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date: 19 February 2019

(p. 957) Index

(p. 957) Index

A
Abolition of animal use, 65, 81, 137, 859, 867
Abolitionists, 79, 181–82, 200, 235, 265, 799, 812
Abortion, 260, 264–65, 336, 655–56, 685, 836, 894
Abuse of animals
ancient views of, 37
companion animals, 216, 761, 771, 777–78, 783
in farming and meat production, 881–82, 884, 887, 891, 895–97
laws pertaining to protection from, 776–78, 882
in medical research, 671, 678, 921
through neglect, 27, 200, 207, 216, 716, 741–42, 746–47, 760, 769, 771, 777
rights against, 199–200, 207, 219
utilitarian views of, 9. See also Utilitarianism See also Cruelty; Harm; Neglect of animals; Suffering; Pain
Acidosis, 835, 878
Active potentiality, 336, 352–53
Activists, 79–80, 136, 618, 775, 799, 818, 870, 934. See also Animal rights movement
Adaptive preferences, 236
Adventitious rights. See Rights
Advocacy, 62, 76, 79, 83, 244, 365, 407, 522, 637, 708, 749, 858, 926
Aesthetic value, 259, 580–81
Affects (human and nonhuman), 8–9, 19, 166, 408, 411, 549, 553–54, 559–63, 567–68
Affections
ancient views of, 44–48, 50, 55
animal capacities for, 20, 42, 159, 163, 773
in companion animals, 27, 163, 762, 782, 790
natural, 47
their role in virtue theory, 148 See also Affects; Emotions
Agency
not acknowledged for nonhuman animals, 9, 13, 15, 19, 103, 145, 147–48, 152–53, 157–60, 184, 209, 383, 391, 401, 519, 522, 527, 548, 559, 705, 707, 868, 871, 939
and acting for reasons, 127, 521, 530
in apes and other primates, 189–90, 391, 409
Aristotle's views on, 525–27, 548. See also Aristotle and Aristotelian theory
autonomous, 11, 132, 203, 389. See also Autonomy
comparison of human and animal, 11, 19, 80, 132–34, 145, 147, 150, 152–60, 189–91, 262–67, 321, 548–49, 559, 564, 705, 707
as a condition of moral status, 11–19, 124, 184, 260–66, 311, 320, 519–22, 527, 548–49, 652, 705
in contractual agreements, 16, 266, 349–50, 367, 385–401, 710
as a criterion for personhood, 311, 320–22, 367
degrees of, 240, 264, 321
empirical evidence for in animals, 549, 561, 564, 567–68
Humean views of, 9, 15, 128, 145, 148, 150, 152–53, 155–59. See also Hume and Humean theory
and intentionality, 314–15, 363, 530, 566
Kantian views of, 69, 103, 128, 132, 157–58, 284, 367, 525, 527, 548. See also Kant and Kantian theory
in literature, 953
metacognition as a condition of, 9, 103, 145, 150, 152–53,157, 527, 559
and the moral community, 19, 188–91, 556, 559, 561, 564, 566–68
moral motivation and, 19, 148, 520–22, 530
moral responsibility as a consequence of, 23, 80, 157, 184, 188, 260–62, 383, 549, 564, 605, 620, 636, 707, 741, 868, 871, 934
as a moral-status condition, 11, 13, 103, 124, 209, 222, 260–72, 320–22, 348, 351–54, 360, 367, 387–91, 548, 564, 652, 705–7
moral status in the absence of, 9, 16, 19, 148, 159–60, 174–75, 184, 191, 519, 559, 564
nonhuman capacities for, 16, 19, 189–90, 240, 262, 264, 314–15, 321–22, 360, 363, 367, 382, 391, 409, 521, 542–43, 556, 561–68
as a property of personhood, 320–22
properties of, 11, 156–57, 189–90, 222, 262–64, 539–40, 652
rights from, 11, 132, 175, 184, 203, 209, 222, 348–54, 360, 367, 389, 707, 713, 787, 868, 871
utilitarian views of, 155, 175, 188–91, 263, 548, 871. See also Utilitarianism
Agent-neutral reasons, 282
Agent-relative constraints, 735
(p. 958) Aggression, 27, 80, 155, 558, 662, 702–3, 711, 775–76, 769, 779–80, 784, 834, 837, 878, 897.See also Violence
Agriculture
agriculturalists on animal welfare, 858–59
and the ancients’ views of animals, 40, 49
and animal domestication, 709–11
and animal rights and welfare, 858–59, 867, 870, 872
animals deriving value from, 579
and animals’ moral status, 266–67
and applications of biotechnology to animals, 28, 826–29, 835–37, 839–47, 676, 826–47
and biodiversity, 579, 872
contractarian theories as a flawed theory of, 13, 266–67, 348–50, 560, 709–11
and domesticated animals, 702, 710, 717
environmental impact of, 827–28, 840–47, 889–90
and the mixing of species, 676
and overconsumption of resources, 889
in policy, 895
slaughter-based, 867, 878
as a source of harm, 93
United Nations Food and, 827, 840–41
United States Department of, 758, 878, 913
Alienation, 392
Alternatives to animal testing, 29–30, 135, 137, 748, 758, 800, 818, 845, 908–16, 927–28. See also Reduction; Refinement
Altruism, 16, 101, 103, 125, 233, 307, 382, 523. See also Benevolence
Amoebas, 444
Amphibians, 340, 637, 805, 889
Analgesia, 831, 926
Analgesics, 376–77, 835
Anatomical experiments, 62. See also Experimentation
Anatomy, comparative, 552
Ancestors and ancestry, 42, 49, 91, 312, 327, 587–92, 683, 703–4, 777, 887
Anemia, 808
Anencephalic infants, 179, 188, 190, 390, 392
Anesthesia, 481, 507, 734–35, 756, 758, 835, 878, 898, 926
Anger, 14, 18, 39, 44–46, 92, 158, 233, 470, 526, 561, 773. See also Aggression; Fear
Animal dealers, 927
Animal kingdom, 17, 19, 53, 158, 229, 374–75, 380, 401, 408, 411, 414, 417–18, 422, 432, 436, 442, 551, 557, 568, 588, 590
Animal rights
abolitionist views of, 182–83. See also Abolition of animal use; Abolitionists
agriculture and, 859, 867, 870, 872. See also Agriculture
and animal experimentation, 6, 62, 80, 82, 176, 182–83, 198, 200–1, 209, 221, 858, 925
animal welfare views contrasted to, 4, 182, 198, 200–1, 855–59, 866, 869–72
basic rights and, 5, 198–206, 210–19, 707, 717
Beauchamp on, 9–10, 198–214
Boyle on, 6, 61–62, 67–69
a catalogue of, 212–19
chickens and, 61, 217–18, 893. See also Chickens
chimpanzees and, 205, 214–15, 323
of companion animals, 80
and contractarian approaches, 349–54
contracts as basis of, 219, 349–50
and correlative obligations, 9–10, 104, 198, 206–11, 213–14, 219
environmental ethics in tension with, 28, 855–57, 859, 870, 872
of farm animals, 80, 176, 198, 200, 748, 858, 870
Garrett on the history of, 6, 61–62, 68, 78–83
history of, 5–6, 61–62, 68–83, 199
Hutcheson on, 5–6, 62, 72–74, 78–80, 83
killing and, 201, 206, 216, 220–22
legislation regarding, 80–81, 219
to liberty, 176, 182, 200, 707, 748–49
the meaning and concept of, 200–2, 925
negative and positive rights, 705–8. See also Rights
Primatt on, 79–80
as protection of animal interests, 9, 200, 925
religious perspectives on, 68, 72–83
and rights talk, 61–62, 68, 72, 199–200
and rights theory, 4, 9, 198–203, 205–12, 214, 219, 222, 706–7, 925. See also Rights
Singer's avoidance of rights language, 120, 177
subject-of-a-life as criterion for, 14, 360–65, 705–6
as trumps, 182–183, 202, 219–20, 748, 866
utilitarian views of, 74–81, 83, 94, 120, 175–76, 182–83, 200, 859, 866, 869–70, 925. See also Utilitarianism
Varner on, 28, 855–59, 866–72
and vegetarianism, 82. See also Vegetarianism
virtue ethics and, 136. See also Virtue ethics
wild-domesticated distinction as relevant for, 705, 707, 717–18
of zoo animals, 198, 200–1, 207. See also Zoos See also Animal rights movement; Human rights; Laws; Moral status; Rights
(p. 959) Animal rights movement, 81, 83, 136, 176, 200, 870. See also Animal liberation; Animal rights
Animal welfare
and animal rights, 4, 182, 198, 858–59, 866, 869–72
animal welfarists, 28, 200–1, 282–83, 855–59, 883
biotechnology and, 28, 654, 674, 678, 681, 827–40, 843, 846–47
and chimeras, 674, 678, 681
environmental ethics in tension with, 28, 855–57, 859, 869–72
Humean views of, 146. See also Hume and Humean theory
in industrial farming, 28, 827–40, 843, 846–47, 882–83, 893
