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date: 22 February 2018

(p. 960) Subject Index

(p. 960) Subject Index

accessibility
New Urbanism and, 508
Tiebout model and, 592
transportation and, 560
urban economics and, 593
accessibility premium, 58–59, 61–63
CBD and, 63
accidents
in Africa, 836
human capital and, 554
transportation and, 554
accountability
federal government and, 749
for public transit, 573–74
for schools, 598
achievement
of African Americans, 604
gap in, 589
in schools, 597
across metropolitan variation, 206, 210
An Act for the Rebuilding of London, 439
adaptive reuse, 82
adequacy, in education, 600–602
Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, 263
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR), 738
RES and, 747
advocacy urban planning, 23, 23n6
affordable housing, 116
informality and, 819
in Mumbai, 801
racial segregation and, 333
suburbanization and, 300
urbanization and, 906
urban planning for, 365
Afghanistan, 864
Africa, transportation in
accidents in, 836
automobiles and, 838
buses and, 840
commuting in, 839–40
connectivity in, 835
end user audits for, 842–43
gender auditing for, 841
government regulation of, 842–43
highways in, 837
informal employment in, 839
infrastructure for, 842
institutions and, 835–38
local economies and, 841
maternal mortality in, 834
metropolitan transport authorities in, 838–41
minibuses in, 839–40
mobility in, 836
NMT in, 836
pedestrians in, 837
petty trading in, 836–37, 839
solar technology and, 838, 842
traffic congestion in, 840–41
transportation and land use in, 840
transportation in, 834–44
urbanization in, 860–61
water and sanitation and, 842
water and sanitation in, 837–38
World Bank and, 836, 837
African Americans, 204–7
achievement of, 604
centralization of, 330
children of, 263
discrimination of, 345, 434–35
drugs and, 249
education of, 209, 587
employment by, 66, 209
(p. 961) Great Migration of, 293–94, 585
homelessness of, 283
Latinos and, 367
in Los Angeles, 360, 361f, 363f
in neighborhoods, 322–23
poverty of, 207, 302
in prisons, 251n7, 257n30
segregation of, 208–15, 304
self-segregation of, 322–23
subprime lending and, 335
in suburbs, 585
Africa Union, 835
after-tax discount rate, 426–27
agglomeration, 25–26, 124, 133–34, 176
annexation and, 102
benefits of, 685
commuting and, 116
economic growth and, 100–102, 181
economies of scale and, 189
environment and, 906
externalities from, 642–43
in fast-growing countries, 179
global cities and, 190
health and, 906
industry clustering and, 169–80
infrastructure and, 906
input sharing and, 906n1
investments and, 84
labor pooling and, 906n1
land value and, 421
in megacities, 349n7
OECD and, 186
pure, 169
spillovers and, 906n1
sprawl and, 133–34
tax incentives and, 642–43
traffic congestion and, 906
transportation and, 555
urban economics and, 193
urban growth and, 5, 53–54
zoning and, 444
aggregate regression, 113
agriculture
in Bangladesh, 876
Brundtland Report, 887
in China, 874–75
in India, 875–76
land for
COS for, 720
infill and, 486
in Mongolia, 875
in Philippines, 875
in Saudi Arabia, 876
in Vietnam, 875
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 737
air pollution, 112
Brundtland Report, 887
New Urbanism and, 506
public transit and, 564
transportation and, 554
Alaska, 744
alcohol
drugs and, 249–50
poverty and, 293, 308
Aliens' Residence Law, in Kuwait, 872
Alinsky, Saul, 625
allocation
CGE and, 53
of costs, 776
with grants, 738n11
markets and, 75
mobility and, 736
models for, 689–90
in monocentric cities, 75
of public goods, 594
share-based, 682–83
Alonso, William, 55
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT), 740n13
Amber Realty Co. v. Village of Euclid, 438n1, 442
ambiguous information, 99
American Community Survey (ACS), 356
public transit and, 567
American Farmland Trust (AFT), 716
American Housing Survey (AHS), 382, 385
American Indians, education of, 585
American Public Transportation Association, 562n1
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), 732
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 82
Anas, Alex, 66
annexation, 102
Annual Homelessness Assessment Report (AHAR), 279
anti-eviction efforts, by NGOs, 821
Antirecession Fiscal Assistance program, 739
Anti-Snob Housing Act, 333
anti-Vietnam War, 55
apartments, 489n6
appropriate strategies, 670
appropriate urban planning, 87
Arkansas, 744
Arlington Heights, 465
Armenia, 862
Asia. See also specific regions, countries, and cities
centralization in, 869
city size in, 846
decentralization in, 869
exclusion in, 846–47
globalization and, 845–79
informal settlements in, 846
megacities in, 854
southward shift in, 849–60
urban growth in, 845–79
urbanization in, 846, 855t–858t, 861–64
URGD in, 847n1, 859t
asset forfeitures, in drug war, 256–57
Association of South East Asian Nations, 864
asymmetric information, 42
CGE and, 54
insurance and, 54
market failures and, 72
asymmetric monocentric cities, 130–31
attention deficit disorder, 218
Australia
common-law tradition in, 767n12
social welfare in, 741
automatic stabilizers, 749
automobiles. See also vehicle miles traveled
African transportation and, 838
carbon dioxide emissions and, 523
climate change and, 523
costs of, 552f
externalities of, 571–72
ownership of, 114
growth of, 563
income and, 127
racial segregation and, 335
public transit and, 571–72
sprawl and, 506
subsidies for, 564
suburbanization and, 296
taxes for, 573
in Third World, 891
average-cost methods, 712–13, 712f, 714t
average private cost (APC), 127
Azerbaijan, 862
Back-to-the-City, 373–74
backyard economies, 56
Baer, Harold, 268
Bahrain, 876
Bangkok, 865, 873
Bangladesh, agriculture in, 876
banks. See also mortgage interest
centralization of, 869
drugs and, 259, 260n42
for infrastructure, 93
land banks, 763, 764, 764n9, 768
Mortgage Banking Association of America, 432
subprime lending by, 4
African Americans and, 335
World Bank
Africa and, 836, 837
FSI and, 871
Becker, Gary, 230, 460, 461
behavioral economics, 18–20
behavior modeling, 8
Beijing, 911
Beijing Master Plan, 919
Bell Atlantic, 259
Bellman's dynamic programming, 35
below the poverty line (BPL), 875
benefit taxes, 736
(p. 963) Bennett, William, 255n18
Bentham, Jeremy, 757
best management practices (BMP), 517
betterment
compensation and, 760
definition of, 763
development-rights-based, 765
direct, 663
benefits for, 772
indirect, 663
informality and, 827
of infrastructure, direct value capture and, 765
nonoperational, 771–72
worsement and, 760
betterment capture
in Britain, 768–70
direct value capture and, 765
with infrastructure, 766–67
international, 766–75
in Israel, 770–71
in Oregon, 767
in Poland, 771–72
public support for, 774
in Spain, 772
sustainability of, 770–71
value capture and, 760–62
Bhide, Amita, 797
bid-rent, 58
income and, 423
settlement patterns and, 422
von Thünen model and, 422
Blacks. See African Americans
Blinder, Alan, 428
bondingness, 236
Booker, Cory, 268
border controls, in drug war, 251
Boston, 383
bottom-up approaches, 691
to urban planning, 792
Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, and South Africa (BRIICS), 179
Breakthroughs (HUD), 479
bribery, 73
bridgingness, 236
Britain
betterment capture in, 768–70
common-law tradition in, 767n12
plus-value and, 772
value capture and, 760–61
broad-based tax, 76
broken window theory, 231, 238
Brookings Institute, 883
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 602
Bruegmann, Robert, 110
Brundtland Report, 884
Third World and, 887–90
building codes, 441
building permits, 484n4
New Urbanism and, 517–18
Building Resilient Regions (BRR), 347
built environment
fiscal impact analysis and, 704
land use and, 7
Burchell, Robert, 723
Burdett, Richard, 793
bureaucratic fiefdoms, 92
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), 269
Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), 104–5
Burlington, Vermont, 655
community development in, 660–61
Old North End in, 659
buses, 554
African transportation and, 840
for schools, 507
Bush, George W., 270
business
CBD, 59–60, 74
accessibility premium and, 63
in asymmetric monocentric cities, 130
dispersal from, 134
employment and, 131, 133, 141–42
housing and, 422
monocentric cities and, 67
suburbanization and, 144
in Tokyo, 914
utility functions and, 63
von Thünen model and, 59–60
export-base, 642
incentives for, 8
natural disasters and, 404
non-export-base businesses, 642
(p. 964) Small Business Administration, 645–46
small business assistance, 8, 645–46
small-business development centers, 636
business continuity planning, 410
business incentives. See incentives
buy local policy, 666–67
buyout programs, 408
Cabrini Green, 430
California. See also Los Angeles
New Urbanism in, 505
prisons in, 270
Proposition 36 in, 270
zoning in, 454
California Association of Realtors (CAR), 423
California Infill Parcel Locator, 476n1
Cambodia, 850, 873
Canada
common-law tradition in, 767n12
RTS in, 745–46
social welfare in, 741
capital. See also human capital; social capital
gentrification and, 378–79
for investment, 636
for public transit, 567f
spatial arrangements of, 99
Third World and, 891
capital budgeting model, 91
capitalization, 24–25
housing prices and, 735, 736
land value and, 748
Tiebout model and, 596–97
capitalized land rent, 379
capital-land ratio, 449
Capital Regional Plan, in Seoul, 916
carbon dioxide emissions, 70
automobiles and, 523
traffic congestion and, 146
career and technical education (CTE), 619
career development. See workforce development
Carnegie units, 621
cars. See automobiles
Carter, Jimmy, 430
Case-Shiller repeat sales series, 423–24, 424f
cash assistance, 738
Castells, Manuel, 792
categorical aid, for schools, 599
Catholic schools, 207
causal impact, of social interactions, 204–8
cellular-automata, 688
Census Bureau, 104–5, 296, 296n1
labor markets and, 646
census metropolitan areas (CMAs), 379
census tracts, 304, 304n3
gentrification and, 384
health and, 309
Center for Employment Training (CET), 624–26
