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date: 11 December 2018

(p. 1047) Index

(p. 1047) Index

Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.

A
absolute fluency, of processing, 255
abstract concepts
causal reasoning and, 748
language and, 367–68
semantic memory and, 211–12
sensory-motor processing and, 367–68, 370
spatial grounding of, 726
abstracting, in analogical reasoning, 775
access-consciousness (A-consciousness), 105, 171
accessible thought, 580
achievement, intelligence and, 811, 813
achromatic similarity, 20
A-consciousness. See access-consciousness
acoustic cues, optic cues integrated with, 396
action-object couplets, 90–92
actions. See also physical actions
in action-object couplets, 90–92
change in, 87–88
economy of, 575
events and, 84, 87–89
facial, 546–47
in joint action ladder, 478
in perceptual simulation evidence, 359–62
units of, 88–89
Activation/Inhibition (A/I) perspective, 247–51
adaptability, 672
adaptive evolution, 832
Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART), 400–401, 401f, 407, 435
adaptive toolbox metaphor, 610
addressed phonology, 454
adjustment heuristic, 608
advance organizers, 302–3
affect
creativity and, 580, 789, 802
defined, 572
emotion perception and, 543, 550n2
heuristic, 577–78, 608, 694
as information, 573–81, 597n1
peak-end rule and, 706
affect-cognition interactions
affect as information and, 573–81, 597n1
cognitive processing style in
creativity and, 580
global-local focus in, 579–80
heuristics, 577–78
implicit-explicit attitude correspondence in, 578
persuasion and, 578
priming and, 577
specific emotions and, 580–81
stereotypes and, 579
transfer of learning in, 578–79
evaluative judgment and, 575–77
future directions, 581
memory and, 573–74
models of, 572–73
overview of, 571–72, 581
perception and, 574–75
affective activation, 577
affective forecasting
arousal and, 710–12
decision making and, 704–15
defined, 704–5
errors and, 705–7, 712–15
future directions, 714–15
hot-cold empathy gaps, 710–12
leaky rationality influencing, 712–15
memory errors and, 705–7
overestimation of responses to events, 707–8
preference shift due to context, 708–10
well-being and, 704–15
affective state
influence of, 571
in perceiver-based context, 545–46
affective unconscious, 182–83
affirmation of the consequent (AC), 637, 637t
agenda-based regulation (ABR) framework, 293
aggregate fixation time, 73–74, 89
aging. See also cognitive aging
perceptual span and, 445
spatial cognition and, 879
Aha! experience, 779, 785–86, 790
ALCOVE model, 354
alignment, structural, 670–74, 670f
Allais paradox, 685
allocentric reference frame, 723
allochiria, 132
alternative-based processing, 327–28
Alzheimer's disease
dementia in, 139–42, 140f–141f, 178, 1026
domain-specific deficits and, 366
episodic memory and, 200
implicit memory and, 178
ambient experience, 103
ambiguity, resolution of, 468
amnesia, 178, 191–92
anterograde, 221, 225
implicit memory and, 221–22, 225–29
infantile, 199
amygdala
emotion perception and, 542, 544–45, 549
memory and, 198, 558–66
plasticity, 562
stress and, 558–66
analog format, of mental images, 377
analogical insertion effect, 678
analogical learning
difference detection in, 673–74, 673f
inference projection and, 670, 673
re-representation in, 674
schema abstraction in, 673
(p. 1048) abstracting in, 775
without awareness, 678–79
development of, 675–76
inferences in, 669–72, 671f
language comprehension and, 466–67
mapping in, 775
neuropsychology of, 678
pitfalls, 676–77
problem solving and, 775–76
processes, 669–72, 670f–671f
questions about, 679
in real world, 677–78
recognizing in, 775
relational similarity and, 668, 672–74, 673f, 676, 679
relational structure in, 668–74, 671f, 676
retrieval in, 669, 674–75, 675f
situation models and, 466–67
supports, 676–77
uses, 668–69
analogy
defined, 668–70
knowledge generated by, 672
metaphor and, 678
in real world, 677–78
recent research, 678–79
representations and, 466–67, 674
similarity like, 672–73, 673f
spatial, 727–28
analytical intelligence, 814
analytic cognition, 970–71, 974–77, 979–82
analytic representations, of shape, 34
anaphors, 485
anatomical characteristics, deliberate practice changing, 895–96
anchoring, 608
anger
beliefs and, 586–87
influence of, 580–81
judgments and, 576–77
A-not-B task, 991–94
anterior attention system, 1002–3, 1003f
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 785, 790
anterograde amnesia, 221, 225
anthropology, 333, 341
anticipation effects, 863–66
anxiety, 576, 581
apes, social life of, 527
appearance-based models, of representation of shape, 33
apperceptive agnosia. See integrative agnosia
applied work, 1043–44
appraisal
reappraisal, 589
reflected, 911
theories, 587
arousal, affective forecasting and, 710–12
arousal/attention system, 1003–8, 1005f, 1007f
assembled cognition
creativity, 1028
expertise, 1027–28
wisdom, 1028–29
assembled phonology, 454
assimilation, in person perception, 933–34
associationism, 771–72
associative evaluation, 958, 960, 962–63
associative learning, 816, 960, 962
Associative-Propositional Evaluation (APE) Model, 958, 962
associative relations, semantic vs., 209–11
associative stage, of skill acquisition, 897
associative theories, causal reasoning and, 734–35
asymmetry, 100–101, 740–41
asynchronic states, 1039
ATRIUM model, 352–54
attention
awareness and, 3, 101, 103, 108, 111
cognitive aging and, 1016–17
cognitive development and, 1001
consciousness influenced by, 170–72
as contingently selective processing, 97
covert, 98
cultural differences in, 972–73
defined, 97, 131, 1000
defocused, 798–99
development
anterior attention system, 1002–3, 1003f
behavioral measures, 1001–2
future directions, 1009–10
general arousal/attention system, 1003–8, 1005f, 1007f
historical background, 1001–2
in infancy, 1001–6, 1003f, 1008–10
overview, 1000–1001, 1009
posterior orienting system, 1002
reflexive system, 1002
direction of, 167, 174n2
disorders
of divided attention, 139–42, 140f–141f
overview of, 131, 144
of spatial attention, 132–39, 134f–138f
of sustained attention, 142–44
visuospatial working memory and, 133, 136–37, 139, 142
function-centered taxonomy of, 98, 110
goals influencing, 170–72
incomplete records and, 233
intelligence and, 813, 815, 817–18
joint, 498–99
magnet, 558–59
mechanisms, 102, 348–49, 349f
modulation of, 558–60
object-based, 126–28
obstacles to discourse comprehension and, 480
orienting/investigative system of, 1002
overt, 98, 117
PAM model and, 273–74
perception and
attentional binding, 103–5
attentional filtering, 99–103
attentional holding, 105–8
attentional indexing, 108–10
attentional sampling, 98–99
future directions, 110–11
kinds of attention, 98, 110–11
overview of, 97–98
preparatory processes, 273–75
selection and, 97–98, 100, 104, 155, 921–22
self-focused, 907
social, 78–79
spatial
attentional gradient and, 120–21
attentional zoom and, 121–22, 124, 127
defined, 102, 117
disorders, 132–39, 134f–138f
distractor inhibition and, 122–23
ERP and, 119–20
eye movements and, 117
feature-based, 125–26
future directions, 128–29
location-based, 125–26
MOT and, 123
in nonvisual modalities, 128
object-based attention and, 126–28
selection from 3D surfaces and, 124–25
spatial cuing experiments and, 118–19, 121
spatial probe experiments and, 119
split attention, 122
spotlight metaphor, 120
visual search and, 123–24, 129
visual system limitations and, 118
split, 122
as state, 1004
as subjective factor, 14–15, 18, 18f
tracking and, 97, 106, 109–10
visual
awareness and, 3, 101, 103, 108, 111
development of, 1001–3
eye movements and, 76
failure of, 147, 148f
object recognition and, 40–43
(p. 1049) as subjective factor, 14–15, 18, 18f
Visual Theory of, 107
attentional binding, 103–5
attentional blindness, 179
attentional blink (AB)
attentional holding and, 106
familiar faces surviving, 54
selection and, 155
visual resources and, 148f, 149
attentional deployment, 589
attentional dwell time, 107
attentional filtering
consciousness related to, 102–3
function of, 99–100
mechanism of, 102
neglect and, 102
perception and, 99–103
perceptual effects
cuing effects, 100
inattentional blindness, 101
interference effects, 101
interocular suppression, 101–2
search asymmetry, 100–101
attentional gradient, 120–21
attentional holding, 105–8
attentional indexing, 108–10
attentional kind, 98, 110–11
attentional sampling, 98–99
attentional zoom, 121–22, 124, 127
attention operating characteristic (AOC), 110
attitude
bolstering, 966
change
behavior-induced, 962–64
context influencing, 964–65
defensive elaboration and, 966
evaluation and, 957–66
learning-based, 960–62
malleability vs. stability in, 958–60
mechanisms, 960–65
persuasion and, 959–62, 965–67
resistance to, 965–67
selective exposure and, 965–66
characteristics of, 959
explicit, 578
holder, characteristics of, 959–60
implicit, 578, 957–59
memory and, 957
propositional, 177
toward race, 755
toward sexual orientation, 755
attitudinal knowledge, 776
attraction effect, 690
attribute-based processing, 327–28
attribution
cultural differences in, 974–75
in discrepancy attribution hypothesis, 254–56
in fluency attribution hypothesis, 253–54
lay theories, 927–29
processes, 587
in self-serving bias, 909–10, 931
auditory theories, of speech perception, 399–400, 399f
autobiographical memory, 191
automatic, 163
automatic evaluation, 957–58
automaticity
defined, 164–67
