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date: 23 February 2019

(p. 1131) Index

(p. 1131) Index

Page references followed by fig indicate illustrated figures, maps, or photographs.

Abay, E., 264, 268, 271
acculturation
between Anatolian and East Greek, 16fig, 31–32, 757–61
between Assyria and Urartu, 742–43
Early Transcaucasian (ETC) culture characteristics of, 295–96
Lydian Sardis pottery evidence of, 1124–25
Persian Sardis evidence of, 1121–22
Royal Tomb of Arslantepe and evidence of, 296–301, 300–301, 863–64, 865, 982
Acemhöyük, 316, 887
Aceramic Neolithic Phase, 48
Achaemenid ceramics, 454
Achaemenid Empire. See Persian Empire
Achaemenid Paphlagonia, 643
adoption (Kaniš practice), 328
Aegean Coast
Aḫḫiyawa archaeological data on the, 368–72
Early Chalcolithic period sites in, 155–56
influence of culture, 500
Late Chalolithic period sites in, 162–63
Middle Chalcolithic period, 158–59
Tarsus LBA Aegeanizing pottery, 395
Aegean littoral
dating Early Bronze Age (EBA) sites, 69–72
dating Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites, 60–61, 62t–65t
possible revision of LBA-EIA transition date in, 84–85
Agamemnon, leader of Greek forces, 369
“Age of Gold,” 867
Agesilaus, Eurypontid king, 616–17, 768
agriculture
as Anatolian landscape element, 840–41
Gordion, 1087–89
Halaf farmers, herders, and, 786–87
Hirbemerdon Tepe, 350–51
Hittite political economy understood through, 880–81
Ilıpınar, 952, 963–64
irrigation systems, 841, 1088
Kaman-Kalehöyük, 881–82
kārum period, 324
Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures in Transcaucasia, 685 See also food production
Aḫḫiyawa, 368–72
Aiolian Greeks
dialectal differences of, 510
Herodotus on, 21
living in western Anatolia, 504fig–11
remnant of Teucrians living among, 30 See also Greek civilization
Akarçay Tepe, 136, 141, 143
Akhenaton, 40
Akkadian cuneiform archives (Tell Atchana), 399
Akkadian dialect (Old Assyrian Colony), 318
Akkadian script, 904, 909
Aktopraklık, 956, 962
alabaster statuettes of god and goddesses (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1014
Alaca Höyük
burials at, 246–47
cult practices evidence at, 1041–42
excavations at, 38, 39, 41, 163, 1039–41
geographical location of, 1039
metal objects found at, 867, 868
royal tombs, 629–30fig, 695, 867
Sphinx Gate at, 380fig, 1041
Temple Palace at, 1041–42
Alakšandu, king of Wiluša, 366
Alcaemon, 756
Alcaeus of Mytilene, 760–61
Alexander the Great
conquest of Anatolia by, 3, 4–5, 7, 11, 16–32, 770–72
conscious Hellenizing of, 16fig, 31–32, 770, 771–72
death and legacy of, 617
descendants of Miletos survivors found by, 763
face of Anatolia changed by, 616–17
Gordian knot legend on, 617, 1089
Late Iron Age ending with campaign by, 430
Sardis’s surrender to, 1123
visit to Troy by, 728
western Anatolia Greek interactions with, 770–72 See also Macedonia
Alişar (Amkuwa), 316
Alişar Höyük, 44fig, 45, 47, 163, 216, 242–44fig, 381–82, 887
Alkibiades, 766–67
Alpaslan Roodenberg, 156
Alyattes of Lydia, 613, 756, 1120fig, 1125
Amenhotep III, pharaoh of Egypt, 364, 365, 586, 594
Amenophis III, 40
American Society for the Exploration of Sardis, 1125
Ammuna, Hittite king, 582
Amuq E/F repertoires, 689, 690–91
Amuq G phase, 266, 267, 278
Amuq H phase, 268
Amuq J phase, 271, 274
Amuq Plain (LBA), 401–2
Amuq points, 138
Anabasis (Xenophon)
on Paphlagones, 19
on Paplagonia, 29
Retreat of the Ten Thousand, 767, 1121
on Trapezus, 30
Anatolia
Alexander the Great’s conquest of, 3, 4–5, 7, 11, 16–32, 770–72
Alexander the Great’s conscious Hellenizing of, 16fig, 31–32, 770, 771–72
changing the terra incognita picture of, 38–39, 47–48
Cimmerian (Scythian?) invasion of, 417
cultural interactions between East Greeks and, 16fig, 31–32, 757–61
defining the “Key Sites” of, 5
documenting the scholarship on, 3–5
8.2 or the Labrador climatic impact on, 667
geographical, linguistic, and ethnic diversity of, 31
interaction between the Balkans and, 657–75
philological and historical topics on, 7–9
Romanization policy following Roman acquisition of, 32
sociohistorical context of, 35
thematic and specific topics on, 9–10
the Transcaucasus connections with, 9, 683–98
two factors driving natural tendency toward homogeneity in, 31–32 See also maps; migrations; Turkey
Anatolian archaeology
14C dates revolutionizing, 659
antidiffusionistic model, 659
broadening perspective of Hittite state, 883–92
contribution to chronology and periodization of Iron 2 era, 481–83
development of modern Turkey, 35–49
diffusionist hypotheses, 150, 658–59
preclassical, 34–49
several recognizable stages of, 658
southeastern Anatolian landscape, 10, 837–51
subsurface mapping, 999–1001
Three Age System chronological framework used in, 151–52, 464, 480 See also archaeology; field surveys
Anatolian chronology
advances in absolute dating techniques, 57–58
antidiffusionistic model on, 659
archaeological contributions to Iron 2 era, 481–83
biogenetic studies applied to, 659
CANeW (Early Central Anatolian), 58, 59t–60t, 105fig
Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia, 206–9, 218–21
Chalcolithic period, 10, 47–48, 58–68, 150–66
diffusionist authors on, 150, 658–59
diffusionist hypotheses on, 150, 658–59
Early Bronze Age (EBA), 68t–74, 229–52
EBA north central plateau, 242–47
EBA south central plateau, 247–51
EBA southeastern Anatolia, 262–82
EBA western plateau, 234–42
excavations adding to databank of, 85–87
Halaf period, 782–84
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional (HUT) Phase, 180, 191, 783
historical synchronizations—rulers of Anatolian states and Assyria, 83t
Hittite Empire, 377–79
Iron Age central Anatolian plateau, 415–36
Iron Age eastern Anatolia, 465–66
kārum period, 313–29
landscape archaeology development hampered by chronodisciplinary, 838–39
LBA Hittite Old Kingdom and Empire periods, 77–82
LBA southern and southeastern Anatolia, 395–96
LBA in the west and the Aegean, 363–74
MBA Assyrian colonists in central Anatolian principalities, 74–76, 75t
MBA Euphrates Valley, 339–46
MBA northeastern Anatolia, 346–48
MBA Upper Tigris River Valley, 348–54
Neolithic period, 47–48, 58–68, 102–19, 125–45
organization of the stages, 6–7
overview of, 6–7
palaeolinguistics applied to, 659
preliterate Anatolia, literate Mesopotamia, and preliterate and literate Syria, 68t
Three Age System used in, 151–52, 464, 480
western Anatolia, 502–4
Anatolian geography
Amuq Plain, 401–2
Anatolian plateau, 229–31
(p. 1133) Arzawa lands political, ethnic composition and, 364–68
Assyrian geographical boundaries, 734
central plateau, 100–102
Chalcolithic southeast Anatolia, 175–77fig
Cilicia, 399–401
eastern Anatolia, 205–6, 466–69
Hittite Empire, 376–77
organization of the regions, 6
overview of the, 6–7
southeastern Anatolia, 125–26fig, 260–62, 443–45
southeastern and eastern Anatolia, 337–39
southeast highlands, 402–3
the Transcaucasus’s geographical connections with, 683–84fig
Urartu geographical boundaries, 734
western Anatolia, 501–2
Anatolian Group of Indo-European languages
languages included in the, 605, 608
survival into Iron Age, 605, 607
Anatolian Hieroglyphs, 522, 541–43, 909
Anatolian plateau
archaeological study of prehistory of, 46–48
central plateau, 61, 62t–65t, 70t–71t, 72, 99–119
diffusionist hypotheses on, 150
north central plateau, 242–47
simplified chronological scheme on cultural development on the, 151fig
south central plateau, 247–51
Three Age System on, 151–52, 464, 480
Anatolisches Siedlungsschema settlement pattern, 236
Ancient Near Eastern Studies, 446
anemia (Ilıpınar population), 960
animal husbandry
Early Aceramic I (EA I), 131
the Halafians of northern Mesopotamia, 178
Halaf site evidence of, 779, 785–86
Hirbemerdon Tepe, 349–50
horse domestication, 695–96
Ilıpınar, 951–52, 963
kārum period, 324
Late Chalcolithic increasing reliance in pig, 190–91
Mature Aceramic Neolithic I–III (MA I–III), 139–40
“Secondary Products Revolution,” 695 See also food production
Anitta, king of Kaniš and Amkuwa, 322–23, 580
Ankara Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, 38, 630
Ankhsenpaaten, queen of Egypt, 588
antidiffusionistic model, 659
Antigonus Monophthalmos, 1123
antimony resources, 859
Antiochus I, Seleucid king, 1123
Antiochus III, Seleucid king, 772, 1123
Anum-Ḫirbi of Mama, 1018
Anzapaḫḫadu, Arzawan leader, 364
Aphrodisias, 885, 887
Aramaic language
Aramaic inscriptions (first millennium B.C.E.), 606–7
Persian Empire’s official use of, 615
Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, 38, 850
Arbela (modern Erbil), 734
ARCANE project, 282
Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 45, 1125
archaeology
14C dates revolutionizing southeast European prehistory, 659
definition of, 34–35
development in Turkey, 35–49
subsurface mapping, 999–1001 See also Anatolian archaeology; field surveys
Archaic Age Greek colonization, 753
Archaic Palace, 274
Archäologischer Anzeiger (journal), 1034, 1036
Archidamian War (431–421 B.C.E.), 765–66
Archilochus of Paros, 760
architecture
aerial photograph of Tilmen Höyük, 342fig
Alişar Höyük, 243
Arslantepe ceremonial building (Temple C), 974–75fig, 976, 978
Arslantepe (periods V–III), 985–86
Arslantepe period VI A “palatial” complex, 976fig, 977fig, 978–80
“aurochs skull” building, 128
Boğazköy-Ḫttuša, 1035–36
Burnt Reed House (BRH) [Gordion], 1077–78
Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia (fourth millennium B.C.E.), 213
Chalcolithic southeast Anatolia (fifth millennium B.C.E.), 184–86
Doric style of, 510
EA I (Early Aceramic I), 126–31
EA II (Early Aceramic II), 132, 133–35
Early Chalcolithic period, 153–57
EBA eastern Anatolia free-standing circular houses, 303–4
EB I, 235, 236fig, 237–38
EB I Demirci Höyük’s layout, 236fig
EB II Beycesultan, 239
EB III–IV southeastern Anatolia eastern zone, 281
EB I–II southeastern Anatolia eastern zone, 279
EB II southeastern Anatolia western zone, 270, 272–73
(p. 1134) EB I southeastern Anatolia western zone, 267–68
EB I Troy I settlement, 235
EB IV southeastern Anatolia western zone, 275–76
EB I “zigzag” plan, 237–38
Egyptian free-standing masonry adopted by Greeks, 760
Greek design of Mausoleum, 616
Greek influence on Sardis, 613
Greek-style temples (Sardis), 758–59, 1118, 1122fig
Greek temples, 758–59, 760
Ḫaldi’s temple (Muṣaṣir), 745–48
Hirbemerdon Tepe, 349, 350
Ilıpınar settlement and, 952–59
Ionic style of, 510–11
Iron Ages’ urbanization and new, 638–42
Kaneš, 631
Kilise Tepe’s “Stele Building,” 404
Kültepe-Kaneš, 1014, 1015–21
Kura-Araks culture (fourth millennium B.C.E.), 215–16
LBA Hittite cities, 633–38
LBA military, 404–5
LBA southern and southeastern Anatolia, 404–5
Lydian Sardis defensive, 1118fig–19fig
MA I–III (Mature Aceramic Neolithic I–III), 135–40
MBA building technologies and, 631–32
megaron-shaped structures (Kaman-Kalehöyük), 1099–1101
megaron (the “hall and porch”), 234
orthostat, 632, 727, 1079
“The Palace of Waršama” (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1017–18
Persian Sardis landscape, 1121
Phrygian, 562, 565, 568–70, 572–74
Pre-Pottery Neolithic Transcaucasia Patskha, 684
Round Structures (Kaman-Kalehöyük), 1102–4fig
royal Phrygian tumulus, 757
similarities between LBA Troy and Mycenaean, 726
“skull building,” 134, 138, 140
Southwest Gate, Temple D, Storm God temple (Aleppo citadel), 632
Suhis-Katuwas dynasty at Karkamiš building program, 639–40fig
Tell Atchana (ancient Alalakh), 341–42, 343fig
Tell Kurdu, 180, 181fig
Temple Palace (Alaca Höyük), 1041–42
Titriş Höyük Late EBA, 1001–2fig, 1003fig
Troy I, II, III, VI, VIIa, VIIb, post-Bronze Age, 719, 720fig, 721–24
Tülintepe, 182fig
Argišti I, Urartian king, 481, 643
Argišti son of Menua, 737fig
Aristagoras, 763
Aristides, 764
Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı, 38
Armenia, 22
Armenian plateau. See eastern Anatolia
Arnuwanda, Hittite crown prince, 588–89
Arnuwanda I, Hittite king, 584–85
Arnuwanda III, Hittite king, 594
Arpachiyah, 782
Arramu, Urartian king, 739
arsenical copper objects, 864, 866–67, 868, 869, 982
arsenic resources, 859
Arslankaya
cult relief depicting goddess flanked by lions, 571fig
Phrygian grave with relief in lions, 569fig
Arslantaş, 453
Arslantepe-Malatya
architecture (periods V–III), 985–86
copper weapons found at, 980
description of, 968, 970
Early Bronze Age (EBA), 980–85
élite period VII residence found at, 973fig
food redistribution evidence at, 978