in legislation, 6, 54, 62, 79, 397, 674, 911, 921, 924
mentalistic views of, 829–31, 834, 838–40, 847
and the quality of life, 285
in research, 674, 911, 921–28
and societal values, 296–300
in a society-centered conception of morality, 277, 292, 296–300
utilitarian views of, 69, 78, 172–73, 192, 863, 866, 869–70. See also Utilitarianism
and vegetarianism, 81–82, 893. See also Vegetarianism See also Agriculture; Animal rights; Diseases; Laws; Pain; Suffering
Animating souls, 36
Anthropocentrism
abandonment of, 566–68
and biocentrism, 628, 630–31
Darwinian view of, 551
in environmental ethics, 133, 140, 612, 617, 843–44, 855–58
in environmental theories, 138, 140, 548, 556, 564–65, 855–58
in the interpretation of animals’ capacities, 307, 454, 549, 551, 558–61, 565, 568–69
and moral status, 548–49, 564–69, 843
in theory of persons and personhood, 307
and species conservation, 584, 611–12, 617
traditional views of, 559
Anthropodenial error, 473–74
Anthropogenic alterations, 613, 618–20, 841
Anthropomorphism
about animal minds, 15, 17, 231, 443, 450–51, 469–75, 568
Darwinian views of, 550–51, 939. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
emotions and, 470–79
in literature, 943, 949–50
in mental attributions, 15, 17, 231–32, 378, 441–43, 450–51, 454, 469–90, 549–51, 554, 568
and moral status, 549, 551, 554–56, 568
and pets, 132
and psychological properties, 231, 469–75
in scientific discourse, 442–43, 939
and the “triune brain” hypothesis, 554
and viruses, 442, 450 See also Anthropocentrism
Antibiotics, 663, 800, 832, 880, 888
Antidepressant drugs, 800
Ants, 382–83, 401, 609, 946
Anxiety, 221, 286, 839
Apes
and agency, 189–90, 391
Cartesian views of, 447
and chimeras, 680, 683, 687
and cognitive ethology, 557
consciousness in, 375
Darwin's view of, 20, 550. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
emotional capacities of, 14, 20, 391, 488–89, 557, 761
and evolution, 20, 91, 550
intellectual capacities of, 14, 20, 391, 447, 482, 726, 734, 760–61, 941–42
literary representations of, 940–42
mindreading abilities of, 375, 409–10, 425–28, 433
and the mirror test, 101, 313, 481–82. See also Mirror self-recognition; Self-consciousness
moral status of, 14, 322–23, 637
personality in, 485–87
potential personhood of, 322–24
proteriction of, 14, 221, 322–24, 637, 709
in research, 214–15, 323, 476, 485, 554, 941–42
self-awareness of, 101, 229, 313–14, 318, 481–82
sociality of, 162, 232, 426–27, 760–61
and sovereignty, 709
theory of mind concerned with, 488, 554
and tool use, 232. See also Tools and tool use
Aquaculture, 829, 842, 846
Aquariums, 26, 198, 200, 717, 739–42, 744, 752, 755, 758, 761, 763. See also Zoos
Aquatic animals, 758, 827
Aristotle and Aristotelian theory
on the moral status of animals, 5, 10, 15, 36, 42–52, 127–30
Nussbaum's neo-Aristotelian capabilities theory, 230–31, 238–45
as a theory of agency, 525–527, 548
theory of virtues, 8, 128, 524–29, 531, 536, 548 See also Capabilities theory; Virtue ethics
(p. 960) Arthritis, 286, 507, 836
Arthropods, 615
Aspirational rights, 208
Ataraxia, 70
Automata, 234, 310, 447, 496
Autonomy
and choice and consent, 238, 659, 786
comparison of human and animal capacities for, 103, 162, 186–87, 238, 285, 320–21, 785–86, 790, 830–31
its connection to personhood, 311, 320–21, 323
and consciousness, 339–40
duty to respect others’, 122–23, 388, 709, 753
Kantian views of, 103, 105, 108, 132, 186–87, 222, 238–39. See also Kant and Kantian theory
moral autonomy, 222
and pets, 785–86, 790
and quality of life, 186–87, 285
rights of, 203, 222, 323, 388–89, 659, 709, 785–86, 790
its role in moral status, 11, 103, 122–23, 311, 320–21, 323, 339–40, 388–89, 652, 705, 709, 753, 790
and the self, 108
and sovereignty, 709
utilitarian views of, 175 See also Agency; Consent; Moral agency; Psychology
Axiological value, 336, 337, 340–41, 347, 350, 361
B
Baboons, 21, 423–24, 651. See also Apes
Bacteria, 450–51, 610
Basic-needs requirements, 26, 739–43, 748, 753–55, 759–60, 762. See also Animal rights; Confinement; Zoos
Bats, 444, 644
Bears and bear baiting, 73, 75, 630, 702, 763
Bees, 81, 374, 376, 380–84, 401, 455–63, 598, 609. See also Honeybees
Behavioral research, 215, 551. See also Behaviorism; Experimentation; Laboratory research
Behaviorism
animal, 187, 555, 569
behaviorists, 187, 338, 342, 356, 473, 551–53, 569
logical, 338, 342, 356
psychological, 450–451, 471, 473, 551, 553, 559 See also Psychology
Bentham and Benthamite theory
and animal rights, 6, 78–80, 83
arguments against, 244–47
and moral problems about animals, 9, 78–83, 172–92, 234–36, 282–83, 548
on suffering as the central issue, 263, 282, 383, 548
and utilitarian thinking about animals, 234–35, 247, 383 See also Utilitarianism
Bestiality, 43
Biocentrism, 132, 617, 628–31, 844, 857
Biodiversity, 28, 383, 612–13, 621, 828, 840–43, 872, 890
Bioethics, 179, 665, 919
Biologism, 658
Biology
and animal welfare, 830, 838
bio-Cartesianism, 819–20
biological distinctions among species, 19–22, 155, 180, 327, 578, 585–99, 604–10, 615–21, 651, 805–7, 820, 865
biological modifications, 643–64, 683, 703, 838
biological needs, 287, 830
biologists, 19, 231, 592–93, 605, 607, 613, 618–20, 865
and chimeras, 644, 657. See also Chimeras; Genetic modification
Darwin's theories in, 585–88, 590–96, 598–99. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
experiments in, 286, 643, 648, 653, 657, 683, 809–12, 820–21, 838, 907, 916
history and philosophy of, 3–4, 19–20, 36, 49–52, 446–47, 590–93, 604–8, 805
and hybrids, 50, 587–88
mechanistic models of, 17, 441, 446–47, 664, 801
in modification and enhancement, 653–61, 663–64, 683
and moral status, 265
and pain, 495
and personality, 155
and personhood, 326–27, 334–35. See also Persons and personhood
synthetic, 653–61, 663–66
Biospheres, 22, 577, 581, 618
Biotechnology, 23, 28, 642, 659, 673, 826–28, 835, 846
Bioterrorism, 621
Bird flu, 887, 893
Bisons, 865
Bivalves, 881
Blastocysts, 679–80
Blindness
in farm animals, 837–40, 879
as a human impairment, 76, 390
in mindreading, 411. See also Mindreading
in research animals, 837–40, 907
Blindsight, 375, 532–34
Blood transfusions, 800
Boars, 41, 835
Bodily nociperception, 498
Bonobos, 358, 425, 427–28, 489. See also Chimpanzees
Boredom, 92, 395, 649, 760, 831, 834, 839, 882. See also Cages; Factory farms
Bottom trawling, 130, 881
Bovine somatotrophin injections, 879
Bovine spongiform, 647
Brains
of apes, 683
and behaviorism, 356, 550, 570. See also Behaviorism
and bio-Cartesianism, 819–20
brain death, 261, 333–36, 352, 633
and collective mental states, 462–63
comparisons between human and animal, 19, 341, 410, 550, 553–55, 559–70, 632–33, 682–83, 819
cortexes, 377, 390, 458, 462–63, 652–53, 819
damage to, 138, 286, 317, 335, 345, 352, 632–33
of dogs, 356
and emotions, 358, 553–55, 559–61, 563
and the human neuron mouse, 24, 672–77, 679–83, 693
and mental states, 334–45, 352, 356, 377, 498, 534, 553–55, 559–70, 632, 681–82, 819–20
mind-brain identity theory, 338
and mindreading, 410. See also Mindreading
and personhood, 317, 333–36, 341–42, 345
reprogrammed, 334–35
structure of, 390, 462–63, 534, 550, 553–55, 559–61, 568, 604, 682, 836, 838
and theories of mind, 338, 819 See also Brainwashing; Minds; Neocortex; Psychology
Brainwashing, 388
Breeders, 746, 782, 837
Breeding programs, 246, 642, 644. See also Breeding; Captive breeding; Interbreeding; Reproduction