of encoding, 193, 193f
feature-based views of
decompositional view, 169–73, 170f
dual-mode view, 168
essence view, 169
features in, 165–74
operating conditions in, 167–74, 170f
triple-mode view, 168–69
future directions, 172–73
importance of, 163
mechanism-based view of, 163–65
mental representation and, 177
in person perception
categorization, 923
feature detection, 922–23
inference, 923–24
selective attention, 921–22
practice and, 180
unconscious processes and, 177
Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), 406–7
automatic stage, of skill acquisition, 897
autonomous motivation, 803
autonomous process, 166
availability heuristic, 578, 607–8, 933
averaging, visual resources and, 148f, 149, 155
awareness
analogical reasoning without, 678–79
attention and, 3, 101, 103, 108, 111
self-awareness, 906–7
AX Continuous Performance task (AX-CPT), 277
B
backchannel feedback, 478–79
Baltes, Paul, 1028–29
base domain, selection of, 677
basic science phase, 415–20, 416t
Bayesianism, 642–43
Bayesian theories
of category-based induction, 624–25, 628
power estimation and, 739
of speech perception, 402–3, 403f
Bayes nets, 742, 745–47
Bayes's theorem, 606–7, 612, 614, 738–39, 747
BEAGLE model, 215
behavior
attitude change induced by, 962–64
closing-in, 141–42
episodes, 84
explanations, person perception and, 936–37
parenting, 996
pile sorting, 334–35
behavioral measures, of attention development, 1001–2
belief
affect as information and, 597n1
anger and, 586–87
biased, 640t
change, emotion regulation perspective on
applications, 593–97
definitions, 586–87
emotional disturbances and, 595–97
emotion change and, 588–91, 589f, 590t
empirical evidence supporting, 592–93
examples, 591–92
future directions, 593–97
modal model and, 586, 586f
overview of, 585, 597
coherent, 606
conditional inference and, 640t
content of, 592
conviction of, 592
defined, 586–87
delusional, 595
in false-belief task, 944–51
as knowledge type, 771
reasons for, 594–95
bent paperclip stimuli, 37, 42n3
benzodiazepine, 225, 229
Bernoulli, Daniel, 683–84
biases, 606–10, 612. See also judgment heuristics and biases
belief, 640t
context and, 964
correspondence, 927
diversification, 711
durability, 707–8
encoding, 234–36
figural, 640t
heuristic, 640t
in induction, 631n1
in information processing, 909–10
matching, 640t
negation, 640t
in person perception, 929
assimilation and, 933–34
coherence in, 930
correction and, 934–35
inhibition and, 935–36
motives and goals in, 930–32
nonmotivated sources of, 932–36
priming and, 933–35
stereotyping and, 935
presentism, 709, 711
in projection, 695
in reasoning, 640t, 641–43, 645–46
self-serving, 909–10, 931
biculturalism, 978–79
(p. 1050) Big-C Creativity, 796–97
binding, 103–5, 118, 153, 366–67
binocular rivalry (BR), 101–2
biological explanations, for age differences, 1025–26, 1025f
biological pathways, 825, 828–31, 833–34
biology, 524
blindness
attentional, 179
change, 70, 78
attentional holding and, 106
incomplete records and, 234
color, 507
inattentional
attentional filtering and, 101
implicit perception and, 179
incomplete records and, 234
visual resources and, 148f, 150, 155–56, 156f
mental images and, 380
repetition, 104
blind spot, 99
blind variation and selective retention (BVSR), 800
blocking paradigm, 734
Bloom's taxonomy, 311
body
event perception using, 91–92
in stimulus-based context, 541
bottom-up dependencies, of meaning, 479
bottom-up theories, of speech perception, 401–2, 401f
boundaries, event, 86–88
boundary paradigm, 445, 445f, 455
bounded rationality, 688
brain
damage, 131–35, 376
domain-specific deficits and, 363–66, 363f–366f
to frontal lobe, 143–44
to somatic marker system, 693–94
Theory of Mind and, 949, 951–52
VMPFC, 758–59, 761
event perception using, 91–92
measures, for studying text comprehension, 464
mental imagery and, 376–77
perceptual simulation in, 362–66, 363f–366f
space, 728
brand heuristic, 578
breakpoints, 86
Brentano, Franz, 176, 179
C
candidate gene approach, to intelligence, 829–32
candidate inferences, 671, 671f
cascade models, 1024–25, 1025f
Catastrophe Model, 1038, 1038f
categories
activation, 577
adaptiveness of, 331–35
causal, 743
culture and, 330–35, 340–42, 342n1
defined, 321, 330
determination of typicality and, 337–38
expertise and, 330–32, 335–42
feature-based, 322–24, 323t
future directions, 340–42
goal-derived, 323t, 324–25
kinds of, 322–23, 323t
knowledge influencing, 336–37
language reorganizing, 506–7
memory systems and, 322
names for things, 333–34
overview of, 321–22, 328
patterns of reasoning and, 335, 338
perceptual learning and, 332, 339
perceptual representation of
domain-specific deficits in, 363–66, 363f–366f
evidence for, 359–62
future directions, 370
language in, 366–68
sensory-motor processing in, 359–63, 367–70
theories, 358–59
property induction between, 619–22, 619t
relational, 323t, 325–26, 325f
role-governed, 323t, 325–26, 325f
speech perception and, 395–96, 396f
thematic, 323t, 324–25
uses of, 326–28
categorization
classification and, 326, 334–35, 337
communication and, 327
cultural differences in, 973–74, 973f
inferences and, 326–27
inflated, 927
language and, 366–68, 506–7, 509
models
advantages of, 355
ALCOVE, 354
ATRIUM, 352–54
cluster representations, 349–50, 350f
components of, 347, 347f
COVIS, 352–54
decisional mechanisms, 352–53
distributed hidden-layer representations, 350
evidential mechanisms, 350–52, 351f
featural, 347–51, 353–54, 353f
feedback in, 354
future directions, 354–55
GCM, 348
input representations, 347–48, 348f
intermediate representations, 349–50, 350f
mechanisms of attention, 348–49, 349f
multiprocess, 352–53
overview of, 346–47
process, 346–47
summed similarity in, 351–52
SUSTAIN, 354
time course of categorization and, 353–54, 353f
verbalizable rules, 351–52
in person perception, 923
by psychologists, 336
role of, 330, 332–33, 336–38, 340
similarity-based view of, 323–24
uncertain, induction with, 627–29, 628t
category-based induction, models of
Bayesian, 624–25, 628
FBI model, 623
relevance theory, 623–24
Sim-Cov, 622–23
similarity-based, 622–23
synthesis, 625
Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory. See CHC theory
causal arrows, 743
causal asymmetry, 740–41
causal Bayes nets, 742, 745–47
causal categories, 743
causal explanation, 164
causal induction, knowledge-based, 745–47
causal learning, 733–37, 740, 742–48
causal mechanisms, 739–40, 740f, 978–79
causal models
causal reasoning with
causal arrows, 743
causal structure, 743–44
observing vs. intervening, 744–47
summarized, 742–43, 747–48
of judgments under uncertainty, 613–14
theory, 734, 743
causal power, 736–38, 736f
causal reasoning
abstraction and, 748
with causal models
causal arrows, 743
causal structure, 743–44
observing vs. intervening, 744–47
summarized, 742–43, 747–48
without causation, 733
associative theories, 734–35
logical theories, 735–36
probabilistic theories, 736–39, 736f
dual-process theory of, 739–42
forces, 739–42, 741t
mechanisms, 739–40, 740f
(p. 1051) overview of, 733
processes, 739–42
research perspectives, 748
causal relations, taxonomic relations overridden by, 619t, 620–21
causal structure, 743–44
causal support theory, 738–39
causation
causal reasoning without, 733
associative theories, 734–35
logical theories, 735–36
probabilistic theories, 736–39, 736f
mental model theory of, 735
change
in actions, 87–88
attitude
behavior-induced, 962–64
context influencing, 964–65
defensive elaboration and, 966
evaluation and, 957–66
learning-based, 960–62
malleability vs. stability in, 958–60
mechanisms, 960–65
persuasion and, 959–62, 965–67
resistance to, 965–67
selective exposure and, 965–66
belief, emotion regulation perspective on
applications, 593–97
definitions, 586–87
emotional disturbances and, 595–97
emotion change and, 588–91, 589f, 590t
empirical evidence supporting, 592–93
examples, 591–92
future directions, 593–97
modal model and, 586, 586f
overview of, 585, 597
blindness, 70, 78
attentional holding and, 106
incomplete records and, 234
cognitive, 589, 990–96
completed, 108
deliberate practice and, 895–96
detection, 106
dynamic, 108
emotion, 588–91, 589f, 590t
heuristic, 260
representational, 784–85
CHC (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) theory, 812–13, 818
chemosignals, in stimulus-based context, 542
children. See also infants
analogical ability development in, 675–76
induction by, 618–21, 627, 631n2
choice
forced, 545, 550n1
Luce axiom, 352
preference shifts induced by, 963
rational, 709
chronic stress, 565–66
chronometric studies, 375–76
chunking theory, 861–62
classification, categorization and, 326, 334–35, 337
classifier language, 508–9, 519n3
closing-in behavior, 141–42
closure, 11, 16, 17f, 19
cluster representations, 349–50, 350f
coarticulation, 393–96, 399–400, 867
codes, 163–64
coding. See also encoding
configural, 46
coordinate-based, 34
in dual-coding theory, 207, 211
in face recognition, 47–53, 48f, 51f–52f, 56, 60–61
holistic, 47–50, 48f, 56, 60–61
norm-based, 50–53, 51f–52f, 60–61
phonological, 453–55
cognition. See also affect-cognition interactions; metacognition; spatial cognition
assembled
creativity, 1028
expertise, 1027–28
wisdom, 1028–29
creative, 800–801
downstream consequences of, 936–37
eye movements and
face viewing, 77
gaze control, 70–71, 79
memory, 78
overview of, 69–70, 70f–71f, 80
reading, 75
in real world, 77–78
scene viewing, 76, 79–80