soft employability skills and, 629
central business district (CBD), 59–60, 74
accessibility premium and, 63
in asymmetric monocentric cities, 130
dispersal from, 134
employment and, 131, 133, 141–42
housing and, 422
monocentric cities and, 67
suburbanization and, 144
in Tokyo, 914
utility functions and, 63
von Thünen model and, 59–60
central cities, 153, 155, 159, 163–64
infill and, 479, 495
population in, 585f
public transit in, 563
schools in, 743
centralization. See also decentralization
of African Americans, 330
in Asia, 869
of banking, 869
commuting and, 113
of poverty, 293
with schools, 604–5
Central Manufacturing District (CMD), 445
(p. 965) Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), 399
Certificates of Potential Additional Construction (CEPACs), 828
Chambers, Daniel, 434
changzhu renkou, 919
charter schools, 607–9
workforce development and, 620
cheap talk games, 41–44
Chen Xiwen, 874
Chicago, 173
zoning in, 469
Chicago Area Transportation and Land Use Analysis System (CATLAS), 66
children
African American, 263
drug war and, 263
neighborhoods and, 212–14
New Urbanism and, 508
poverty and, 308–9
segregation and, 308–9
China
agriculture in, 874–75
city size in, 918
east coastal area of, 911t
employment in, 874
evictions in, 871, 872n17
FDIs in, 910
follow-the-leader policies in, 890
government regulation in, 918–19
intergovernmental transfers in, 918–19
land use in, 920
mobility in, 863, 917
population in, 863n9
rural-to-urban migration in, 885–86
SEZs in, 926
social welfare in, 877
taxes in, 874
top-down approaches in, 925
urban growth in, 862–63, 917–20
urbanization in, 906–29, 908t, 917n10
assessment of, 923–27
strategy for, 918
urban planning in, 919
Chinatown, 356
cities. See also specific cities
central, 153, 155, 159, 163–64
infill and, 479, 495
population in, 585f
public transit in, 563
schools in, 743
closed, 66
connectivity in, 168, 189–93
dispersed, 132–33
in East Asia, 853n5
economic growth and, 5
European, 195–96
gated, 292
global
agglomeration and, 190
rankings of, 192t
satellite towns and, 873
globalization and, 5
infrastructure of, 4–5
intensive, 790, 800, 802–3
kinetic, 792
lived city, 792
megacities, 175
agglomeration in, 349n7
in Asia, 854
monocentric, 65, 66, 75, 108–9, 133
allocation in, 75
asymmetric, 130–31
CBD and, 67
CGE and, 68
congestion tolling and, 142–43
distortions in, 66–67
job decentralization in, 155
market failures and, 66
neighborhoods and, 75
vs. polycentric cities, 26
sprawl and, 129–30
open city models, 66
polycentric, 67
vs. monocentric cities, 26
regional planning and, 194
sprawl and, 125
urban planning and, 196
poverty in, 302–3
(p. 966) spatial arrangements of, 593
speculative, 790, 800, 802
static, 792
successful, 843
citizenship, homeownership and, 215
City of God (movie), 794
city size
in Asia, 846
in China, 918
economic growth and, 167
land use and, 194–97
optimal, 66, 101
economic growth and, 727
returns to scale and, 66
racial segregation and, 585
urbanization and, 182
civic engagement, 239, 243
civic services, privatization of, 871
civil gang injunctions, 232
Civil Rights Act, 602
civil rights movement, 55
civil society
telehouses and, 899–900
Third World and, 895–97
classical consumption theory, 281
class segregation, 586–87
clawbacks, 644
clientelism, 825
climate change, 3
automobiles and, 523
closed city, 66
clustering. See industry clustering
coalition building, 365
Coase theorem, 4, 24–25
private property rights and, 69
transaction costs and, 29, 69
zoning and, 445–46
Cobb-Douglas function, 448
cocaine, 254, 255, 255n18, 267
co-ethnic groups, 365
cohort studies, 217n13, 218–19
Coleman Report, 589
collateral damage, of drug war, 250, 262–65
collective efficacy, 231, 238
collective good, 84
college roommate studies, 205
colonial historical paradigm, in Africa, 835
commitments, to urban planning, 42t, 43
common information, 54
common-law tradition, 767n12
common uncertainty, 54
communication, in urban planning, 42t, 44–46
Communism, 758
in Indonesia, 864n11
nationalization and, 764
Community and Economic Development Office (CEDO), 658–59
community-based programs, crime and, 239
community choice models, 592
community classification studies, 716, 723
community colleges, for workforce development, 621–22
community development, 364, 365
in Burlington, Vermont, 660–61
Community Development Block Grants (CDBG), 22, 738
community development corporation (CDC), 242
community informatics, 899
Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL), 769
Community Land Act, 768
community land trusts (CLTs), 764n9
community policing, 238
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), 334
commuting
in Africa, 839–40
agglomeration and, 116
centralization and, 113
costs of, 111
decentralization and, 153
densities and, 113
elasticity in, 140t, 377n4
housing and, 593, 605
income and, 156
in MSA, 137–41
patterns of, 135, 135t
prices for, 550
by public transit, 568
(p. 967) reverse, 158n8, 162
with public transit, 570
segregation and, 307
sprawl and, 108–17
suburbanization and, 112
in Third World, 891
traffic congestion and, 113
urban structure and, 109
compact vs. sprawl, fiscal impact analysis of, 717t–719t
comparative community studies, 716, 722
compensation, betterment and, 760
competitive equilibrium, 55, 68, 72
Pareto efficient and, 63
complete markets, 54
CGE and, 54
comprehensive, concentrated development, theory of, 661
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 622–23, 739
Comprehensive National Development Plan (CNDP), in Japan, 912–13
Comprehensive National Development Planning Law of 1963, in South Korea, 915
Comprehensive National Territory Plan (CNTP), in South Korea, 916
computable general equilibrium (CGE), 52–55, 72–73, 401–2
allocation and, 53
asymmetric information and, 54
complete markets and, 54
externalities and, 54
models, 90
monocentric cities and, 68
Pareto efficient and, 52–53
prices and, 53
price-taking behavior and, 54
private good and, 54
pure exchange economy and, 52
returns to scale and, 53–54
revealed preference and, 52
space and transport costs and, 54
sprawl and, 125, 134–42
transaction costs and, 54
concentration
infill and, 483n3
of poverty, 304–6
concentrators, 621
conditional use, multifamily housing as, 431
congestible facilities, 71
congestion
cost of, 85–86
externalities and, 71, 88
monocentric cities and, 142–43
toll for, 65n6, 142–43
with traffic
in Africa, 840–41
agglomeration and, 906
carbon dioxide emissions and, 146
commuting and, 113
decentralization and, 141–42
with infill, 496
land use and, 5
price of, 128f, 160
public transit and, 564
sprawl and, 5, 114, 126–28
variations in, 135–37
unpriced, externalities of, 126–28
Congress of New Urbanism (CNU), 504
connectivity, 504
in Africa, 835
in cities, 168, 189–93
New Urbanism and, 506–7
consonance, 536
constant returns to scale, 53
Constitution Act of 1982, 741
construction
CEPACs, 828
costs of, 511–12
marginal construction cost, 64
multiplier effects of, 720n9
New Urbanism and, 511–12
price for, 420
of prisons, 251
zoning and, 440–41, 512
consumer sovereignty, 18, 77
infrastructure and, 85
consumption goods, prices for, 527
consumption zoning, 463
contingent urban planning, 31, 39
contingent valuation, 25n10
continuous gateways, 346, 348
convex indifference curves, 52
core-based statistical areas (CBSAs), 347
Correa, Charles, 798
(p. 968) costs
allocation of, 776
APC, 127
of automobiles, 552f
average-cost methods, 712–13, 712f, 714t
of commuting, 111
of congestion, 85–86
of construction, 511–12
of economic growth, 706
fiscal impact analysis and, 705n4
forecasting of, 712–15, 714t
of government regulation, 513–14
of highways, 554
of Hurricane Katrina, 398
of infrastructure, 706
input-cost index, 747
life cycle cost analysis, for transportation, 559
marginal construction cost, 64
marginal cost methods, for cost forecasting, 712–13, 712f, 714t
marginal travel cost, 63
MSC, 127
of public transit, 552f
of recovery, 776
social, 829
social opportunity cost, 64, 65
of sprawl, 706, 723
transaction costs, 4, 100–101, 196–97
CGE and, 54
Coase theorem and, 29, 69
industry clustering and, 169t
spatial arrangements and, 99
of transportation, 66, 113, 527, 551–54
returns to scale and, 66
of zoning, 66
cost-benefit analyses, 25, 155n7
for economic growth, 706
fiscal impact analysis and, 704, 705f
for sprawl, 151
for suburbs, 157t
for sustainability, 705n3
for tax incentives, 641
for transportation, 559
for zoning, 450–51
cost of service studies (COS), 716–21
for agricultural land, 720
for land use, 716
cost recovery, 776
Costs of Sprawl, 109
counterurbanization, 865n12
Cournot game, 41
covenants, 441
crack cocaine, 255
harm reduction with, 267
creative federalism, 738
crime
community-based programs and, 239
gangs and, 237
immigrants and, 238
in low-income housing, 241–42
in modern urban society, 231–32
in neighborhoods, 214, 230–44
in Pico Union, Los Angeles, 241
police and, 240
prevention of, 235
in low-income housing, 242
technology for, 238
prisons and, 240
rates of, 231–32
self-interest and, 231
social capital and, 6, 230–44
social networks and, 238
urban planning and, 237–42
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), 230
criminalization of drugs, 255
crop failures, 894
culture, gentrification and, 381
Cyprus, 862
daily average travel time per worker (DATT), 132–33
DaimlerChrysler Corp. v. Cuno, 20
damages
to highways, 554
insured, 404n9
from natural disasters, 400
dams, safety of, 82
Dar es Salaam (DSM), 836
Davis, Gray, 257n29
Davis, Mike, 794, 808
day laborers, 366
decent minimum rule, 742
decentralization, 22, 730
in Asia, 869
commuting and, 153
of employment, 113–14, 134–35, 570, 595
international, 732
mobility and, 736
public goods and, 596, 733
of racism, 469
redistribution of resources and, 161–62
schools and, 596, 736n4
social welfare from, 734, 734f
in spatial arrangements, 104
spillovers and, 736
sprawl and, 151, 152–53
suburbanization and, 297
Tiebout model and, 735
traffic congestion and, 141–42
