, 92
O’Neill, Thomas P. “Tip,” 310, 497
one-party system, 15–16;
and civil rights movement, 39;
creation and maintenance of, 38–39;
demise of, 42;
and Democratic primaries, 156, 331;
and gerrymandering, 217;
Key on, 37, 38–39, 41;
national effects of, 511;
and presidential elections, 15–16, 42, 470–75, 474, 482;
and race issues, 37, 38–39;
and two-party system, 475;
and white supremacy, 37, 38–39, 485, 512
Operation Push v. Allain, 428
O’Regan, Valerie R., 194
Orlando, Florida:
African American population in, 96;
business firms in, 94;
foreign-born residents of, 57, 74n12;
and migration/moving trends, 55, 96;
population of, 85, 87;
residential integration in, 61;
sports in, 91;
in urban hierarchy, 83;
and Walt Disney World, 90
Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford, 87
Ortiz, Solomon P., 434
Outer South. See Rim/Peripheral South
Oxford, Mississippi, 82
Oxley, Zoe M., 194
Pacific Islanders, 53
Page, Ann L., 141
Palin, Sarah, 146
Palm Bay–Melbourne, 94
Palm Coast, Florida, 81
Parks, A. L., 257, 271
Parks, Rosa, 265
Parrado, Emilio A., 210
Parry, Janine, 250
party organizations:
and candidates, 315–16;
development of, 317–19;
fundraising by, 321;
leadership and activists of, 321, 322–24;
and machine politics, 97–98, 315, 316, 317;
and patronage, 315, 316;
representativeness of, 324, 326n12;
at state and local levels, 316, 317–19, 320–22;
strength of, 316, 317, 320, 321–22;
study of, 314–16;
surveys of, 321–22;
tripartite framework for, 314–15, 325n1;
two-party competition of, 317
party switching, 16–17, 355–77;
and African American constituents, 17;
aggregate-level model of, 365–67;
importance of, 358–61;
individual-level model of, 371–76, 375;
of Jeffords, 24n4, 358;
literature on, 357;
occurrence of, 361–71;
pivotal cases of, 358–60;
and realignment, 224, 298–99;
of Thurmond, 8, 16–17, 224, 299, 318, 336, 356, 357, 408, 413
Passel, Jeff, 213
Passell, Peter, 115–16
patents, 121
paternalism, 119–21
Patman, Wright, 496
patriarchy, 184
patronage, 315, 332
Patterson, John, 165
Peeler, Bob, 358
Pelosi, Nancy, 418
People's (Populist) Party, 384, 385, 398n3
Pepper, Claude, 299, 434
Pepper, M., 246
Perdue, Beverly, 193
Perdue, Sonny, 16–17, 225, 228, 358, 360, 366
(p. 555) Peripheral South. See Rim/Peripheral South
Perot, H. Ross, 388–92, 389, 390, 391, 397;
data and method of study, 386;
and the Deep South, 411;
electoral performance of, 383, 388;
influence of, 384;
and moderate white voters, 340;
southern reception of, 325n2, 385
Perry, Rick, 360
Persson, Torsten, 120
Peters, Ronald M., 498
Petrocik, J., 237
Pew Hispanic Center, 210, 213
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 92, 105
Phillips, Kevin, 478, 479, 516
Pierson, Paul, 529
Pinchback, P. B. S., 451
Plano, Texas, 83, 85, 86
plantations, 256–57, 259, 267–68. See also landowners and planters
Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, 98
Plessy v. Ferguson, 139, 155, 158, 162, 514, 526
Poage, W. R., 496
Polinard, J. L., 20, 204–13
political attitudes in the South, 10, 235–51;
conservative values in, 242–46;
in the Deep South, 247–49, 419;
historical evolution of, 236–42;
and migration, 73n1;
and political cultures, 235–36;
in Rim/Peripheral South, 247, 249–51
political cultures, 188–89, 235–36
political disorganization, 41–42
Poole, Keith, 488, 490, 491
popular sovereignty doctrine, 154
population of the South:
in the Black Belt, 269, 270;
in colonial and revolutionary periods, 105–6;
and congressional seats, 5;
growth of, 49–53, 51, 334;
shifts in, 16;