social attention, 78–79
spoken language comprehension and production, 78
visual search, 76–77
field of, 1–2
goal-directed, 817–18, 819n2
grounded, 207, 359, 368, 370
higher order, 4
holistic, 970–71, 973–81
social, 501, 802–4
spontaneous, 817–18, 819n2
visual, 71
cognitive aging
assembled cognition and
creativity, 1028
expertise, 1027–28
wisdom, 1028–29
attention and, 1016–17
cognitive slowing and, 1014–16, 1024
coping with, 1029–31
executive control and, 1016–17
explanations for age differences
biological, 1025–26, 1025f
brain aging, 1025–26, 1025f
cognitive-psychological, 1023–25, 1024f–1025f
culture, 1026
disuse, 1026–27
health, 1026
race, 1026
familiarity and, 1017–18
intelligence influenced by, 1020–23, 1021f, 1026
memory influenced by
episodic memory, 199–201, 200f, 1018–19, 1018f
long-term memory, 1017–18
prospective memory, 1019–20
semantic memory, 1018–19, 1018f
very long-term memory, 1020
working memory, 1016–17, 1024
overview of, 1014–15, 1015f, 1031
recollection and, 1017–18
speed of information processing and, 1015–16, 1016f
cognitive atlas, 720
cognitive change, 589, 990–96
cognitive collage, 720
cognitive consistency theory, 592–93
cognitive control, 268, 276. See also control processes
characteristics, 989–91
defined, 990
development
early behavioral, 991–92
neural correlates of, 992–95
dual-process theory of, 989–90
executive function and, 989–95
frontal lobe and, 992–95
future directions, 995–96
cognitive development, attention and, 1001
cognitive differences, cultural
analytic cognition, 970–71, 974–77, 979–82
attention, 972–73
attribution, 974–75
biculturalism and, 978–79
categorization, 973–74, 973f
causes and mechanisms
causal evidence, 978–79
context, 981–82
ecological environment, 975–76
everyday practices, 977–78, 978f
social structure, 976–77
culturally contingent causality and, 980
cultural mindset priming and, 979
developmental trajectories and, 980–81
dialecticism, 975
different approaches to, 970–72
in eye movements, 973
future directions, 981–82
(p. 1052) holistic cognition, 970–71, 973–81
meta-analysis of, 975
overview of, 970
proximal cultural practices and, 979
reasoning, 973–74
cognitive dissonance, 962–63
cognitive factors, emotional factors related to, 4
cognitive impairment, candidate genes and, 831–32
cognitive load, in perceiver-based context, 545
cognitive map, 720, 862–63
cognitive model, of action realization, 869–71
cognitive neuroscience
cognitive psychology and, 2–3
creative processes and, 801–2
of problem solving, 776
cognitive processes, in problem solving, 770–71. See also unconscious processes
cognitive processing style, in affect-cognition interactions
creativity and, 580
global-local focus in, 579–80
heuristics, 577–78
implicit-explicit attitude correspondence in, 578
persuasion and, 578
priming and, 577
specific emotions and, 580–81
stereotypes and, 579
transfer of learning in, 578–79
cognitive-psychological explanations, for age differences, 1023–25, 1024f–1025f
cognitive psychology
boundaries of, 2
creativity neglected by, 796, 804
developmental psychology linked to, 1041
future research, 1037–44
goal of, 299
history of, 1
individual differences in, 1039–40
introduction to, 1–5
language and, 4
many-way interactions in, 1037–39, 1038f
methodology, 1042–43
neuroscience linked to, 2–3, 1041–42
new applications, 1043–44
paradigm shift of, 176, 190
phenomenology, 1036–37
questions of knowing in, 859
social psychology linked to, 1040–41
unconscious processes and, 176
cognitive-responses approach, 960
cognitive sciences, cognitive style and, 850–51
cognitive slowing, 1014–16, 1024
cognitive stage, of skill acquisition, 897
cognitive style. See also cognitive processing style, in affect-cognition interactions
applied research on, 845–47
cognitive sciences and, 850–51
conventional, 843–45
of creative persons, 798–99
defined, 842, 852
future directions, 851–53, 852f
hierarchical models of, 848–49, 849f
individual differences in, 842–43, 845–46, 852, 852f
information processing and, 843, 845, 848–52, 849f
innate predispositions in, 842–44, 852, 852f
metastyle, 847–48
neuroscience and, 850–51
overview of, 842–43
recent developments, 847
sociocultural environment influencing, 845–47
cognitive therapy (CT), 596
cognitive training, 1030
cognitive unconscious, processes of
implicit learning, 180–81, 183, 260
implicit memory, 178–79, 181, 183–84, 190
implicit perception, 99, 108, 179–80, 183–84
implicit thought, 181–84
process-content distinction in, 177–78
coherence, 253, 256–58
Bayes's theorem and, 606
correspondence and, 604
field, 107
global, 470
in judgment under uncertainty, 604–6, 613–14
local, 470
in person perception, 930
in text comprehension, 470–71
Coh-Metrix, 483–88, 485t
Cohort Theory, 417–18, 424, 427, 431, 436n7
cold-hot empathy gaps, 710–12
collinearity, 17–19
color
blindness, 507
memory, 383
perception, 971
common-factor models, 1023–24, 1024f
common fate, principle of, 16, 17f
common ratio effect, 685
common region, principle of, 16, 17f
common-sense psychology, 919
communication
categorization and, 327
continuity issue and, 525–26
in NCS, 525–26, 529, 531, 534
pragmatic, 475, 476t
comparison goals, 931
competition
cue, 734
for representation
binding and, 153
of object identity, 154–56, 156f
selection and, 154, 156–58, 157f
visual resource limitations and, 152–58, 156f–157f
time course of, 424–28, 426f
completed change, 108
completeness, EUT axiom of, 684
composite effect, in holistic coding, 48–50, 48f
compositional protolanguage, 530
compound remote associate problems (CRAs), 787–90
comprehension. See also discourse comprehension; text comprehension
calibration, 477
language, 78, 209, 466–67
mental models and
interpretation of discourse, 651–53
principle of truth, 653–55, 664
text comprehension, 466, 469–70, 472
compromise effect, 690
computational models
eye movements and, 79–80, 450
semantic memory
distributional models and, 215–16
of semantic processing, 212–13
of semantic representation, 213–15
computational theories, of spoken word recognition, 413–20, 416t
computer tools, for analyzing language and discourse, 483–88, 485t
conative unconscious, 182
concave regions, 10–11, 10f, 12f
concepts. See also categories
abstract
causal reasoning and, 748
language and, 367–68
semantic memory and, 211–12
sensory-motor processing and, 367–68, 370
spatial grounding of, 726
defined, 321, 330
formation of, 849
induction and, 620, 622, 625
as knowledge type, 771
language and, 367–68, 504–5
models of, 653–55
perception reunited with, 341–42
sensory-motor simulation and, 359–63, 367–70
conceptual metaphor theory, 211–12
conditional inferences, 637, 637t, 640t
conditional suppression effect, 640t
conditioned stimulus (CS), 961
confession, false, 1040
confidence judgments, 286f, 286t
configural coding, 46
(p. 1053) conjunction
illusory, 104, 148f, 150, 155
search, 104, 153–54
connectionist models, 212
connectivity, parallel, 670
consciousness
access-consciousness, 105, 171
attentional binding related to, 105
attentional filtering related to, 102–3
attentional holding related to, 108
attentional indexing related to, 108–10
attentional sampling related to, 99
attention influencing, 170–72
discourse comprehension obstacles and, 480
episodic memory and, 191–92
information content, 1037
object, 108
phenomenal-consciousness, 103, 171
conscious processes, 166, 176–77
conservatism, 606
consistency, reasoning to, 661–62
consolidation, modulation of, 560–61, 563–64
construal problem, 927
construct accessibility, 932–36
Construction-Integration (CI) model, 466, 471, 480–81
constructionist model, of discourse comprehension, 480–82
constructivist position, on inferences, 471
content
of beliefs, 592
information, 1037
PASS model and, 813
process-content distinction and, 177–78
content-dependent reasoning, 640t, 641
context, 192, 362, 370
of attitude change, 964–65
biases and, 964
of cultural difference mechanisms, 981–82
effects, 689–91, 690f
in emotion perception
early investigations, 540–41
experimental, 546–49
influence of, 551n4
perceiver-based, 545–46
stimulus-based, 541–45, 551n4
memory and, 236
perceiver-based, 545–46
phonetic, 396
preference shift due to, 708–10
in reading, 456
reasoning and, 639–41, 640t
of recognition judgments, 256–58
social
creativity and, 804
self-knowledge and, 908, 912–14
words in, 497
context-availability theory, 211
context-dependent memory, 236
contingently selective processing, 97
continuity
issue
communication and, 525–26
descent and, 526–28
language evolution and, 525–28
in speech perception, 393–94, 394f
continuous flash suppression (CFS), 101–2
contour detection paradigm, 24–25, 24f
contrast, 673–74, 673f, 931
controllability, perceived, 936
controlled processes, 165, 177
control processes
metamemory
overview of, 284–87, 286f, 286t, 296
retrieval, 294–96, 295f
study, 292–94
theory and data of, 287
PM and
DMC account and, 277–79
in everyday life, 279–80
future research and, 278–79
multiprocess theory and, 274–78, 276t
conventional cognitive style, 843–45
conversation patterns, 479
convex regions, 10–11, 10f, 12f, 15–16
coordinate-based coding, 34
copy number variants (CNVs), 833
corpus-based distributional models, 212
correction, person perception and, 934–35
correspondence
coherence and, 604
implicit-explicit attitude, 578
in judgment under uncertainty, 604–5, 613–14
one-to-one, 670
statistical models and, 605