gate and fortification system (periods V–III), 985–86
geographic location of, 821, 827–28
history of research, 970–71
Hittite features of, 382, 985–86
human sacrifice evidence at, 982
Late Chalcolithic period, 971–80
Lions Gate at, 970, 986
Middle Bronze Age to Iron Age, 985–86
mound and excavated areas of, 969fig
“Palace” complex of period VI A, 976fig, 977fig, 978–80
pottery (Early Bronze Age) found at, 981, 984, 985
pottery (Late Chalcolithic/Late Uruk) found at, 971, 979–80
Royal Tomb of, 296–301, 863–64, 865, 982, 983fig
sealings and symbols evidence at, 901
Syro-Mesopotamian links with, 970, 980
Temple C of period VII, 974–75fig, 976, 978
Temples A and B of period VI A, 977fig
Transcaucasian pottery and metallurgical implications, 863
wall paintings found at, 978–79fig See also Malatya Plain
Arslantepe site levels
Arslantepe VI A, 264, 302–3, 974, 976fig–80
(p. 1135) Arslantepe VI B 1–2, 264, 302, 980–82, 983fig
Arslantepe VI B 2, 267, 985
Arslantepe VI B-C1, 267
Arslantepe VI C1, 268
Arslantepe VI C2–D1, 270
Arslantepe VI C, 982, 984–85
Arslantepe VI D, 270, 274, 982, 984–85
Arslantepe VII, 972–74, 975fig
Arslantepe VIII, 185, 186, 187, 971–72
Artaphernes, 763, 1121
Artaxerxes II, Persian king, 616, 767, 768, 769–70, 1121
Artemisia, 616
arts
Arslantaş, Phrygian grave with relief of lions, 569fig
Arslantepe wall paintings, 978–79fig
Çatalhöyük’s distinctive, 936, 942–43fig
Ḫaldi’s temple (Muṣaṣir) representative in Assyrian, 745–48
hybrid Persian Empire, 616
interactions between Anatolian and East Greek, 757
Long Wall of Sculpture, 609
Midas City, main façade with cult relief, 572fig
Neo-Hittite, 610
Outer Citadel Gate at Zincirli, 609
Phrygian, 568–70
tomb paintings found near Uşak, 760
western Anatolia Greeks’ material culture and, 759–61 See also pottery/ceramic types
Arzawa
conflicts with Hittites, 363–68
geography, political and ethnic composition of, 364–68
historical background of, 363–64
western Anatolia role of, 368–72
Aşağı Pınar, 660, 667, 669, 956
Aşağı Salat 7, 276
Aşağı Salat cemetery, 279
Asia Minor
description of, 35
Greek migrations following collapse of Mycenaean kingdoms to, 753
revisionist view of Greek migration to, 752
traditional view of Greek migration to, 752
Aşıklı Höyük, 102, 106, 107–10, 861, 936
Aşıklı-Musular site, 110
Aspendos, 754
Aššur-dan II, Assyrian king, 452, 608
Assur (modern Qala’at Sherqat), 734
Aššurnaṣirpal II, Assyrian king, 453, 458, 738, 739, 741–42
Aššur temple (Assur), 474
Assyrian Empire
Anatolian metal production trade with, 324–25
architectural tradition of, 609–10
Aššur-dan II, king, 452, 608
Aššurnaṣirpal II, king, 453, 458, 738, 739, 741–42
buffer states between Urartu and, 743–48
city gates monumental architecture of the, 640
collaboration between Kumme and, 744–45
collapse of the, 613
cultural exchange between Urartu and, 742–43
Esarhaddon, king, 741, 744
geographical boundaries of, 734
historical synchronizations—rulers of Anatolian states and, 83t
Hittite and Luvian distinctions in Assyrian texts of, 709
iron industry of, 859
Neo-Hittite dynasties established prior to, 608–9
rise of wine drinking culture in, 743
Šalmaneser I, king, 448, 476
Šalmaneser III, king, 453, 538, 608, 609, 610, 734, 739, 745
Sargon II, king, 417, 611, 737, 742, 744, 745, 746–47fig, 748, 968, 986
Sennacherib’s assassination, 741, 744
silhouette animals pottery of, 609
sources on interactions between Urartu and, 735–48
stone relief showing Assyrian conquest of Muṣaṣir, 747fig
Tiglatpileser III, king, 39, 596, 610, 611, 737, 739, 745
two major phases of strength, 608
war and diplomacy between Urartu and, 738–42
Assyrians
communication between Kaniš population and, 327
Late Assyrian Empire, 449, 453
Middle Assyrian Empire, 447–49, 450–53
mixed community relationships of Kaniš population and, 327–28
reverse of treaty between Kaniš and, 320fig See also Old Assyrian Colony period
Atatürk, 37, 38, 41
Atatürk Dam, 260, 445, 927
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal, 630
Atchana-Alalakh, 882
Athens
Archidamian War between Sparta and, 765–66
Delian League alliance of, 764–68
First Peloponnesian War between Sparta and, 764–65
Hellenotamiai (“stewards of the Greeks”) of, 764
Ionian Revolt assistance sought from, 763
Ionian War between Sparta and, 766–68
Social War (357–355 B.C.E.) against, 769
war between Sparta and, 764 See also Greece
(p. 1136) autochthonous model, 659
Ayanis excavations
Area VII, fluted bronze bowl, 1064fig
Area VII, Urartian mudbrick wall, 1062fig
Area VII, Urartian pithoi in Storage Room, 1063fig
Area XI: Domestic Section, 1059fig
Domestic Sections, 1058–62
East Pillared Room, 1064–65
West Storage Rooms, 1062–64
Ayanis Fortress
ceramics found at, 1065–66
excavations at, 1057–65
geographical location of, 1055
history of research, 157, 1055
plan of and view of, 1056fig
Babylonians, sack of Nineveh by, 453
Bademağacı settlement, 249–50
Badiran, Asuman, 934
Bağbaşı, 800
the Balkans
14C dates revolutionizing archaeology of, 659
antidiffusionistic model on, 659
assessment of recent excavations in eastern Thrace, 660–61
Early Bronze Age culture, 670–72fig
Early Iron Age and Middle Iron Age culture in, 673–74fig
8.2 or the Labrador climatic impact on, 667
interactions between Anatolian and, 657–58
Late Chalcolithic period culture, 669–70
Mesolithic habitation in the, 662
Middle Chalcolithic period culture, 667–69
Middle and Late Bronze Age culture, 672–73
Neolithic period culture in, 662–66
scholarship on contact zone between Anatolia and, 658–59
transition from the Neolithic to Early Chalcolithic culture, 666–67
Tripolye-Cucuteni cultural center in, 670
Barcın Höyük, 156, 950, 951, 963
Bar-Rakib of Zincirli/Sam’al, 610
Başur Höyük, 190
Battle of Lade, 763
Battle of Mycale, 764
Battle of Salamis, 763, 764
Bay of İskenderun, 394
bee fetishes, 130fig
Bekaroğlu, 867
Bellerophontes, 29
Berikldeebi, 213, 215, 217
Berikldeebi V2, 688–89
Bernbeck, R., 788, 789
Beycesultan, 162, 237, 239–40, 241–42, 314, 367, 802, 882, 885, 886
Biainili/Urartu
archaeology in Turkey on Iron Age, 45–46
people and polity of, 555–57 See also Urartu
Bıçakçı, E., 103, 104
Bin Tepe tumuli (Sardis), 1112, 1113, 1117, 1120, 1121, 1125
biogenetic studies, 659
Birecik EBA cemetery, 266, 864–65
Bithynia/Bithynians, 22, 28, 566
Bitik, 383
Bittel, Kurt, 41, 47, 151, 869, 1032
Black Burnished ware (Chalcolithic), 214
Black Burnished Ware (MBA), 348
Black Euphrates Ware (EB III–IV), 280
Black Polished ware (Iron Age), 426, 432, 434
“black series” pottery (Akarçay Tepe), 143
blade technology
Anaseuli communities, 684–85
“Çayönü blade,” 685
Blegen, C. W., 235, 241, 718, 721
Boğazköy, 316, 419, 424–26, 435–36, 609
Boğazköy-Berichte (2004–6), 1034
Boğazköy script, 523
Boğazköy series (1835–84), 1034
Boğazköy-Ḫattuša: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen (1952–2008), 1034
Boğazköy-Ḫattuša
complex chronological framework of, 1035
Geophysical prospection methods to study, 1036
Great Temple of, 1035
history of research, 39, 40–41, 45, 316, 881, 882, 1031–32, 1034–35
layout and buildings of, 1035–36
plan of, 1033fig
royal citadel on rocky crag of Büyükkale, 1034, 1035
similarities between eight regional ceramic assemblages and, 884–85
as standard for other Hittite discovery sites, 1036–37
tablets found at, 890, 906
view of, 40fig See also Ḫattuša
Bökönyi, S., 696
Boncuklu, 106–7
British Museum
Carchemish expedition sent by, 41
Jerablus-Carchemish excavations supported by the, 39
Toprakkale excavations near Van undertaken for, 46
Brittle Orange Ware (EBA), 269, 272
bronze objects
development of bronze metallurgy, 866–67
EB III Cilicia, 869
found at Troy levels, 866–67
lead isotope analysis on, 860
(p. 1137) statuettes of god and goddesses (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1023
Brown on Buff ceramics (Iron Age), 420–21
Bryce, T., 705
Bulgaria
Bronze Age, 660
Derviş Ocak in, 660, 670
Karanovo VI-Gumelnitsa-Kocadermen culture in, 670
Neolithic period, 666
Veselinovo phase of, 669
burial sites
Achaemenid Paphlagonia, 643
adoption of Egypt funerary statues by Ionians, 760
Aktopraklık, 962
Alaca Höyük, 246–47, 629–30fig, 695, 867
Arslantaş, Phrygian grave with relief of lions, 569fig
Arslantepe Royal Tomb, 296–301, 863–64, 865, 982, 983fig
Aşağı Salat cemetery, 279
Bin Tepe tumuli (Sardis), 1112, 1113, 1117, 1120, 1121, 1125
Birecik EBA cemetery, 266, 864–65
Bronze Age Trialeti chieftains’ wealth displayed at, 697
Çatalhöyük “history houses,” 938–39, 940, 941–42
Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia funerary customs, 213, 214
chamber tombs, 273, 506, 570
cist tombs (Titriş Höyük), 273, 1004, 1005fig
cups found in EB III, 272
Demircihöyük-Sarıket cemetery, 232
Dubene cemetery (Bronze Age), 660
Early Aceramic I (EA I), 130–31
early barrow (“early kurgan cultures”), 693–94
Early Chalcolithic decorated clay “tables” found at, 156
EBA kurgan-type burials, 671
EB III chamber tombs, 273
EB IV indications of sociocultural changes, 276
Gedikli Karahöyük cremation burials, 273, 275
Gordion élites, 1070–71, 1081–82, 1085–86fig
Gre Virike IIA chamber tombs, 273
Gre Virike infant and child graves, 275
Hayaz Höyük chamber tombs, 273
Hittite, 388–89
Hittite cremations, 388
İkiztepe prehistory, 160
Ilıpınar cemetery, 162–63, 664
Ilıpınar’s changing customs, 961
indicating EBA urbanization, 232
Karataş-Semayük cemetery, 232
Late Chalcolithic cemetery of Ilıpınar, 162–63
Mature Aceramic Neolithic I–III (MA I–III), 140
MBA northeastern Anatolia, 347
metal objects found at, 273
Middle Phrygian élites, 430
Neo-Phrygian funerary epitaphs at, 567–68
north Pontic pit burial tradition, 695
Persian Sardis, 1121
Phokaia, 505–6
Phrygia, 562
Şaraga cemetery, 266
Şeytan Hamamı chambered tomb, 506
Sos Höyük following Early Barrow tradition, 695
southeastern Anatolia eastern zone, 279
southeastern Anatolia western zone, 268
Titriş Höyük Late EBA cist tombs and intramural burials, 273, 1004, 1005fig
tomb paintings found near Uşak, 760
Urartu élites and, 475, 642–43
Van region (Iron 1), 474–75
wagon technology evidenced at, 696–97
Warrior’s Tomb (Grê Dimsê), 458
Yortan cemetery, 232 See also chamber tombs; funerary customs
burial sites (royal)
Alaca Höyük royal tombs, 629–30fig, 695, 867
Argišti I, Urartian king, 643
Royal Cemetery of Ur, 859
royal Phrygian tumulus, 757
Royal Tomb of Arslantepe, 296–301, 863–64, 865, 938fig, 982
Tomb of Alyattes, 613, 1120fig, 1125
Burney, C., 46, 47, 291
Burnt Reed House (BRH) [Gordion], 1077–78
Burnt Steatite Style cylinder seal, 279
Burušḫattum, 316, 322
buttons (Göbekli Tepe), 929
Büyük Güllücek, 160
Büyükkale, the Great Temple, 40
Büyükkaya, 419
Büyüktepe, 472t
Byblos type points, 133, 138
Çadır Höyük, 216, 232, 243–44, 245, 419, 426–28, 696, 806
Çalca, 662
Calvert, Frank, 37, 718
Çamlıbel Tarlası, 801
Campbell, Stuart, 180, 783, 784
CANeW (Early central Anatolian)
Anatolian prehistoric socioeconomic and technological evolution stages, 59t–60t
chronological chart of Neolithic central plateau sites, 105fig
description of terminology, 58
Canhasan 1, 800
Can Hasan 2/2B, 154
Can Hasan 2A, 154
Can Hasan I, 115
(p. 1138) Can Hasan III, 112, 115
Cappadocia
architecture of Kaneš in, 631
changing tendencies of communities (seventh millennium B.C.E.), 113–17
Herodotus on, 22
sedentary communities (ninth millennium B.C.E.), 106–12
survey of Neolithic sites in, 103–4
Cappadocia Gate (Kerkenes), 427, 428
Cappadocian landscape (central plateau), 100
Cappadocian Obsidian Research Project, 111fig
Cappadocian-style ware (Early Bronze), 246, 251
Carchemish, 41–42, 274, 390, 449, 605, 609
Carchemish Dam projects, 821
Caria/Carians, 17, 20, 22–23, 372, 616, 769
Carian language, 535, 708, 710
Carpatho-Balkan Metallurgical Province, 691
Carter, Elizabeth, 180, 271
Çatalhöyük
agglomerated houses and possible “street” beneath, 937fig
Building 77 of, 939fig
ceramics and other material culture found at, 943fig, 944, 945–46
characteristics of, 628, 935–38
different stages of occupation according to construction principles, 938t
distinctive art found at, 936, 942–43fig
face pot found at, 943fig
figurines with detachable or broken heads, 942
history of excavations at, 934
“history houses” of, 937–43
map of excavation areas on East Mound at, 935fig
overall view of excavations in South Area at, 941fig
population estimates at, 936
tracing chances at, 943–45
Çatalhöyük “history houses”
burials under the, 938–39, 940, 941–42