of urban planning, 871
voting with the feet and, 735
decriminalization
of drugs, 266–67
of marijuana, 267
deed restrictions, 441
delinquency, 207, 214
peer effects and, 219
demand
derived, 527
fundamental, 427
for highways, 551
space and, 527
speculative, 427
for transportation, 546–51
travel demand theory, 528
demand shocks, in housing markets, 427
demand-side forces, 379
demographics. See also ethnicity; race
education and, 583
gentrification and, 376, 380–81
homelessness and, 284
poverty and, 293
public goods and, 736
schools and, 590
of southward shift, 849–60
demolition permits, 454
densities, 105, 114
commuting and, 113
of infill, 485–91
informality and, 822–24
New Urbanism and, 506, 514
in population, 105, 108, 524
in Portland, Oregon, 476
of Tokyo, 800
of transportation, 553
Department of Agriculture, 301
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHHS), 602
workforce development and, 628
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 22, 279, 479
Department of Labor, 622
Employment and Training Administration of, 624
depreciation, with housing, 421–22
deregulation, informality and, 829
derived demand, 527
desegregation, in schools, 602–4
destination retailers, 642
developer agreements, 776
developer obligations, 776
development charge, 768
development goals, 658–60
Development Land Tax Act (DLT), 769
Development Restricted Zone, in South Korea, 915
development-rights-based betterment, 765
development trap, rural-to-urban migration and, 10
Dews v. Sunnyvale, 465
Dhaka, 865
Dharavi redevelopment Project (DRP), 795
difference-in-difference, 495
digital gap, 896
digital mapping software, 321
Dijkstra's rules, 31
direct betterment, 663
benefits for, 772
direct value capture, 765
future of, 779–80
problems with, 774
(p. 970) disaggregated amenities, 509
disaggregated models, for transportation, 549
disasters. See natural disasters
discount rates, 426–27
discrete choice models, for transportation, 549, 550–51
discretionary customized tax incentive, 652
discretionary passengers, 563
discretionary tax credits, 635
discrimination. See also segregation
of African Americans, 345, 434–35
coefficient, 461
detection of, 465–68
drugs and, 264
drug war and, 264
Fair Housing Act of 1968 and, 324
FHA and, 429, 434
with fiscal zoning, 463
housing markets and, 7, 433–35
housing prices and, 434
against immigrants, 293
of immigrants, 293
by income, 310
infill and, 479
with land use, 460–71
of Latinos, 345, 435
legal issues with, 464–65
models of, 461–64
police power for, 460–61
poverty and, 293
pure, 462–63
by race, 469–70
remedies for, 470–71
Smart Growth and, 470
taste-based, 324
by zoning, 303
diseconomies of scale, 108, 111
disenfranchisement, 265
drug war and, 270
dispassionate researchers, 846
dispersed cities, 132–33
displacement
from gentrification, 382–84
urbanization and, 871
dissimilarity index (DI), 319–20, 319n1, 353n8, 355f, 433–34
by ethnicity, 586t
isolation index and, 353
by race, 586t
dissonance, 536
distressed areas, 646, 659
District 9 (movie), 794
district power equalization (DPE), 742–43
diversity, 104
in infrastructure, 86–87
social capital and, 240–41
double charge, 769
doughnut pattern, 297
Drucker, Peter, 618n2
drugs, 6
African Americans and, 249
alcohol and, 249–50
arrests for, 251
banking and, 259, 260n42
cocaine, 254, 255n18
harm reduction with, 267
crack cocaine, 255, 267
criminalization of, 255
decriminalization of, 266–67
discrimination and, 264
economic benefit of, 248–49
economy of, 252–53
employment and, 250
gangs and, 250, 254–55
government regulation in, 272
heroin, 254
homelessness and, 283
international production of, 270–71
Latinos and, 249
legalization of, 253, 266
in low-income housing, 241
marijuana
decriminalization of, 267
legalization of, 270
NORML and, 269
pharmaceutical companies and, 260, 260n44
methadone, 267
minorities and, 249
needle exchange programs, 267
in neighborhoods, 249, 254
neighborhoods and, 251
opium, 254
in Pico Union, Los Angeles, 241
poverty and, 293
(p. 971) profit motive with, 254
supply of, 271–72
taxes on, 253
testing for, 260, 260n45
drug war
alternatives to, 266–74
asset forfeitures in, 256–57
border controls in, 251
children and, 263
collateral damage of, 250, 262–65
discrimination and, 264
disenfranchisement and, 270
ethnicity and, 249, 264
federal government and, 253
harm reduction and, 267
inner-city neighborhoods and, 248–74
institutions and, 272–73
international efforts in, 251n5
Mexico and, 267n60
minorities and, 272–73
neighborhoods and, 264–65
neoconservatives and, 261
political profiteering from, 261–62
prisons and, 251
private sector beneficiaries of, 258–60
profit motive in, 256–62
public housing and, 263–64
public statements against, 268–71
social welfare and, 261
unemployment and, 264
urban planning and, 273
voting and, 265
DSM. See Dar es Salaam
dual housing market, 818
durable structures, 67–68
dynamic externalities, 104
dynamic optimization, urban planning and, 34–37
earthquakes, 395, 403, 405
in Istanbul, 873n20
East Asia, 853n5
econometric studies, 524, 716, 724
Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean (ECLAC), 399
economic depreciation, 421–22
economic growth, 17
agglomeration and, 100–102, 181
cities and, 5
city size and, 167
cost-benefit analyses for, 706
costs of, 706
equity and, 705
forecasting of, 709–10
highways and, 707
human capital development and, 99
optimal city size and, 727
property tax and, 707
revenue and, 712
sales tax and, 707
Smith and, 98
social capital and, 233
taxes and, 707
urban structure and, 5, 98–119
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, 738
The Economics of Discrimination (Becker), 460
Economics of Planning (Heikkila), 658
economies of scale, 101, 168
agglomeration and, 189
globalization and, 870–74
industry clustering and, 168–97
in transportation, 54
economies of scope, 33
education. See also schools
adequacy in, 600–602
of African Americans, 209, 587
of American Indians, 585
demographics and, 583
equity in, 599–600
government regulation and, 309
human capital and, 209–10
human resource development and, 8
immigrants and, 350
of Latinos, 587
location and, 583–610
in low-income housing, 241
outcomes with, 587–89
peer effects in, 215–18, 308
per capita spending for, 743
population and, 584
poverty and, 307–8
as public good, 594
(p. 972) race and, 218n14
racial segregation and, 585
segregation and, 307–8
spillovers with, 308
suburbanization and, 583
in suburbs, 162
taxes for, 583
for urban economics, 657–58
for urban planning, 657–58
for workforce development, 618–22
Eisenhower, Dwight, 738
EITC, 309
elasticity
in commuting, 140t, 377n4
in demand, 550
in housing markets, 21, 21n4
in income, 593
in taxes, 638–39, 707
for transportation, 550
urban growth and, 423
Elders, Jocelyn, 268, 268n62
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), 602, 619
grants and, 738
elites, institutions of, 378
Ellickson, Robert, 443, 455–56
emerging gateways, 348
Emilia-Romagna, 171
employee-employer linked data, 212
employment. See also unemployment
by African Americans, 66, 209
Brundtland Report and, 889
CBD and, 131, 133, 141–42
CET, 624–26
soft employability skills and, 629
CETA, 622–23, 739
in China, 874
decentralization of, 113–14, 134–35, 570, 595
drugs and, 250
enterprise zones and, 646–48
in gangs, 255–56
government regulation and, 309
growth rates in, 107t
human capital and, 213
informality and, in Africa, 839
location and, 595
in low-income housing, 242
mobility and, 562–63
natural disasters and, 403
neighborhoods and, 163
public transit and, 570
rents and, 594
segregation and, 306–7
in service sector, 346
workforce development and, 617–18
social capital and, 240
suburbs and, 346
tax incentives and, 643–44
Tiebout model and, 748
in transportation, 555
trends in, 102–8
Employment and Training Administration, of Department of Labor, 624
empowerment zones (EZ), 663
endogeneity problem, 597
endogenous growth theory, 104
endowment effect, 478
end user audits, 842–43
engine of growth, 100
English, immigrants and, 350
Enterprise Communities (ECs), 663
enterprise zones, 635, 646–48
entropy formulation, 87
entry points, 341, 356
environment
agglomeration and, 906
built environment
fiscal impact analysis and, 704
land use and, 7
cleanup of, 163
indirect value capture and, 777
land use and, 758
New Urbanism and, 507–8, 517
transportation and, 554
epidemics, Third World and, 894
Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974, 324
equity. See also inequities
economic growth and, 705
in education, 599–600
mass transit policy and, 8
social capital and, 233
sprawl and, 160–64
transportation and, 562–77
urban planning and, 16
(p. 973) equity urban planning, 23
escape loops, 771
escape options, Third World and, 893–95
ethnic disadvantage, 346
ethnicity
DI by, 586t
drug war and, 249, 264
gentrification and, 373
in low-income housing, 242
trust and, 241
ethnic lock, 249
ethnoburbs, 342, 360
Euclid v. Ambler, 73n10
European cities, 195–96
European Sustainable Cities, 888
European Union of Telecottage Associations (EUTA), 897
evictions
in China, 871, 872n17
displacement and, 382
in India, 871–72, 872n18
from informal housing, 801, 846
from low-income housing, 242
mega-events and, 871
from slums, 801, 871–72
exactions, 776
excess sprawl, 125
exchange value, 790, 800–803
exclusion
in Asia, 846–47
informality and, 829
exclusionary zoning, 442, 443
mixed land uses and, 447
Executive Order 11063, 464
expenditure need, 747
Experimental Housing Allowance Program (EHAP), 430
The Explosive Metropolis (Whyte), 109
export-base businesses, tax incentives for, 642
extended urban areas (EUAs), 114
extensive margin of cultivation, 58
external diseconomies, 892
externalities
from agglomeration, 642–43
of automobiles, 571–72
CGE and, 54
congestion and, 71, 88
dynamic, 104
with infill, 475, 495
to investment, 43
in land use, 69–70
market failures and, 69–70
natural disasters and, 406
nuisance
land use and, 116
zoning and, 439, 442
pecuniary, 101