correspondence bias, 927. See also fundamental attribution error
cortisol, 562–66
counterarguing, 966
counterexamples, inferences overturned by, 657–58
count nouns, 495–97
covariation
causal power and, 736–38, 736f
mechanisms and, 739–40, 740f
model, 926
covert attention, 98
COVIS model, 352–54
co-witnesses, 237–38
Craik, Kenneth, 650, 655
creative cognition approach, 800–801
creative intelligence, 814
creative products, 796–97
creativity
affect and, 580, 789, 802
Big-C, 796–97
cognitive aging and, 1028
cognitive psychology neglecting, 796, 804
defined, 795
domain-specific expertise and, 797–98
future directions, 804
Geneplore model of, 801
generic cognitive style and, 798–99
insight and, 779, 788–91
little-c, 796
motivation and, 802–3
neurological substrates of, 804
overview of, 5
problem solving and, 774–75
processes of
cognitive neuroscience and, 801–2
creative cognition approach, 800–801
empirical perspectives, 800–804
social cognition and, 802–4
theoretical perspectives, 799–800
of products, 796–97
social context and, 804
variation in, 797
cross-mapped comparison, 676
cross-modal semantic priming paradigm, 417, 421t
cross-situated learning, 495–97
crowding, 101, 148f, 149, 155, 882
crystallized intelligence (Gc), 774, 812–13, 1022
cues
acoustic, 396
associated, in episodic memory, 194, 195f
competition, 734
diagnosticity, 290–91
focal, 275, 276f
in FOK judgments, 289–90, 290f
hierarchies, 611
integration, 18–19, 20f, 396
interactions between, 15–16
in JOLs, 289–90, 290f
lower region, 11, 13f
optic, 396
social, 497–501
utilization, 290
cuing
attentional filtering and, 100
effects, 100, 148f, 149, 152
exogenous, 118
in spatial cuing experiments, 118–19, 121
Cultural Consensus Model (CCM), 334
cultural differences, cognitive
analytic cognition, 970–71, 974–77, 979–82
attention, 972–73
attribution, 974–75
biculturalism and, 978–79
categorization, 973–74, 973f
(p. 1054) causes and mechanisms
causal evidence, 978–79
context, 981–82
ecological environment, 975–76
everyday practices, 977–78, 978f
social structure, 976–77
culturally contingent causality and, 980
cultural mindset priming and, 979
developmental trajectories and, 980–81
dialecticism, 975
different approaches to, 970–72
in eye movements, 973
future directions, 981–82
holistic cognition, 970–71, 973–81
meta-analysis of, 975
overview of, 970
proximal cultural practices and, 979
reasoning, 973–74
culturally contingent causality, 980
cultural mindset priming, 979
cultural products, 977, 978f
culture. See also cultural differences, cognitive
age differences and, 1026
categories and, 330–35, 340–42, 342n1
classification and, 334–35
defined, 331
knowledge transmitted in, 340–41
names for things and, 333–34
patterns of reasoning and, 335
Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT), 687, 687f
D
DAS rule, 418–19
data-limited processing, 151
Day/Night task, 992
decision bounds, 351–52, 351f
Decision by Sampling (DbS) theory, 692
Decision Field Theory (DFT), 696
decision making
affective forecasting and, 704–15
context effects and, 689–92, 690f
description and, 697–99
emotion and, 693–95
from experience, 697–99
future directions, 699
inference of preferences in, 692–96, 696f
learning, 696–98
lexical, 417, 421t, 453
memory and, 692–93
multiattribute, 688–89
observing vs. intervening and, 745
overview of, 682
probability matching and maximizing in, 697
problem solving and, 774
Prospect Theory and, 686–88, 686f–687f
styles, 845
wealth states and, 1039
decision noise, 151–52
declarative memory, 190–91, 206
decompositional view, 169–73, 170f
deduction
induction and, 629–31, 630f, 646, 661
mental models and, 655–56
deductive reasoning
aims of, 635–36
findings, 639–42, 640t
methods, 636–37, 637t
as standard reasoning paradigm, 635
theories, 637–39
deep processing tasks, 224
defensive elaboration, 966
defocused attention, 798–99
deliberate practice, 894–96
deliberations, in dual-processes account, 656
deliberative evaluation, 957–58
delusional beliefs, 595
dementia
Alzheimer-type, 139–42, 140f–141f, 178, 1026
divided attention in, 139–42, 140f–141f
frontotemporal, 758–59
inhibition and, 141–42
semantic, 213, 551n6
sustained attention in, 142–43
denial of the antecedent (DA), 637, 637t
depictions, neutral and organized, 377–78, 378f
depression, 223, 562, 566
descent, continuity issue and, 526–28
description, experience vs., 697–99
desirable difficulties, introduced during learning, 300
developmental prosopagnosics, 57
developmental psychology, 1041
developmental trajectories, 980–81
Dewey, John, 859
diachronic explanation, 164
dialecticism, 975
difference detection, 673–74, 673f
direct-access view, 287
directed thinking, 770
directions, giving, 724, 729
discounting, 742, 926
discourse, 465, 469–71
analysis, 483–88, 485t
defined, 475
interpretation of, 651–53
processing, 472, 483
representation theory, 653
discourse comprehension
knowledge and process viewpoints of, 476
mental models and, 651–53
multilevel framework of
computer tools and, 483–88, 485t
genre and rhetorical structure in, 475, 476t, 485t, 487
obstacles to, 477–80
pragmatic communication in, 475, 476t
situation models in, 475–76, 476t, 485t, 486–88
syntax in, 475–76, 476t, 484, 485t, 487–88
textbase in, 475, 476t, 484–85, 485t, 487
words in, 475, 476t, 484, 485t, 487–88
psychological models of
CI model, 480–81
constructionist, 480–82
Indexical Hypothesis, 480, 482–83
discovery, image-based, 378–80, 379f
discrepancy
attribution hypothesis, 254–56
plus search process, 275
discrepancy-reduction model, 293
disgust, 576, 755–56
disproportionate inversion effect, in holistic coding, 48–50, 48f
dissociations
between implicit and explicit memory
functional dissociations, 224–25
neuroimaging dissociations, 225–26
pharmacological dissociations, 225
population dissociations, 222–24
in process-dissociation procedure, 259, 1017
distractor inhibition, 122–23
Distributed Cohort Model, 431
distributed hidden-layer representations, 350
distributional models, 215–16
disuse, 1026–27
divergent thinking, 798–99
diversification bias, 711
divided attention disorders, 139–42, 140f–141f
domain-specific expertise, of creative persons, 797–98
dorsal simultanagnosia, 107
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 755
DP theory. See dual-process theory
dual-coding theory, 207, 211
dual mechanisms of control (DMC) account, 277–79
dual-mode view, 168
dual processes
deliberations and, 656
intuitions and, 656
moral thinking and, 755–56, 758
dual-process (DP) theory
of causal reasoning, 739–42
of cognitive control, 989–90
of intelligence, 817–18
dual systems, in judgment under uncertainty, 613
dual-task studies, 139–43
durability bias, 707–8
duration neglect, 705
Dutch book, 605–6
dwell time. See aggregate fixation time
dynamic change, 108
E
early behavioral development, of cognitive control, 991–92
early social cognition, 501
early word learning
count nouns, 495–97
cross-situated learning, 495–97
infants' use of social cues, 497–501
joint attention, 498–99
object processing, 497–98
overview of, 492–95, 501
phonetic learning, 499–501
word and object association, 494–95
words in isolation, 493–97
words in social context, 497
ease-of-learning (EOL) judgments, 286f, 286t
ease-of-retrieval heuristic, 578
Ebbinghaus, Hermann, 190
ecological environment, cultural differences influenced by, 975–76
ecological momentary assessment (EMA), 705
ecological rationality, 609
economy of action, 575
edge-region grouping principle, 21
education
spatial, 729
STEM, 729, 883–84
educational settings, memory in
future directions of, 313
learning strategies for poststudy
application of, 310–12
combined techniques, 309
feedback processing to correct errors, 307–8
practice spaced out over time, 308–9, 309f, 313n1
retrieval practice, 306–7
learning strategies for studying
advance organizers, 302–3
application of, 310–12
combined techniques, 309
highlighting and underlining, 303–4
note taking, 304–5, 305f
overview of, 299
relativity of memory and, 312–13, 312f
theoretical principles
application of, 310–12
desirable difficulties introduced during learning, 300
importance of TAP, 301–2, 301f
information processed to extract meaning, 300–301
summarized, 302
Edwards, Ward, 606
efficient process, 166–67
egocentric neglect, 102
egocentric reference frame, 723
egoistic motivation, 937
eight-coin problems, 781, 781f, 786
electroencephalography (EEG), 801, 850, 993–95, 1006, 1009
electromyography (EMG), 869
element connectedness, 16, 17f
Ellsberg paradox, 685
Embedded Figure Test (EFT), 844, 847, 850
embedded word problem, 416t, 423, 424f, 429
embodiment
Indexical Hypothesis and, 480, 482–83
in perceiver-based context, 546
emotion. See also affect-cognition interactions; emotion perception
belief change and
applications, 593–97
definitions, 586–87
emotional disturbances and, 595–97
emotion change and, 588–91, 589f, 590t
empirical evidence supporting, 592–93
examples, 591–92
future directions, 593–97
modal model and, 586, 586f
overview of, 585, 597
cognitive processing style and, 580–81
decision making and, 693–95
defined, 572, 586
explicit, 182
implicit, 182–83
memory and
general influence of, 574
modulation by intense emotion, 562–65
modulation by moderate emotion, 558–61
overview of, 557–58, 565–66
stress and, 557–66
modal model of, 586, 586f
moral thinking and, 753–59
social, 936–37
words, 548–49
emotional disturbances, treatment of, 595–97