construction of social memories, 940–43
description of, 937–38
distinctive art found in, 936, 942–43fig
religious life evidence of stamp seals found, 944
use of space inside the buildings, 938–40
Çatalhöyük Research Project, 104, 113–14
Çatalhöyük West, 154
Caunians, 23–24
Çayönü
EA II (Early Aceramic II), 132–34
MA I–III (Mature Aceramic Neolithic I–III), 132, 135–37, 138, 140
metallurgy evidence found at, 861
Pottery Neolithic period, 141, 143, 144
“Çayönü blade,” 685
cemetery. See burial sites
central Anatolian Salt Project (2003), 103
central plateau
dating EBA sites, 70t–71t, 72
dating Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites, 61, 62t–65t
geography of the, 100–102, 416–17
Iron Age, 415–36
Neolithic geography and history of research on, 99–119
central plateau Neolithic communities
changing tendencies (seventh millennium B.C.E.), 113–17
sedentary communities (eighth millenium B.C.E.), 112–13
sedentary communities (ninth millennium B.C.E.), 106–12
central plateau Plain (Early Chalcolithic period), 154–55
ceramics. See pottery/ceramics
Chaff-Faced Wares
Early Bronze I, 248, 249, 264, 266
Late Chalcolithic and EBA, 690fig–91
chaff tempered pottery (Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia), 210–12
Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia
cultural and chronological periodization of fifth and fourth millennium B.C.E., 218–21
funerary customs of, 213, 214
geography of, 205–6
Kura-Araks culture (fourth millennium B.C.E.), 215–18, 220
large regional centers formed in, 213–14
main sites of, 207fig
Neolithic background of, 209–10
pottery and ceramic production in, 210–13, 214–15
terminologies and chronologies of, 206–9
Tilkitepe, 206, 207fig, 209–11
Chalcolithic period
CANeW (Early central Anatolian) terminology on, 58, 59t
characterizing Asia Minor, 798–99
dating for sites, 60–68
Early Chalcolithic (ca. 6100–5500 B.C.E.), 152, 153fig–57
eastern Anatolia, 205–21
examining scholarship on Halaf Tradition, 10
excavated sites of Asia Minor, 798fig
exchange networks in, 806–7
interaction of Uruk and northern Anatolia during Late, 813–30
Late Chalcolithic (ca. 4250–3000 B.C.E.), 161fig–65, 807–8
metal industries during, 807–8
metallurgy during the, 862–66
Middle Chalcolithic (ca. 5500–4250 B.C.E.), 157–61, 797
no perceptible break in cultural continuity during, 152
(p. 1139) overview of the, 10, 58–60t
pointed beakers and Kilia figurines produced at Kulaksızlar, 807fig
recognition as separate prehistoric phase, 150–51
settlements and subsistence during the, 799–806
simplified chronological scheme showing cultural development, 151fig
southeast Anatolia, 174–92
traditional view on the, 796–97
Turkish excavations at sites of the, 47–48
Chalcolithic settlements
ephemeral settlements, 799–801
formation of eastern Anatolian regional centers, 231
villages, hamlets, and complex villages, 801–6
Chalcolithic southeast Anatolia
fifth millennium (CAL B.C.E.), 183–86
fourth millennium (CAL B.C.E.), 186–91
geography of, 175–77
Halafian pottery of, 177–78
the Halafians of northern Mesopotamia, 178–80
map of sites, 177fig
north Mesopotamian Ubaid influences in, 183
overview of the, 174–75
pottery/ceramics, 177–86, 188–90
sixth millennium (CAL B.C.E.), 177–83
Uruk presence (fourth millennium) in, 186–91
chamber tombs
Early Bronze III, 273
Gre Virike IIA, 273
Phrygian relief sculptures, 570
Şeytan Hamamı, 506
Chantre, E., 39, 41, 1032
Childe, G., 658, 796
Cilicia
Chalcolithic, 190
dating EBA sites, 70t–71t, 73–74
dating Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites, 62t–65t, 66
Herodotus on, 24
Late Bronze Age (LBA), 399–401
Luwians living in, 538
metal objects found at EB III, 868–69
Cilicians
Herodotus on the, 24
Iliad’s description of the, 20–21
Cimmerians
appearance in Urartu (eighth century B.C.E.), 612
Herodotus on, 24
participation in destruction of Neo-Hittite civilization, 24
Çine-Tepecik Höyük (Aydın), 159
Circumpontic Metallurgical Province, 691
cist tombs (Titriş Höyük), 273, 1004, 1005fig
Citadel Mound (Gordion), 418, 428, 430, 1070, 1071fig, 1074, 1075, 1084
city gates monumental architecture, 640–41
city-states
Asia Minor emergence of East Greek, 754–56
common cultural and ethnic identity of Greek, 728
Hirbemerdon Tepe, 349–54
kārum period, 321–22
MBA Euphrates Valley creation of, 340–46
Cizre/Silopi Plain, 821, 843, 846
clay votive plaque (MBA), 353fig
Cleomenes (Spartan king), 29
Cleopatra (sister of Alexander the Great), 1123
Coba Höyük, 41, 46, 185
coinage
invented by Croesus of Lydia, 613, 1117
Persian gold and silver, 616
Colchis, 25
colonial movement
East Greek city-states established following, 754–72
Greek settlement in Asia Minor, 753–54
by Greeks in post-Bronze Age Troy, 724
Kanlıgeçit representing, 671–72fig
Conti, A. M., 264, 268, 271
Copper Age excavations, 47
“Copper Age” levels (Alişar Höyük), 242, 244
copper alloy ritual standard (Alaca Höyük royal tomb), 630fig
copper mines
kārum period, 325
rich resources of Anatolian, 859
copper objects
arsenical copper, 864, 866–67, 868, 869, 982
beads from Aşıklı Höyük, 861
challenges of studying provenience of, 860
copper-silver alloys found at Arslantepe Royal Tomb, 865
copper swords found at Arslantepe, 980
copper-tin alloy, 867, 869
found in Kültepe, 1026–1927
found in Late Chalcolithic sites, 864–65
found in Neolithic sites, 861–62
lead isotope analysis of, 860
copper smelting furnaces (Değirmentepe), 862–63
Corinthian War (395–386 B.C.E.), 768
Çorum, 629
cosmology, 761
cremation burials
Gedikli Karahöyük, 273, 275
Hittite, 388
Yarımburgaz culture, 665
Crete, 26–27
(p. 1140) cretulae bearing seals (Arslantepe), 974
Croesus, king of Lydia, 27, 28, 29, 613, 1116, 1117
Cucuteni-Gumelnitsa group, 669–70
cult practices
Alaca Höyük, 1041–42
archaeology of cult buildings, 627–28
cache of cattle astragali indicating, 179–80
Domuztepe’s “Death Pit,” 782
East Greeks’ agora or “gathering zone,” 758
Ḫaldi (deity) cultic duties of Urartu’s élite, 746
Hittite Royal Funerary Ritual, 907
human sacrifice (Arslantepe), 982
interaction of EBA artifacts and 20th-century political discourse, 631
interplay among Persians, Greeks, and Anatolians, 616
Ionian Greek Panionion (religious league), 753
Kumme shrine (storm god), 744
Old Hittite inventory on, 382–83
Phrygian, 570–74
Sondergebäude areas used for PPNA/Early PPNB, 919
spring monument sites of Hittite, 636–38fig
Urartian state religion and, 557
Yazılıkaya (Hittite open-air rock-cut sanctuary), 39, 41, 635fig–36
zoomorphic vessels (BIBRU) for during, 1022–23 See also monumental architecture; religion
cultural interactions
between Anatolian and East Greek, 16fig, 31–32, 757–61
between Assyria and Urartu, 742–43
between eastern Anatolia EBA and Kura-Araxes, 290
Lydian Sardis pottery evidence of, 1124–25
Persian Sardis evidence of, 1121–22
Royal Tomb of Arslantepe and evidence of, 296–301, 300–301, 863–64, 865, 982
culture
Cucuteni-Gumelnitsa group, 669–70
early barrow, 693–97
Early Transcaucasian (ETC), 291–301, 303, 304
Epipalaeolithic, 127
Ezero, 671
Fikirtepe Culture, 155–56, 662–65, 963
Karanovo, 963
Karanovo VI-Gumelnitsa-Kocadermen, 670
Kura-Araks culture (fourth millennium B.C.E.), 200, 215–18, 220
Lchashen-Metsamor, 478–79, 482, 483
Maritsa, 670
MIA formation of Thracian, 672
Ninevite V, 278
Syro-Mesopotamian, 296, 297fig, 298, 303, 304, 970, 980
Trialeti, 697–98
Trojan Maritime, 235, 241
Varna, 669
Vinça, 659
Vinçaization process of, 669
Yarımburgaz, 665
Cuneiform Luwian language, 535, 536
cuneiform writing system
Hittite script, 523–30
Middle Bronze Age (MBA), 43–44fig
Old Assyrian dialect of Akkadian, 318
Urartian language, 45–46, 549–53
Cyaxares, 454
Cybele, 506
Cycladic style figurines (western Anatolia), 502
cyma recta cups (EBA), 267, 269, 1005
Cypriot Bichrome, 398
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II), 83t, 454, 614, 616, 1120
Cyrus the Younger, 16, 456, 767, 1121, 1122
Darius I, Persian king, 455, 484–85, 615, 671, 763
Darius II, Persian king, 767
Darius III, Persian king, 617, 770–71
Dark Age. See Early Iron Age
Dark-Faced Burnished Wares (Chalcolithic), 177, 214–15
Dark-Rimmed Orange Bowls (DROBs) [MBA], 351
Dark-Rimmed Orange Bowls (EB III/IV), 280
Daskyleion, 562, 564
Datames of Cappadocia, 769–70
dating techniques
advances made in, 57–58
dendrochronology, 57–58
Dedecik-Heybelitepe, 806
Değirmentepe, 185, 191, 828, 862–63
Delaporte, L., 41, 42, 970
Delian League
Archidamian War between Sparta and, 765–66
Athena Polias (patronness of Athens) as guardian of the, 765
First Peloponnesian War between Sparta and, 764–65
formation of the, 764
great Peloponnesian War between Sparta and, 765
Ionian War between Sparta and, 766–68
Delphi (Greek sanctuary), 613, 756, 757, 758
Demircihöyük, 162–63, 235
Demircihöyük-Sarıket cemetery, 232, 389
Demircihöyük settlement plan, 230fig
Demirköy, 131, 140–41
dendrochronology
advances made in, 57
Anatolian, 57–58
(p. 1141) “Dendrochronology at Gordion and on the Anatolian Plateau” (Kuniholm), 419
dental health (Ilıpınar population), 960–61
depas amphikypellon forms, 238, 239fig
Derviş Ocak, 660, 670
DEUS (“Divine Road of the Earth”), 636
DFBW (Dark Face Burnished Ware), 141–42, 143
Didyma (Greek sanctuary), 756
diffusionist hypotheses, 150, 658–59
“dimorphic state” (ETC), 304
divorce contracts (Kaniš society), 328
Diyarbakır Basin, 176
The Dominion of the Dead (Harrison), 624
Domuztepe’s “Death Pit,” 782
Dorian Greeks
architecture of, 510
dialectal differences of, 510
Herodotus on, 25
living in western Anatolia, 504fig–11
settlements (900 B.C.E.) of, 753 See also Greek civilization
Dorian Hexapolis, 500
Dörpfeld, W., 37, 717, 718, 721, 725
Drama, 660
Duru, R., 153, 803
Duzdagi (Nakhchivan), 691
Early Aceramic I (EA I) sites
animal husbandry evidence, 131
Biris Mezarlığı, 127
burial, 130–31
Demirköy, 131
Hallan Çemi, 127, 128fig–30, 131, 132
Körtik, 127, 128, 129fig–30, 131, 132, 133
noteworthy trends of ceramics at, 131
Söğüt Tarlası, 127
Early Aceramic II (EA II)
Çayönü, 132–34, 135
Göbekli, 134–35
early barrow culture, 693–97
Early Bronze Age chronology
Anatolian plateau, 69–74, 230t
north central plateau, 242–47
south central plateau, 247–51
southeastern Anatolia, 262–81
western plateau, 234–42
Early Bronze Age eastern Anatolia
Early Transcaucasian (ETC) culture, 291–301
multiculturalism and acculturation, 295–96
Royal Tomb of Arslantepe, 296–301, 863–64, 865, 982
sociopolitical structures and subsistence strategies in, 301–4
transition to Middle Bronze Age (MBA), 304–5
Early Bronze Age (EBA)
Arslantepe-Malatya, 980–85
the Balkans, 670–72fig
central Anatolian plateau, 417–36
Demircihöyük settlement plan, 230fig
eastern Anatolia, 290–305
geography of the Anatolian plateau, 229–31
İkiztepe prehistory during, 160
Indo-European languages and people living on Anatolian plateau, 233–34
material culture evidence, 628–31
metallurgy evidence, 232–33, 247–48, 866–69
pottery transition into Copper Age tradition, 164
preliterate Anatolia, literate Mesopotamia, and preliterate and literate Syria, 68t
southeastern Anatolia, 260–82
Turkish excavations at sites of the, 47
urbanization and trade in Anatolian, 231–33
Early Bronze Age southeastern Anatolia
dating sites, 70t–71t, 73–74
eastern Zone chronological sequence, 276–81
geographical zones in, 260–62
overview of chronologies of, 262–64
table of synchronized periodizations, 263t
western Zone chronological sequence, 264–76
Early Bronze I
north central plateau, 242–44
south central plateau, 248–49
southeastern Anatolia eastern zone transition from Late Uruk to, 276–78
southeastern Anatolia western zone, 264–68
western plateau, 235–38
Early Bronze II
north central plateau, 244–45
south central plateau, 249–50
southeastern Anatolia eastern zone, 278–79
southeastern Anatolia western zone, 268–70
western plateau, 238–41
Early Bronze III
north central plateau, 245–47
south central plateau, 250–51
southeastern Anatolia eastern zone, 279–81
southeastern Anatolia western zone, 270–73
western plateau, 241–42
Early Bronze IV
southeastern Anatolia eastern zone, 279–81
southeastern Anatolia western zone, 273–76
Early Chalcolithic period
Aegean Coast and Sea of Marmara, 155–56
the Balkans transition from Neolithic to, 666–67
central Anatolian Plain, 154–55
Eskişehir/Porsuk Region and north central Turkey, 156–57
map showing sites, 153fig
(p. 1142) no perceptible break in cultural continuity during, 152