and urbanization, 11, 81–88, 84–85;
and women officeholders, 186; See also specific groups
populist movement, 11, 136, 155, 297, 331
poverty:
and agrarian economy, 48;
among retirees, 64;
among women, 64;
attitudes on, 249;
in the Black Belt, 258, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280n1;
and education, 273;
and ethnicity, 71–72;
Key's Southern Politics on, 48;
and postbellum economic progress, 10–11, 118–19, 126;
racial differences in, 276;
regional differences in, 74n16;
and sharecropping, 119
presidential elections, 470–82;
and African Americans, 5–6, 158, 166, 281n11;
and the Black Belt, 265, 266;
campaigning in the South, 4, 5–6;
and the Christian Right, 139, 142–47;
and civil rights, 157;
in the Deep South, 8, 336–37, 403–4, 405, 409–12;
distinctively southern trends, 21–22;
Electoral College, 21–22, 22, 473, 474, 481;
nomination strategies, 475–76;
and one-partyism, 15–16, 470–75, 474, 482;
in postbellum period, 11;
and realignment, 300, 301;
in the Rim/Peripheral South, 42, 173;
and the Solid South, 158;
and Southern Strategy of Republicans, 335–37, 476–79;
and suburbs, 99;
two-party politics, 475, 480–81
Price, H. D., 6
primaries, 12–13, 24n3, 156, 158, 294, 475–76, 519
prison sentences and incarceration rates, 268–69, 528
Pritchett, Laurie, 168
prohibition, 298
property rights, 105, 111
Protestantism, 11, 143
Prothro, James W., 136, 405–6
Pryor, Mark, 503
Prysby, Charles, 323, 326n8
public health, 121, 123
Puerto Ricans, 74n12
Putnam, Robert, 276, 281n13
Putney, Lacey, 359
Quadagno, Jill, 531n6
Quant v. Edwards, 428
Quitman, John A., 110, 111
Rabun, Joseph, 136
race and race relations, 153–76
in antebellum period, 153–54
and color-blind racial formation, 525–26
and conservatism, 311n4, 341–42, 525
in Deep South, 8–9
and Democratic Party, 4, 155–56, 173, 174, 175, 491
and image control of communities, 89
improvements in, 5
interracial marriage, 240, 241, 243, 246
in Jim Crow South, 4–5
and labor markets, 269
in postbellum period, 154–55
race-specific migration, 55
racial attitudes, 242–46;
on affirmative action, 241, 246, 247, 249, 250, 323, 419;
and conservatism, 239, 241, 242–46;
on integration, 239, 241, 243, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251;
on interracial marriage, 240, 241, 243, 246;
and racial coalitions, 238;
regional differences in, 10
racial conservatism:
and Bush (G. W.) administration, 345;
and economic conservatism, 525;
and Reagan administration, 341–42, 343;
and realignment, 15, 175, 341–42
racial social distance, 71–72
racism:
and churches, 136;
color lines theory of, 515;
in the Deep South, 406;
and judicial formalism, 525–26;
and postbellum economy, 118, 122–23;
(p. 556) regional differences in, 242–44;
and size of black population, 402;
“southernization” as metaphor for, 508–9
and realignment, 17, 299, 300–301, 303–4, 519–20
and redistricting, 217–22, 229–32, 231
and Republican Party, 154–55, 172–74, 174, 175, 517
reverse discrimination charges, 525
in Rim/Peripheral South, 8–9
role of, in southern politics, 4, 5, 37–38, 174, 176
and state and local parties, 323
and Truman, 157–58
and voting trends, 98–99, 174–75, 520, 532n15
Rae, Nicol C., 496, 498
Raleigh, North Carolina, 83, 84, 89, 94, 98, 213n1
Raleigh–Cary, 87
Raleigh–Durham, 97
Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, 87
Randolph, A. Phillip, 18, 157
Rankin, B. H., 257
Ransom, Roger, 107, 109, 118, 119
Raper, Arthur F., 103, 104
Reagan, Ronald:
and anticommunism, 352n4;
and the Christian Right, 142–43;
and the Deep South, 411;