emotional factors, cognitive factors related to, 4
emotional intelligence (EI), 814–15, 818
emotional unconscious, 182–83
emotion perception
affect and, 543, 550n2
amygdala and, 542, 544–45, 549
context
early investigations, 540–41
experimental, 546–49
influence of, 551n4
perceiver-based, 545–46
stimulus-based, 541–45, 551n4
face in, 539–50, 550n2, 551nn35, 551nn78
overview of, 539–40, 540–50
empathy, hot-cold, 710–12
encoding
automaticity of, 193, 193f
biases, 234–36
in episodic memory, 193–94, 193f, 196–97
failure, 234–36
modulation of, 558–60, 563–64
peak-end rule and, 706
in PM, 267–70
priming effects and, 251–53
specificity principle, 194
TAP and, 301–2, 301f
entity theorists, 928
enumeration, 148f, 150
environment, cultural differences influenced by, 975–76
EOL judgments. See ease-of-learning judgments
episodic memory
Alzheimer's disease and, 200
associated cues in, 194, 195f
cognitive aging and, 199–201, 200f, 1018–19, 1018f
consciousness and, 191–92
depth of, 196–97
development, 199–201
distinctiveness of, 196–97
encoding in, 193–94, 193f, 196–97
events involved with, 192
fallibility of, 195–96, 196f
future directions of, 201
history of, 189–90
implicit memory and, 181, 190, 194
neural substrates of, 197–99, 197f
neuroimaging and, 197–98
organization of, 196–97
other kinds of memory related to, 190–91
(p. 1056) past involved with, 192
as reconstructive, 195–96, 196f
retrieval process of, 193–97, 195f, 199–201, 200f
semantic memory related to, 190–91
short-term memory related to, 191
task-switching costs and, 251–52
working memory related to, 191
errors
affective forecasting and, 705–7, 712–15
feedback for correcting, 307–8
fundamental attribution, 920–21, 926–27
logical, 640t
memory
affective forecasting and, 705–7
biased encoding, 234–36
of commission, 232
commonalities among, 239
false memory, 195–96, 196f, 199, 238–39, 574, 1040
incomplete records, 233–34
memory reconstruction and, 236–38
of omission, 232
PM, 267, 268f, 269
retrieval failure, 236
prediction, 353–54, 707, 712–14
speech, 866–67
essence view, 169
ethnobiologists, 334
evaluation
as analogical reasoning process, 669, 672
in APE Model, 958, 962
associative, 958, 960, 962–63
attitude change and, 957–66
automatic vs. deliberative, 957–58
forms of, 253–54
of inferences, 672
joint, 710
production vs., 244
propositional, 957–58, 960–63
in remembering and nonremembering tasks
discrepancy attribution hypothesis and, 254–56
familiarity and, 254–59
nonremembering judgments and, 259–61
recognition judgments and, 256–59
recollection and, 258–59
remembering and, 253–54
subjective judgments and, 253–54
evaluative conditioning (EC), 961–62
evaluative judgment, in affect-cognition interactions, 575–77
event-based prospective memory (PM)
control processes contributing to
DMC account and, 277–79
in everyday life, 279–80
future research and, 278–79
multiprocess theory and, 274–78, 276t
defined, 267
encoding in, 267–70
failure, 267, 268f, 269
implementation intentions and, 269–71
laboratory-based tasks, 268–69, 269f
retrieval in, 268, 273–79, 276t
storage in, 268, 270–73, 271f
event-based semantic representations, 208–9
event-indexing model, 472
event-related potential (ERP), 464, 541
attention and, 119–20, 1006, 1008–9
components, 340
experiments, 119–20, 340, 383, 498, 558, 782, 1006, 1008–9
source analysis, 1006, 1007f, 1009
events
actions and, 84, 87–89
defined, 83, 192
early research on, 83–85
in episodic memory, 192
language and, 209
models of, 89–90
overestimation of affective responses to, 707–8
perception of
action-object couplets in, 90–92
using brain and body, 91–92
early research on, 83–85
EST and, 89–90
kinds of events in, 85
parts of events in, 86–90
sorted into parts
action change, 87–88
boundaries, 86–88
in event perception, 86–90
prediction, 89–90
segmentation paradigm, 86
statistical dependencies of units, 88–89
Event Segmentation Theory (EST), 89–90
everyday intelligence, 1022–23
everyday life, control processes in, 279–80
everyday practices, cultural differences and, 977–78, 978f
everyday thinking, 776
evolution
adaptive, 832
language
compositional protolanguage, 530
continuity issue and, 525–28
development to full language, 531–33
earliest stages of, 529–31
future directions, 533–34
general intelligence and, 524–25
holophrastic protolanguage, 530–31
natural selection and, 531–33
selective pressure in, 528–29
universals in, 531–32
exafference, 864
executive control, cognitive aging and, 1016–17
executive function
cognitive control and, 989–95
defined, 989–90
Theory of Mind and, 948
exemplar representations, 349–50, 350f
exogenous cuing, 118
expectancy, in housefly, 863–64
expectation, as subjective factor, 18, 18f, 253
Expected Utility Theory (EUT)
axioms, 684–85
decision making and, 682–91, 686f, 690f, 695, 698–99
descriptive failures of
Allais paradox, 685
context effects, 689–91, 690f
Ellsberg paradox, 685
framing, 685–86
goals and, 691
multiattribute decisions and, 688–89
preference instability, 689
procedure variance, 689
Prospect Theory and, 686–88, 686f–687f
normative strategy in, 699n4
experience
Aha!, 779, 785–86, 790
ambient, 103
beliefs arising from, 587
decisions from, 697–99
description vs., 697–99
experts and, 886–88, 887f
language and, 366–67
openness to, 799, 959
sampling, 705
subjective, 17–18, 17f, 704–5, 714
superior reproducible performance vs., 886–88, 887f
experience based (EB) judgments, 289–90
experimental aesthetics, 796
experimental context, 546–49
expertise
categories and, 330–32, 335–42
cognitive aging and, 1027–28
defined, 331
determination of typicality and, 337–38
development, 886–87
domain-specific, of creative persons, 797–98
face recognition and, 50, 57–58, 61
glossary, 897–98
goals and, 338
ideals and, 338
interest fueling, 335–36
names for things and, 336–37
overview of, 886–87
(p. 1057) patterns of reasoning and, 338
perceptual, 55, 338–40
problem solving and, 775
processes of, 342
expert-performance approach, 888–90, 889f, 897
experts
defined, 886–88, 887f
deliberate practice by, 894–96
experience and, 886–88, 887f
future research directions, 896–97
long-term working memory of, 891–92, 898
performance by, 888–90, 889f, 892–95, 893f, 897
problem solving and, 775
skill of, 886–97
explaining away, 742
explicit attitude correspondence, 578
explicit contamination, 226
explicit emotion, 182
explicit learning, 183, 816
explicit memory, 178–79, 181, 184, 190, 322
defined, 221
dissociations with implicit memory
functional dissociations, 224–25
neuroimaging dissociations, 225–26
pharmacological dissociations, 225
population dissociations, 222–24
retrieval in episodic memory and, 194
explicit motivation, 182
explicit perception, 179, 184
explicit thought, 184
externality, 928
external operating conditions, 168
external visualizations, 725–26
extinction, 102, 133
extraordinary disposition, 926
extrapersonal neglect, 132
extremal edges, 11
extrinsic features, 325
eye-contingent display change technique, 75
eye movements. See also fixations; saccades
basics of, 71–73, 72f
cognition and
face viewing, 77
gaze control, 70–71, 79
memory, 78
overview of, 69–70, 70f–71f, 80
reading, 75
in real world, 77–78
scene viewing, 76, 79–80
social attention, 78–79
spoken language comprehension and production, 78
visual search, 76–77
cultural differences in, 973
face perception and, 74, 77
future directions
computational modeling, 79–80, 450
neuroimaging, 80
neglect and, 133
in reading
cognition and, 75
control of, 447–50
landing position effects, 448
parafoveal-on-foveal effects, 446–47
perceptual span in, 444–45, 444f
preview benefit and, 445–47, 445f, 457n1
saccades, 75, 443–48, 456–57, 457n4
skipping effects, 448
role of, 69
scene perception and, 74, 79
spatial attention and, 117
visual attention and, 76
F
face
in emotion perception, 539–50, 550n2, 551nn35, 551nn78
FFA of, 58–61, 339
fixations on, 77, 544
identity aftereffect, 51, 60–61
OFA of, 58–59
other, in stimulus-based context, 544–45
perception of, 50–53, 51f–52f, 60–61, 74, 77
posed actions of, 546–47
recognition
challenge of, 46
classes of faces in, 52
coding in, 47–53, 48f, 51f–52f, 56, 60–61
expertise and, 50, 57–58, 61
of familiar faces, 53–54
features in, 49, 61, 922–23
future directions, 60–61
individual differences in, 57
by infants, 57–58
interest in, 46–47
neural network for, 58–60, 69f
ORE and, 47, 54–57, 60–61
prosopagnosia and, 57, 61
by super-recognizers, 49, 57
three-dimensional shape information in, 53
of unfamiliar faces, 53–57
spontaneous expressions of, 546–47
static, 547–48
viewing, eye movements and, 77
face-space, 51, 51f, 60–61
facial expression, 546–48
facts
as knowledge type, 771, 776
learning beyond, 311–12
of spoken word recognition, 416t
false alarms, 255–56
false-belief task, 944–51
false confession, 1040
false-fame effect, 227
false memory
as error, 195–96, 196f, 199, 238–39, 574, 1040
false confession and, 1040
mood and, 574
familiarity
cognitive aging and, 1017–18
of faces, 53–54
figure assignment and, 16
recollection and, 198
in remembering and nonremembering tasks, 254–59
as subjective factor, 12–14, 14f
symmetry and, 15
fast and frugal heuristics
adaptive toolbox metaphor and, 610
critiqued, 611–12
empirical evidence for, 610–11
in judgment under uncertainty, 609–12
fast-counting effect, 157–58
fast process, 167
fear
influence of, 581
risk judgments and, 576
featural models, 347–51, 353–54, 353f
feature-based induction (FBI) model, 623