painting on beige-slipped pottery in, 152
southwestern Lake District, 153–54
the Transcaucasus, 684–88 See also Chalcolithic period
Early Iron Age (EIA)
absolute chronologies of, 418–20
the Balkans, 673–74fig
ceramic frameworks for, 420–23
description of, 417
emerging urbanization of, 638–42
evidence on identity of peoples and elements responsible for transition to, 82
Hittite political history during, 596–97
lack of archaeological and literary documentation on, 86
LBA transition to, 419, 423
political and cultural changes during transition to, 80
revision of the Aegean littoral date for transition to, 84–85
sites of, 423–34
southeastern Anatolia, 447–50 See also Iron Age chronology
Early Phrygian period, 420, 423, 429, 431
Early Sioni ceramic tradition, 208–9fig, 212
Early Transcaucasian (ETC) culture
description of, 291
“dimorphic state” of, 304
eastern Anatolia and the origins of, 291–95
emergence of material culture, 846
multiculturalism and acculturation characteristics of, 295–96
Royal Tomb of Arslantepe, 296–301, 863–64, 865, 982
settlements during, 291–96, 303
spiral motif in iconography of, 299fig
early Trialeti ceramics, 694
eastern Anatolia
Chalcolithic of, 205–21
Early Bronze Age (EBA) in, 290–305
Early Transcaucasian (ETC) culture, 291–301, 303, 304
EBA metallurgy development shift to, 866
geography of, 205–6
geography of southeastern and, 337–39
Iron Age in, 464–91
link between Kura-Araxes culture and EBA, 290
map of EBA sites in, 292fig
map of southeastern and, 338fig
Middle Bronze Age (MBA) in southeastern and, 337–54
Royal Tomb of Arslantepe, 296–301, 863–64, 865, 982
transition to Middle Bronze Age (MBA), 304–5 See also Anatolian plateau
eastern Highlands
dating EBA sites, 70t–71t, 73–74
dating Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites, 62t–65t, 66
interaction between southern Mesopotamia (fourth millennium B.C.E.) and, 827–28
eastern Thrace
assessment of recent excavations in, 660–61
Early Bronze Age culture, 670–72fig
Early Iron Age and Middle Iron Age culture, 673–74fig
Kanlıgeçit site in, 671–72
Late Chalcolithic period culture, 669–70
major Neolithic assemblages of, 663fig
MIA formation of Thracian culture, 672
Middle Chalcolithic period culture, 667–69
Middle and Late Bronze Age culture, 672–73
Neolithic period culture in, 662–66
transition from Neolithic to Early Chalcolithic culture, 666–67
East Greeks. See western Anatolia Greeks
economy
Algaze’s theory on Uruk and Anatolian trade and, 817–20, 824–25
EBA eastern Anatolia subsistence strategies, 301–4
evidence of Late Chalcolithic Anatolia and southern Mesopotamia, 628–29
Ilıpınar village, 951–52
invention of coinage, 613, 1117
kārum period, 323–26 See also trade
Eflatun Pınar, 39, 42, 43fig
Eflatun Pınar (“Spring of Plato”), 636–37fig
Egypt
Amenhotep III of, 364, 365, 586, 594
Arnuwanda’s conquest of, 588–89
attempted invasion by Sea Peoples, 604
Greek temples built using masonry techniques from, 760
Hittite invasion by Ramesses II, 591–92
Kuruštama treaty between Hittite Empire and, 588
monumental funerary statues, 760
Ptolemies (Macedonian monarchy) rulers over, 617
Ramesses II of, 39, 41, 591–92, 593, 594
Zannanza, Hittite prince murdered in, 588
8.2 or the Labrador climatic event, 667
Elazığ, 821
Elazığ-Malatya, 449
Elazığ Museum, 866
Elazığ region (Iron 1), 470, 474
élite class
adoption of Persian manners by Anatolians, 762
(p. 1143) Arslantepe period VII housing of, 973fig
burial evidence on Phokaia, 506
burial of Middle Phrygian, 430
burial of Urartian, 475, 642–43
Gordion burials for, 1070–71, 1081–82, 1085–86fig
Halaf pottery evidence of stratified society and, 784–85
Ḫaldi (deity) cultic duties of Urartu’s, 746
Phrygian, 562, 564
tombs of Paphlagonian, 643 See also Royal Tombs
Empire Luwian, 536
Emporio VIII, 159
“Eneolithic” sites, 685
ephemeral settlements
Chalcolithic Asia Minor, 799–801
definition of, 799
Ephesos, 771
Epi-Gravette complexes, 662
Epipalaeolithic culture, 127
Epistles (Horace), 31
Eponym Chronicle, 739
Erbab settlement, 114–15
Erdoğu, B., 103, 934
Eretria, 763
Eriahi, 737
Erišum I, Assyrian king, 319
Erzen, Afıf, 46, 1055
Erzurum region (Iron 1), 476–77
Esarhaddon, Assyrian king, 741, 744
Esin, Ufuk, 48, 103
Eskişehir/Porsuk Region
Early Chalcolithic period sites in, 156–57
Late Chalcolithic period sites in, 162–63
Eskiyapar, 868
Euboea, 763
Euphrates River
Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia geography including, 205, 206
Chalcolithic southeast Anatolia and geography, 175–77fig
Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi (GAP) on, 445, 837
Karababa Dam reservoir, 825, 843
Karakaya Dam on the, 445, 843
Keban Dam on the, 231, 445, 843
MA I–III known from drainage of, 135
rescue programs in advance of dam construction along, 48, 184, 394
southeastern Anatolia map showing, 261fig
Taurus Mountain chain from which originates, 175–76fig
Euphrates Valley (MBA), 339–46
everted rims pottery (Late Bronze Age), 885
“ex balcanae lux,” 659
Ezero cultures, 671
face pot (Çatalhöyük), 943fig
faience statuettes of god and goddesses (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1023
family structure, Kaniš society, 328
Festoon Ware (LIA), 457fig, 458
Fibeln in Anatolien I (Caner), 860
field surveys
aerial photographs used for, 844
Hittite political organization evidence through, 884, 887–89
satellite imagery used for, 844, 848
figurines
Chalcolithic Kilia, 807fig
detachable or broken heads, 942
Göbekli Tepe clay, 929–30
Kültepe-Kaneš statuettes of god and goddesses, 1014, 1023–25
Kura-Araxes pottery and, 692–93
Late Chalcolithic ring-shaped, 164
Pottery Neolithic period human, 142
western Anatolia Cycladic style, 502 See also pottery/ceramic types
Fikirtepe Culture, 155–56, 662–65, 963
First Geographical Congress of Turkey (1941), 100
first millennium B.C.E.
continuity into the, 605–7
end of the Late Bronze Age leading to, 405, 604–5
migrations into Anatolia, 607–8
First Peloponnesian War (460–446 B.C.E.), 764–65
Fıstıklı Höyük, 781fig, 782, 788–89
Flaring Rim Bowls (Late Uruk-EBA), 266, 276
flint-scraped Coba bowls, 185
fluted bronze bowl (Ayanis), 1064fig
food production
Chalcolithic Troadic, 801
EBA eastern Anatolia subsistence strategies, 301–4
Halaf site evidence of, 779, 780, 785–86
Hirbemerdon Tepe, 349–50
Ilıpınar, 951–52, 963–64
kārum period, 324
Mature Aceramic Neolithic I–III (MA I–III) changes in, 139–40
Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures in Transcaucasia, 685 See also agriculture; animal husbandry
Forrer, Emil, 268, 368, 725
Fortress of Ayanis. See Ayanis Fortress
fox symbol, 928
Frangipane, M., 828
free-standing masonry, 760
French Institute (İstanbul), 42, 45
(p. 1144) Fuchs, A., 741, 742
funerary customs
Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia, 213, 214
Hittite, 388
Hittite Royal Funerary Ritual, 907
Middle Bronze Age metal objects, 348
wagon technology evidenced in, 696–97 See also burial sites
Galatia, 16, 617
Gamkrelidze, Thomas V., 704, 705, 706
Garstang, John, 40, 41, 46, 47, 780
Gaššulawiya, Hittite queen, 591
Gates, Marie-Henriette, 7, 393
Gavur Kalesi, 39, 42, 45
Gawra XII–IX repertories, 689
Gedikli Karahöyük, 273
Gekhakar, 472t
Genz, H., 425, 427, 428
German Archaeological Institute, 1032
German Oriental Institute, 40, 1032
Gilgameš Epic, 908
Giricano Tepe, 278, 448
Girnavaz intramural burials, 279
Glaukos, 20
Göbekli Tepe
aerial view of, 918fig
buttons found at, 929
clay figurines found at, 929–30
complex prewriting system of symbols at, 928–30
defined as mountain sanctuary and not settlement, 919
enclosure C seen from the air, 923fig
fox motif used at, 928
Göbekli IIA public buildings and T-shaped pillars, 139, 625, 626fig–27fig, 921–25, 926fig, 927fig, 930
Göbekli II schematic map of the main excavation area, 920fig
interpretations of, 925–28
local economic variability in, 134–35
location and description of, 625, 917
material culture and subsistence, 918–19
plan of excavated structures, 626fig
stratigraphic excavations and architecture, 919–25
Göbekli Tepe T-shaped pillars
complex prewriting system of symbols found on, 928–30
description of, 139, 625, 921–25
high relief of predator/bas-relief of wild boar, pillar 27 Enclosure C, 924fig–25
interpretations of the, 925–28
pillar 43 in enclosure D, 926fig
pillar with relief of roaring lion, 627fig
Goldman, H., 248, 250, 869
gold mines
kārum period, 325
rich resources of Anatolian, 859
gold objects
Ayanis, 1062
found at Bronze Age Trialeti chieftains’ burial sites, 697
gold folio with depiction of deity (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1025fig
jewelry from early barrow burials (“early kurgan cultures”), 693–94
Karataş Semayük ring idols, 868
Troy II “Priam’s Treasure,” 720, 726
Göllüdağ, 640
Göltepe, 247–48
Gordion
absolute chronologies testing at, 418, 419–20
agricultural evidence at, 1087–89
archaeological sequence at, 1075–87
burial mounds or tumuli for élites, 1070–71, 1081–82, 1085–86fig
Burnt Reed House (BRH), 1077–78
Citadel Mound at, 418, 428, 430, 1070, 1071fig, 1074, 1075, 1084
Destruction Level of, 423, 429, 639, 641–42
displacement and rebuilding (sixth century B.C.E.) at, 564, 565
Early Iron Age evidence at, 628–30
Early Phrygian Destruction Level, 1072–73
Early Phrygian Level (YHSS 6A) of, 1080fig
evidence from formation of complex state at, 562
general view of Terrace Buildings, 1073fig
history of archaeological research at, 1071–75
Iron Age ceramic production at, 431–32
as key Hittite site, 882
legendary Gordion knot at, 617, 1089
Lower Town, 1084–85fig
material culture evidence from, 561, 1076–87
megaron structural examples found at, 568
monumental architecture at, 641–42, 1081–82
new citadel constructed at, 609, 611
orthostat sculptures at, 1079
Outer Court buildings, 1080–81
Palaeo-Phrygian text examples found at, 567
political structure evidence at, 1078–79
Polychrome Gate House, 1072fig, 1080
post-Hittite levels at, 607
pottery and ceramics found at, 1076–79, 1082–84, 1086
rubble foundations, 1084fig
settlement plan (Middle Phrygian period), 1083fig
sign of Lydian connection found at, 614
(p. 1145) tumulus architecture on Plains of Gordion, 757
understanding Phrygian influence through excavation at, 424
Yassıhöyük Stratigraphic Sequence (YHSS), 430, 642, 1074t, 1077 See also Hittite sites; Phrygia/Phrygians; Yassıhöyük
Gordion Project (University of Pennsylvania Museum), 45, 1071
Gordon, E., 102
Gorgos of Salamis, 763
Grave, P., 6, 7, 100, 415
Gray Matt-Slipped Pseudo Metallic Ware (EB III), 272
Gray Minyan (Greece), 726–27
Gray Wares (Iron Age), 420, 434, 727
Gray Ware (Troy sites), 723
great Peloponnesian War (431–404 B.C.E.), 765
Greece
Archidamian War (431–421 B.C.E.), 765–66
Corinthian War (395–386 B.C.E.), 768
First Peloponnesian War (460–446 B.C.E.), 764–65
great Peloponnesian War (431–404 B.C.E.), 765
Ionian Revolt assistance sent from, 763
Ionian War (412–404 B.C.E.), 766
LBA contacts with western Anatolia through trade with, 370–71
Mausoleum designed by architects and sculptors of, 616
Paradimi group in, 669
Peace of Antalcidas or King’s Peace (386 B.C.E.) with Persia, 768, 1121
Retreat of the Ten Thousand (401–399 B.C.E.) by mercenaries from, 767, 1121 See also Athens; Sparta
Greek civilization
Alexander the Great’s spread of, 3, 4–5, 7, 11, 16–32, 616–17
common cultural and ethnic identity of, 728
connections between Aḫḫiyawa and, 368–72
hegemonic nature of, 31–32
the Iliad as heart of ethnic identity of, 724
influence on Anatolia by, 16fig, 31–32, 759–61
influence on Iron Age central Anatolian plateau ceramics, 421
LBA reference to Greeks as Mycenaeans, 369 See also Aiolian Greeks; Dorian Greeks; Ionian Greeks; Mycenaeans
Greek languages
Anatolian place-names in, 710
becomes primary language for inscriptions, 617
dialectal differences of Aiolian, Ionian, and Dorian, 510
Finkelberg’s reconstruction of linguistic relationship of dialects, 752
similarity of Pamphylian Greek to Linear B tablets, 29
Greek migrations
following collapse of Mycenaean kingdoms to Asia Minor, 753
myths regarding, 508–9
scale of Greek settlements in Asia Minor following, 753–54
traditional view of mainland Greek to Asia Minor, 752 See also migrations; western Anatolia Greeks
Greek temples
Anatolian admiration of, 758–59
Delphi sanctuary, 613, 756, 757, 758
Didyma sanctuary, 756
Egyptian masonry adopted for, 760
Sardis Greek-style temples, 758–59, 1118, 1122fig