Pigouvian taxes and, 446
potential, 99, 101
preference, 323
public goods and, 33
realized, 99, 108
social welfare and, 32n4
spillovers and, 740
tax incentives and, 642–43
to transportation, 554
of unpriced congestion, 126–28
urban planning and, 32
zoning and, 446–47
Fair Housing Act of 1968, 303, 310, 323–24, 465, 469
discrimination and, 324
elimination of, 470
fair-market rent, 430
families
in homeless shelters, 280
neighborhoods and, 212–14
fast-food restaurants, 323
favored quarter, 365
fear, 292
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 428
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 408, 409
Federal Empowerment Zones, 658
federal government
accountability and, 749
(p. 974) drug war and, 253
Great Depression and, 730
highways and, 153
housing markets and, 311
infill and, 476
infrastructure and, 92
in Japan, 912–13
Medicaid and, 737, 738n10
mortgage interest rates and, 21, 154, 311
natural disasters and, 408
Portland, Oregon and, 710
public transit and, 564–65
schools and, 590
in South Korea, 915–16
sprawl and, 163, 310
transparency and, 749
workforce development and, 618–20
Federal Home Loan Bank, 428
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 154, 428
discrimination and, 429, 434
federalism
creative, 738
fend-for-yourself, 740
fiscal, 9, 21, 24
low-income communities and, 736
promise and perils of, 733–37
vertical inequities and, 736
New Federalism, 738
Nixon and, 738
Federal National Mortgage Association, 428
fend-for-yourself federalism, 740
financial crisis, 3–4
government regulation and, 75
financing
of infrastructure, 91–93
New Urbanism and, 512
of schools, 590–92, 590f, 591t, 598
tax incentives and, 640–41
tax increment, 635
for telehouses, 901–2
for workforce development, 621–22
first-best pricing, for transportation, 557
first-chance system, for workforce development, 617
First Comprehensive National Physical Development Plan (CNPDP), in South Korea, 915
first market, of public transit, 568
First Theorem of Welfare Economics, 52–55
fiscal federalism, 9, 21, 24
low-income communities and, 736
promise and perils of, 733–37
vertical inequities and, 736
fiscal impact analysis, 8–9
built environment and, 704
community classification studies, 716, 723
of compact vs. sprawl, 717t–719t
comparative community studies, 716, 722
costs and, 705n4
cost-benefit analyses and, 704, 705f
econometric studies, 716, 724
infrastructure and, 721
for land use, 715
leapfrog development and, 721
prototype studies, 716, 721–22
for regional planning, 722–24
regression models and, 723–24
for settlement patterns, 715–24
for urban growth, 703–28
theory and methods of, 704–15
for zoning, 715
The Fiscal Impact Handbook, 708
fiscal zoning, 442, 443
discrimination with, 463
housing markets and, 735
Fischel, William, 443, 456, 457
fixed plans, 31
flat grants, 599
floating value, 761
floods, 405–6
New Urbanism and, 517
floor-area ratio (FAR), 64, 65f, 440
zoning and, 448
floor space index (FSI), 871
flypaper effect, 20
grants and, 737n8
follow-the-leader policies, in Third World, 890–91
food stamps, 309, 737
forecasting
of costs, 712–15
(p. 975) of economic growth, 709–10
of revenue, 710–12
foreign direct investments (FDIs), 910
formal market, 816
housing prices and, 818
former gateways, 347n5, 348
fortress strategy, 509
foundation grants, 599
for schools, 742
Fourteenth Amendment, 442
free rider problem, 70, 597, 735
free trade, 17
Friedman, Milton, 270
friendship networks, 219–20
functional depreciation, 421
functional fragmentation, 675
fundamental demand, 427
GAIN, 630
game theory, 30, 45–46
uncertainty and, 39–41
gangs
crime and, 237
drugs and, 250, 254–55
employment in, 255–56
protection from, 265
social capital and, 238
gasoline
prices of, 523
taxes for, 557
Gáspár, Mátyás, 897
gated cities, 292
gateways
continuous, 346, 348
emerging, 348
former, 347n5, 348
immigrants and, 347–55, 349t
in Los Angeles, 362t
post-World War II, 348
pre-emerging, 348
re-emerging, 348
Gautreaux, Dorothy, 210, 464
GED, 587
gender auditing, for African transportation, 841
General Accounting Office, 623
general equilibrium analysis, 72–73
general equilibrium revolution, 74
General Revenue Sharing (GRS), 739, 740, 745
general transportation networks, 88
gentrification, 6–7, 371–87
in Boston, 383
capital and, 378–79
causes of, 375–81
census tracts and, 384
consequences of, 382–87
culture and, 381
definition of, 372
demographics and, 376, 380–81
displacement from, 382–84
ethnicity and, 373
government regulation and, 380
housing markets and, 374–75
income and, 372–73, 384
in low-income communities, 373, 374–75
neighborhoods and, 372–76, 386
neoclassical economic perspective on, 376–78
in New York, 383
poverty and, 375
quality-of-life and, 384–85
race and, 373, 385–86
racial segregation and, 333
segmentation and, 423
urban growth and, 386
urban planning and, 17
Geographic Information System (GIS), 409
George, Henry, 760
Georgia, 862
Georgian movement, 760
German spatial economic theory, 55
Ghana, 839
ghetto labor market, drug firms and, 253–57
GI Bill, 296
Glass, Ruth, 371, 372
global cities
agglomeration and, 190
rankings of, 192t
satellite towns and, 873
globalization, 3, 118
Asian and, 845–79
cities and, 5
economies of scale and, 870–74
(p. 976) Japan and, 909
in Third World, 891
global maximum, 445
Global Telecottage Association (GTA), 897
Going Local (Shuman), 669
Golden rule, 293
Google, 902
Gordon growth model, 426
government regulation, 55, 68. See also federal government; specific laws
of African transportation, 842–43
Brundtland Report and, 888–89
in China, 918–19
costs of, 513–14
in drugs, 272
education and, 309
employment and, 309
financial crisis and, 75
gentrification and, 380
homelessness and, 285–86
in housing markets, 26n11, 285–86, 419–35
for infill, 475–77
infrastructure and, 92
labor markets and, 637
of land use, 421, 745–80
land value and, 421
location and, 598–605
in markets, 73
market failure and, 71
for multifamily housing, 430–31
multinational firms and, 892
New Urbanism and, 513–14
as police power, 30, 31
poverty and, 309–11
of public transit, 8, 562–77
of racial segregation, 332–35
space and, 309–10
sprawl and, 154–55
suburbanization and, 296
telehouses and, 899, 902
for transportation, 556–57
urban planning and, 33
for workforce development, 618–22
of zoning, 310–11
gradual catch-up, 882
Gramm amendment, 263
grants, 9
allocation with, 738n11
CDBG, 22, 738
ESEA and, 738
flat, 599
flypaper effect and, 737n8
foundation, 599
for schools, 742
Great Society and, 738
match-grant programs, 599
process, 408
project, 408
for schools, 599
spillovers and, 740
tagging of, 748
War on Poverty and, 738
grants-in-aid, 733, 738
Gravel, Mike, 261
Graycar, Adam, 240
Great Depression, 175
federal government and, 730
public transit and, 563
Great Migration, of African Americans, 293–94, 585
Great Society, 55
grants and, 738
greenbelts, 142
in Tokyo, 913–14
Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 602–3
gross state product (GSP), 746
ground rent, 379
Growing Cooler, 523
Haiti earthquake, 395
Hamilton, Bruce, 463
Hamiltonian, 35–36
harm reduction, drug war and, 267
Hart-Cellar Act, 343, 343n1
Harvey, David, 378n7
Hayek, F.A., 99, 100
hazards, 395n1, 396n3
imperfect information about, 406–7
HAZUS, 401
health
agglomeration and, 906
census tracts and, 309
(p. 977) homelessness and, 281
mental health
homelessness and, 283, 284
MTO and, 211, 211n5, 214n9
peer effects on, 218–19
poverty and, 308–9
segregation and, 308–9
hedonic analysis, 24–25, 326
for housing prices, 425
for infill, 486–87, 495
Heikkila, Eric, 658
Henry George theorem, 66
heroin, 254
harm reduction with, 267
heterogeneity, 604, 734
higher-order effects, from natural disasters, 400, 411
high-rise buildings, 9
of Mumbai, 789–812
as symbols, 798–800
Highway Revenue Act of 1956, 557
highways
in Africa, 837
community classification studies and, 723
costs of, 554
damages to, 554
demand for, 551
economic growth and, 707
federal government and, 153
natural disasters and, 403
population growth and, 125
sprawl and, 154
subsidies for, 158, 564
suburbanization and, 296
Highway Trust Fund, 565
Hispanics. See Latinos
historic districts, 24
ho khau, 875
Holder, Eric, 267
homelessness, 6, 277–89
of African Americans, 283
definition of, 278
demographics and, 284
drugs and, 283
government regulation and, 285–86
health and, 281
housing markets and, 278
housing subsidies and, 285–86
increases in, 284n1
interventions and, 286–89
mental health and, 283, 284
numbers of, 278–81, 279t
poverty and, 282–83, 284
of prisoners, 283
spells of, 279–81, 280t
unemployment and, 280
zoning and, 285
homeless shelters
families in, 280
in Philadelphia, 282
seasons and, 282
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, 324
homeownership
citizenship and, 215
GI Bill and, 296
housing prices and, 215
income tax and, 432
infill and, 478–79
neighborhoods and, 214–15, 214n10
Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC), 428–29
homeschooling, 606
Homestead Act of 1862, 428
homevoter hypothesis, 24n9, 154
The Homevoter Hypothesis (Fischel), 457
Hong Kong, 764n8
Hope VI, 221, 380
horizontal inequities, 736, 745
horizontal integration, 691
Household Food Expenditure Survey, 301
household needs, 669–71
housing
affordability of, 116
informality and, 819
in Mumbai, 801
racial segregation and, 333
suburbanization and, 300
urbanization and, 906
urban planning for, 365
bidding, 376, 735
bubbles, 116, 427
CBD and, 422
commuting and, 593, 605
consumption of, 281
(p. 978) depreciation with, 421–22
income tax and, 432–33
indirect value capture and, 777
informality and, eviction from, 801
in inner-city, 377–78
in low-income communities
crime in, 241–42
eviction from, 242
social capital in, 241–42
multifamily
as conditional use, 431
government regulation for, 430–31
poverty and, 431
zoning for, 431
overproduction of, in suburbs, 311
property tax and, 433
public, 221
drug war and, 263–64
failure of, 430
relocations with, 206
vouchers for, 430
schools and, 605