feature-based views, of automaticity
decompositional view, 169–73, 170f
dual-mode view, 168
essence view, 169
features in, 165–74
operating conditions in, 167–74, 170f
triple-mode view, 168–69
features
in automaticity, 165–74
categories based on, 322–24, 323t
definitions of, 165–66
detection of, 922–23
extrinsic, 325
in face recognition, 49, 61, 922–23
in feature-based views of automaticity, 165–73
information about operating conditions and, 167
integration of, 105
intrinsic, 325
in multimodal feature-based theories, 208
relations among, 168–72
spatial attention based on, 125–26
feature verification task, 212–13
Fechner, Gustav, 796
feedback
backchannel, 478–79
in categorization models, 354
for correcting errors, 307–8
deliberate practice and, 894
lexical/sublexical, 430
self-verifying, 914
(p. 1058) feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments
accuracy of, 290–91, 290f
cues in, 289–90, 290f
fluency in, 287–88
making of, 287–90
in metamemory, 285, 286f, 286t, 287–91, 294
feelings, 586. See also emotion
field dependent (FD), 844–45, 847
field independent (FI), 844–45, 847
figural bias, 640t
figural cues. See cues
figure
assignment, 16
defined, 9
in EFT, 844, 847, 850
vase/profiles, 377, 378f
figure-ground perception
attentional binding and, 105
conditions of, 23
early and late, 16
filtering. See attentional filtering
fingers of instantiation (FINST) model, 110
first-order motion, 106
fitness training, 1029
Fitts's law, 862
fixations, 70, 71f, 973
aggregate fixation time, 73–74
basics of, 72–74, 72f–73f
duration, 73, 73f, 79–80
on face, 77, 544
in gaze fixation count, 74
individual differences in, 74–75
insight and, 780–82
location of, 74, 79
PVL for, 74
in reading, 75, 443–49, 451–52, 455–57
in real world, 77
ROI and, 73–74
in scene viewing, 76
social attention and, 78
sticky, 1002
as subjective factor, 14–15
flanker, 101, 117
compatibility task, 881–82, 881f
interference, 148f, 149, 154
flashbacks, 195
flashbulb memories, 195
Flavell, John, 284
flexible individual differences, 843
flexibly allocated index (FLEX) model, 110
fluency
in fluency attribution hypothesis, 253–54
in FOK judgments, 287–88
future research, 1037
heuristic, 260, 611
in JOLs, 287–88
priming and, 933
of processing, 254–55
fluid intelligence (Gf), 774, 812, 814, 1022
focal cues, 275, 276f
focalism, 707–8
focused attention. See attentional binding
FOK judgments. See feeling-of-knowing judgments
force
causal, 739–42, 741t
dynamics, 741
fields, 862
theories, 741–42
forced-choice methodology, 545, 550n1
forecasting. See affective forecasting
forgetting
intentional, 574
interference effects and, 195
format, 719–21
forward inference, 630
Framed-Line Task (FLT), 972–73, 976
framing
EUT and, 685–86
of tasks, 580
frequency-weighted neighborhood probability (FWNP), 419
Freud, Sigmund, 176–77, 182, 190, 195
frontal lobe
cognitive control and, 992–95
damage, 143–44
frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 758–59
fully explicit models, 653
functional dissociations, between implicit and explicit memory, 224–25
functional field of view (FFOV), 559
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 80, 197–98, 237, 785, 787, 801
induction neuroscience and, 630
moral thinking and, 755–57, 759, 762
semantic memory and, 207–8
subtraction techniques, 366
text comprehension and, 464
function-centered taxonomy, of attention, 98, 110
fundamental attribution error (FAE), 920–21, 926–27
fusiform face area (FFA), 58–61, 339
Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP), 401f, 402, 404
G
Gage, Phineas, 693–94
Galton, Francis, 819, 824
Gardner, Howard, 813–14
gating, 416–17
gaze
control, 70–71, 79
direction, of other people, 78
fixation count, 74
Geneplore model of creativity, 801
general arousal/attention system, 1003–8, 1005f, 1007f
general intelligence
CHC theory and, 813
language evolution and, 524–25
generalization, 673
Generalized Context Model (GCM), 348
general transfer, 773
generation heuristic, 260
generative power, 737
generic cognitive style, of creative persons, 798–99
genes, intelligence and
benchmark research events for, 834, 834f
biological pathways and, 825, 828–31, 833–34
in candidate gene approach, 829–32
CNVs and, 833
in GWA analysis, 832–33, 835–36
heritability and, 824–26, 834–36
in linkage studies, 826–30, 828f
overview of, 823–26
pathway and functional gene group analysis for, 833–34
terminology, 825
genome-wide association (GWA) analysis, 832–33, 835–36
genre and rhetorical structure, 475, 476t, 485t, 487
geometric models, 347–51, 348f–349f, 351f, 355
geons, objects as collections of, 35
Gestalt psychology, 920
image-based factors, 10–11, 10f, 12f–13f, 16, 17f
insight and, 779, 781–84
problem solving and, 772
restructuring, 800
gestures, 541
Gibson, Eleanor, 332
gist, of images, 102–3
giving directions, 724, 729
global coherence, 470
global interference, 148f, 149, 154–55
global-local focus, 579–80
goal-dependent process, 166
goal-derived categories, 323t, 324–25
goal-directed cognition, 817–18, 819n2
goal-independent process, 166
goals
(p. 1059) activation of, 691
attention influenced by, 170–72
Bloom's taxonomy and, 311
of cognitive psychology, 299
comparison, 931
defined, 174n1
EUT and, 691
in everyday life, 279–80
expertise and, 338
neglect, 143–44
person perception and, 930–32
postures and, 869–70
of reader, 481
relevance of, 672
during retrieval, 236
unconscious, 931–32
good continuation, principle of, 16, 17f, 19
good judgment, 603–4
gradient, attentional, 120–21
grammatical class, 415
grasp-height effect, 868
grid cells, 728
grooming/gossip theory, 529
ground, 9. See also figure-ground perception
grounded cognition, 207, 359, 368, 370
grouped array hypothesis, 128
grouping
assessment methods, 21, 23–27, 24f–28f
cue integration, 18–19, 20f
as early or late process, 19–21, 21f
edge-region principle, 21
image-based factors in, 16–17, 17f
overview of, 9, 16
segregation related to, 21
subjective factors in, 17–18, 17f–18f
guided search, 104
H
habit family hierarchy, 772
habituation procedure, 1001
hand gestures, 541
haplotypes, 825, 827
happiness set point, 707
Hart, Joseph, 284–85
H-A theory of reasoning. See heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning
head direction cells, 728
health, cognitive aging and, 1026
heart rate, sustained attention and, 1005–8, 1005f, 1007f
hedonic adaptation, 707–8, 714
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 864–65
hemineglect, 102, 727
hemispheric differences, in insight, 786–88, 787f, 790
hemodialysis, 708
Hension effect, 255
heritability, 824–26, 834–36
heuristic-analytic (H-A) theory of reasoning, 639
heuristics. See also judgment heuristics and biases
adjustment, 608
affect, 577–78, 608, 694
availability, 578, 607–8, 933
biases in, 640t
brand, 578
change, 260
cognitive processing style and, 577–78
ease-of-retrieval, 578
fast and frugal
adaptive toolbox metaphor and, 610
critiqued, 611–12
empirical evidence for, 610–11
in judgment under uncertainty, 609–12
fluency, 260, 611
generation, 260
in H-A theory of reasoning, 639
persuasion, 961–62
problem solving and, 774
recognition, 692
representativeness and, 607
resemblance, 260
search, 772
hierarchical models
Bayesian, 747
of cognitive style, 848–49, 849f
higher order cognition, 4
highlighting, as learning strategy, 303–4
hill climbing, 774
hippocampus
memory and, 197, 559–66
plasticity, 562
space in brain and, 728
stress and, 559–66
holding. See attentional holding
holistic coding, in face recognition, 47–50, 48f, 56, 60–61
holistic cognition, 970–71, 973–81
holistic representations of shape, 34
holophrastic protolanguage, 530–31
horizontal explanation, 164
hot-cold empathy gaps, 710–12
housefly, expectancy in, 863–64
hue perception, 507–8
human speech recognition (HSR), 406–7
Hume, David, 734
Huntington's disease (HD), 826–27
hybrid model, of object recognition, 35, 41–42
hyperspace analogue to language model (HAL), 214–15
hypothetical thinking theory (HTT), 643
I
IB judgments. See information-based judgments
iconicity, 651–52, 664
ideals, expertise and, 338
identity aftereffect, 51, 60–61
illusory conjunctions, 104, 148f, 150, 155
illusory sentential inferences, 658–60
image. See also mental images
gist of, 102–3
schema theory, 211–12
image-based discovery, 378–80, 379f
image-based factors
Gestalt, 10–11, 10f, 12f–13f, 16, 17f
in grouping, 16–17, 17f
new, 11, 13f, 16–17, 17f
in segregation, 10–15, 10f, 12f–14f
imageless thought, 771
imaginal perspective taking, 724–25
immediate priming, 246–53
implementation intentions, PM and, 269–71
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 183
implicit attitudes, 578, 957–59
implicit emotion, 182–83
implicit-explicit attitude correspondence, 578
implicit knowledge, 860
implicit learning, 180–81, 183, 260
implicit memory
Alzheimer's disease and, 178
amnesia and, 221–22, 225–29
breadth of, 226–27
categories and, 322
in cognitive unconscious, 178–79, 181, 183–84, 190
dissociations with explicit memory
functional dissociations, 224–25
neuroimaging dissociations, 225–26
pharmacological dissociations, 225
population dissociations, 222–24
emerging research issues, 229
episodic memory and, 181, 190, 194
explicit contamination and, 226
history of, 220–21
in modern era, 221–22
repetition priming and, 222
theoretical frameworks, 227–29
implicit motivation, 182
implicit perception, 99, 108, 179–80, 183–84