Gre Virike, 267–68, 270
Gre Virike I, 266
Gre Virike II, 272, 274, 275
Gre Virike IIA, 272, 273, 274
grooved ware (Iron 1), 470
Groovy Pottery (EIA), 447–48fig, 459
Groovy Pottery (MIA), 452, 453, 459
Gülçur, S., 103, 104
Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi (GAP), 445, 837
Güvercinkayası, 803–4fig
Gyges, king of Lydia, 612, 613, 1116, 1117
Habibuşağı, 452
Habuba Kabira, 814, 819
Hacilar I and II material culture, 153–54
Hacınebi, 266, 823–24
Hacınebi Tepe, 190
Halaf period
Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia painted ware, 209–10
Chalcolithic southeast Anatolia pottery, 177–78
Early Chalcolithic pottery, 153–55
examining the scholarship on Neolithic-Chalcolithic, 10
Halafians of northern Mesopotamia, 178–80
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional (HUT) Phase, 180, 191, 783
kin-based and self-contained households of, 144
mobility of farmers and herders of the, 786–87
multisited communities of the, 788–89
obsidian resource exploited in, 691
outliers found in Transcaucasia sites from the, 686
pastoral encampments of the, 787–88
(p. 1146) periodization of the, 783–84
social relations and organization of the, 784–86
synthetic overview of the, 777–80
terminology related to the, 782–83
Ubaid pottery production (fifth millennium), 183–86
Halaf pottery
Chalcolithic Halafian, 177–78
Chalcolithic painted ware, 209–10
Early Chalcolithic, 153–55
found at Arslantepe-Malatya, 971
painted designs from Fıstıklı Höyük, 781fig
stratified society evidence of, 784–85
Halaf sites
Arpachiyah, 782
brief excavation history of, 780–82
features and artifacts of, 779–80
Fıstıklı Höyük, 781fig, 782, 788–89
Kazane Höyük, 179, 340, 779, 789
map of, 778fig
pastoral encampments, 787–88
Sabi Abyad, 782, 785, 787, 789
subsistence practices evidenced at, 779
Takyan Höyük, 179, 779
Tell Arpachiyah, 781–82
Tell Kurdu, 179–81fig, 184–85, 782
Umm Qseir, 787–88, 789
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional (HUT) Phase, 180, 191, 783
Ḫaldi’s temple (Muṣaṣir), 745–48
Halicarnassus (Carian city), 23
Hallan Çemi
Çayönü contemporary with, 132
EA I (Early Aceramic I) site, 127, 128–30, 131
metallurgy evidence found at, 861
snake symbols used at, 927
stone bowls and stone pestle from, 128fig
Hammam et-Turkman VI East, 267
Hammam et-Turkman VI West, 274
hammer rim bowls (fourth millennium B.C.E.), 825–26
Ḫammurapi III, king of Ugarit, 594, 595
Hamoukar, 187
Ḫantili I, Hittite king, 582
Ḫantili II, Hittite king, 583
Ḫapalla kingdom, 366
Harran Plain, 844
Harrison, R. P., 623, 624
Hasanlu IIIA, 456
Hassek Höyük 4–2, 267
Hassek Höyük 4–3, 264
Hassek Höyük 5, 267
Hassek Höyük, 189–90, 266, 267, 826–27
Hassek Höyük reconstruction, 827fig
Hattian language, 233, 710, 711–12
Hattian “standards” and “sun disks,” 868
Ḫatti language, 522
Ḫattuša
Hittite capital, 378, 382, 902
monuments of, 633
primary tablet storage in, 910–11
spring monuments of, 636
urban plan of, 634fig See also Boğazköy-Ḫattuša; Hittite Empire
Ḫattuša spring monuments, 636
Ḫattušili I, Hittite king, 403, 581, 902
Ḫattušili II, Hittite king, 378
Ḫattušili III, Hittite king, 9, 370, 371, 398, 592–93
Hauptmann, H., 262, 863
Hawkins, J. D., 367, 636
Hayaz Höyük, 273
Hecataeus of Miletos, 761, 762–63
Hecatomnid dynasts of Caria, 616, 769
Hecuba, queen of Troy, 607
Hellenica (Xenophon), 768
Hellenistic Sardis, 1123
Hellenotamiai (“stewards of the Greeks”), 764
Helwan points, 133, 138
Helwing, B., 264, 271, 826–27
Henrickson, R., 430, 431, 432
Herodotus
Armenian geographic insights offered by, 485
Battle of Lade account by, 505
on East Greek city-states based on rule of law, 754
Historia by, 15–16, 21–31
on Ionian Revolt, 762–63
on LIA southeastern Anatolia history, 455
on Lydia, 27–28, 1116
on Median conquest of Urartu, 480
on Persian attack against Knidos, 507
Persian Royal Road described by, 615
Phokaia described by, 505–6
on Phrygian cultural life, 613
on Phrygians as immigrants to Anatolia, 8, 560
Researches, 21
understanding of Anatolia revealed by, 31
unique historical storytelling by, 761
Herodotus of Halicarnassus, 761
Hesiod, 754
Hieroglyphic Luwian, 535
Hincks, E., 551, 553
Hirbemerdon Tepe, 349–54, 849fig
Hirbemerdon Tepe Survey, 847fig, 849fig, 850
Hisarlık, 37, 718
Historia (Herodotus)
catalogues of Xerxes’s forces, 21
(p. 1147) composed by Greeks from Anatolia, 15–16
on the geography and peoples of Anatolia, 21–31
Hitit Güneşi Anıtı (Hittite Sun Monument), 630
Hittite cuneiform script
adverbs, conjunctions, and particles of, 529
development of, 902–4
deverbal nouns, 528–29
enclitic chain elements, 529–30
lexicon of, 530
nominal forms, 524
numbers, 527
phonology of, 523–24
pronouns, 524–26
syntax, 530
Hittite Empire
access trade routes into the, 383–84
Arnuwanda III, king, 594
Arslantepe site evidence of influence from, 383, 985–86
Arzawa conflicts with, 363–68
changing status of Luwian language in, 537
chronological remarks on the, 377–79
collapse as turning point for Anatolian history, 604–5
continuity in Anatolia following collapse of, 605–7
dating sites of LBA Old Kingdom and, 77–82
distribution of stone reliefs, 379fig
examining the dynastic succession issues of the, 9
famine suffered during last years of, 594–95
geographical remarks on the, 376–77
Ḫattuša capital of, 378, 382, 633, 634fig, 636, 902, 910–11
Ḫattušili I, king, 403, 581, 902
Ḫattušili II, king, 378
Ḫattušili III, king, 9, 370, 371, 398, 592–93
Hebrew Bible’s references to, 517
historic legacy of the, 517–18
iron industry of, 859
Konya Plain used as buffer by, 383–84
Kuruštama treaty between Egypt and, 588
lack of cemeteries from the, 389
Late Bronze ending with collapse of, 423
LBA architecture of, 632–38
map as suggested by textual sources, 878fig
mass invasion from “Sea Peoples,” 595–97
material culture as medium for understanding, 879
Muršili I, king, 581–82, 902
Muršili II, king, 365–66, 367, 370, 589–91, 890
Muršili III, king, 592
Muwattalli II, king, 366, 367, 368, 591–92
origins of, 522
paradigm shift and process of critical reassessment of, 879–80
pottery and material culture of, 10, 382–83, 384–88, 879, 882, 884–87
reconstruction of dominance relationships in, 892fig–93
Šarišša city of, 378
Šuppiluliuma I, king, 364, 586–89, 590, 909
Šuppiluliuma II, king, 594–96, 633, 636
survival of royal house in Melid, 605
Tarḫuntašša capital of, 15
Tudḫaliya I, king, 364, 378, 904
Tudḫaliya II, king, 364, 378, 583–84
Tudḫaliya III, king, 366, 378, 381
Tudḫaliya IV, king, 368, 371–72, 593–94, 891–92
Yazılıkaya (open-air rock-cut sanctuary), 39, 41, 635fig–36 See also Ḫattuša; Hittite political organization; north-central Anatolian (NCA)
Hittite language
adverbs, conjunctions, and particles of, 529
deverbal nouns of, 528–29
direct textual evidence for, 707–8
enclitic chain of, 529–30
evolution of written, 523
examining the origins and development of, 8, 10, 233, 234, 522
grammatical connections between Luwian and, 708–9
Ḫattuša archive on, 521–22
Hittite-Luwian bilingual Anatolian hieroglyphs, 522, 541–43, 909
identified as an Indo-European language, 233, 704
lexicon of, 530
mixed influence of Hattic and Luvian on early, 710, 711–12
nominal forms of the, 524
numbers of the, 527
phonology of the, 523–24
pronouns of, 524–26
relationship between Luwian and, 543
studies constructing solid understanding of, 41–42, 43
syntax of, 530
the verb of, 527–28
Hittite political archaeological categories
administrative sphere of interaction, 883, 889–90
overview of the four, 883–84
pottery and politics, 883, 884–87
projected hegemony and territorial competition, 883, 890–92
spatial signatures of empire, 883, 887–89
Hittite political organization
agriculture archaeological evidence used to understand, 880–81
(p. 1148) AGRIG officials and their sealhouses, 881
archaeological evidence for understanding, 880–82
BĒL MADGALTI (border official), 881
concentration on key sites problem in archaeology of, 882
downfall of Hittite Empire (EIA), 596–97
four archaeological data categories for analysis of, 883–93
imperial administration traced through monumental architecture, 891–92
map of Late Bronze Age regional settlement trends, 888fig
New Hittite period (“Empire” period), 586–97, 877–93
Old Assyrian traders’ arrival in Anatolia, 8, 579–80
Old Hittite period (LBA), 580–86
paradigm shift and process of critical reassessment of, 879–80
reconstruction of dominance relationships in, 892fig–93
spatial signatures of hegemonic control, 889
textual-historical record on, 586–95, 877–80 See also Hittite Empire; sociopolitical structures
Hittite Royal Funerary Ritual, 907
Hittite sites
Acemhöyük, 316, 887
Ağızören, 389
Alaca Höyük, 38, 39, 41, 163, 246–47, 629–30fig, 695, 867, 868
Alacahöyük Sphinx Gate, 380fig, 1041
Alişar Höyük, 44fig, 45, 47, 381–82, 887, 1039–42
Aphrodisias, 885, 887
Atchana-Alalakh, 882
Beycesultan, 162, 237, 239–40, 241–42, 314, 367, 802, 882, 885, 886
Bitik, 383
Boğazköy/Osmankayası, 388
Boğazköy-Ḫattuša, 39, 40fig–41, 45, 316, 881, 882, 884, 890, 906, 1031–37
burials, 388–89
Carchemish, 41–42, 274, 390, 449, 605, 609
Coba Höyük, 41, 46
dating LBA Old Kingdom and Empire period, 77–82
Eflatun Pınar, 39, 42, 43fig
Gavur Kalesi, 39, 42, 45
Hittite Tapigga, 381
İmikuşağı, 382
İnandık, 382–83
İnandıktepe, 880
Kaman-Kalehöyük, 881, 882
Karahöyük Konya, 314, 887
Kayalıpınar, 382, 882
Kazankaya, 388
Kilise Tepe, 399, 404, 882
Kinet Höyük, 882
Konya-Karahöyük, 388, 901
Korucutepe, 383, 449, 470, 471t, 865, 885, 890
Kültepe, 382
Kültepe-Kaneš, 44
Kuşaklı-Šarišša, 42, 382, 880, 881, 882, 887, 1042–45
map of key sites, 1032fig
Maşat-Tapikka, 146, 887, 1045–47
Mersin, 154–55, 184, 405, 862
metal objects found at, 387
Norşuntepe (Norşun Tepe), 188, 293, 296, 445, 449, 828, 863, 885
Old Hittite cult inventory found at, 382–83
Ortaköy-Šapinuwa, 42, 380–81, 882, 1037–39
Osmankayası, 389
Oymaağaçtepe, 381
Oymaağaç-Vezirköprü, 42
Porsuk-Ulukışla, 384
pottery and material culture found at, 384–88
problem of over concentration on key sites, 882
seals found at, 386–87fig, 889
Tarsus, 41, 274, 395–96, 398–99, 404, 869, 882, 885, 890
Texier’s terra incognita investigation of, 38–39, 47–48
Tille Höyük, 446, 454, 885, 886
Toprakkale near Van, 46
Tuz Gölü, 383
weaving objects found at, 387–88
Yazılıkaya, 39, 41
Yümük Tepe, 41, 47
Zincirli, 41 See also Gordion
The Hittites monograph (Messerschmidt), 39
Hittite society
characteristics and languages of, 534–35
Luwian language communities of, 535–39
paradigm shift and process of critical reassessment of, 879–80
reconstruction through archaeology in Turkey, 38–43
vision of integration of Hittite and Turkish identities, 41
Hittite Tapigga, 381
Hittite textual corpus
on Aḫḫiyawa, 368–69
Akkadian script used in, 904, 909
bilingual Anatolian hieroglyphic writing, 522, 541–43, 909
Boğazköy-Ḫattuša clay tablets, 40–41
“Boss of Tarkondemos,” 42
Carchemish hieroglyphic inscriptions, 42
charters or land deeds, 908–10
cuneiform inscriptions cut into rock-face near Van, 45–46
cuneiform texts found at Kültepe, 43–44
(p. 1149) development of Hittite cuneiform, 902–4
as direct evidence of Hittite language, 707–8
distinction between long-term and short-term and types of, 906–7fig, 908–11
Ḫattuša archive, 521–22
hegemony and territorial competition evidence in landscape, 891–92
hieroglyphic writing on seals preserved impressed on bullae, 909–10
history of, 906–11
Hittite history traced through, 10, 378–79
Hittite political organization constructed through, 877–80
Hittite Royal Funerary Ritual, 907
The Hittites monograph (Messerschmidt) on, 39
Hrozný’s study of Hittite grammar, 41
information available through, 15
Luwian hieroglyphs development, 904–6
map of Hittite Empire as suggested by, 878fig
Milawata letter, 371–72
Neo-Hittite period of the Iron Age hieroglyphics, 39, 41, 42
Old Hittite, Empire period, and Middle Hittite script, 377–78
overview of genres of, 906–7t, 910
primary tablet storage in Ḫattuša, 910–11
process of adopting new monolingual, 902, 904–6
rediscovery of the Hittites through, 518–21
Tarsus epigraphic finds, 398–99
Tell El-Amarna tablets, 39–40
VBoT 30, 903fig
wooden scribes using writing boards for, 905–6
Hittitology discipline, 534
Hoca Çeşme, 665, 667
Hoca Çeşme Phase I, 669
Hodder, I., 104
Hogarth, D. G., 39, 41
Homer
author of the Iliad, 15, 27, 759
author of the Odyssey, 728, 759
on Greek city-state government, 754–55
interest in peoples of Anatolia by, 31