Broiler chickens, 756, 835, 837, 879–80. See also Chickens; Factory farms
Bull baiting, 75
Bull elephants, 233. See also Elephants
Bulls, 50, 73, 869
Burden of proof in argument, 19, 27, 520, 568, 586, 598, 636, 745, 820
Burn therapy, 800
Business ethics, 24, 174
C
Cadavers, 647
Cages
battery, 756, 834
bird, 51, 81, 879–80
for companion animals, 81, 110, 715, 747, 771, 773–74, 778–80, 785, 790
as confining. See Confinement
farrowing, 834. See also Pigs
and industrial farming, 883. See also Factory farms
for laying hens, 756, 834, 879
loss of freedom the result of, 110, 182, 217, 715, 740
for pigs on farms, 756, 834–38, 840, 877–78, 881–93
for primates, 180, 740–41
in research, 430–32, 476, 636, 686
rights against, 182, 200, 217, 771
in shelters, 747
suffering as a result of, 51, 81, 183, 740–41, 756, 758–59, 780, 834, 879–80
used for wild animals, 180, 718, 740, 778–80, 880, 943
Calves, 54, 245, 757, 869, 878–79, 881. See also Cattle; Livestock
Canaries, 306
Cancer, 179, 214, 647, 660, 715, 804–6, 809, 818, 892–93, 897
Cannibalism, 39, 42, 45, 688–89, 756, 944
Capabilities theory
capabilities of perspectival and positional thinking, 233, 242
capabilities as capacities for functioning, 237, 245, 247
the capability to form self-conceptions, 229
as a neo-Aristotelian account, 238–41
as a non-metaphysical political view, 240, 247
Nussbaum on, 228–48
(p. 962) Capuchin monkeys, 471, 780. See also Monkeys
Carcinogens, 804, 909–10, 914. See also Cancer
Caretakers, 481, 742–43, 747
Caribou, 865, 868. See also Elks
Carnivores, 133, 935
Castration, 756, 758, 835
Categorical imperative (Kant), 99, 102, 105, 107. See also Kant and Kantian theory
Cats
as an ancient concentration of worship, 40
breeding of, 132, 714
confinement of, 742–45, 763
cruelty toward, 726
domestication of, 73, 704–5, 714–15, 722, 743, 745, 762–63, 769, 777–78
euthanasia of, 81, 782
in experiments, 73, 809
the gaze of, 947, 952
historical perspectives on, 40, 81, 235, 447
mental life of, 319–20, 352, 443, 447, 726, 734
moral status of, 73, 306, 394–98, 704–5, 726, 733–34
as predators, 126, 320
in shelters, 110, 782
veterinary care of, 132, 770
violence toward, 92, 180, 394–95, 397–98
vulnerabilities of, 714–15, 719
wild and stray, 73, 133–34, 704–5, 722, 777
Cells
in animal development, 91, 339, 606–8
and chimera research, 23, 324, 641, 644–46, 648, 651, 656–59, 661, 664, 672–81, 683–89, 691–93
and cloning, 655, 826
eukaryotic, 450, 462
evolutionary development of, 91, 462, 606, 609, 808
genetic modification of, 641–64
medical conditions of, 376, 441, 808
in minimal-mind theory, 441, 450
reproductive, 23, 339, 608, 644–51, 655–57, 659, 661, 922
in research, 23, 324, 646–51, 655–57, 659, 661, 664, 671–93, 801, 806, 922
single, 91, 450, 608
in species development, 606–9
spindle, 557
and tumors, 684
use in enhancement, 324
Cephalopods, 827
Cerebellum, 682. See also Brains
Cetaceans, 318, 321–22, 682
Charity, 12, 49, 131, 208, 212, 267–71, 475. See also Altruism; Benevolence
Cheetahs, 631, 778
Chemical mutagenesis, 837–38
Chickens
and animal rights, 61, 217–18, 893
and antibiotics, 888
biological modification of, 28, 654, 826, 837–40
biotechnology in the use of, 28–29, 654, 756, 826
blind, 837–40, 879
and breeding, 837, 879
broiler, 756, 835, 837, 879–80
cruelty to, 879–81, 883, 896
domestic, 588–90
effects on the environment, 844, 889
and enhancement, 654
fertility of, 589
genetically engineered, 28, 826, 837
harms experienced by, 217–18, 654, 756, 835, 837–40, 879–81, 883, 886, 896
hybrid, 588–90
industrial farming of, 29, 217–18, 879–81, 883, 886, 888, 890, 895–96
laying hens, 835
and overconsumption of food, 890
and pollution, 889
poultry, 834, 836, 887, 933, 935
reproductive qualities of, 588–90 See also Breeding; Factory farms; Environments
Chimpanzees
and animal rights, 205, 214–15, 323
attitudes of, 380
behaviors of, 471, 558
brains of, 683
character traits of, 155–58, 774
cognitive abilities of, 232, 312–13, 375, 380, 421–34, 554–58, 940–41
and economic games, 482–84
in environmental ethics, 139
experimentation involving, 800, 806, 813, 911
genetic engineering of, 649–57, 672–73, 682–86, 800
with HIV, 806
linguistic skills of, 312, 358, 682, 774
mentality of, 232, 940–41
and mindreading, 409, 421, 424–34
(p. 963) and mirror self-recognition, 313, 480–82. See also Mirror self-recognition; Self-consciousness
moral status of, 11, 23, 139, 183–84, 192, 285–86, 630–38
personality of, 155–56, 158, 485–86
and personhood issues, 323–24
as pets, 774, 780
pygmy, 358
and quality of life, 187, 192
in research, 214–15, 346, 476, 554, 806, 911
rights of protection for, 205, 214–15, 323–24, 780
in species egalitarianism, 23, 630–34, 636, 638
and theory of mind, 471–76, 480–89, 554
and tool use, 232. See also Tools and tool use
Chromosomes, 644, 646, 648, 675, 685, 807
Circuses, 3, 26, 198, 216–17, 658, 738, 763, 944. See also Zoos
Civil disobedience, 895
Civil society and its laws, 64, 67–68, 107. See also Laws
Clades, 590, 595, 599. See also Species
Classification systems for species, 487, 586–87, 590, 592, 594, 598–99, 605. See also Species
Climate change, 613, 620, 807, 828, 840–42, 889, 924. See also Environments
Cloning, 181, 646–48, 655, 671, 827, 832, 835–37, 847
Cockfighting, 53, 75, 93, 140, 215, 702. See also Dogfighting
Cockroaches, 17, 43, 442, 446, 464. See also Minimal minds; Roaches
Coercion, 80, 97, 110, 217
Cognition
in chimpanzees, 232, 312–13, 375, 380, 421–34, 554–58, 940–41
cognitive abilities, 16–17, 20, 146, 233, 407, 422, 469, 479, 649, 662, 674–75, 679, 687, 819, 894
cognitive awareness, 498, 509
cognitive conditions of persons, 308–9, 311, 313–15, 317–18, 320–22
cognitive capacities to detect predators, 423–24, 455–56, 555
cognitive powers, 20, 497
emotions and animal cognition, 14–19, 71, 229–33, 247
evidence for moral cognition in mammals, 232–33, 316, 555, 557, 561, 563
metacognition theory, 9, 103, 145, 150–54, 157–58, 318, 374–75, 382, 410, 535–42
Cognitive ethology, 19, 310, 319, 322, 443, 495, 555, 568, 569
Cognitive science, 16–17, 407–8, 442, 448, 450, 453, 458, 463–64, 472, 652
Collective behaviors and collective minds, 17, 442–43, 459–64, 610. See also Minimal minds
Commercial farming, 119, 123, 128–33, 137, 139, 176, 180. See also Factory farms
Committee review of research
embryonic stem cell oversight committee, 678–80, 687
ethics review, 29–30, 136, 183, 645, 650, 910, 921, 926
and government policy and regulation, 645–47, 686–87, 692–93, 908–10, 920–24, 927–29
IACUCs (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees), 674, 692, 910–15, 921, 927–28 See also Government oversight, policy, and regulations; Law
Common morality, 585–86, 859
Commonsense morality, 278–81
Communitarianism, 708–9
Companion animals, 110, 216, 290, 297, 299, 702, 706, 708, 715, 720–21, 950. See also Pets
Comparative anatomy, 552
Compassion
and animal mindedness, 17, 443, 464
animals’ capacity to exhibit, 18, 70–71, 233, 523–24, 542, 567–68
in Buddhism, 124
in Hinduism, 124
Hume's views of, 71–72, 145, 269. See also Hume and Humean theory
Kant's views of, 104. See also Kant and Kantian theory
Mandeville's views of, 71–72
and mentality, 233, 464
Montaigne's views of, 70–72
and moral status, 17, 145, 299–300, 567–68
and pain, 443, 884
in the philosophy of Arnobius, 53
in Singer's views, 119, 125
regarding suffering, 70
in treating animals as moral subjects, 18, 523–25, 528–29
and vegetarianism, 129–31, 133. See also Vegetarianism