implicit processing, in neglect, 137–39, 138f
implicit stereotyping, 921, 923–24
implicit thought, 181–84
inattentional blindness (IB)
attentional filtering and, 101
implicit perception and, 179
incomplete records and, 234
visual resources and, 148f, 150, 155–56, 156f
(p. 1060) incomplete records, memory error of, 233–34
incongruity, 254, 256–58
inconsistencies, discovery of, 662–63
incremental theorists, 928
independence, EUT axiom of, 684
Indexical Hypothesis, 480, 482–83
indexing. See attentional indexing
individual differences
in cognitive psychology, 1039–40
in cognitive style, 842–43, 845–46, 852, 852f
in face recognition, 57
in fixations, 74–75
flexible, 843
in saccades, 74–75
in spatial reasoning, 728–29
special talents, 1040
stationary, 843
individual interests, 336
induction
biases in, 631n1
category-based, models of
Bayesian, 624–25, 628
FBI model, 623
relevance theory, 623–24
Sim-Cov, 622–23
similarity-based, 622–23
synthesis, 625
causal, knowledge-based, 745–47
by children, 618–21, 627, 631n2
concepts and, 620, 622, 625
deduction and, 629–31, 630f, 646, 661
defined, 661
emerging research directions, 625–31, 627f, 628t, 630f
memory and, 626–27, 627f
neuroscience, 630–31
probability judgment and, 624, 631n1
property
between categories, 619–22, 619t
causal relations overriding taxonomic relations in, 619t, 620–21
key phenomena, 619–21, 619t
overview of, 618–19
premise-conclusion similarity in, 619–20, 619t
premise diversity and monotonicity in, 619t, 620
premise typicality in, 619–20, 619t
relational knowledge sources in, 621–22
sampling in, 631n1
with specific exemplars, 626–27, 627f
with uncertain categorization, 627–29, 628t
inductive inference tasks, 744
inductive reasoning. See also induction
defined, 618
mental models and
creation of explanations, 663–64
discovery of inconsistencies, 662–63
reasoning to consistency, 661–62
infantile amnesia, 199
infants, 199, 492–93, 495. See also early word learning
A-not-B task and, 991–94
attention development in, 1001–6, 1003f, 1008–10
face recognition by, 57–58
social cues used by, 497–501
Theory of Mind and, 949
inferences
analogical, 669–72, 671f
candidate, 671, 671f
categorization and, 326–27
conditional, 637, 637t, 640t
constructivist position on, 471
counterexamples overturning, 657–58
evaluation of, 672
forward, 630
generation of, 470–71
illusory sentential, 658–60
in inductive inference tasks, 744
minimalist position on, 470–71
perception influenced by, 865, 923–24
of preferences, 692–96, 696f
projection of, 670, 673
spatial, 725
spontaneous trait, 924
validity of, 655
inferior temporal (IT) cortex, 152–53
inflated categorization, 927
information
affect as, 573–81, 597n1
content, 1037
meaning extracted from, 300–301
moods and, 575
novel, 479–80
about operating conditions, 167
processing
biased, 909–10
cognitive style and, 843, 845, 848–52, 849f
in problem solving, 772–73
speed of, age differences in, 1015–16, 1016f
resolution of, 882
three-dimensional shape, 53
visual, reorganization of, 773
about visual world, 3
information-based (IB) judgments, 289–90
inhibition
in A/I perspective, 247–51
dementia and, 141–42
distractor, 122–23
frontal lobe damage and, 143
lateral, 429
person perception and, 935–36
surround, 156–57
inhibition of return (IOR), 109
inhibitory control (IC), 990–96
inhibitory priming, 419, 437n13
innate predispositions, in cognitive style, 842–44, 852, 852f
input processes, 5
input representations, in categorization models, 347–48, 348f
insight
classic problems, 780–82, 780f–782f
creativity and, 779, 788–91
facilitation of, 788–90
fixation and, 780–82
future directions, 790–91
Gestalt psychology and, 779, 781–84
hemispheric differences in, 786–88, 787f, 790
history of, 779–81
knowledge and, 781–84, 782f–783f
problem solving and, 773–74
restructuring in, 784–85
special process view of, 786
unique processes of, 786–88, 787f
integrality, 254, 256–58
integrative agnosia, 104–5
intellectual skills, 860–61
intellectual tasks, 1041
intelligence
achievement and, 811, 813
analytical, 814
attention and, 813, 815, 817–18
cognitive aging influencing, 1020–23, 1021f, 1026
contemporary theories of
categorized, 818
dual-process, 817–18
future of, 818–19
minimal cognitive architecture, 816–17
multiple cognitive mechanisms approach, 815–16, 818
PASS model, 813, 818
P-FIT, 816, 818
successful intelligence, 814, 818
creative, 814
crystallized, 774, 812–13, 1022
defined, 774–75
everyday, 1022–23
fluid, 774, 812, 814, 1022
general, 524–25, 813
genes and
benchmark research events for, 834, 834f
biological pathways and, 825, 828–31, 833–34
in candidate gene approach, 829–32
CNVs and, 833
in GWA analysis, 832–33, 835–36
heritability and, 824–26, 834–36
in linkage studies, 826–30, 828f
overview of, 823–26
(p. 1061) pathway and functional gene group analysis for, 833–34
terminology, 825
history of, 811
knowledge and, 812–13, 815–18
language evolution and, 524–25
memory and, 812–16, 818
metacognition and, 775
planning and, 813
practical, 814
problem solving and, 774–75
intelligence quotient (IQ)
linkage studies, 829
intentional forgetting, 574
intentionality, 176–77, 179
interaction and, 920
person perception and, 919–21
traits and, 920–21
intentional process, 165–66
intention superiority, 271–72
interference
effects, 101, 195
flanker, 148f, 149, 154
global, 148f, 149, 154–55
latent, 213–14
resistance to, 1016
intermediate representations, in categorization, 349–50, 350f
internal operating conditions, 168
interocular suppression, 101–2
interpersonal processes, self-knowledge and
reflected appraisals, 911
self-motives, 913–14
self-presentation, 911–12
social comparisons, 912–14
interpersonal relationships, 905
intervening, observing vs., 744–47
intrapsychic processes, self-knowledge shaped via
self-esteem, 910–11
self-motives, 908–10
intrinsic features, 325
introspection, 285, 906–7
intuitions, 181–82, 612
in dual-processes account, 656
trust in, 578
intuitive statistician metaphor, 612
invariance, principle of, 685
invisibility problem, 927
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), 693–94
item selection, 286f, 286t
item-specific processing, 301
J
James, William, 184, 189, 220, 232
JIM2, 41
job performance, 1027–28
joint action ladder, 478
joint attention, 498–99
joint evaluation, 710
judgment
accuracy of, 290–92, 290f
anger and, 576–77
EOL, 286f, 286t
evaluative, affect-cognition interactions and, 575–77
FOK
accuracy of, 290–91, 290f
cues in, 289–90, 290f
fluency in, 287–88
making of, 287–90
in metamemory, 285, 286f, 286t, 287–91, 294
of learning, 285, 286f, 286t
life-satisfaction, 575
models making, 604–5
moral, 754–63
nonremembering, 259–61
overview of, 4
probability, 605–6
induction and, 624, 631n1
mental models and, 656, 664–65
recognition, 256–59
risk, 575–76
semantic, 421t
source-monitoring, 286f, 286t
subjective, 253–54
under uncertainty
causal models, 613–14
coherence and, 604–6, 613–14
correspondence and, 604–5, 613–14
dual systems underlying, 613
fast and frugal heuristics, 609–12
future directions, 614
good judgment and, 603–4
inside views on, 612–13
judgment heuristics and biases, 606–9
outside views on, 612–13
overview of, 603, 614
judgment heuristics and biases
affect, 608
anchoring and adjustment, 608
critiqued, 608–9
representativeness, 607
uncertainty and, 606–9
judgments of learning (JOLs)
accuracy of, 290–91, 290f
control of, 292–93
cues in, 289–90, 290f
fluency in, 287–88
making of, 287–90
in metamemory, 285, 286f, 286t, 287–93
justification, moral thinking and, 753
K
Kant, Immanuel, 176–77, 184
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), 813
knowledge. See also self-knowledge
analogy generating, 672
attitudinal, 776
categories influenced by, 336–37
cultural transmission of, 340–41
discourse comprehension and, 476
implicit, 860
insight and, 781–84, 782f–783f
intelligence and, 812–13, 815–18
marginal, 310
memory and, 244
metamemory, 284
physical actions revealing, 860–66
for problem solving, 771
relational, sources of, 621–22
representation and, 4
schematic, 776
sentential reasoning and, 660–61
strategic, 771, 776
types, 771, 776
knowledge-based causal induction, 745–47
Kuleshov effect, 542–43
L
labeling
in language and thought relations, 507–8, 511–12, 517–19, 519n2
truthful, 500–501
laboratory-based PM tasks, 268–69, 269f
lack of invariance problem, 414
landing position effects, 448
language. See also speech; words
abstract concepts and, 367–68
categorization and, 366–68, 506–7, 509
chunks of, 462
classifier, 508–9, 519n3
cognitive psychology and, 4
comprehension, 78, 209, 466–67
computer tools for analyzing, 483–88, 485t
concepts and, 367–68, 504–5
events and, 209
evolution
compositional protolanguage, 530
continuity issue and, 525–28
development to full language, 531–33
earliest stages of, 529–31
future directions, 533–34
general intelligence and, 524–25
holophrastic protolanguage, 530–31
natural selection and, 531–33
selective pressure in, 528–29
universals in, 531–32
experiences bound by, 366–67
(p. 1062) processing levels, 412
production, 78, 500, 866–68
relativity of, 504, 506, 971
sign, 525, 533
as sketchy, 505–6
social nature of, 501
Theory of Mind and, 948
thought related to
future directions, 517–19
hue perception, 507–8
influence of language, 506–17
language-on-language effect, 510–11, 513, 519n6
motion, 511–12, 519n5
number, 513–15
objects and substances, 508–10
orientation, 515–17, 519nn78