probable Anatolian origins of, 15–16, 17 See also Iliad (Homer)
Homo erectus, 117
Horace, 31
horn sickle handle (Ilıpınar), 957fig
Horom, 472t, 473t
horse domestication, 695–96
Horum Höyük, 186, 275
Horum Höyük III3–4, 266, 272
Horum Höyük III3–5, 274
Horum Höyük III3, 272
Hrozný, B., 41, 44, 704
human sacrifice (Arslantepe), 982
Hurrian Boğazköy texts, 553
Hurrian language, 233, 556
Hurro-Urartian language, 556–57
Ḫuzziya II, Hittite king, 582
Ḫuzziya III, Hittite king, 583
hybridized pottery style (Hassek), 826–27
Hypachaei (Cilicia), 24
Idrieos, 769
Ihlara Valley (central plateau), 100–101
Ikhnaton, pharaoh of Egypt, 588
İkiztepe, 160, 868
Ikonos satellite imagery, 844, 848
Ik-Teššub, Šubrian king, 744
Iliad (Homer)
Agamemnon, leader of Greek forces in, 369
Anatolian peoples mentioned in, 17–21
as beginning of Hellenic literature, 759
on the Carians, 372
composed by Greeks from Anatolia, 15–16
Greeks known as “Achaian” in the, 369
as heart of ancient and modern Greek ethnic identity, 724
Herodotus on absence of the Lydians from, 27
large-scale research inspired by the, 718
Late Bronze Age (LBA) setting of, 17
Phrygians as allies of Troy in, 17, 19–20, 607
Sardis as not mentioned in the, 1115
search for evidence confirming the, 724–25
Troia and (W)ilios used interchangeably in the, 368 See also Homer; Troy
Ilıpınar
architecture and settlement of, 952–59
cemetery, 162–63, 664
ceramic assemblages and material culture of, 957fig, 959, 962–63
changing burial customs, 961
history of research and environmental context of, 950–51
inter-regional links of, 963–64
physical and dental health of people living in, 960–62
village economy of, 951–52
Ilıpınar architecture/settlement
building plans from different early village phases, 953fig
burned house from top level of Phase X, 954fig
final stage: seasonal occupation (Phase VB), 956–59
first period: postwall building village (Phases X–VII), 952–54
horn sickle handle/strainer pot, 957fig
plan of huts and courtyards, 958fig
reconstruction of standard boundary building (phase VI), 956fig
(p. 1150) second period: mudbrick building village (Phases VI–VA), 954–56fig
Ilıpınar cemetery, 162–63, 664
Ilısu Dam zone, 843
İmikuşağı, 405
İmikuşağı’s Habur, 396
Imperial Ottoman Museums (Constantinople), 1125
İnandık, 382–83
İnandıktepe Level IV, 880
Indo-European languages
Anatolian Group of, 605, 607, 608
Anatolian Hieroglyphs, 522
hypotheses on EBA Anatolian plateau, 233–34
Luwian, Hittite, and Palaic languages as, 233, 704
overview of arrival and florescence of the, 10
Palaic language, 233, 234, 522
PIE (Proto-Indo-European) speech, 704, 705, 706
Indo-Europeans
as autochthonous or intrusive in Anatolia, 705–6
dating time of entry into Anatolia, 707–9
as fundamentally a linguistic group, 705
lack of consensus regarding Anatolian presence of, 704–5
role in Anatolia by, 710–12
Intermediate Ware, 246, 251
Ionian Greeks
adoption of Egypt funerary statues by, 760
architecture of, 510–11
defined as originating from Athens and living in Anatolia, 26
dialectal differences of, 510
Herodotus on, 25–26
Ionian Revolt against Persian Empire by, 762–63
living in western Anatolia, 504fig–11
Panionion (religious league) of, 753 See also Greek civilization
Ionian language
differences from Aeolian and Dorian dialects, 510
four dialects of the, 26
Ionian League, description of, 500
Ionian Revolt (499–494 B.C.E.), 762–63
Ionian War (412–404 B.C.E.), 766
Ionic architecture, 510–11
Iron 1
Elazığ region, 470, 474
Erzurum region, 476–77
overview of the, 469–70
radiocarbon dates from Anatolian/Armenian plateau, 471t–72
southern Caucasia, 477–80
Van region, 474–76
Iron 2, 480–84
Iron 3, 484–89
Iron Age
Anatolian hieroglyphic script used for geographical sites of, 15
Arslantepe-Malatya from Middle Bronze Age to, 985–86
Assyrian-Urartian interactions during, 9–10
central Anatolian plateau, 415–36
chronology of, 82–85, 417–23, 465–66
eastern Anatolia, 464–91
examining Anatolia civilizations during the, 7, 45–46
examining the destruction of native Anatolian empire during, 9
historical synchronizations—rulers of Anatolian states and Assyria, 83t
Hittite hieroglyphics of the Neo-Hittite period, 39, 41
monumental tombs of the, 642–43
representative sites of regional occupation sequence in Anatolia, 84t
southeastern Anatolia, 443–59
survival of Anatolian Group languages into, 605, 607
Iron Age central Anatolian plateau
chronology of, 417–23
geography of, 416–17
map of, 416fig
sites of, 423–34
Iron Age central Anatolian plateau sites
Boğazköy, 419, 424–26, 435–36
Büyükkaya, 419
Çadır Höyük, 419, 426–28
Citadel Mound, 418
comparative chronological framework for, 422fig
Gordion, 418, 419–20, 424, 428–32
Kaman Kalehöyük, 418–19, 433–34, 435
Iron Age chronology
absolute chronologies, 418–20
ceramic frameworks, 420–23
comparative framework for principal sites, 422fig
dating sites, 82–85
eastern Anatolia, 465–66
historical frameworks, 417
Iron 1, 469–80
Iron 2, 480–84
Iron 3, 484–89
source material for reassessment of, 445–46
Turkey and Armenian traditions for periodization of, 468–69 (p. 1151) See also Early Iron Age (EIA); Late Iron Age (LIA); Middle Iron Age (MIA)
Iron Age eastern Anatolia
chronology of, 465–66
geography of, 205–6, 466–69
map showing sites of, 467fig
Iron Age southeastern Anatolia
Early Iron Age (EIA), 447–50
end of the, 458–59
Late Iron Age (LIA), 453–58
map of sites, 446fig
Middle Iron Age (MIA), 450–53
source material on chronology of, 445–46
tribe-states in, 450
iron ore deposits, 859
irrigation systems remains
Gordion, 1088
southeastern Anatolia landscape, 841
Išpuini, Urartian king, 481
Išputaḫšu, king of Kizzuwatna, 398, 537
İstanbul Archaeology Museum
archaeological work done through, 38
origins of the, 36
Ivanov, Y. V., 704, 705, 706
ivory statuettes of god and goddesses (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1023, 1024fig
İvriz rock relief, 637–38fig
İznik region, 660
Jamdat Nasr-Early Dynastic II period, 279
Jebel Aruda, 814, 819
Jerablus-Carchemish, 39
Jerablus Tahtani 2A, 266
Jerablus Tahtani 2B, 268, 271
Jerablus Tahtani, 274
Jerf el Ahmar, 928, 929, 936
Jericho, 918
jewelry
Alaca Höyük burials and objects of, 246–47
copper-silver alloys from Arslantepe Royal Tomb, 865
Early Chalcolithic marble bracelets, 157
found at early barrow burials (“early kurgan cultures”), 693–94
found at EB III burial sites, 273
Göbekli Tepe spacer beads, 919
Kültepe-Kaneš, 1014, 1025
Persian Sardis, 1121
Troy II “Priam’s Treasure,” 720, 726, 868
Jezireh Gray Ware (EB III–IV), 280
Journal Asiatique (1840), 45
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 552
Kakuli, Queen, 1062, 1066
Kaleköy, 452
Kaletepe Neolithic workshop, 110–11fig, 112
Kalḫu (modern Nimrud), 737
Kalınkaya, 867
Kaman-Kalehöyük
absolute chronologies established at, 418–19
aerial photograph of, 1096fig
agriculture at, 881–82
ceramics found at, 433–34
excavation goals at, 1096
geographical location of, 433, 1095
pottery sherds/painted ceramics found at, 1098, 1101
stratigraphy of, 1096–1108
view of the North Trench, 1097fig
Kaman-Kalehöyük stratigraphy
Stratum I, 1097–98fig
Stratum II Iron Age, 1098–1101
Stratum III Middle to Late Bronze Ages, 1102–8
Stratum IV Early Bronze Age, 1108
Kaman-Kalehöyük Stratum II Iron Age
architectural remains of Stratum IIc 1, 1101
architectural remains of Stratum IId 1–3, 1101
burned architectural remains of Stratum IIIc, 1106–8
dating architectural remains from, 1098–99
megaron-shaped architectural remains, 1099–1101
photo and plan of megaron-style structures, 1100fig
Kaman-Kalehöyük Stratum III (MBA–LBA)
bullae inscribed with hieroglyphic signs, 1102–3, 1105fig
dating architectural remains from, 1102
human skeletons found at, 1107–8
large architectural remains of Stratum IIIb, 1105–6
Round Structures of, 1102–4fig
Kaneš, 631
Kaneš Level Ib, 901–2
Kaniš, 321, 322
Kaniš population
communication between Assyrians and, 327
ethnic origins of, 327
family structure and law of, 328
relationships between Assyrians and, 328–29
reverse of treaty between Assyrians and, 320fig
rulers and political history of, 321–23
social classes of society, 326
Kanlıgeçit citadel, 671–72fig, 726
Karababa Dam reservoir, 825, 843
Karababa Painted Wares (EBA), 271, 275, 1005–6
Karacadağ Mountain, 175–76fig
Karagündüz, 471t, 474, 475, 692
Karahöyük Konya, 314, 887
Karain, 159
Karakaya Dam, 445, 843
Karanovo culture, 963
Karanovo-Varna-Ezero sequence, 660
(p. 1152) Karanovo VI-Gumelnitsa-Kocadermen culture, 670
Karanovo V period, 670
Karataş-Semayük, 232, 868
Karaz, 293
Karkamiš, 639–40fig
Karkamiş Dam, 445
Karkiša country, 372
kārum period
archaeological data on the, 314–18fig
chronology of the, 313–14
earliest evidence for Hittite and Luvian languages from, 707
economy and trade during the, 323–26
end of the, 580
kārum II phase of, 313–14
Kültepe-Kaneš, 1019
map of Anatolia and Upper Mesopotamia during, 315fig
political history during the, 321–23
society of Kaniš population during, 326–29
textual data on the, 318–20, 321
kārum period archaeological data
general presentation of the, 315–16
important Middle Bronze sites, 316–17
material culture, 317–18fig
kārum period economy and trade
agriculture, animal husbandry, and food production, 324
metal resources, 324–25
trade and commercial treaties, 325–26
kārum period Kaniš society
communications between Assyrians and Anatolians, 327
ethnic origins of the Kaniš population, 327
family structure and law, 328
mixed community of Anatolians and Assyrians, 328–29
social classes, 326
kārum period political history
Anatolian palace and administration, 323
Anatolian rules and, 321–23
political powers of countries and cities, 321
kārum period textual data
cuneiform text written in Old Assyrian dialect of Akkadian, 318
epigraphic discoveries, 319
historical documents and chronology, 319–20
referring to Anatolian political entities, 321
reverse of treaty between Kaniš and Assyrians, 320fig
Kaška, 381, 584–86, 588, 589
Kavuşan Höyük level VIII, 281
Kayalıpınar, 382
Kazane Höyük, 179, 340, 779, 845fig
Kazankaya, 388
Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı (journal), 38, 446
Keban Dam, 231, 445, 843
Keban Dam salvage project, 862
Keilschriftexte aus Boğazköi (1916–2009), 1034
Keilschrifturkunden aus Boğazköy (1921–90), 1034
Kenan Tepe, 185, 190–91, 276, 821
Kerkenes Cappadocia Gate, 427, 428
Kerkenes Dağ, 423, 426, 427, 564, 568, 640–41
Kerkenes Palace Complex, 427, 428
Kestel Mine, 247, 248
Khirbet Kerak (also called Bet Yerah), 293, 301, 691
Khirbet Kerak Ware (KKW), 294, 863, 864
Kilia figurines (Kulaksızlar), 806–7fig
Kilise Tepe, 399, 882
Kilise Tepe’s “Stele Building,” 404
Kimon, 764
Kinet Höyük, 882
King’s Peace (386 B.C.E.), 768, 1121
Kızıl Irmak (Halys River), 231, 315
Kizzuwatna kingdom, 536–37, 539
Kleinasien (Götze), 41
Knidos, 507
knobbed ware (Troy layer VIIB2), 673, 727
Knudtzon, J. A., 40, 41
Konya-Karahöyük, 388, 901
Konya Plain (central plateau), 101–2, 103, 104, 112–13, 376, 383–84
Korfmann, Manfred, 47, 718, 867
Körte, A., 45, 1069, 1071
Körte, G., 45, 1071
Körtik
bee fetishes from, 130fig
EA I (Early Aceramic I) site, 127, 128, 129–30, 131, 132, 133
stone bowl fragment from, 129fig
Körtik Tepe, 929
Korucutepe, 383, 449, 470, 471t, 865, 885, 890
Koşay, Hamit, 38, 300, 867
Köşk Höyük, 102, 103, 115, 116–17, 182, 803, 804–5
Kozul (TG 275) mines, 859
Kulaksızlar, 806–7
Küllüoba, 237, 238, 240, 726
Kültepe-Kaneš
aerial view of, 1013fig
annual excavations at, 44
Assyrian merchant houses in, 1020–21
ceramic assemblage found in, 1015, 1020, 1021–23
as early Hittite center, 382
EB III data on, 251
geographical location of, 1012
gold folio with depiction of deity, 1025fig
history of research, 1013–19
jewelry found at, 1014, 1025
the kārum of Kaneš, 1019
(p. 1153) material culture found in, 316, 317, 1023–26
monumental buildings plan (Old Assyrian Trading Colony), 1016fig
mound levels, periodization, and architecture discovered, 1013–21
objects found in burials, 1025–26
Old Assyrian Trade Colony in Lower City, 1019–20
“The Palace of Waršama” of, 1017–18
Sargon, king of Assur impression, 1027fig
seal impressions from, 697, 1026–28
statuettes of god and goddesses, 1014, 1023–25
tablets and documents found in, 319–20, 1028
Kumme kingdom, 744–45
Kumme shrine (storm god), 744
Kummuḫ, 449
Kummuḫḫu, 740–41
Kumtepe, 38, 801
Kumtepe A, 158
Kura-Araks culture (fourth millennium B.C.E.)