Competition, 290, 375, 488, 609, 618, 831
Confinement
in animal research, 555, 715, 739, 747, 752–53, 763
animals’ rights to be free of, 217–18, 220
as cause of dependence, 715–18, 722
DeGrazia's analyses of, 26, 738–67
of dogs, 216, 746–47, 751, 761–63, 781
(p. 964) of domesticated animals, 25, 712–15, 718, 722, 739, 754, 762–63, 834
of elephants, 246–47
in farming, 26, 218, 654, 716, 739, 743, 748, 756–58, 763, 834–38, 877–93
harms caused by, 26, 738–41, 743–63
liberty interests in escaping, 26, 220, 738–41, 763
in pig farming, 756, 834–38, 840, 877–78, 881–93, 898
standards of justification for, 26, 738, 741–49, 751–55, 763
in zoos and aquariums, 200, 246, 717, 739–40, 744, 752, 758–61, 763. See also Zoos See also Cages; Confinement; Crates; Dogs; Elephants; Factory farms; Harm
Conscience, 53, 208, 682, 860
Consciousness
and animal welfare, 838–40
in anthropomorphic views, 470
and behaviorism, 553
Cartesian views of, 15, 94, 147, 446, 448, 496
collective, 462
Darwinian views of, 454. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
and environmental ethics, 28, 855–57, 874
in episodic memory, 316–17
and functionalist-style mental states, 343, 345, 347, 357, 359, 363, 367
human brain location of, 681–83
Kantian views of, 535
lack of in animals, 15, 94–95, 101, 147, 470, 496–97, 547, 838–40
and the Lockean theory of personhood, 306, 318
and Metacognition, 537–40. See also Metacognition
of microencephalic pigs, 839–40
in mindreading, 407, 419–20
in the mirror test, 101–2; See also Mirror self-recognition
and moral status, 13–16, 262–65, 306, 311, 338–45, 358–67, 407, 531–32, 547, 570, 652, 704, 840, 857
as a necessary condition for personhood, 306, 318, 337–41, 347
nonverbal, imagistic thinking and, 16, 357–58, 364–66
and pain, 382, 496–98, 652, 827, 838–39, 897
and personhood, 264, 306, 311, 314, 318, 336–48, 365,
phenomenal, 374–77, 497–98, 532–35, 652
and psychological unity, 317–18, 366
self-consciousness, 13, 67, 95, 101–3, 262–65, 306, 311, 314–18, 336–40, 347–65, 498, 535, 563, 652, 897
utilitarian views of, 94–95. See also Utilitarianism See also Self-consciousness
Consent, 7, 30, 109–10, 139, 222, 280, 388, 642, 658–59, 664, 678, 710, 719, 751, 753, 776, 785, 787, 920, 926
Consequentialism, 235, 706, 751, 799, 953. See also Deontological thinking; Utilitarianism
Consequentialist thinking, 97–98, 172–74, 269, 620, 748, 812, 817–18, 906–14, 926–27, 953
Conservation, 23, 582, 604–7, 611–18, 621
Contraception, 246, 869
Contractarian theories (contractarianism)
and animal domestication, 709–11. See also Domesticated animals
and animals’ moral status, 266–67
as a flawed theory of animal rights, 13, 266–67, 348–50, 560, 709–711
and indirect duties to animals, 16, 218–19, 394, 396–99
and lack of moral standing, 13, 16, 39, 218–19, 348–50, 359, 367, 373, 390–93, 399, 401
and moral standing of infants and the senile, 387–90
and utilitarianism, 383–87, 399, 401
Contractualism, 16, 266–67, 373, 383–94, 399, 401. See also Contracts; Contractarian theories
Conventionalism, 12, 255, 266–69
Cooperation, 97, 101, 109, 152, 155, 161, 245, 288–90, 375, 401, 482, 488, 554–58, 609, 703
Coping, 137, 450, 457–58, 461, 463
Correlativity of rights and obligations, 9–10, 104, 198, 206–11, 213–14, 219. See also Obligations; Rights
Cosmetics and cosmetic surgery, 29, 119, 134–35, 137, 140, 198, 215, 279, 292, 503, 906–8
Courage, 20, 41, 53, 125–26, 131, 158, 212, 236. See also Virtue ethics
Coyotes, 555, 689, 718–19, 721
Crates, 217, 756–57, 781, 834, 877, 940–41. See also Confinement; Cages; Pigs
Creationism, 587, 591–92
Crickets, 442
Crops, 41, 50, 676, 842, 889, 892–94
Cruelty
ancient conceptions of, 39, 230
in animal enhancement and research, 134–37, 325, 927
and animal rights, 79–81, 200–1, 207, 219
in animal sacrifice, 82
in arguments for compassionate eating, 883–85
and chimeras, 325, 674, 689
of confinement, 738–63. See also Confinement
its effects on society, 297
in experimentation, 63, 119, 134–39, 674
in factory farming, 29, 119, 729, 877–83, 885, 891. See also Factory farming
and familyism and speciesism, 122
and the human neuron mouse, 674
Kantian views of, 10, 69, 100, 238, 294, 395–99. See also Kant and Kantian theory
(p. 965) and killing animals 25–26, 726
legal prohibitions of, 80, 207, 775–76, 813, 816, 927
Mandeville's view of, 71–72
Montagne's view of, 71–72
to pets 27, 132, 219, 769, 775–76, 781, 783. See also Companion animals; Pets
and Plato's views of animals, 54–55
in religion and scripture, 54, 77, 80, 82
for the sake of pleasure and entertainment, 39, 75, 813
and utilitarianism, 79, 192, 235, 885. See also Utilitarianism
and vegetarianism, 129, 131, 140, 877, 880–83, 885. See also Vegetarianism
and virtue ethics 8, 119–20, 124–25. See also Virtue ethics See also Abuse; Neglect of animals; Pain
Crustaceans, 373, 881
Culling, 220, 861–64, 867, 870. See also Hunting
Cytoplasm, 645–46
D
Dairy products, 7, 110, 756–57, 763
Darwin and Darwinian theory
animal psychology in, 471
Humean theory as connected to, 8, 151. See also Hume and Humean theory
and minimal-mind theory, 453–62
the moral status of animals in, 19–20, 522, 547–50, 563–69
and personhood theory, 310, 326. See also Persons and personhood
responses to, 592–99, 939
species essentialism considered in, 590–92
theory of evolution in, 550–60, 576
the value of species in, 584–90 See also Evolution; Species
Deafness, 76, 325, 390, 716, 729
Deception, 110, 154, 338, 409, 417, 422–24, 441
Deer, 41, 221, 783, 855, 862–65, 869, 871, 894
Deforestation, 841–42, 845. See also Environments; Habitats
Degrees of moral standing, 264, 266, 561, 631. See also Moral status
Dehumanization, 400–1, 945, 952
Deities, 78–79, 335. See also Gods
Dementia, 350, 478, 485
Democracy, 452, 894
Deontological reasoning
about animal research, 812, 818–20, 906, 910–13, 926–27
appeals to respect for animals in, 751–52
contrasted with utilitarian reasoning, 97, 120–21, 173, 269, 799
in environmental ethics, 123, 138–39, 141
about genetically modified animals, 642, 661–65
in Kantian theory, 7, 98. See also Kant and Kantian theory
about moral status, 120–23, 138–39, 337, 910. See also Moral status
in person theory, 337. See also Persons and personhood
about rights, 202, 706, 799
side-constraints in, 97–98
and virtue ethics, 120–21, 123, 130, 138–39, 141. See also Virtue ethics See also Kant and Kantian theory
Depression, 180, 657, 730, 877, 891. See also Diseases
Derivative value, 578–84, 587, 592–93, 598–99
Developed and developing countries, 135, 777, 813, 842
Developmental abnormalities, 351
Diabetes, 647, 892–93
Dignity, 37, 240, 243, 304, 325, 565, 676–77, 831, 840
Discomfort, 216, 228, 496, 500–1, 732, 740, 756, 760, 915. See also Distress; Pain; Suffering
Discrimination, 21, 153, 155, 377, 658. See also Prejudice; Racism; Sexism
Diseases
from confinement, 220. See also Confinement
duty to prevent, 205, 207, 215–16, 621
from eating meat, 892–93
and environmental conditions, 139, 842, 844
in pets, 710, 714, 771. See also Companion animals; Pets
and research on animals, 671, 679, 690, 800–6, 808–12, 816, 868, 925. See also Experimentation
resistance to and prevention of, 28, 642–44, 646–50, 659, 662, 664, 827, 837, 844
and welfare interests, 213, 831, 837 See also Illnesses
Dishabituation paradigm, 411, 427
Distress, 29–30, 100, 122, 158, 213, 216, 221, 229, 740, 829, 834–38, 912–15. See also Pain; Suffering