segregation with, 586–87
services, 593
subsidies for, homelessness and, 285–86
taxes and, 432–33
Housing Act of 1937, 429
Housing Act of 1949, 429
Housing Act of 1974, 738
housing assistance policy, 310
Housing Choice Voucher (HCV), 286, 287, 466
Housing Discrimination Study, 324
Housing First, 288–89
housing markets, 7
demand shocks in, 427
discrimination and, 433–35
dual, 818
elasticity in, 21, 21n4
federal government and, 311
fiscal zoning and, 735
gentrification and, 374–75
government regulation in, 26n11, 285–86, 419–35
homelessness and, 278
housing bidding and, 735
Marxism and, 376, 377–78
Ponzi schemes in, 427
prices and, 419–35, 593
segmentation of, 422–23
segregation and, 433–35
spatial mismatch and, 433–35
suburbanization and, 300
housing prices
capitalization and, 735, 736
discrimination and, 434
formal market and, 818
hedonic analysis for, 425
homeownership and, 215
indirect value capture and, 777
infill and, 491–97, 493t–494t
measurement of, 423–25
multifamily housing and, 431
New Urbanism and, 509–11
public goods and, 594
pure price index for, 424
racial segregation and, 333
taxes and, 594
white individual action and, 326
Houston, 455–57
Hoyt, Homer, 377n5
hukou, 863, 877, 917n10
human capital
accidents and, 554
development of, 8
economic growth and, 99
technology and, 99
education and, 209–10
employment and, 213
poverty and, 293
spillovers, 99
workforce development and, 627
Hungary, telehouses in, 900
Hurricane Hugo, 405
Hurricane Ivan, 399
Hurricane Katrina, 42, 395
cost of, 398
losses from, 405
New Orleans and, 396
population and, 403
Ida Wells Homes, 430
identity politics, 249
Illich, Ivan, 799
immigrants. See also rural-to-urban migration; southward shift
crime and, 238
discouraging, 874–78
discrimination of, 293
education and, 350
English and, 350
gateways and, 347–55, 349t
growth of, 851t–852t
in India, 873
in Los Angeles, 356–63, 357f359f
multinational firms and, 891–93
percentage of, 343f
population and, 850t
poverty and, 293
reform regulation with, 342
segregation of, 209–10
social capital and, 238
social welfare for, 876–77
space and, 340–68
suburbanization and, 341
suburbs and, 6, 352t
sustainability and, 882–904
Third World and, 882–904
quantification of, 884–87
urban planning and, 364–68
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), 343
impact fees, 159, 161
impact mitigation, 777
imperfect information, about hazards, 406–7
imperfect markets, 546
IMPLAN, 709
import substitution, 665–68
imputed rent, 426, 426n5
mortgage interest and, 432–33
incentives, 8. See also tax incentives
with infrastructure, 636
with labor markets, 637–38
political economics of, 648
zoning and, 776
inclusionary zoning (IZ), 162, 333–34
income
automobile ownership and, 127
bid-rent and, 423
commuting and, 156
discrimination by, 310
elasticity in, 593
gentrification and, 372–73, 384
infill and, 479
natural disasters and, 397
Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 384
segregation by, 303, 306–7, 593
suburbanization and, 127
transportation and, 550
income tax, 54, 161
homeownership and, 432
housing and, 432–33
for localities, 733
mortgage interest and, 432
natural disasters and, 408
optimal, 77
incomplete markets, 407
increasing returns to scale, 66
incumbent upgrading, 372
indemnification, 774
indirect value capture and, 777
independent and identical distribution (IID), 537
India, 869n15
agriculture in, 875–76
evictions in, 871–72, 872n18
follow-the-leader policies in, 890
immigrants in, 873
indirect betterment, 663
indirect effects, from natural disasters, 400
indirect value capture, 766, 775–79
alternatives to, 776–77
future of, 779–80
international, 777–78
preconditions for, 778–79
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 619
indivisibility, 30
Indonesia, 853n6, 872n19
communism in, 864n11
Industrial Area Foundations, 625
industrial complex, 195
industry clustering and, 169–80
industrialization, urbanization and, 168
industrial structure, 669–71
industry clustering, 102
agglomeration and, 169–80
economies of scale and, 168–97
(p. 980) industrial complex and, 169–80
knowledge spillovers and, 172
local knowledge and, 171
social networks and, 169–80
transaction costs and, 169t
urban growth and, 168–97
inequities
horizontal, 736, 745
vertical, 736
infill, 473–98
agricultural land and, 486
central cities and, 479, 495
concentration and, 483n3
definition of, 479–80
densities of, 485–91
discrimination and, 479
externalities with, 475, 495
federal government and, 476
government regulation for, 475–77
hedonic analysis for, 486–87, 495
homeownership and, 478–79
housing prices and, 491–97, 493t–494t
income and, 479
infrastructure and, 478
insurance and, 478
land value and, 474
large-lot zoning and, 477
low-income communities and, 496
in Maryland, 484f, 490f, 491f
measurement of, 480–85, 482t
mixed land uses and, 476
in MSA, 483
New Urbanism and, 474–75, 486
obstacles to, 477–79
in Oregon, 476
population and, 475
race and, 479
risk and, 478
Smart Growth and, 474–75
spillovers with, 495
sprawl and, 476
traffic congestion with, 496
transportation and, 475
UGBs and, 476
urban growth and, 476, 478
urbanization and, 479
zoning and, 474, 477, 487–88
informality, 9
betterment and, 827
deregulation and, 829
economic approach to, 817–20
employment and, in Africa, 839
exclusion and, 829
housing and
affordability of, 819
eviction from, 801, 846
infrastructure and, 822
land use and, 819
phenomenon of, 815–17
policy alternatives for, 824–29
PPP and, 827
property tax and, 825–26
service access and, 821–22
titling land and, 820–21
urban economics and, 819–20
urban planning and, 814–30
value capture and, 826–28
informal market, 816
informal sector, 806
informal settlements, 806, 814. See also slums
in Asia, 846
informal tenure, 758
information, 40
ambiguous, 99
asymmetric, 42
CGE and, 54
insurance and, 54
market failures and, 72
common, 54
imperfect, about hazards, 406–7
REIS, 10
spatial information theory index, 321
information technology, 902
infrastructure. See also specific elements of infrastructure
for African transportation, 842
agglomeration and, 906
banks for, 93
betterment capture with, 766–67
betterment of, direct value capture and, 765
CIL, 769
of cities, 4–5
comparative community studies and, 722
consumer sovereignty and, 85
costs of, 706
diversity in, 86–87
(p. 981) entropy formulation in, 87
federal government and, 92
financing of, 91–93
fiscal impact analysis and, 721
government regulation and, 92
incentives with, 636
indirect value capture and, 777
infill and, 478
informality and, 822
interdependence with, 83, 87
inter-urban infrastructure systems, 81–82
investment in, 82, 82t
managing change in, 81–94
measurement of, 84
natural disasters and, 403
optimal provision of, 85
optimal use of, 85
private sector and, 710n7
prototype studies and, 721
as public good, 84
for public transit, 571
research for, 93–94
resilience in, 87
sprawl and, 506
suburbanization and, 296
sustainability in, 87
technology and, 81
theory of clubs and, 86
for transportation, 546, 553–54, 557
for water and sanitation, 310
Ingram, Gregory, 108
inner-beltway infill, 483
inner-city
fear and, 292
housing in, 377–78
neighborhoods in
drug war and, 248–74
labor markers and, 307
suburbs and, 307
schools in, 308
input-cost index, 747
input-output models (IO)
IMPLAN as, 709
of natural disasters, 400, 401–2
regional, 687
REMI as, 709
input sharing, 906n1
institutions, 99. See also specific institutions
African transportation and, 835–38
drug war and, 272–73
of elites, 378
natural disasters and, 404
transportation and, 9
urban economics and, 4
institutional impacts, 665–68
instrumental action, 45
insurance
asymmetric information and, 54
infill and, 478
for mortgages, 428
for natural disasters, 404–6
risk and, 410–11
insured damages, 404n9
insured losses, 404n9
intensive city, 790, 800, 802–3
interdependence, 30
with infrastructure, 83, 87
natural disasters and, 397, 403
with transportation, 88n9
interdistrict open enrollment, for schools, 607
intergovernmental transfers, 737–38
in China, 918–19
international betterment capture, 766–75
international decentralization, 732
international efforts, in drug war, 251n5
international indirect value capture, 777–78
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 895–97
international trade theory, 55
inter-urban city connections, 197
inter-urban infrastructure systems, 81–82
interventions
design for, 535–36
homelessness and, 286–89
intradistrict open enrollment, for schools, 606–7
intrametropolitan wage variation, 66
investment. See also capital; financing; subsidies
agglomeration and, 84
capital for, 636
externalities to, 43
FDIs, 910
in infrastructure, 82, 82t
by multinational firms, in Third World, 891–93
(p. 982) with New Urbanism, 511–18
in public transit, 564, 571, 573–74
for transportation, 557, 558–59
for workforce development, 627–28
invisible hand, 22, 51, 53
Ireland, 767n12
irreversibility, 30
Isard, Walter, 55
The Isolated State (von Thünen), 56–57
isolation index, 353
Israel
betterment capture in, 770–71
common-law tradition in, 767n12
Istanbul, 865, 873
earthquakes in, 873n20
ISTEA, 565
Jabotabek, 872n19
Jacobs, Jane, 100, 104, 792
Jakarta, 872n19, 873
James Duncan Associates, 722
Japan. See also Tokyo
CNDP in, 912–13
federal government in, 912–13
globalization and, 909
prefectures of, 909n4
urban growth in, 912–13
urbanization in, 906–29, 908t
assessment of, 920–22
Jewish Vocational Services, 626
Jim Crow laws, 265, 273
job-centered development, 664–65, 664f
job decentralization, 155–58
Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 (JGTRRA), 748–49
job sprawl, 108
JobStart Demonstration, 624
job suburbanization, 131
job training. See workforce development
Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), 623
evaluation of, 629
Johnson, Lyndon B., 738
Joint Federal-State Action Committee, 738
Jones, David, 563
Justice Department, 256
justice reinvestment, 270
Kain, John F., 330, 435, 570
Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, 16
Karachi, 865
Katmandu, 865
Kazakhstan, 862, 864
Kelly, Raymond W., 269
Kelo v. New London, 44, 116–17
Kennedy, John F., 464
Kestnbaum Commission, 738
Keys v. School District No. 1, 603
Kiel, Katherine, 434
kinetic city, 792
knowledge spillovers, 104
industry clustering and, 172
knowledge workers, 618, 618n2
Korde, Bhau, 797–98
kota, 875
Kryg, 864
Kuwait, 862
Aliens' Residence Law in, 872
Nationality Law in, 872
Kyrgyzstan, 862
labor force intermediaries, 624
labor markets. See also employment; unemployment; workforce development
Census Bureau and, 646
enterprise zones and, 646–48
government regulation and, 637
incentives with, 637–38
inner-city neighborhoods and, 307
job-centered development and, 664–65
neighborhoods and, 210–14, 305
poverty and, 293
pure price index and, 523
spatial arrangements of, 99
taxes and, 523
labor pooling, 906n1
Lai, Lawrence, 100
(p. 983) LaMarche, Gara, 269
land banking, 763, 764, 764n9, 768
Land Commission Act, 768
land development, profit motives in, 159–60
land markets, 116
market failures and, 100
land release, 168, 194–95
landslides, 398
land use
built environment and, 7
in China, 920
city size and, 194–97
COS for, 716
covenants and, 441
deed restrictions and, 441
discrimination with, 460–71
enterprise zones and, 647
environment and, 758
exclusions with, 116
externalities in, 69–70
fiscal impact analyses for, 715
Georgian movement and, 760
government regulation of, 421, 745–80
housing markets and, 7
informality and, 9, 819
intensity of, 448–49
microeconomic theory of, 524
mixed, 114
exclusionary zoning and, 447
infill and, 476
in neighborhoods, 504
New Urbanism and, 507, 514
in slums, 796
in Tokyo, 805
urban planning and, 504
zoning and, 444
natural disasters and, 408
New Urbanism and, 506
nuisance externalities and, 116
patterns for, 444
policy for, 116–17
public transit and, 571, 574
regulations for, 24
restrictions on, 66
in South Korea, 915
subsidies and, 161
traffic congestion and, 5
transportation and, in Africa, 840
urban economics and, 7
von Thünen model and, 59–68
windfalls and, 755–80
zoning and, 7, 33, 439–40, 448–49
Land use Evolution and Impact Assessment Model (LEAM), 688
land value, 379
agglomeration and, 421
capitalization and, 748
equations, 452, 452n5
government regulation and, 421
infill and, 474
natural barriers and, 421
New Urbanism and, 509–11
price of, 420
public transit and, 571
rent and, 637n2
zoning and, 453–55
large-lot zoning, 442
infill and, 477
sprawl and, 506
Larsson, Mimi, 899
Latin America
southward shift in, 850
urbanization in, 860–61, 864
Latinos. See also Mexicans
African Americans and, 367
discrimination of, 345, 435
drugs and, 249
education of, 587
in Los Angeles, 360, 361f, 363f
in New York, 282
in Philadelphia, 282
poverty of, 302
in prisons, 251n7, 257n30
segregation of, 304, 585–86
Law Enforcement against Prohibition, 268
leapfrog development, 474, 486
fiscal impact analysis and, 721
Lebanon, 862
legalization
of drugs, 266
of marijuana, 270
leveling up spending, 743
level playing field, 876
libertarian paternalism, 19
(p. 984) Library, City Planning and Zoning Committee of the Chicago Real Estate Board, 441
life cycle cost analysis, 559
Limbaugh, Rush, 269
linguistic competence, 46
linkage fees, 776
lived city, 792
living wage, 642
local economies, African transportation and, 841
local hiring agreements, 367
localization, 104
local knowledge, 100
industry clustering and, 171
local ownership, 668–69
local private goods, 323
local public goods, 70–71
racial segregation and, 327–28
Local Public Works program, 739
location
education and, 583–610
employment and, 595
government regulation and, 598–605
public goods and, 594–95
schools and, 595
taxes and, 594
locational equilibrium, 60, 66, 67, 75
closed city and, 66
schools and, 592
Location and Land Use (Alonso), 55
Location and Space Economy (Isard), 55
Locke, John, 757
London Plan, 380
long run planning, 713n8
Los Angeles, 341–42, 346–47
African Americans in, 360, 361f, 363f
gateways in, 362t
immigrants in, 355–63, 357f359f
Latinos in, 360, 361f, 363f
Pico Union in, 240–41
losses
aversion to, 20
from Hurricane Katrina, 405
insured, 404n9
from natural disasters, 400
low-income communities
fiscal federalism and, 736
gentrification in, 373, 374–75
housing in
crime in, 241–42
eviction from, 242
social capital in, 241–42
infill and, 496
mobility in, 748
prisoners from, 263
public transit for, 567
rent in, 430
Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), 311
lumpiness, 713
lump-sum redistribution, 77
macro value capture, 763–65
Madison, James, 455–56
magnet schools, 606–7
mainstreaming, 410
Malaysia, 875
Manila, 865
Manpower Development Training Act (MDTA), 622
manufacturing extension services, 8, 636, 645
Marcelli, Enrico, 342
marginal construction cost, 64
marginal cost methods, for cost forecasting, 712–13, 712f, 714t
marginal social cost (MSC), 127
marginal travel cost, 63
marijuana
decriminalization of, 267
legalization of, 270
NORML and, 269
pharmaceutical companies and, 260, 260n44
markets. See also housing markets; labor markets; land markets
allocation and, 75
government regulation in, 73
prices and, 73
sprawl and, 151–52
for transportation, 556–57
virtues of, 72–74
zoning and, 449–53
(p. 985) market failures
asymmetric information and, 72
classic theory of, 69–71
externalities and, 69–70
government regulation and, 71
land market and, 100
mixed economy and, 22–23
monocentric cities and, 66
private property rights and, 32
public good and, 70–71, 597
sprawl and, 124
urban planning and, 4, 31–34, 47
market insurance, 404
market power, 56, 76
Marshall, Alfred, 173–75, 181
Marxian critique, 77
Marxism
housing markets and, 376, 377–78
urban planning and, 792–93
Maryland, 484f, 490f, 491f
Massey, Doug, 295, 342
mass transit. See public transit
match-grant programs, 599
maternal mortality, in Africa, 834
mathematics, 587–88, 588t, 589t
McFadden, Daniel, 527
MCI, 259
McKinney, Cynthia, 463
mechanization of habitats, 791
median voter, 461n2
Medicaid, 738, 738n10
ARRA and, 748
federal government and, 737, 738n10
MEED, 644
megacities, 175
agglomeration in, 349n7
in Asia, 854
mega-events, evictions and, 871
Mehrotra, Rahul, 792
mental health
homelessness and, 283, 284
MTO and, 211, 211n5, 214n9
merit goods, 736
methadone, 267
metropolitan planning agencies, 680
metropolitan statistical area (MSA), 125, 348
commuting in, 137–41
infill in, 483
public transit and, 569
metropolitan transport authorities, in Africa, 838–41
Mexicans, 293, 345n2
Mexico, drug war and, 267n60
Miami, 347
Michigan Manufacturing Technology Center (MMTC), 645
microeconomic theory, 16, 25
of land use, 524
for Third World, 892
of transportation, 553
urban planning and, 16
Microsoft, 902
migration. See immigrants
Millennium Development Goals, 835
Millennium Project, 794
Milliken v. Bradley, 603, 603n13
Mills, Edwin, 116
minibuses, in Africa, 839–40
Minneapolis-St. Paul, 744
minorities. See also specific minorities
drugs and, 249
drug war and, 272–73
FHA and, 429
poverty of, 293
public transit and, 563, 567
segregation of, 585–86
Miron, Jeffrey, 253
Missouri v. Jenkins, 603, 603n13
mitigation, of natural disasters, 407
mixed economy, 22–23
New Urbanism and, 221
mixed land uses, 114
exclusionary zoning and, 447
infill and, 476
in neighborhoods, 504
New Urbanism and, 507, 514
in slums, 796
in Tokyo, 805
urban planning and, 504
zoning and, 444
mobility, 205, 213
(p. 986) in Africa, 836
allocation and, 736
in China, 863, 917
decentralization and, 736
employment and, 562–63
in low-income communities, 748
schools and, 736n4
spatial, 24
in transportation, 560
Model Cities program, 738
money laundering, 254, 260
Mongolia, 873
agriculture in, 875
monocentric cities, 65, 66, 75, 108–9, 133
allocation in, 75
asymmetric, 130–31
CBD and, 67
CGE and, 68
congestion tolling and, 142–43
distortions in, 66–67
job decentralization in, 155
market failures and, 66
neighborhoods and, 75
vs. polycentric cities, 26
sprawl and, 129–30
monopolistic competition, 56
monopoly, 23
natural, 69, 71
returns to scale and, 71
for transportation, 556
prices and, 33, 36
Montgomery County, Ohio, 744
moral paranoia, 269
Mortgage Banking Association of America, 432
mortgage insurance, 428
mortgage interest
federal government and, 21, 154, 311
imputed rent and, 432–33
income tax and, 432
rent and, 426
subsidies for, 296
Moses, Robert, 23n6
moving-target urban development, 890
Moving to Opportunity (MTO), 205, 211, 331–32
mental health and, 211, 211n5, 214n9
Multi-City Study, 322
multifamily housing
as conditional use, 431
government regulation for, 430–31
poverty and, 431
zoning for, 431
multinational firms, 193
government regulation and, 892
immigrants and, 891–93
investment by, in Third World, 891–93
multiplier effects, of construction, 720n9
Multipurpose Community Tele-centres (MCT), 895–97
multivariate analysis, 115
Mumbai
context of, 791–92
high-rise buildings of, 789–812
as symbols, 798–800
housing affordability in, 801
inequality in, 793–94
informal sector in, 806
informal settlements in, 806
slums of, 789–812
musical suburbs, 735
Muth, Richard, 61
Muth Rule, 61, 64
mutual interdependence, 132
Myanmar, 864
Nash equilibrium, 43
NatCat database, 400
Nation, Carrie, 262
National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP), 587–88, 589t
National Association of Homebuilders, 432, 720n9
National Association of Realtors, 432
National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), 405–6
National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), 567
National Income and Product Accounts, 730
Nationality Law, in Kuwait, 872
nationalization, Communism and, 764
(p. 987) National Land Use Management Law, in South Korea, 915
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), 269
National Population Redistribution Coordinating Committee, in South Korea, 915
natural barriers, land value and, 421
natural disasters, 7
businesses and, 404
employment and, 403
externalities and, 406