architecture of the, 215–16
“epoque-making” transformation of, 220
factors contributing to formation of, 218
pottery production, 216–17
Kura-Araxes, 691–93
Kurban Höyük
ceramic assemblage with Tarsus features found at, 248
level III of, 271, 275
level III–IV of, 272
level IVA of, 271, 825–26
level IVC-A of, 270
level IVC of, 268
level IV of, 271
level IV–III of, 274
level V of, 266, 278
level VA of, 264
level VB-A-IVC of, 267
level VB of, 264
Kuruçay 6A2, 802fig–3
Kuruštama treaty (Hittite and Egypt), 588
Kuşaklı-Šarišša
Building C of, 1043–44
challenges of archaeological work at, 882
clay tablets found at, 42, 1044–45
comparison of ceramics with other sites, 880
cult center of, 887
evidence of destruction (14th century B.C.E.), 382, 1043
geophysical field survey conducted at, 1042–43
plan of the provincial center, 1043fig
political economy evidence at, 881
rebuilt following destruction, 382
Kuvuşan Tepe, 452
Kuzi-Teššub, prince of Carchemish, 541
Kuzi-Tešub, king of Carchemish, 398
Kvatskhelebi, 692
Kvemo-Kartli, 686
Labarna, king of Ḫattuša, 581
Lake Van excavations, 45–46
Lamian War (323–322 B.C.E.), 771
The Land of the Hittites (Garstang), 41
landscape archaeology
challenges of southeastern Anatolian, 837fig–39
development hampered by chronodisciplinary boundaries, 838–39
Hirbemerdon Tepe Survey, 847fig, 849fig, 850
Kazane Höyük settlement hierarchy and landscape reconstruction map, 845fig
mounds of habitation sites in, 839–40
palimpsest metaphor used in, 838
present and future southeastern Turkey, 850–51
reconstructed Middle Bronze Age (MBA), 839
resource extraction, 842
site-focused field survey, 843–47
tools, methods, and research used in, 10, 843–47
Upper Tigris Valley case study on, 847fig–50
visible elements of southeastern Anatolian, 839–43 See also monumental architecture
landscape architecture (Persian Sardis), 1121
“landscape of the dead,” 9
languages
Akkadian dialect of Old Assyrian Colony, 318
Carian, 535, 708, 710
dialectal differences of Aiolian, Ionian, and Dorian Greeks, 510
Greek becomes primary language for inscriptions, 617
Hattian, 233, 710, 711–12
Hurro-Urartian, 556–57
Kaniš population, 327
kārum period, 327
lack of evidence for conflict over boundaries of, 712
Luvian, 705–12
Luwian, 233, 233–34, 398, 522, 536fig, 541–45
modern Caucasian, 556
paleolinguistics impact on study of, 659
Phrygian, 29, 522
process of training first Hittite native generation in new, 902, 904–6
Proto-Anatolian, 709
similarity of Pamphylian Greek to Linear B tablets, 29
spoken during Old Assyrian Colony period, 233
survival of Anatolian Group into Iron Age, 605–6
Trojan epigraphic material indicating Luwian, 18
Urartian, 45–46, 233, 552–56
West Semitic (first millennium B.C.E.), 606–7 (p. 1154) See also Hittite language; Indo-European languages
Late Assyrian Empire, 449, 453
Late Bronze Age (LBA)
advancement in Anatolian archaeology of, 880
architecture of Hittite cities during, 633–38
the Balkans, 672–73
Boğazköy-Ḫattuša site of the, 39, 40–41
dating sites of Hittite Old Kingdom and Empire periods, 77–82
end of the, 405, 604–5
examining Anatolia during the, 7
Hittite sites adding to picture of cultic practice during, 42
the Iliad setting during, 17
map of inter-regional interaction in north Syria and Anatolia, 886fig
map of regional settlement trends during, 888fig
material culture and architecture during, 632–33
Old Hittite period during, 580–86
southern and southeastern Anatolia in, 393–405
underwater archaeology of Uluburun shipwrecks, 42–43, 399, 860
western Anatolia and the Aegean, 363–74
Late Bronze Age southern and southeastern Anatolia
the Amuq Plain, 401–2
chronology of, 395–96
Cilicia, 399–401
diagnostic material culture, 396–99
settlement layout and architecture, 404–5
southeastern highlands, 402–3
Late Chalolithic sites
Aegean Coast, Sea of Marmara, and Eskişehir/Porsuk Region, 162–63
Arslantepe-Malatya, 971–80
the Balkans, 669–70
Beycesultan, 162
evidence of interaction of Uruk and northern Anatolia, 813–30
Hacılar, 48
map of, 161fig
metallurgy evidence at, 864–66
northern and southern central Anatolia, 163–65
pottery characteristics in, 161–62
sophisticated metallurgy evidence at, 807–8
the Transcaucasus, 688–97
urbanization evidence at, 628–29
Late Excised Ninevite V, 279
Late Iron Age (LIA)
absolute chronologies of, 418–20
central Anatolian plateau, 417–36
ceramic frameworks for, 420–23
description of, 417
Persian Empire, 455–58
sites of, 423–34
southeastern Anatolia, 453–58
southeastern Anatolia pottery, 454–55, 456–58 See also Iron Age chronology
Late Phrygian period, 430
Late Sioni ceramic tradition, 208–9fig, 212
LBA-Early Iron Age (EIA) transition
evidence on identity of peoples and elements responsible for, 82
political and cultural changes during, 80
revision of the Aegean littoral date for, 84–85
Lchashen-Metsamor culture, 478–80, 482, 483
Lchashen-Metsamor wares (Iron 2), 483
lead isotope analysis, 860
lead statuettes of god and goddesses (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1023–25
League of Corinth, 770–71
Leila Tepe, 688–89, 690fig
Levantine Khiam type points, 127, 137
Lidar Höyük, 267, 272, 273, 340, 447
“Light Clay Ware” (Early Bronze II), 249, 250
Liman Tepe, 232
Linear B tablets, 29
Lions Gate (Arslantepe), 970, 986
literature
East Greeks’ innovative poetry, 760–61
Iliad and Odyssey epic form of, 759
Lloyd, S., 47–48
Lukka lands, 373, 605
Luwian (also Luvian) language
Anatolian Hieroglyphs representing, 522, 541–43, 909
changing status within Hittite kingdom, 537
continued influence of, 596–97
debate over sharing innovations of Lycian and, 710
development of hieroglyphs script of, 904–5
differences between western Anatolian languages and, 709
direct textual evidence for, 707–8
distinguishing dialectal features of, 708
earliest evidence for, 707
epigraphic finds on the, 398
grammatical connections between Hittite and, 708–9
identification of text as, 705, 707
Luwian dialectal phyliation, 536fig
mixed influence on Hittite by Hattic and, 710, 711–12
used in Neo-Hittite principalities, 541
origins of the, 233–34
relationship between Hittite and, 543
status in Hittite Empire, 708
structure of, 543–45
survival after fall of Hittite Empire, 604–5, 606 See also Indo-European languages
Luwian corpus
ASSUR letters and KULULU lead strips, 541
found at Troy VIIb site, 723
geographic localization of Iron Age, 541
Kizzuwatna rituals of, 539
Late Bronze Age, 540
myths and magical incantations of, 540–41
Sakarya River basin site of, 540
“Songs of Ištanuwa,” 540
survival after fall of Hittite Empire, 604–5, 606
Tunnawiya ritual of, 540
Luwians
changing status within Hittite Empire of, 537
migration to kingdom of Kizzuwatna by, 536–37
in Neo-Hittite principalities, 537–39
Lycaonia, 16
Lycia
Crete origins of, 26–27
Herodotus on, 26–27
as Iliad ally, 17, 20
Lycian A, 535
Lycian B (Milyan), 535
Lycian language, 710
Lydia
Alyattes, king of, 613, 756, 1120fig, 1125
archaeology in Turkey on Iron Age, 45
Croesus, king of, 27, 28, 29, 613, 1116, 1117
during first millennium B.C.E., 611–14, 612–13
Gyges, king of, 612, 613, 1116, 1117
Herodotus on, 27–28, 1116
invention of coinage, 613, 1117
Mermnadai dynasty of, 1116–17
Miletos alliance with, 757
Sardis pottery and Lydian material culture, 1124–25
Sardis (seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E.) under, 1116–20
lyric poetry, 760–61
Macedonia
Lamian War (323–322 B.C.E.) against, 771
Macedonian Greek dynasties of, 617
Philip II creation of League of Corinth, 770–71 See also Alexander the Great
Madduwatta, 584
Magna Mater, 930
Maikop, 689–90
Maionians, 17, 20, 372
Makridi, Theodore, 40, 41
malaria (Ilıpınar population), 960
Malatya Plain, 821, 843, 846, 968 See also Arslantepe-Malatya
Mallowan, Max, 781, 782, 783, 784
Manapa-Tarḫunda, king of Šeḫa River Land, 367
maps
Anatolia and Upper Mesopotamia during kārum period, 315fig
Çatalhöyük excavation areas on East Mound, 935fig
Chalcolithic eastern Anatolia, southern Caucasus, and sites, 207fig
Chalcolithic southeast Anatolia sites, 177fig
changing Upper Euphrates site distribution (fourth millennium B.C.E.), 823fig
distribution of Hittite Empire period stone reliefs, 379fig
Early Chalcolithic sites, 153fig
eastern Anatolia sites, 292fig
EBA southeastern Anatolia sites, 261fig
excavated Chalcolithic sites of Asia Minor, 798fig
Greek characterization of regions shown in, 16fig
Halaf period sites, 788fig
Hittite Empire as suggested by textual sources, 878fig
Hittite key sites in central Anatolia, 1032fig
interregional interaction in LBA Anatolia and north Syria, 886fig
Iron Age central Anatolian plateau, 416fig
Iron Age eastern Anatolia, 467fig
Iron Age southeastern Anatolia sites, 446fig
Kazane Höyük settlement hierarchy and landscape reconstruction, 845fig
Late Chalcolithic sites, 161fig
LBA southern and southeastern Anatolia, 394fig
MBA southeastern and eastern Anatolia, 338fig
Mesopotamian (fourth millennium B.C.E.) sites by cultural affiliation, 818fig
Middle Chalcolithic sites, 158fig
modern fields and agricultural lands around Hirbemerdon Tepe, 849fig
Neolithic central plateau sites, 101fig
Neolithic southeastern Anatolia sites, 126fig
Peutinger Map, 842
reconstruction of dominance relationships in Hittite Empire, 892fig–93
regional settlement trends during Late Bronze Age, 888fig
Sardis and vicinity, 1113fig
schematic map of the main Göbekli Tepe excavation area, 920fig
southeastern Anatolia sites, archaeological surveys, and dam zones, 837fig
Titriş Höyük topographic plan, 996fig
the Transcaucasus Neolithic through MBA sites, 684fig
Upper Tigris River Valley sites/landscapes with the Hirbemerdon Tepe Survey, 847fig See also Anatolia
Mardians (Median state), 455
Maritsa culture, 670
Mariya, king of Azzi-Ḫayaša, 585
(p. 1156) Markopi ceramics, 694–95
marriage contracts (Kaniš society), 328
Marsh, B., 1070, 1075
Martirosyan, H., 468, 477
Maša country, 372
Maşat Höyük, 381
Maşat-Tapikka
“citadel” building complex at, 146
clay tablets discovered at, 1046–47
excavations findings at, 887, 1045–47
plan of the border city, 1046fig
Matar Kybeleia, 566
material culture
Achaemenid Empire, 455–58
Çatalhöyük, 944, 945–46
challenges related to tracing, 623–24
Early Bronze Age evidence of, 628–31
Early Bronze I Beycesultan Level XVII, 237
Early Transcaucasian (ETC) culture, 846
EB III–IV southeastern Anatolia eastern zone, 281
EB I–II southeastern Anatolia eastern zone, 279
EB II southeastern Anatolia western zone, 270, 272–73
EB I southeastern Anatolia western zone, 267–68
EB IV southeastern Anatolia western zone, 275–76
evidence of Anatolian élite adoption of Persian, 762
exchanges between Assyria and Urartu, 742–43
“Fikirtepe Culture,” 155–56
Göbekli Tepe, 918–19
Gordion, 561, 1076–87
Hacılar I and II, 153–54
Hittite Empire, 10, 382–83, 384–88, 879, 882, 884–87
Ilıpınar, 957fig, 959, 962–63
kārum period, 317–18fig
koiné pottery repertoire (fifth millennium B.C.E.), 160–61
Kültepe-Kaneš, 251
Late Bronze Age (LBA), 632–33
LBA southern and southeastern Anatolia, 396–99
MBA Euphrates Valley, 344–46
MBA northeastern Anatolia, 346–48
north-central Anatolian (NCA), 882
Sardis pottery and, 1124–25
Trojan Maritime Culture, 235, 241
Urartu’s Iron 2, 481
western Anatolia Greeks’ art and, 759–61 See also architecture; culture; pottery/ceramics
Matsumura, Kimiyoshi, 433, 434
Mature Aceramic Neolithic I–III (MA I–III) sites
Akarçay Tepe, 136
animal husbandry evidence, 139–40
burial, 140
Çayönü, 132, 136–37, 138, 140
economies evidenced at, 139–40
Göbekli IIA, 139
Mezraa-Teleilat, 136
Nevalı Çori, 137–38, 139
PPNB interaction sphere, 137
Yeni Mahalle-Baliklıgöl, 137
Mausoleum, 616
Mausolos (also Mausolus), 616, 769
Medes
sack of Nineveh by, 453
Upper Tigris region controlled by, 454
various names used for, 455
Megara, 753
megaron architecture, 568
Mehmet the Conqueror, 728
Melchert, H. C., 535, 545
Mellaart, J., 102, 153, 934, 936, 937
Mellink, M. T., 262, 264, 268, 430, 867, 882, 1072, 1075, 1076
Menteşe Höyük, 155, 663, 689
Menua, son of Išpuini, 743
Mersin Level XVI, 862
Mersin VII–V, 405
Mersin XIX–XVII, 154–55
Mersin XV, 184
Mersin XXI, 862
Mersin-Yumuktepe, 159, 181–82, 805
Mesolithic Ağaçlı industry, 662, 664
Mesolithic habitation (the Balkans), 662
Mesopotamia
Anatolia/Upper Mesopotamia map during kārum period, 315fig
changing Upper Euphrates site distribution (fourth millennium B.C.E.), 823fig
cist burials used in, 1004
correlating EBA southeastern Anatolia with, 262, 264
cultural integration during Halaf and Ubaid periods in Upper, 688
cultural, social, and political stages in literate, 68t
diffusionist hypotheses on, 150
dissolution of large-scale commerce between Anatolian plateau and, 403
evolution and interaction between Anatolia and fourth millennium B.C.E., 821–30
fourth millennium B.C.E. sites by cultural affiliation, 818fig
the Halafians of northern, 178–80
interaction between eastern Highlands Turkey (fourth millennium B.C.E.) and southern, 827–28
modified SAR chronological framework (fourth millennium B.C.E.), 822fig
(p. 1157) use of seals throughout, 824
snake symbol at PPN sites of Upper, 927
symbolic motifs appearing at PPN sites of Upper, 928
theories of interaction between Anatolia and southern, 813–20
trade between Late Chalcolithic Anatolia and southern, 628–29
Ubaid influences in southeast Anatolia, 183
urban centers of Upper, 631
Messerschmidt, Leopold, 39
Metallic Ware (EB III), 271, 280
metallurgy
Bronze Age metals and, 866–69
Carpatho-Balkan Metallurgical Province, 691
Circumpontic Metallurgical Province, 691
development of bronze, 866–67
Die Äxte und Beile des 2. Jahrtausends in Zentralanatolien (Erkanal) on, 860
Early Bronze Age (EBA) evidence of, 232–33, 247–48, 866–69
Entwicklungs phase of extractive, 862
Fibeln in Anatolien I (Caner) on, 860
florescence of Anatolian, 10
geographical shift to eastern Anatolia (EBA), 866