Docking (of tails), 756–57, 835, 878, 934
Dogs
brains of, 356
confinement of, 216, 746–47, 751, 761–63, 781
dependence on their owners, 771
experiments on, 62–73, 219, 413
hunting, 158
inability to understand human language, 774, 783–84 See also Companion animals; Domesticated animals; Pets
Dogfighting, 53, 93, 215–16. See also Cockfighting
Domestication, 25, 37, 39–40, 42, 48, 73–74, 163, 246, 701–4, 718–22, 779
Donkeys, 587
Dragonflies, 580
Dreaming states, 463–64, 634–35, 730
Drowning, 216, 389, 397, 632, 689, 706, 717, 815–16
Drug addiction, 502
Dualism, 36, 338, 342
Ducks, 881
Dying, 48, 179, 462, 733, 868, 879. See also Death; Euthanasia; Killing; Letting die
Dynamical systems theory, 812
E
Earthworms, 315–16, 453–54
Ecology
and animal research, 476
derivative value in, 583, 595–96
environmental ethics and, 140, 604, 612–19, 856, 858, 860, 888
role of farming in, 841, 888
species considerations in, 22, 587, 589–90, 604–7, 611–19, 629, 708–9, 841
Economic games (and Chimpanzees), 480–82
Economic value of animals, 580, 583, 612–13, 775, 882, 886
Economics, 49, 293, 385, 393, 502, 888
Ecosystems
and animal rights, 28–29, 855–58
climate change and, 841
farming effects on, 841–43
and hunting, 861–62, 865, 872
the place of sentient animals in, 123, 139, 855–58, 872–74
species preservation in, 20, 22, 28–29, 577, 581, 598, 610–13, 617–19 See also Environments; Habitats; Hunting; Species
Education, 125, 237, 325, 398, 401, 478, 752
Egalitarianism, 23, 617, 628–33, 638–39. See also Justice; Species
Electrocution, 216, 934. See also Abuses; Pain; Suffering
Elks, 217, 862. See also Caribou
Embryology, 648
Embryos
admixed, 645–46, 650
and chimeras, 23, 641, 644–46, 648–49, 656, 661, 671–74, 681–92. See also Chimeras
of chimpanzees, 649, 656–57. See also Chimpanzees
cloning of, 655, 836
destruction of, 655–56, 674, 688, 692, 753
embryogenesis, 619
embryonic stem cell research oversight committee, 678–80, 687
embryonic stem cells, 646–48, 674, 679–81, 683, 686–87
genetically modified animals (GMAs), 641, 644–56, 658, 661–63, 671–75, 681–92, 716
of goats, 644
hybrid, 645–46, 675, 683, 685
moral status of, 650, 656, 692
of pigs, 643
in research and regulations, 645–50, 674–80, 686–92, 753, 911, 922
of sheep, 644
in transgenic animals, 643–46
in xenotransplantation, 64
Emotions
ancient theories of, 5, 44–48, 230
and animal cognition, 14–19, 71, 229–33, 247. See also Cognition
in animal welfare, 819, 830, 858
anthropomorphism about animals’, 470–79. See also Anthropomorphism
behaviorists’ views of, 553–61
Darwinian view of, 20, 550–51. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
of gorillas, 312
Humean views of, 8, 15, 70, 144–50, 158. See also Hume and Humean theory
in literature portrayals, 943, 949–53
of mice, 229
and mindreading, 411, 413. See also Mindreading
and moral status, 390–91, 396–99, 559–63, 568, 798
and personality, 485, 487
of pets, 782
and rights of animals to emotional protection, 205, 213, 229, 233, 361
sentimentalist views of, 147
utilitarian views of, 188, 401. See also Utilitarianism
virtue ethics appeals to, 127–28. See also Virtue ethics
in zoo animals, 761. See also Affects; Psychology; Zoos
Empathy, 158, 229, 233, 307, 489, 522, 542, 555–58, 567, 662, 896, 937
Encephalitis, 647
Endangered species, 383, 583, 613, 835, 855, 857, 859–60, 869–72, 946. See also Species
Endocrine system, 804–5
Enhancement, 305, 324–26, 642, 654–58, 664
(p. 967) Entertainment industry, 3, 200
Entitlements, 78, 201, 231, 245. See also Animal rights; Rights
Environments
and biotechnology, 28, 827–34, 839–47
environmental ethics, 4, 20–22, 123, 133, 138–40, 174, 577, 604, 855–62, 872–73. See also Environments
environmental policy, 28, 604, 857, 873–74
hunting in, 861–65. See also Hunting
and species preservation, 580, 603–20, 871–72
in zoos, 760–61. See also Zoos See also Climate change; Farms; Hunting; Species; Zoos
Episodic memory, 316–17
Essentialism, 20, 590–93, 598, 606
Ethics committees. See Committee review of research
Ethnography, 915
Ethologists, 187, 311, 421, 425, 450, 548, 550, 555, 558, 562–65, 569, 939
Ethology, 65, 477, 483, 490, 505, 939
Eucalyptus forests, 637
Euthanasia, 207, 210–11, 785. See also Dying; Killing
Evils, 24, 46, 53, 79, 134–39, 178, 184, 280, 642, 659, 662–63, 817, 885, 895, 936, 949. See also Harm; Suffering
Evolution
of consciousness, 314, 320, 362, 364, 375
and domestication, 246
evolutionary theory, 362, 604, 606, 805, 810, 812
of language, 312
and mental life, 13–19, 310, 373, 443–50, 490, 552, 554–58
and mindreading abilities, 410. See also Mindreading
persons as a product of, 307, 310, 326–27. See also Persons and personhood
Exotic animals, 478, 637, 762. See also Wild animals
Experiments and Experimentation
anatomical, 62
on bees, 381, 455–56
benefits of, 27, 799–803, 810–21
and bio-Cartesianism, 819–20
Darwinian views of, 454, 588. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
on dogs, 62–73, 219, 413
on elephants, 228–36
on embryos, 671
on genetically modified animals, 662, 672–93. See also Genetic modification
the justification of, 27, 96, 280, 796, 799, 810–21, 923
medical, 27, 62, 137–40, 219, 221, 279–80, 286, 292, 389, 632
on mice, 24, 229, 379, 671–93
mindreading, 407–15, 422, 424–32. See also Mindreading
moral status, as relevant to, 27, 123, 138–39, 181, 183, 279–80, 292, 565, 567, 632–33, 653, 813
pain in, 63, 69, 93, 183, 209, 229, 389, 653, 798, 815, 907–15. See also Pain; Suffering
and quality of life, 286
on rats, 653
religious views of, 62–63, 67
and rights, 73, 81–82, 205, 868
testing involving, 29–30, 119, 134, 137, 198, 215, 292, 801, 804–7, 810, 906–15
thought experiments, 164, 306, 400, 506, 522, 598, 712–13, 838, 873, 947
Exploitation, 40, 120–21, 138–39, 162, 200, 430, 435, 522, 537, 633, 654. See also Abuses; Cruelty; Harm; Suffering
Extinct species, 22, 246, 550, 603, 606–8, 613–16, 619, 835, 841, 846, 860. See also Species
Extinction, 22, 578, 603, 606–8, 611–21, 841, 889
Extrinsic value, 258, 613, 615, 617. See also Intrinsic value; Instrumental value
F
Fables, 940
Factory farms
conditions in, 80, 119, 755–57, 838, 877–98
confinement on, 26, 738–39, 743, 748, 755–57, 762–63
disease on, 887–88
as environmentally destructive, 29, 877, 888–90
moral status issues, 123, 180, 292
rights of animals on, 176, 198, 203, 205, 214, 217–18
suffering on, 26, 29, 129, 137, 176, 180–81, 727, 756–57, 877–98
virtue ethics analyses of, 128–33. See also Virtue ethics See also Confinement; Crates; Farms; Harm; Pain; Suffering; Vegetarianism
Fairness, 165, 385, 482–84, 555–58, 603, 790. See also Justice
False belief tasks and tests, 415, 417–18, 425–28, 435
Familyism, 121–22
(p. 968) Farms
confinement on, 26, 738, 755, 761, 763, 834
and the environment, effects on, 842, 844–45, 858
fish, 846, 880
humane, 26, 727, 758
suffering on, 26, 29, 129, 137, 176, 180–81, 727, 756–57, 877–98
Fawns, 864
Fear
and animal welfare, 829, 835, 838
anthropomorphic conceptions of, 17, 469
as emotion, 233, 413
evolution of, 92
and mindreading, 413, 416
in wild and domesticated animals, 702–3, 779 See also Affects; Emotions; Evolution; Mindreading
Feral animals, 49, 133, 637, 704, 720, 777, 843–45, 860. See also Wild animals
Fertilizers, 842, 844, 889. See also Agriculture
Fighting. See Cockfighting, Dogfighting
Fish farming, 130, 880, 897. See also Farms; Fish; Fishermen
Fishermen, 47, 93, 198, 324, 400, 442, 580, 880, 890