and evangelicals, 16, 341, 510, 520;
and Helms, 140;
and immigration, 207;
and libertarianism, 342–43;
popularity of, 487;
presidential elections, 472, 517;
racial conservatism, 341–42, 517;
and realignment, 14, 174, 296, 307–8, 338–39, 340, 518, 519;
“Southern Strategy” of, 479;
and state-level Republican parties, 343
realignment, 14, 289–310;
African American realignment, 290, 293–95, 293, 295, 299;
and civil rights movement, 173–74, 294–95, 300–301, 303–4;
and Clinton administration, 296, 308–9, 344;
and congressional representation, 297, 487;
critical realignment, 290–91, 294, 295, 309, 310;
critics of, 310n1, 518;
in the Deep South, 14, 175, 292, 296, 300, 305, 309, 409–16;
defining realignment, 290–92, 311n2;
and dynamic growth, 291;
emergence of the new Republican Party, 304–6;
of evangelicals, 143, 296, 308;
explanations for, 289;
and ideological issues, 242;
Key on, 14, 290, 291, 292, 303, 518;
and metropolitan Republicanism, 301–2, 306;
and the New Deal, 291, 292, 296, 297–99, 300, 335, 512;
patterns in, 518, 532n9;
and presidential Republicanism, 300, 301;
and progressivism, 297–99;
and race issues, 299, 300–301, 303–4, 519–20;
and Reagan administration, 14, 174, 296, 307–8, 338–39, 340, 518, 519;
and redistricting, 488;
regional realignment, 292–93, 293;
in Rim/Peripheral South, 14, 296, 297, 300, 301, 305, 309;
secular realignment, 290, 296, 302–3, 309;
in state legislatures, 222–28, 309;
and States’ Rights Party (Dixiecrats), 15, 17, 299–301, 301;
and system of 1896, 291, 511, 512;
and two-party politics, 137;
of white moderates, 341;
year of, 309, 310
reapportionment, 58, 265, 266, 344, 473
recession of 2008–09, 55, 57–58
Reconstruction:
civil rights movement compared to, 159;
and economy, 118, 124;
and Hayes, 155;
and political participation of blacks, 263, 451–52;
and Republican Party, 330–31
redistricting, 17–18, 216–33;
and citizenship, 58;
court rulings on, 218–19, 220–22, 232, 453, 461–62;
in the Deep South, 417–18;
and future of Republican Party, 351;
and Gingles test, 221;
and incumbents, 346;
methods of, 218, 220;
and moderates, 519;
and partisan conversions, 366, 368, 369, 372;
partisan gerrymandering, 222–28, 225, 227, 229–32, 231, 233n6, 344;
racial gerrymandering, 217–22, 229–33, 231, 462, 502;
and realignment, 488;
and Voting Rights Act, 171 (see also Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act)
Reed, Ralph, 135, 139
Reid, Joseph D., 118, 127n11
Reisinger, Mark E., 210
religion:
and antebellum South, 135–36;
attitudes correlated with, 245, 246;
attitudes on, 10, 240, 241, 245, 246, 248, 249, 250;
and conservatism, 23, 245;
culture-religion, 137;
in the Deep South, 406, 421;
overlap with politics, 135;
and political cultures, 235–36;
in postbellum period, 11;
and racial integration, 515;
resurgence of, 510;
and third-party support, 387, 392, 393, 398;
and violence, 531n3; See also Christian Right
Reno v. Bossier Parish School Board, 221, 463–64
Republican Party, 330–51, 507
and African Americans
black Republicans, 173, 332
in the Deep South, 420
postbellum period, 217–18, 265
racial issues, 294–95
realignment, 173
redistricting, 229–33, 231
voting power, 6
and Bush (G. W.) administration, 344–45
and the Christian Right, 133, 142–50
and civil rights movement, 334–35, 477
and Clinton administration, 343–44
congressional influence of, 485, 489, 498–99, 500–501, 517
(p. 557) congressional policy coalitions, 489–92
and conservatism, 487–88
racial conservatism, 341–42, 345
social conservatism, 340–41, 345
“Contract with America,” 309, 310, 343