overview of, 504–5
richness of thought, 505–6
sketchiness of language, 505–6
spatial frames of reference, 512–13
spatial relations, 510–11
language-on-language effect, 510–11, 513, 519n6
Lashley, Karl, 866
latent interference models, 213–14
Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), 213–15, 486
lateral inferior parietal cortex, 198
lateral inhibition, 429
lateral prefrontal cortex, 1025, 1025f
law of effect, 772
lay theories, 927–29
leaky rationality, 712–15
learning. See also judgments of learning; word learning
analogical
difference detection in, 673–74, 673f
inference projection and, 670, 673
re-representation in, 674
schema abstraction in, 673
associative, 816, 960, 962
attitude change and, 960–62
Bayes net theory and, 746
cross-situated, 495–97
cycle of, 846
decision making, 696–98
desirable difficulties introduced during, 300
explicit, 183, 816
beyond facts, 311–12
implicit, 180–81, 183, 260
long-term, 310–11, 313
memory modulation and, 562
in message-learning model of persuasion, 960–61
observing vs. intervening and, 745
perceptual, 332, 339, 404–6
phonetic, 499–501
physiological stress response and, 562
Power Law of, 861–62
preserved, 221
propositional, 960–62
self-regulated, 293
skill, 223
spatial reasoning and, 728–29
speech perception and, 403–4, 404f–405f
strategies, for poststudy
application of, 310–12
combined techniques, 309
feedback processing to correct errors, 307–8
practice spaced out over time, 308–9, 309f, 313n1
retrieval practice, 306–7
strategies, for studying
advance organizers, 302–3
application of, 310–12
combining techniques, 309
highlighting and underlining, 303–4
note taking, 304–5, 305f
transfer of, 578–79
Lens Model, 604
levels-of-processing framework, 300
lexical access, 392–93, 394f
lexical configuration, 435
lexical decision, 417, 421t, 453
lexical effects, on speech perception, 396–97
lexical engagement, 435
lexical semantics, 415
lexical/sublexical feedback, 430
life-satisfaction judgments, 575
lightness similarity, 26
Linda problem, 607
linguistic determinism, 517
linguistic relativity, 504, 506, 971
linkage studies, 826–30, 828f
literal similarity, 672–73, 675–76
little-c creativity, 796
local coherence, 470
local focus, 579–80
location
of fixations, 74, 79
multiple, selection of, 148f, 150
spatial attention based on, 125–26
as subjective factor, 14–15
locked-in syndrome, 546
locomotion, 723
logic, 655–56
logical errors, 640t
logical reasoning, mental models and
deduction and logic, 655–56
dual-process account, 656
sentential reasoning predictions, 656–61, 657f
logical theories, causal reasoning and, 735–36
long-term learning, 310–11, 313
long-term memory (LTM)
cognitive aging and, 1017–18
declarative, 206
object recognition and, 33
spatial, 723
very long-term memory, 1020
long-term retention, 310–11, 313
long-term working memory (LTWM), 891–92, 897–98
look duration
sustained attention and, 1004–5
triphasic theory of, 1003, 1003f
lower region, cue of, 11, 13f
Luce choice axiom, 352
luminance similarity, 19
M
machines, speech recognition by, 406–7, 406f
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 80
magnetoencephalography (MEG), 80, 542
manipulation of overlapping rivalrous images by polarizing filters (MORI) paradigm, 238
many-way interactions, 1037–39, 1038f
mapping, 41, 720
in analogical reasoning, 775
between stimuli and responses, 862–63
words in isolation and, 493–97
marginal knowledge, 310
matching bias, 640t
matchstick arithmetic problem, 783–84, 783f
mathematical problem solving, 776
maximum expected utility, principle of, 682–84
Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), 815
meaning
bottom-up dependencies of, 479
extracted from information, 300–301
sentential reasoning and, 660–61
means-ends analysis, 772, 774
mechanisms
attention, 102, 348–49, 349f
attitude change, 960–65
automaticity and, 163–65
cultural differences, 975–78, 978f, 981–82
decisional, 352–53
in DMC account, 277–79
evidential, 350–52, 351f
in multiple cognitive mechanisms approach, 815–16
neural, 842
performance mediated by, 890–91
(p. 1063) of spatial cognition improvement, 879–83, 881f
Theory of Mind, 946
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), 542
medial temporal lobes (MTL), 197–200
mediational models, 1024–25, 1025f
memory. See also educational settings, memory in; episodic memory; event-based prospective memory; explicit memory; false memory; implicit memory; long-term memory; metamemory; semantic memory; short-term memory; working memory
affect-cognition interactions and, 573–74
amygdala and, 198, 558–66
attitude and, 957
autobiographical, 191
cognitive aging influencing
episodic memory, 199–201, 200f, 1018–19, 1018f
long-term memory, 1017–18
prospective memory, 1019–20
semantic memory, 1018–19, 1018f
very long-term memory, 1020
working memory, 1016–17, 1024
color, 383
consolidation, 201
context-dependent, 236
decision making and, 692–93
declarative, 190–91, 206
discourse processing and, 472
emotion and
general influence of, 574
intense emotion, 562–65
moderate emotion, 558–61
overview of, 557–58, 565–66
stress and, 557–66
errors
affective forecasting and, 705–7
biased encoding, 234–36
of commission, 232
commonalities among, 239
false memory, 195–96, 196f, 199, 238–39, 574, 1040
incomplete records, 233–34
memory reconstruction and, 236–38
of omission, 232
PM, 267, 268f, 269
retrieval failure, 236
experiments, tetrahedral model of, 312, 312f
eye movements and, 78
flashbulb, 195
hippocampus and, 197, 559–66
induction and, 626–27, 627f
intelligence and, 812–16, 818
knowledge and, 244
limitations of, 152
modulation
of attention, 558–60
of consolidation, 560–61, 563–64
of encoding, 558–60, 563–64
by intense emotion, 562–65
learning and, 562
by moderate emotion, 558–61
of retrieval, 561, 565
of working memory, 560
monitoring
defined, 284
retrieval and, 273–74
in shielding-monitoring dilemma, 279
mood-dependent, 574
motivation and, 235
overview of, 3–4
PAM model and, 273–74
perceptual learning and, 332
prospective, 271–72, 1019–20
reconstruction, 195–96, 196f, 236–38
relativity of, 312–13, 312f
retrospective, 268
in SCAPE framework, 243–44
sensory, 233
SMS and, 906
systems
categories and, 322
multiple, 228–29
spatial, 722–23, 875
vividness and, 383–84
mental accounting, 691
mental blocks, removing, 773–74
mental categories. See categories
mental concepts. See concepts
mental images
analog format of, 377
blindness and, 380
modalities, 384
overview of, 374
pictures differing from
image-based discovery and, 378–80, 379f
neutral and organized depictions, 377–78, 378f
pictures resembling
brain and, 376–77
chronometric studies of, 375–76
sensory effects in, 377
viewing position in, 375
spatial, 380–83
visual, 380–82
vividness
memory and, 383–84
trouble with, 382
visual/spatial distinction and, 382–83
mentalizing, 943
mental life, unconscious processes and, 176–77
mental models
comprehension and
interpretation of discourse, 651–53
principle of truth, 653–55, 664
text comprehension, 466, 469–70, 472
defined, 651, 664
future directions, 665
history of, 650–51
inductive reasoning and
creation of explanations, 663–64
discovery of inconsistencies, 662–63
reasoning to consistency, 661–62
logical reasoning and
deduction and logic, 655–56
dual-process account, 656
sentential reasoning predictions, 656–61, 657f
modern theory of, 651
number of, 657, 657f
preferred, 725
probability judgment and, 656, 664–65
properties of, 664–65
spatial relations and, 652
theory of causation, 735
mental numberline, 726–27
mental rotation, 722, 724–25, 729, 880–81
mental scanning, 722
mental states. See also affective state
processing of, 952
reasoning about, 953
representational, 944
in Theory of Mind, 943–52
mental translation, 722, 724–25
mere exposure effect, 226, 966
Merge model, 401f, 402, 430
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 859
message-learning model, of persuasion, 960–61
meta-analysis, of spatial practice and training studies, 876
metacognition, 284–85, 286t, 290
intelligence and, 775
metacomprehension and, 477
metastyle and, 847–48
metacomprehension, 477
metamemory
control
overview of, 284–87, 286f, 286t, 296
retrieval, 294–96, 295f
study, 292–94
theory and data of, 287
defined, 283
FOK judgments in, 285, 286f, 286t, 287–91, 294
framework, 285, 286f, 286t
history of, 284–87
JOLs in, 285, 286f, 286t, 287–93
knowledge, 284
monitoring
accuracy and, 290–92, 295
overview of, 284–87, 286f, 286t, 296
of retrieval, 287–92, 290f
of study, 287–93, 290f
theory and data of, 287
(p. 1064) metaphor
adaptive toolbox, 610
analogies and, 678
in conceptual metaphor theory, 211–12
intuitive statistician, 612
spotlight, 120
metastyle, 847–48
methodology
cognitive psychology, 1042–43
forced-choice, 545, 550n1
microsaccades, 72
mimicry, 981
mind reading, 946, 949–53
mind's eye, 375
minimal cognitive architecture, theory of, 816–18
minimalist position, on inferences, 470–71
misinformation, 237–38
misprediction, 707, 712–14
mobile field independence, 847
mobility/fixity dimension, 847–48
modal model, of emotion, 586, 586f
modular processes, 817
modulation
memory
of attention, 558–60
of consolidation, 560–61, 563–64
of encoding, 558–60, 563–64
by intense emotion, 562–65
learning and, 562
by moderate emotion, 558–61
of retrieval, 561, 565
of working memory, 560
response, 589
sentential reasoning and, 660–61
Modus Ponens (MP), 637–38, 637t,