Folk psychology, 436–37, 479–80, 487. See also Psychology
Forests, 634, 702, 890. See also Deforestation
Fossils, 611, 615, 620, 889
Fowls, 596, 598, 837. See also Birds; Chickens
Foxes, 133
Frogs, 445
Fruit flies, 316
Functionalist-style beliefs and desires, 342–47, 356–59, 361, 364–66
Fur, 140, 152, 703, 714
G
Games, 45, 53, 202, 230, 471, 482, 489, 661
Gametes, 23, 641, 672, 675, 679, 681, 684–86, 688, 690, 692
Garden pests, 400
Gazelles, 634–35
Geeps, 644
Gender, 21, 393, 476. See also Sex; Sexism
Genetic modification
of cells, 641–64
using chickens, 28, 826, 837
using chimpanzees, 649–57, 672–73, 682–86, 800
experiments involving, 662, 672–93
to generate knowledge, 24, 647, 659
genetically modified animals (GMAs), 28, 641, 644–56, 658, 661–63, 671–75, 681–92, 716
genetic alteration in research, 648, 651, 677–78, 689–92, 714
genetic engineering, 181, 656, 687–88, 691, 835–39, 847
using horses, 683
involving pets, 662, 683, 689
killing of animals after, 650–52, 660
laws governing, 649–50, 663, 674–75
using monkeys, 657, 663, 681, 687, 689
Genocide, 897
Genotype, 589–90, 595
Genus, 241, 578, 586, 946
Gestation, 217, 650–51, 685, 756, 834, 838, 877. See also Crates
Goal-directed action, 433–37
Goats, 643–44, 943
Golden retrievers, 761, 780–81
Goldfish, 744–45
Gorillas, 102, 180, 312–13, 425, 480–82, 484, 682–83, 798, 806. See also Apes
Government oversight, policy, and regulations, 30, 219, 908–10, 920–24, 927–29. See also Committee review of research
Great chain of being, 65, 75–76, 79
Greenhouse gases, 841, 845, 889. See also Environments
Grey junglefowl, 588–90
Grief, 229, 233–36, 246, 390, 800
Guilt, 61, 100, 233, 242, 391, 401, 474, 479, 896, 915, 936
Guinea pigs, 800, 907
Guppies, 155
H
Habitats
destruction of, 25, 133, 139, 212, 215, 582, 610, 620, 702, 713–14, 719–22, 769, 842, 862–65, 871
of elephants, 246–47, 869. See also Elephants
natural study of, 555, 557, 562
preservation of, 200, 217, 582, 607, 610, 769, 862, 871
in zoos, 759–62. See also Zoos See also Ecology; Ecosystems; Environments; Habitats
Harm
and animal rights, 179, 205–10, 212–22, 707–14, 717–22
to animals kept as pets, 769–90. See also Pets
to chickens on factory farms, 217–18, 654, 756, 835, 837–40, 879–81, 883, 886, 896. See also Chickens
from confinement, 26, 739–45, 761–64
to the environment, 840–48, 852–58, 890
from farming practices, 29, 755–61, 891–93
genetic engineering productive of, 325, 642, 655–65, 832–36
human-caused to animals, 10, 28, 31, 200, 257–59, 606–13, 620, 676–78
in Humean thought, 163–65, 269–72. See also Hume and Humean theory
due to hunting, 862–69
to laboratory animals, 677–78, 710, 744, 914–15
misery as a form of, 74–75, 79–80, 92, 162–64, 214, 551, 858
in a moral sense, 80, 155, 392–401, 726–36, 745–55, 813–17
normative conceptions of, 746–47, 754
obligations to avoid causing, 25–26, 72, 75, 164, 200–1, 213–14
of subjects during experiments, 247, 796–809, 913–15, 920–29
Herds, 163, 217, 220, 247, 643, 834, 861–65, 871
Hermit crabs, 376
Higher-order thinking, 374–75, 532, 535–39, 541. See also Mindreading
Hives, 381, 454–61. See also Bees; Honeybees
Hog farms, 217, 878, 881, 887. See also Factory farms; Farms; Pigs
Hogs, 175, 235, 758, 878, 881, 887, 889, 891. See also Pigs; Hog farms
Honeybees, 17, 175, 380, 442–43, 445, 447, 454–59, 461–63, 797. See also Bees
Hormones, 804–5
Horses
and the Clever Hans effect, 415
confinement of, 738, 757, 763
domestication of, 246, 715, 860
and equestrian arts, 80
and genetic modification, 683
and hybrids, 644
moral status of, 263
physiology of, 80
and rights, 78, 80, 198, 207–9
and societal values, 297
views of, in ancient times, 41, 44, 46–47, 51–52
Hospitality, 36, 39–40, 104–5. See also Altruism; Benevolence
Human dignity, 304, 565, 675–78, 681, 687–88. See also Dignity; Persons and personhood
Human embryonic stem cells, 646, 674, 680–83, 687, 691–92. See also Stem cells
Human genome, 324, 644, 676
Human rights, 5, 11, 198–205, 211–14, 217, 221, 304, 323–24, 651, 683, 717, 866, 869
Humane slaughter, 75, 81, 879. See also Slaughter; Slaughterhouses
Hume and Humean theory
account of agency, 9, 15, 128, 145, 148, 150–53, 155–59
on animal welfare, 146
arguments against, 78–80, 128
on compassion, 71–72, 145, 269
on emotions, 8, 15, 70, 144–50, 158
on harm to animals, 163–65, 269–72
human and animal psychology in, 146–57
on the mental life of animals, 15, 144–50, 152–58, 162
on the place and standing of animals, 8–9, 15, 66–72, 144–66, 266–72, 334
on sympathy, 149–50, 157–58, 162–65
theory of justice, 71–72, 144–46, 152, 159–66, 266–71
as virtue theory, 147–62, 165, 172 See also Virtue ethics; Moral sense theory
Hunger, 92, 162, 710, 740, 895
Hunting
to control wildlife populations, 220, 855, 860–64, 867, 870
dogs used in, 158
sport, 41, 75, 93, 139, 220, 580–81, 861–62, 867, 870
subsistence, 861–62, 867
techniques of, 164
therapeutic, 861–71 See also Culling; Wild animals
Husbandry, 26, 40, 485, 739, 743, 752, 755, 758, 763
Hyenas, 942–43
Hypertension, 802–3, 893
Hypothermia, 662, 863
I
IACUCs (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees). See Committee review of research; Government oversight, policy, and regulations
Iguanas, 762
Illnesses, 180, 188, 190, 351, 503, 734–35, 831. See also Diseases
Imagistic thinking, 14, 357–60, 364–68. See also Apes; Cognition; Language; Psychology
Immune system, 441, 651, 671–72, 681, 836, 878
Impartial points of view, 5, 39, 155, 172, 629, 921, 937, 939
(p. 970) Imprisonment, 740, 772, 780. See also Cages; Confinement; Crates
Inalienable rights, 261. See also Animal rights; Rights
Incest, 39, 383, 400
Indignation, 391, 401
Indirect duties, 16, 69, 157, 238, 373. See also Kant and Kantian theory
Individualism, 857, 860, 896
Infanticide, 389. See also Euthanasia; Killing
Infections, 42, 647, 672, 777, 804, 835, 878, 880, 888. See also Diseases; Illnesses
Inherent value. See Instrumental value; Intrinsic value
Instincts, 102, 151, 155, 159, 319–20, 447, 453, 535, 769, 770, 777, 780, 834, 879, 950
Institutional rules, 202, 211, 219
Instrumental value, 21–22, 28, 258–59, 578–83, 604, 611–17, 620, 634, 652, 743, 843, 847, 855–57, 871–73. See also Intrinsic value
Instrumentalism, 451, 457, 612–13, 617, 928
Integrity (moral), 136–37, 173, 567, 885
Intelligence
in ancient theories, 5, 38, 44, 46–47
in animal psychology, 317–22
and animal welfare, 838
and the argument for compassionate eating, 884
artificial, 326, 683–84, 691
brain location of, 682–83
and chimeras, 683–84, 690–91, 693
and confinement, 760, 780
Darwinian views of, 20, 453–56, 552. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
of elephants, 233, 246. See also Elephants
historically important concepts of, 35–38, 46–50, 101–3, 151
in Humean theory, 151. See also Hume and Humean theory
intellectual equality, 162
intelligence hypothesis, 410
in Kantian theory, 101–3. See also Kant and Kantian theory
and minimal minds, 451. See also Minimal minds
and the moral status of animals, 10–15, 147, 393, 410, 563, 566, 638
and reason, 101–3
its role in personhood theories, 233, 239, 305–11, 315, 318, 326, 347
and self-consciousness, 239, 318
tests of, 564, 684 See also Cognition; Minds; Psychology
Interbreeding, 587, 596, 605–6. See also Breeding; Captive breeding; Reproduction
International rights, 5, 199, 211. See Animal Rights; Human Rights; Rights
Inter-temporal calculations, 496, 501, 503, 505, 507