Hittite, 387
interface between the steppe and Anatolian, 660
kārum period, 324–25
Late Chalcolithic sophisticated, 807–8
Lydian Sardis, 1120
Neolithic and Chalcolithic, 861–66
Prähistorische Bronzefunde series on, 859–60
SAM project on, 860
southeastern Anatolia western zone, 268
metal mining
abundant Anatolian resources for, 858–59
copper, 325
gold mines, 325, 859
kārum period, 324–25
silver, 325, 859
tin in Taurus Mountains, 233, 248, 859
metal objects
Alaca Höyük burials, 246–47
Alaca Höyük royal tombs, 629–30fig
Bronze Age Trialeti chieftains’ burial sites, 697
Cilicia, 868–69
early barrow burials (“early kurgan cultures”), 693–94
EB III burial sites, 273
found in Late Chalcolithic sites, 863–65
Hattian “standards” and “sun disks,” 868
Hittite, 387
Kozmandere, 673
Kültepe-Kaneš burials, 1025–26
Late Chalcolithic, 807–8
lead isotope analysis of, 860
Middle Bronze Age, 344, 348
Phrygian, 570
Royal Tomb of Arslantepe, 863–64, 865, 982
statuettes of god and goddesses (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1023
the Transcaucasus (Late Chalcolithic and EBA), 690fig
Trialeti Kurgan 5, 697
Troy II “Priam’s Treasure,” 720, 726, 868
Urartian, 475
metal technology. See metallurgy
Metsamor, 472t, 479
Mezraa Höyük, 266
Mezraa-Teleilat, 136, 141, 142–43
Mica-Slipped Ware (MSW), 181
Midas City, 45, 566–67, 571–72fig
Midas, king of Phrygia (Mita of the Muški), 417, 563, 564, 566, 611, 612, 757, 758
Midas Monument, 614
Midas Mound, 45, 611
Midas tumulus (MM), 82–83
Middle Assyrian Empire, 447–49, 450–53
Middle Bronze Age (MBA)
Arslantepe-Malatya, 985–86
the Balkans, 672–73
building technologies and architecture of, 631–32
cuneiform texts found in Turkey from the, 43–44
dating sites of Assyrian colonists in central Anatolian principalities, 74–76, 75t
Euphrates Valley, 339–46
excavations enriching chronological databank from, 86
important sites of the, 316–17
introduction of writing during, 15
kārum period correspondence to, 313–29
northeastern Anatolia, 346–48
Old Assyrian traders’ arrival during, 8, 579–80
reconstruction of the landscape of, 839
southeastern and eastern Anatolia, 337–54
the Transcaucasus, 697–98
Upper Tigris River Valley, 348–54
Middle Chalcolithic period
Aegean Coast and southern Anatolia, 158–59
the Balkans, 667–69
characteristics of, 157–58
map showing sites of, 158fig
northern Anatolia, 160–61
poor representation of, 797
Middle Iron Age (MIA)
absolute chronologies of, 418–20
the Balkans, 673–74fig
central Anatolian plateau, 417–36
ceramic frameworks for, 420–23
sites of, 423–34
southeastern Anatolia, 450–53
southeastern Anatolia pottery, 451fig–52, 453 See also Iron Age chronology
(p. 1158) Middle Phrygian period, 418, 427, 430
middle Wild Goat II (SiA Id) dish, 503
migrations
the Balkans during Early Chalcolithic, 667
the Balkans (Neolithic period), 666
Cimmerians (eighth century B.C.E.), 612
creating the Kizzuwatna kingdom, 536–37
8.2 or the Labrador climatic impact on, 667
during the first millennium B.C.E. after Hittite collapse, 607–8
Indo-Europeans into Anatolia, 704–13
Lydian to Italy during reign of Atys, 1116
Old Assyrian traders into Anatolia, 8, 579–80
of Phrygians from Macedonia to Anatolia, 8, 560
western Anatolia migration myths, 508–9 See also Anatolia; Greek migrations; mobility
Milawata letter, 371–72
Miletos, 23, 506–7, 753–54, 757, 761, 763, 765
Miletus/Milawata, 369, 370, 372
Miletus VI, 17
miniature bowls (Late Bronze Age), 885
mining. See metal mining
Minoan settlement (MBA), 369–70
Minua, son of Išpuini, 555
Minua, Urartian king, 481
Mira kingdom, 366
Mita of the Muški (Midas), 417, 563, 564, 566, 611
Mithridates VI, 30
Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, 1034
mobility
of Halaf farmers and herders, 786–87
Halaf multisited communities evidence of, 788–89
Halaf pastoral encampments evidence of, 787–88
reconstructed by landscape archaeology, 841–42 See also migrations
monumental architecture
Çatalhöyük cult buildings, 628
concentrating on city gates, 640–41
Eflatun Pınar (“Spring of Plato”), 636–37fig
Göbekli Tepe T-shaped pillars, 139, 625, 626fig–27fig, 921–25, 930
“Great King Hartapus,” 637
Greek temples, 758–59, 760
Ḫattuša, 633
Ḫattuša spring monuments, 636
hegemony and territorial competition evidence in, 891–92
Hittite DEUS (“Divine Road of the Earth”), 636
Hittite imperial administration traced through, 891–92
Ionian adoption of Egypt funerary statues, 760
İvriz rock relief, 637–38fig
Kültepe-Kaneš (Old Assyrian Trading Colony), 1016fig
landscape archaeological analysis of, 842–43
Lions Gate (Arslantepe), 970, 986
as mediators of the past, 624–25
megalithic monument at Lalapaşa, 673
modern Hitit Güneşi Anıtı (Hittite Sun Monument), 630
Nereid Monument, Xanthos, 644fig
Nevalı Çori, 625, 627
Ortaköy-Šapinuwa, 42, 380–81
Phrygian Plains of Gordion tumulus, 757
Sardis, 1117
Sphinx Gate (Alacahöyük), 380fig, 1041
structures with orthostats, 632
Suhis-Katuwas dynasty at Karkamiš building program, 639–40fig
as “theaters of knowledge,” 625
Urartian rock-cut tomb, 642–43
Urartu urbanization and, 641
Yazılıkaya (Hittite open-air rock-cut sanctuary), 39, 41, 635fig–36 See also architecture; cult practices; landscape archaeology
Mosaic Building (Citadel Mound), 430
Müller-Karpe, A., 858, 859–60, 1042
multiculturalism
Anatolian and East Greek, 16fig, 31–32, 757–61
Assyrian and Urartian, 742–43
Early Transcaucasian (ETC) culture characteristics of, 295–96
Early Transcaucasian (ETC) and evidence of, 300
Hittite-Luwian bilingual environment evidence of, 522, 541–43, 909
Lydian Sardis pottery evidence of, 1124–25
Persian Sardis evidence of, 1121–22
Royal Tomb of Arslantepe as paradigm of, 296–301, 863–64, 865, 982 See also culture
Murgul (TG 211) mines, 859
Muršili I, Hittite king, 581–82, 902
Muršili II, Hittite king, 365–66, 367, 370, 589–91, 890
Muršili III, Hittite king, 592
Muṣaṣir kingdom, 745–46
Muṣaṣir’s Ḫaldi temple, 745–48
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, 38, 42, 47
Muški, 563
Muslu Çeşme, 662
Müslümantepe, 452
Muwatalli, king of Kummuḫḫu (Commagene), 740
Muwattalli I, Hittite king, 583
(p. 1159) Muwattalli II, Hittite king, 366, 367, 368, 591–92
Mycenae, 369
Mycenaean pottery, 386
Mycenaeans
architectural similarities between LBA Troy and, 726
comparing Greek poleis in early Archaic Age to, 758
conflicts between kingdom of Wiluša and, 725
ending of civilization in mainland Greece, 604
first records on, 369, 370
Greek migration to Asia Minor following collapse of, 753
Miletus settlement of, 371
pottery evidence of trade between Hittites and, 386 See also Greek civilization
Mys conference (499 B.C.E.), 762
Mysians, 17, 19, 28
Mytilene, 766
Nabopolassar, Babylonian king, 454
Nahal Mishmar, 864
Nakhchivan, 291–93
Nakhlak silver mines, 859
Narām-Sīn of Akkad, 319, 1015
NCA-style pottery (Hittite Empire), 884–87
Nebuchadnezzar, 455
Nefertiti, queen of Egypt, 588
Neileus, 26
Nemrik points, 127, 133
Nemrut Dağı site, 36
Neo-Babylonian period, 454
Neo-Hittite period
Hittite hieroglyphic inscriptions of the, 39, 41, 42
Luwian language used in, 541
Luwians living in Neo-Hittite principalities, 537–39, 541
sculptures recovered from, 42
survival of royal house in Melid, 605
Neolithic central plateau
Aşıklı Höyük, 102, 106, 107–10
Aşıklı-Musular site, 110
Can Hasan I, 115
Can Hasan III, 112, 115
Cappadocia, 103–17
chronological chart based on CANeW C database, 105fig
Erbab settlement, 114–15
geography of, 100–102
history of research done on the, 102–4
Konya Plain, 101–2, 103, 104, 112–13
Köşk Höyük, 102, 103, 115, 116–17
map of excavation sites, 101fig
mobile groups (prior to ninth millennium B.C.E.), 104–6
Pınarbaşı, 104–6, 114
Pınarbaşı-Bor, 102, 104
renewed work on seventh millennium B.C.E. sites, 113–17
sedentary communities (eighth millennium B.C.E.), 112–13
sedentary communities (ninth millennium B.C.E.), 106–12
Tepecik-Çiftlik, 115–16
Neolithic period
the Balkans, 662–66
the Balkans transition to Early Chalcolithic period from, 666–67
CANeW (Early central Anatolian) terminology on, 58, 59t–60t
central Anatolian plateau, 100–119
cultic establishments during, 628
dating for sites, 60–68
examining scholarship on Halaf Tradition, 10
excavations enriching chronological databank from, 85–86
metallurgy during, 861–62
overview of the, 58–60t
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), 125, 919, 928
southeastern Anatolia, 125–45
the Transcaucasus, 684–88
Turkish excavations at sites of, 47–48 See also Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB); Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN)
Neolithic southeastern Anatolia
EA I (Early Aceramic I) sites, 126–31
EA II (Early Aceramic II) sites, 132–35
geography of, 125–26
MA I–III (Mature Aceramic Neolithic I–III) sites, 132, 135–40
map of excavation sites, 126fig
Pottery Neolithic sites, 140–44
PPNA (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A), 125
PPNB (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), 125
Neo-Phrygian language, 566, 567–68
Nereid Monument, Xanthos, 644fig
Netherlands Institute in Turkey (NIT), 950–51
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), 425–26, 427–28, 434
Nevalı Çori, 137–38, 139, 921, 927, 929
Nevalı Çori points, 133, 138
Neve, P., 41, 1032
New Hittie period. See Hittite Empire
Nicomedes of Bithynia, 617
Niemeier, W.-D., 369–70
Niḫriya, 340
Nineveh (modern Mosul), 453, 454, 734, 737
Ninevite V culture, 278
Niqmepa Palace (Tell Atchana), 399, 404
Norşuntepe (Norşun Tepe), 188, 293, 296, 445, 449, 828, 863, 885
(p. 1160) Norşuntepe Phases II–III, 185
north-central Anatolian (NCA)
administrative sphere of interaction in, 884, 889–90
definition of, 882
four archaeological data categories for analysis of, 883–84
map of inter-regional interaction in LBA Anatolia and north Syria, 886fig
map of regional settlements trends during LBA, 888fig
pottery and politics data, 884–87
projected hegemony and territorial competition in, 890–92
spatial signatures of empire, 884, 887–89 See also Hittite Empire
north central Turkey (Early Chalcolithic period), 156–57
northeastern Anatolia (MBA), 346–48
northern Anatolia
dating EBA sites, 70t–71t, 72
Late Chalolithic period sites in, 163–65
Middle Chalcolithic period sites in, 160–61
northern Mesopotamian
Late Chalcolithic pottery types, 815fig–17fig
map of fourth millennium B.C.E. sites by cultural affiliation, 818fig
obsidian
Ararat Plain sources of, 688
exploited during Halaf and early Ubaid periods, 691
Göbekli Tepe tools made of, 919
Kaletepe Neolithic workshop, 110–11fig, 112, 113
Neolithic central plateau evidence on, 106, 107, 109
Odyssey (Homer), 728, 759
Ökse, A. Tuba, 6, 260
Old Assyrian Colony period
arrival in Anatolia by Old Assyrian traders, 8, 579–80
Assyrian kārums and wabartums settlements, 326
collapse of the, 340
cuneiform text written in Akkadian dialect of, 318
economy and trade during, 323–26
functions of palaces of Kaneš during, 1018
glyptic tradition of, 697
interest in metal production during, 324–25
Kaman-Kalehöyük burned architectural remains, 1106–8
Kültepe-Kaneš as center of, 1019–20
Kültepe-Kaneš monumental architecture plan during, 1016fig
Kültepe-Kaneš seals from the, 1026
languages spoken during, 233
lead statuettes of god and goddesses (Kültepe-Kaneš) of, 1024–25
mixed community of Anatolians and Assyrians, 328–29
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet OIP 27n.59, 901fig
Old Assyrian and Old Anatolian seal imprints, 317–18fig
as part of the kārum period chronology, 313–14
pottery forms used during, 1022
reverse of treaty between Kaniš and Assyrians, 320fig
textual archives found from the, 340
traveling through Euphrates Valley, 340 See also Assyrians
Old Assyrian cuneiform script, 900–901fig, 904
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet OIP 27n.59, 901fig
Old Assyrian Sargon legend, 319
Old Babylonian style seals (Kültepe), 1027–28
Old Hittite period
Arnuwanda I, 584–85
futher assassinations and disaster during, 583
Ḫantili I, Zidanata I, and Ammuna, 582
Ḫattušili I, 403, 581
Ḫuzziya II and Telipinu, 582–83
Labarna, king of Ḫattuša, 581
language of the, 580–81
Muršili I, 581–82
Tudḫaliya II, 583–84
Tudḫaliya III, 585–86
Old Smyrna, 505
Onesilos, 763
Oriental Institute, 163, 394
Orman Fidanlığı, 799–800
Orontes of Armenia, 770
Ortaköy-Šapinuwa
history of research, 882, 1037–39
monumental buildings and tablets retrieved from, 42, 380–81
sketch of the residence city/ground plan of Building B, 1038fig–39
Orthmann, W., 102, 160
orthostats architecture, 632, 727, 1079
Osmankayası, 389
osteoarthritis (Ilıpınar population), 960
Ottoman Empire
Anatolian archaeology recorded by travelers within, 36
development of archaeology of Turkey during, 36–37
Ottoman Imperial Museum, 36
“Outer Fertile Crescent,” 294
Ovçular Tepesi, 291–92, 293, 301, 692
Oylum Höyük, 273, 274, 971
Oylum Höyük Stratum 6–2, 185
(p. 1161) Oymaağaçtepe, 381
Oymaağaç-Vezirköprü, 42
Özbaşaran, M., 103, 934
Özdoğan, M., 150
Özgüç, N., 316, 1013
Özgüç, T., 44, 46, 1013
Özkaya, V., 129, 130
Pactolus River gold resources, 859
Paeonians, Herodotus on, 28
Painted House (Citadel Mound), 430
Palace Complex (Çadır Höyük), 427, 428
“The Palace of Waršama” (Kültepe-Kaneš), 1017–18
Palaeolithic Anatolia, 11, 47
Palaeo-Phrygian language, 565–67
Palaic language, 233, 234, 522
paleolinguistics, 659
palimpsest metaphor, 838
Pamphylia, 28–29
Pamphylian Greek, 29
Paphlagones, 17, 19
Paphlagonia, 29
Peace of Antalcidas (386 B.C.E.), 768
Pelasgians, 17, 19
Perikles, 764–65
Persian Empire
Alexander the Great’s conquest of, 616–17
Aramaic language used for diplomacy by, 615
Artaxerxes II, 616, 767, 768, 769–70, 1121
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II), 83t, 454, 614, 616, 1120
Cyrus the Younger, 16, 456, 767, 1121, 1122
Darius I, 455, 484–85, 615, 671, 763
Darius II, 767
Darius III, 617,