federal government and, 408
highways and, 403
impact analysis of, 401–2
income tax and, 408
infrastructure and, 403
institutions and, 404
insurance for, 404–6
interdependence and, 403
land use and, 408
numbers of, 398f
stock markets and, 412–13
syndrome, 405
terminology and conceptual frameworks with, 400–401
Third World and, 894
trends and patterns of, 397–99
urban economics and, 399–407
urban planning for, 395–414
natural monopoly, 69, 71
returns to scale and, 71
for transportation, 556
naturalness argument
public transit and, 153
sprawl and, 152–53
needle exchange programs, 267
needs based approaches, 742
negotiated coexistence, 239
Negro removal, 378n8
neighborhoods, 6, 101
African Americans in, 322–23
children and, 212–14
crime in, 214, 230–44
drugs and, 249, 251, 254
drug war and, 264–65
employment and, 163
families and, 212–14
gentrification and, 372–76, 386
homeownership and, 214–15, 214n10
individual outcomes and, 208–15
in inner-city
drug war and, 248–74
labor markers and, 307
suburbs and, 307
labor markets and, 210–14, 305
mixed land uses in, 504
monocentric cities and, 75
natural disasters and, 406
New Urbanism and, 508–9
poverty in, 207, 210–11, 300–301, 304–6
racial segregation and, 331–32
redevelopment of, 163–64
rehabilitation of, 267–68
schools and, 213–14, 307, 597
segregation of, 321
social capital and, 221–22
social networks and, 211, 212
social welfare and, 213
spillovers in, 222
in Tokyo, 805
zoning and, 33n5
Neighborhood Sorting Index, 303–4
neighborhood watch programs, 242
neoclassical economic perspective, on gentrification, 376–78
neoconservatives, drug war and, 261
neoliberalism, 380
Nepal, 864
net fiscal benefit, 736
Netherlands, 764
net public revenues, 706
new economic geography, 56, 67–68, 100n3
New Federalism, 738
Nixon and, 738
New Growth Theory, 26
New Industrial City (NIC), 912
The New Landscape (Correa), 798
New Orleans, 396
new socialist countryside, 874
new start programs, for public transit, 574
New Town Development Plan, in Seoul, 916
New Urbanism, 7, 109, 365
accessibility and, 508
air pollution and, 506
(p. 988) building permits and, 517–18
in California, 505
children and, 508
connectivity and, 506–7
construction and, 511–12
densities and, 506, 514
environment and, 507–8, 517
features of, 506–9
financing and, 512
floods and, 517
government regulation and, 513–14
housing prices and, 509–11
infill and, 474–75, 486
investment with, 511–18
land use and, 506
land value and, 509–11
mixed economy and, 221
mixed land uses and, 507, 514
neighborhoods and, 508–9
pedestrians and, 506–7
in Portland, Oregon, 504
public participation in, 515–17
quality-of-life and, 506
schools and, 508
sense of community with, 508–9
sprawl and, 505, 506
transit-oriented development and, 144–46
uniqueness of, 514–15
urban economics of, 503–19
urban planning and, 4, 51–77
VMT and, 506
New Urban News, 506
New York, 173
gentrification in, 383
Latinos in, 282
public transit in, 568
New York Tenement Commission of 1894, 428
Nixon, Richard, 251, 269
New Federalism and, 738
No Child Left Behind (NCLB), 618, 621, 732
noncooperative games, 4, 29, 31
Nash equilibrium and, 43
non-excludable public good, 70
non-export-base businesses, tax incentives for, 642
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 794
anti-eviction efforts by, 821
Brundtland Report, 887
telehouses and, 897
nonmotorized transport (NMT), 836
nonoperational betterment, 771–72
non-rivalrous public good, 70
North, Douglass, 99
Northridge earthquake, 403
not in my backyard (NIMBY), 17, 74, 116
suburbs and, 366
nuisance externalities
land use and, 116
zoning and, 439, 442
obesity epidemic, 523
OECD, 188
agglomeration and, 186
O'Flaherty, Brendan, 253
Old North End, in Burlington, Vermont, 659
Oman, 862, 872
ombudsmen, 636
One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions and Economic Growth (Rodrik), 21
open city models, 66
open enrollment, 606–7
open markets, 17
open spaces, 156, 158
opium, 254
optimal city size, 66, 101
economic growth and, 727
returns to scale and, 66
optimal income tax, 77
optimal provision, of infrastructure, 85
option value, 454
ordinary least-squares (OLS), 724
(p. 989) Oregon
betterment capture in, 767
densities in, 476
federal government and, 710
infill in, 476
New Urbanism in, 504
property tax in, 711t
revenue in, 710
Orshansky, Mollie, 301
Our Common Future, 887
out-migration, 298
Pacific Belt, 909n4, 909t
Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 384
parachute kids, 360
parents, schools and, 597, 605
Pareto efficient
CGE and, 52–53
competitive equilibrium and, 63
Pareto improvements, 17
Pareto optimal, 43
partial equilibrium analysis, 52, 74
participation, 776
participative planning and implementation, theory of, 661n6
pass-throughs, 738
path choice modeling, 532
self-selection and, 536–38
path dependency, 101
peak-load pricing, 113
PECAS, 691
pecuniary externalities, 101
pedestrians, 529–30
in Africa, 837
New Urbanism and, 506–7
peer effects, 6, 215–21
delinquency and, 219
in education, 215–18
with education, 308
friendship networks and, 219–20
on health, 218–19
poverty and, 207
on productivity, 220
racial segregation and, 331–32
schools and, 597
spillovers and, 219–20
on substance abuse, 218–19
people-based policies, of racial segregation, 334–35
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 740
petty trading, in Africa, 836–37, 839
Pfizer, 44
pharmaceutical companies
ghetto labor market and, 253–57
marijuana and, 260, 260n44
Philadelphia
homeless shelters in, 282
Latinos in, 282
Philippines, agriculture in, 875
phone calls, in prisons, 259, 259n35
physical depreciation, 421
Pico Union, Los Angeles, 240–41
Pigouvian taxes, 125, 129
externalities and, 446
zoning and, 446
pirate subdividers, 815
PIT. See point-in-time
place-based policies
local ownership and, 668–69
on racial segregation, 333–34
Plan Colombia, 251n5
planning. See also regional planning; urban planning
gain, 776
long run, 713n8
obligations, 769, 776
permission, 762
synergy, 662
Planning Gain Supplement, 769
Planning Sustainable Cities, 889
plus-value, 763, 772–73
Britain and, 772
point-in-time (PIT)
determinants of, 281–82
segregation and, 278–79, 321
Poland, 771–72
police, 240
police power
(p. 990) for discrimination, 460–61
government regulation as, 30, 31
zoning as, 439
policy headways, 575
policy trap, Third World and, 893–95
POLIS, 684–85
political economics
of incentives, 648
zoning, 463–64
political profiteering, from drug war, 261–62
pollution, 112
Brundtland Report, 887
New Urbanism and, 506
public transit and, 564
transportation and, 554
polycentric cities, 67
vs. monocentric cities, 26
regional planning and, 194
sprawl and, 125
urban planning and, 196
Pontryagin's minimum principle, 35
Ponzi schemes, 4
in housing markets, 427
popular creativity, 816
population
in central cities, 585f
in China, 863n9
densities in, 105, 108, 524
education and, 584
growth of, 106t, 299t
highways and, 125
Hurricane Katrina and, 403
immigrants and, 850t
infill and, 475
natural disasters and, 397
suburbanization and, 112t
in suburbs, 585f
in Third World, 883–84
Tiebout model and, 748
trends in, 102–8, 103t
in UZAs, 104t
UNPD and, 847–50
urbanization and, 846, 907n2, 911–27
Porter, Michael, 264
Portland, Oregon
densities in, 476
federal government and, 710
New Urbanism in, 504
revenue in, 710
postdisaster recovery, urban planning for, 409–10
post-World War II gateways, 348
potential externalities, 99, 101
poverty, 6. See also low-income communities
of African Americans, 207, 302
alcohol and, 293, 308
centralization of, 293
children and, 308–9
in cities, 302–3
concentration of, 304–6
demographics and, 293
discrimination and, 293
drugs and, 293
education and, 307–8
gentrification and, 375
government regulation and, 309–11
health and, 308–9
homelessness and, 282–83, 284
human capital and, 293
development of, 8
immigrants and, 293
labor markets and, 293
of Latinos, 302
measurement of, 301–2
of minorities, 293
multifamily housing and, 431
in neighborhoods, 207, 210–11, 300–301, 304–6
new form of, 300–301
peer effects and, 207
productivity and, 293
public transit and, 563, 569
schools and, 307, 590
segregation and, 292–312, 293, 303–4, 306–9
self-interest and, 293
in slums, 293
suburbanization and, 295–300
in suburbs, 302–3
trends in, 301–6
zoning and, 293
predisaster risk reduction, for natural disasters, 407–9
pre-emerging gateways, 348
preference externalities, 323
(p. 991) preference revelation mechanism, 70
premature birth, 308
preparedness, for natural disasters, 407
prices
CGE and, 53
for commuting, 550
for construction, 420
for consumption goods, 527
first-best pricing, 557
of gasoline, 523
housing markets and, 419–35, 593
of land value, 420
markets and, 73
monopoly and, 33, 36
for real estate, 7
rents and, 425–27
as signals, 47, 72
of traffic congestion, 128f, 160
for transportation, 549–50, 556–57
urban planning and, 36
price-taking behavior, 54
primary metropolitan statistical area (PMSA), 348
principal-agent models, 23
priority funding areas (PFAs), 476
prisons
African Americans in, 251n7, 257n30
in California, 270
construction of, 251
crime and, 240
drug war and, 251
economic impact of, 257
guards in, 257, 257n29
Latinos in, 251n7, 257n30
manufacturing in, 259, 259n39
phone calls in, 259, 259n35
population growth in, 251n6
privatization of, 259
prisoners
homelessness of, 283
from low-income communities, 263
private good, 70
CGE and, 54
local, 323
private industry councils (PICs), 623
private property rights
Coase theorem and, 69
market failures and, 32
private schools, 597–98
private sector, infrastructure and, 710n7
privatization, 23
of civic services, 871
of prisons, 259
zoning and, 32
process grants, 408
productivity
natural disasters and, 406
peer effects on, 220
poverty and, 293
spatial arrangements and, 695
profit motive, 72
with drugs, 254
in drug war, 256–62
in land development, 159–60
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 619
Progress and Poverty (George), 760