Intransitive consciousness, 537–39
Introspection, 375, 475, 497, 505
J
Jackals, 53
Jealousy, 46, 551
Jellyfish, 643, 657, 692
Jus animalium, 80
Justice
in ancient philosophy, 37, 45–50, 55
and animal research, 926. See also Experimentation
in contractualism, 385–86, 397
in the history of philosophy, 37, 45–50, 55, 71–80
in Hume's theory of, 71–72, 144–46, 152, 159–66, 266–71. See also Hume and Humean theory
and the moral status of animals, 12, 212, 240, 255, 267, 269, 271, 384–86, 549–58, 566–68, 705–19. See also Moral status
Rawls's theory of, 231, 243–44, 266, 349–50, 385, 388, 393
and rights, 80, 212, 717. See also Rights
social justice, 6, 566, 714
the virtue of, 120–34, 926, 953 See also Fairness
K
Kangaroos, 740
Kant and Kantian theory
on animal thinking, 230–31, 237–39, 241–44
on animals as moral subjects, 528–29, 531, 535–36
on autonomy, 103, 105, 108, 132, 186–87, 222, 238–39. See also Autonomy
on categorical imperatives, 99, 102, 105, 107
by contrast to Humean theory, 157–58, 161–62
on cruelty, 10, 69, 100, 238, 294, 395–99. See also Cruelty
on interacting with animals, 7, 91, 93, 97–111
on kindness and compassion, 294. See also Compassion
Korsgaard on, 91–117
on the moral community, 191
on moral status, 258, 261–64, 548, 565
on normative self-control, 523–27
on obligations, 69. See also Obligations
(p. 971) perspectives on killing, 7, 97–110
on respect for animals, 752
views of agency, 69, 103, 128, 132, 157–58, 284, 367, 525, 527, 548
views of consciousness, 535
in virtue ethics, 127–28, 132. See also Obligations; Virtue ethics
on welfarism, 284
Kidneys, 135, 674, 681, 684, 816
Killing
and animal rights, 201, 206, 216, 220–22
duty not to kill, 296–99
early historical attitudes toward, 39–42
of elephants, 245–47. See also Elephants
of genetically-modified animals, 650–52, 660
Humean perspectives on, 159–66
Kantian perspectives on, 7, 97–110
and moral agency, 351–54
of pets, 785–88. See also Pets
utilitarian perspectives on, 93–97. See also Utilitarianism See also Euthanasia
Kinship, 21, 239, 241, 560, 567, 708, 945
Kittens, 720, 781. See also Cats
Knowledge
of animal folk-experts, 478–80, 484–85, 487–88, 490
from animal research, 135, 567, 802, 806, 915–16, 923, 925, 928
capacity to attribute, 375, 428–32, 436
as a form of cognition in animals, 14, 154, 232, 461
from genetic modification science, 24, 647, 659
of hypothetical agents in contractualist theories, 385, 388, 392–93
and literary insights, 937–938, 944
of the mental lives of animals, 10, 70, 80, 180, 187, 230, 442–43, 559, 761
states of, 375, 429, 431, 436 See also Cognition
Koko the gorilla, 312, 481
L
Laboratory animals
chimpanzees as, 482. See also Chimpanzees
cruelty toward, 207, 217, 741, 798–99. See also Cruelty
harms to, 677–78, 710, 744, 914–15
moral status of, 123, 184, 548, 565, 677, 741, 744. See also Moral status
mammals as, 763, 798, 813
obligations to care for, 714, 816. See also Obligations
and pain, 748, 798–99. See also Pain Experimentation
Laboratory research
and animal psychology, 476. See also Minds; Psychology
chimeras in, 648, 677–78, 689–92. See also Chimeras
as a constraint on liberty, 217, 741
efficacy of, 476, 478, 482, 562, 564–65, 690, 804–6, 809–10
genetically altered animals in, 648, 651, 677–78, 689–92, 714
Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory, 478
moral assessment of, 741, 798
regulation of, 909, 923
and toxicity testing, 907–16. See also Toxicity and toxicology
Lactation, 892
Land quadrupeds, 52
Language
in ancient thought, 5, 49
barriers between animals and humans, 548, 553, 783–84
and communication, 15, 19–20, 262, 444, 569
and conceptual representations, 456–58, 485
as a condition for mindreading, 16, 408, 417, 419–20, 422, 425, 428–29, 431, 434, 436. See also Mindreading
as a condition for moral behavior, 523, 547–48, 562–63, 569–70
as a criterion of moral status, 14–16, 19–20, 67–68, 72, 93, 262–64, 355, 366–68, 547–48, 562–63, 569–70, 636. See also Moral status
and intentional states, 15, 355–57, 378, 417, 446–48, 457–58, 471, 500, 562–63, 570
and minimal minds, 451, 456–58, 462–64. See also Minimal minds
and mindreading, 408–43. See also Mindreading
and personhood theory, 14, 264, 307, 311–13, 325–26, 339–40, 346–48, 367–68. See also Persons and Personhood
in primates, 65, 355, 358, 367, 481, 569, 636, 682, 774
and self-awareness, 102, 311–13, 317, 348, 365, 498. See also Self-consciousness
sign language, 312, 355, 358, 367, 481, 636, 682, 774
study of, 649, 690
and time-awareness, 317, 365, 443, 498–99
as a unique feature of humans, 5, 49, 65–66, 68, 93, 101, 523, 649, 705, 950–52
Large offspring syndrome, 836
Laws
animals as subjects of, 67–68, 773
civil, 64, 67–68, 78–81, 107
(p. 972) environmental, 604, 618
general animal welfare, 50, 54–55, 217, 245, 633, 756, 771, 775–77, 881
governing genetically modified animals, 649–50, 663, 674–75
of humanity, 71–72, 159, 161–64, 269, 271
and legal standing of animals in, 207, 323, 709, 775
rights in, 62, 201, 206, 267
regulating the use of animals in research, 214, 802, 816, 911
Letting die, 868–70. See also Euthanasia; Killing
Liberation. See Animal liberation
Limbic system, 377, 553–54
Lineages, 22, 52, 549, 554, 561, 604–9, 612–16, 619–21, 808
Linguistic behavior, 346, 356, 474–75. See also Language
Lions, 52–53, 66, 71, 182, 555, 634–35, 644, 689, 707, 749, 780, 871
Literary representations of animals
as animals view humans, 947–52
in Coetzee's work, 30, 932, 940–42, 953
forms of description in, 938–40
literary-oriented animal ethics, 30, 932–33, 953
the mentality of apes, 940–42
and moral imagination, 934–38, 953
seeing human traits as animal, 942–46
in slaughter and predation, 933–38, 944–45, 947, 949
Zamir on, 932–55
in zoos, 942–46. See also Zoos
Lobsters, 175, 257, 881
Logical behaviorists, 338, 342. See also Behaviorism
M
Macaque monkeys, 153, 425. See also Monkeys
Mad cow disease, 140
Magnanimity, 551
Malaria, 110, 808
Malnutrition, 863–64. See also Hunger
Mammals
brain structure of, 554, 559, 561, 563, 682–83, 819. See also Brains
capacity for emotion in, 233, 561, 563
capacity for pain experience and suffering in, 377, 499, 564, 798, 827
in confinement, 759, 763, 779. See also Confinement
consciousness in, 318, 340, 362–65, 499, 564
evidence for moral cognition in, 232–33, 316, 555, 557, 561, 563
intentional states in, 314, 362–65, 380
Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory, 478
as laboratory animals, 763, 798, 813. See also Laboratory animals
moral status of, 214, 314, 340, 362–63, 365, 401, 557, 559, 798, 813. See also Moral status
self-consciousness in, 232–33, 316, 318, 363–65, 499, 510, 564
similarities between humans and other, 596, 682–83, 800, 808–10, 819, 896
time-awareness in, 318, 499, 510
tool use in, 232. See also Tools and tool use
and the triune brain hypothesis, 554
in zoos, 759. See also Zoos
Marmosets, 680
Mates, 458, 484, 560, 588, 713
Mating, 234, 323, 443, 450, 558, 588, 644, 684, 686, 829, 846, 870, 939. See also Breeding
Matriarchal family units, 869
Maximal minds, 443. See also Minimal minds
Meat industry, 690, 882–83, 886, 893, 895. See also Factory farms; Vegetarianism
Medical ethics, 24, 124, 187–88, 868
Medical experimentation, 27, 62, 137–40, 219, 221, 279–80, 286, 292, 389, 632. See also Experimentation; Laboratory research
Meerkats, 555
Memory, 14, 36, 40, 45, 54, 94–95, 306, 316–17, 343, 346, 357, 361, 366, 396, 407, 498, 508–10, 521, 662, 682, 798
Mental illness and mental handicaps, 203, 387, 660, 833
Mental lives of animals
access to (knowledge of), 15–18, 312, 475, 552, 555, 761
compared with the mental life of humans, 20, 65–66, 69, 144–50, 162, 165, 550, 566
and consciousness, 314–16, 338, 344–45, 347, 357–59, 367, 374–75, 535, 537–40
evolution of the, 552
and language, 312, 346–47, 357, 365–68, 443–44, 451, 457–58, 476, 555. See also Language
and metacognition, 103, 150–54, 157–58, 318, 374–75, 382, 410, 535. See also Cognition; Metacognition
and moral agency, 65–67, 152–53, 156–58, 319, 352–53, 558–62, 564. See also Agency; Moral agency
and moral status, 8, 14–16, 19, 333–35, 339, 352–53, 360, 367–68, 373, 547. See also Moral status
and self-awareness, 103, 312, 340, 348, 358–59, 365, 375, 410, 554
Mental states
collective, 17, 459, 462–63
Descartes on, 15, 147, 445–49
folk ascriptions of, 441–44, 454, 463, 469–70, 473, 480
functionalist analysis of, 342–47, 356, 363, 444
minimal, 441, 450–51, 458, 462–64
negative or painful, 497, 507, 649, 652, 657, 827, 829, 831, 839
non-embodied, 334
positive or pleasurable, 653, 827, 829, 839
representing mental states of others (mindreading), 407, 409–10, 415, 420, 424
scientific evidence for, 231, 378, 380, 552–56 See also Mental life of animals; Minds; Minimal minds; Psychology
Mentalistic views of welfare, 829–31, 834, 838–40, 847
Mentality
of animals in agriculture, 827, 829–30. See also Agriculture
of apes, 940. See also Apes
of chimeras, 649, 653, 657. See also Chimeras
Darwinian view of, 454. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
Humean views of, 144–50, 152–54, 156–58, 162. See also Hume and Humean theory
in mentalistic views, 829–31, 838–39
and mindreading, 407–37. See also Mindreading
and minimal minds, 441–64
and moral agency, 351–54, 356–59. See also Agency; Moral agency
and moral status, 15–19, 359–60, 365–68, 373, 547, 556, 560, 566, 652. See also Moral status
and pain and suffering, 497, 507, 652. See also Pain; Suffering
and personhood criteria, 13, 309–19, 332–48. See also Persons and personhood
in psychology, 473–76. See also Psychology
and self-consciousness, 103, 363, 365. See also Self-consciousness
Mentation, 20, 144, 147, 166
Metabolism, 608, 646, 809, 812, 820, 908
Metacognition, 9, 103, 145, 150–54, 157–58, 318, 374–75, 382, 410, 535–42. See also Cognition
Metaphysical views, 66, 76, 99, 106, 231, 239, 242–43, 321–22, 363, 378, 382, 448, 586, 604, 606, 731
Metapopulations, 606
Metarepresentation, 16, 408–10, 418–19, 421–22, 435–36
Metempsychosis, 51
Mice
ethical issues in scientific research using, 64, 181–82, 184, 632–33, 674, 714–15, 744–45, 770, 803–4
the human neuron mouse, 24, 672–75, 678, 682–83, 690–93
moral status of, 23, 181–87, 245, 247, 500, 632–34, 638, 652. See also Moral status
and pain, 229, 247, 500, 649–53, 674, 692–93. See also Pain; Suffering
as used in chimera research, 644, 648–51, 661, 673, 676, 681–82, 685–89, 692–93, 714–15. See also Chimeras
as used in scientific research, 81–84, 229, 247, 379, 555, 632–33, 643, 650, 660, 671, 692, 714, 744–45, 770, 803–11, 838
Microencephalic pigs, 838–40. See also Hogs; Pigs
Microorganisms, 28, 826
Migration, 618, 706, 841
Mind-independence of value, 384, 401
Minds
access to animal, 15, 159, 180, 310, 443, 474–75, 479, 549, 555, 562
animal and human, 310, 382, 442, 448, 450, 464
animal minds and moral status, 3–4, 6, 8, 14, 16–17, 19, 145, 148, 245, 547. See also Moral status
animal minds and personhood, 311, 327
animal minds with intentional attitudes, 380, 451
and bodies, 71, 159, 335–36, 338, 447, 619, 948. See also Brains
Darwin on animal, 310, 453–54, 550–51. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
Descartes on animal, 310, 447–49, 819
Hume on animal, 15, 146–48, 154–56. See also Hume and Humean theory
and language, 16–17, 444, 474–75. See also Language
mind-brain identity theorists, 338
philosophy of, 128, 189, 310–11, 338, 342, 363, 416, 442, 495, 497
scientific evidence about, 310, 443, 454, 456, 461–64, 568
self-consciousness in, 311, 319. See also Self-consciousness
(p. 974) Minimal minds, 17, 441–43, 450–53, 458–59, 462, 464. See also Minds; Psychology
Miniride principle, 866–69
Miracle of the meta, 537, 539, 541–42. See also Cognition; Metacognition
Mirror self-recognition, 101–102, 228–29, 232, 236, 241, 313, 411–12, 480–82, 564. See also Self-consciousness
Molecular clocks, 808
Mollusks, 615
Monkeys
behavioristic accounts of, 471
Capuchin, 471, 780
confinement of, 740
Darwinian views of, 550. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
and genetically altered animals, 657, 663, 681, 687, 689
Macaque, 153, 425
and mindreading, 375, 413, 425. See also Mindreading
in research, 153, 182, 413, 433, 471, 636, 692, 804. See also Experimentation
rights of, 207
and tool use, 232. See also Tools and tool use See also Animal rights; Apes
Monsters, 40, 43, 45, 591, 950
Moose, 865, 948. See also Elks
Moral agency
and acting for reasons, 127, 521, 530
as a criterion for personhood, 311, 320–22, 367
empirical evidence for in animals 549, 561, 564, 567–68
the Humean account of, 148, 150, 152–53, 155–59. See also Hume and Humean theory
intentionality as a condition of, 566
and killing, 352–54
language as a condition of, 548
metacognition as a condition of, 9, 103, 145, 150–53,157, 527, 559
moral motivation and, 19, 148, 520–22, 530
and moral responsibility, 188, 519–521, 549, 564, 636, 707, 868, 871
and moral status, 11, 13, 124, 209, 222, 348, 351–60, 367, 652, 705 See also Agency; Autonomy
Moral anthropology, 873
Moral codes, 185, 288–97, 299, 557
Moral communities, 15, 19, 74, 77, 178, 184, 188–92, 260–61, 548, 556–61, 566–69, 859
Moral deliberation, 220, 532, 534, 560, 563, 579, 913
Moral dilemmas, 25, 127, 791
Moral ideals, 208
Moral intuitions, 73, 353–54, 585, 604, 873
Moral judgment, 15, 21, 147, 152, 155–59, 281, 288, 291, 322, 563, 603, 620, 661, 819
Moral laws, 105–8, 222. See also Categorical imperatives
Moral patients, 19, 155–56, 519, 548–49, 559, 561, 564–68, 604, 610
Moral philosophy, 5–9, 24–25, 30, 105, 120, 125–26, 138, 174, 182, 189, 199, 202, 208, 212, 270, 932, 937, 940
Moral psychology, 128, 189, 391, 401, 612. See also Psychology
Moral rights, 6, 8, 16, 181, 199, 202, 206, 218, 260–61, 323, 332, 351–53, 373, 859, 866. See also Animal rights; Human rights; Rights
Moral sense theory, 47, 54, 67, 74–75, 78, 148, 153, 157, 551, 610. See also Hume and Humean theory
Moral status (moral standing)
in the absence of agency, 9, 16, 19, 148, 159–60, 174–75, 184, 191, 519, 559, 564
agency as a condition of, 11–19, 124, 184, 260–66, 311, 320, 519–22, 527, 548–49, 652, 705
anthropocentrism and views of, 548–49, 564–69, 843
of apes, 14, 322–23, 637. See also Apes
autonomy and, 11, 103, 122–23, 311, 320–21, 323, 339–40, 388–89, 652, 705, 709, 753, 790. See also Autonomy
of cats, 73, 306, 394–98, 704–5, 726, 733–34. See also Cats
of chimpanzees, 11, 23, 139, 183–84, 192, 285–86, 630–38. See also Chimpanzees
in Darwinian theory, 19–20, 522, 547–50, 563–69. See also Darwin and Darwinian theory
deontological reasoning about, 120–23, 138–39, 337, 910
of embryos, 650, 656, 692. See also Embryos
emotions and, 549, 551, 554–56, 568
intelligence as a basis of, 10–15, 147, 393, 410, 563, 566, 638
issues about, on factory farms, 123, 180, 292
justice and, 12, 212, 240, 255, 267, 269, 271, 384–86,