Prohibition, 248, 250, 273–74
project grants, 408
Project Quest, 625–26
property tax
abatement of, 635
base sharing with, 744
DPE and, 743
economic growth and, 707
Georgian movement and, 760
housing and, 433
incidence of, 22
informality and, 9, 825–26
in Oregon, 711t
for schools, 598–99
Tiebout model and, 735
property value. See housing prices; land value
Proposition 36, in California, 270
prospect theory, 19, 20
protected classes, 465, 469
protectionism, 669
prototype studies, 716, 721–22
Pruitt-Igo, 430
public choice theory, 23n6
public finance, 8–9
public goods, 24
allocation of, 594
decentralization and, 596, 733
demographics and, 736
education as, 594
externalities and, 33
(p. 992) housing prices and, 594
infrastructure as, 84
local, 70–71
racial segregation and, 327–28
location and, 594–95
market failure and, 70–71, 597
non-excludable, 70
non-rivalrous, 70
public transit as, 563
pure, 70
quasi, 54
taxes for, 594
Tiebout model and, 592, 593–94
underprovision for, 597
urban planning and, 31
zoning and, 442–43, 463
public housing, 221
drug war and, 263–64
failure of, 430
relocations with, 206
vouchers for, 430
public interventions, 153, 164
public policies. See government regulation
public-private partnerships (PPP), 91
informality and, 827
with telehouses, 898–99
in Third World, 898–99
in transportation, 558
public transit, 111f
accountability for, 573–74
ACS and, 567
air pollution and, 564
automobiles and, 571–72
capital for, 567f
in central cities, 563
commuting by, 568
consumption of, 566t
costs of, 552f
customers for, 575–76
decline of, 145t, 563–64
employment and, 570
equity and, 8
federal government and, 564–65
first market of, 568
government regulation of, 8, 562–77
Great Depression and, 563
infrastructure for, 571
investment in, 564, 571, 573–74
land use and, 571, 574
land value and, 571
for low-income communities, 567
for minorities, 567
minorities and, 563
MSA and, 569
naturalness argument and, 153
new start programs for, 574
in New York, 568
operating revenue shares for, 566f
poverty and, 563, 569
as public good, 563
public support for, 572
quality of, 569t
racial segregation and, 335
rehabilitation of, 571
reverse commuting with, 570
second-best policies and, 572–73
second market for, 568
segmentation of, 568
social welfare and, 570
spatial arrangements and, 571
spatial mismatch and, 570
sprawl and, 564–65
subsidies for, 564, 574–75
traffic congestion and, 564
trends in, 565–68
unemployment and, 563
voting and, 575
Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), 156, 157n8, 356
pure agglomeration, 169
pure discrimination, 462–63
pure exchange economy, 52
pure price index
for housing prices, 424
labor markets and, 523
pure public good, 70
pure strategy, in urban planning, 39–40
Pusan, 910
Putnam, Robert, 231, 240
Qatar, 872
quality-of-life
gentrification and, 384–85
New Urbanism and, 506
quasi public good, 54
(p. 993) race. See also African Americans; Latinos
covenants for, 441
DI by, 586t
discrimination by, 469–70
education and, 218n14
gentrification and, 373, 385–86
human capital development and, 8
infill and, 479
suburbanization and, 298
trust and, 241
zoning by, 462
racial segregation, 204–8, 221, 295, 298, 303–4, 318–36
automobile ownership and, 335
causes of, 322–28
city size and, 585
consequences of, 329–32
education and, 585
gentrification and, 333
government regulation of, 332–35
housing affordability and, 333
housing prices and, 333
of Latinos, 585–86
local public goods and, 327–28
measurement of, 319–21
neighborhoods and, 331–32
peer effects and, 331–32
people-based policies of, 334–35
place-based policies on, 333–34
public transit and, 335
in schools, 327–28, 602–4
spatial mismatch hypothesis with, 330–31
tipping points in, 326–27
white collective action and, 323–25
white individual action and, 325–26
zoning and, 333
racism, 469
RAND Corporation, 252
Rangel, Charlie, 261
rational choice theory, 46
Reagan, Ronald, 737
real estate prices, 7
Real Estate Research Corporation (RERC), 721
REAL ID Act, 732
realized externalities, 99, 108
reciprocity, with social capital, 236
redistribution of resources, 154, 158, 160
decentralization and, 161–62
redistricting, 217
re-emerging gateways, 348
reflection problem, 208, 208n1
refugee resettlement program, 212n7, 213
Regional Economic and Demographic Model, 689
Regional Economic Information System (REIS), 104–5
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, 732
regional growth controls, 164
regional input-output analysis, 687
regional planning, 150, 164, 175, 181
fiscal impact analysis for, 722–24
polycentric cities and, 194
zoning and, 196–97
Regional Science Association, 55
regression models, 113
fiscal impact analysis and, 723–24
for rural-to-urban migration, 886
VMT and, 524
regularization, 816n3
rehabilitation
of neighborhoods, 267–68
of public transit, 571
of slums, 796–97
reinvasion, 375
REMI, 709
rent
bid-rent, 58
income and, 423
settlement patterns and, 422
von Thünen model and, 422
capitalized land rent, 379
employment and, 594
fair-market, 430
gap, 378
ground, 379
imputed, 426, 426n5
mortgage interest and, 432–33
land value and, 637n2
in low-income communities, 430
mortgage interest rates and, 426
prices and, 425–27
taxes and, 426
Report on the War on Drugs (RAND Corporation), 252
Representative Revenue System (RRS), 746
(p. 994) Representative Tax System (RTS), in Canada, 745–46
reservation wage, 649
residential location model, 62f, 64f
residential self-selection, 524
resilience, 396n3
in infrastructure, 87
returns to scale, 66
CGE and, 53–54
natural monopoly and, 71
optimal city size and, 66
technology and, 53
transport costs and, 66
revealed preferences, 52, 53
revenue
economic growth and, 712
forecasting of, 710–12
in Portland, 710
source-based, 736
revenue capacity, 746
revenue effort, 746
reverse commuting, 158n8, 162
with public transit, 570
segregation and, 307
Ricardian differences, 57
Ricardo, David, 57
Richie, Donald, 792
Riggs Bank, 260n42
rigor, 541
Riis, Jacob, 292
Riley, Bob, 261
risk, 396–97, 396n3
infill and, 478
insurance and, 410–11
predisaster risk reduction, 407–9
roads. See highways
Robert Taylor Homes, 430
Rockefeller laws, 262
Rodrik, Dani, 21
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 757
Rubin, Herbert, 648
rural-to-urban migration
in China, 885–86
development trap and, 10
regression models for, 886
in Third World, 884–85
urban growth and, 9–10
Rusk, David, 301
SA. See Special Area
SAFETEA-LU, 565
saints, 242
sales tax, 635
economic growth and, 707
for localities, 733
San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 600, 742
San Francisco, 360
sanitization drives, 871
Sassen, Saskia, 792
satellite towns, 873
Saudi Arabia, 853n6, 862, 872
agriculture in, 876
scale economies. See economies of scale
SCHIP, 309
Schmoke, Kurt, 268
schools
accountability for, 598
achievement in, 597
buses for, 507
categorical aid for, 599
Catholic, 207
in central cities, 743
centralization with, 604–5
charter schools, 607–9, 620
choice in, 596–98, 605–9
court reform for, 743
decent minimum rule and, 742
decentralization and, 596, 736n4
demographics and, 590
desegregation in, 602–4
district consolidation of, 604–5
endogeneity problem with, 597
expenditures per student in, 592t
federal government and, 590
financing of, 590–92, 590f, 591t, 598
foundation grants for, 742
grants for, 599
homeschooling, 606
housing and, 605
in inner-city, 308
(p. 995) interdistrict open enrollment and, 607
intradistrict open enrollment and, 606–7
locational equilibrium and, 592
location and, 595
mobility and, 736n4
neighborhoods and, 213–14, 307, 597
New Urbanism and, 508
parents and, 597, 605
peer effects and, 597
poverty and, 307, 590
private, 597–98
property tax for, 598–99
racial segregation in, 321, 327–28, 602–4
in suburbs, 743
teacher-student ratios in, 747
Tiebout model and, 592–96
value added of, 597
vouchers for, 596, 606, 607, 620
white flight and, 603
School-to-Work Opportunities Act (STW), 619
Schumpeter, Joseph, 98–99
secondary effects, from natural disasters, 400
second-best policies, 66
public transit and, 572–73
second-chance system, for workforce development, 617, 623
second market, for public transit, 568
sectoral analysis, 665–68
segmentation
gentrification and, 423
of housing markets, 422–23
of public transit, 568
segmented assimilation, 345–46
segregation, 6. See also racial segregation
of African Americans, 208–15, 304
children and, 308–9
by class, 586–87
consequences of, 306–9
education and, 307–8
employment and, 306–7
FHA and, 429
Great Migration and, 295
health and, 308–9
with housing, 586–87
housing markets and, 7, 433–35
of immigrants, 209–10
by income, 303
income and, 306–7, 593
of Latinos, 304
of minorities, 585–86
of neighborhoods, 321
PIT and, 278–79, 321
poverty and, 292–312, 293, 303–4, 306–9
reverse commuting and, 307
schools and, 321
social capital and, 234
suburbanization and, 298
urban planning and, 303
by zoning, 310–11, 321
self-insurance, 404
self-interest, 29–30, 29n1
crime and, 231
poverty and, 293
self-protection, 404
self-segregation, of African Americans, 322–23
self-selection, 533t–534t
path choice modeling and, 536–38
residential, 524
in transportation, 532
sense of community, with New Urbanism, 508–9
Seoul, 910
Capital Regional Plan in, 916
New Town Development Plan in, 916
population growth in, 910t
urban growth in, 916–17
Seoul Population Redistribution Plan (SPRP), 915
separate but equal doctrine, 461
separation of expertise, 835, 837, 842
Serrano v. Priest, 600, 742
service access, informality and, 821–22
service market, for transportation, 546
service sector employment, 346
workforce development and, 617–18
settlement patterns
bid-rent and, 422
fiscal impact analysis for, 715–24
transportation and, 562–77
Shakur, Tupak, 463
Shanghai, 911
share-based allocation, 682–83
shared inputs, 100
shared understandings, social capital and, 233
(p. 996) shared values, 231
Shelley v. Kramer, 323
shifting value, 761
Shuman, Michael, 669