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date: 18 February 2019

(p. 534) Index

(p. 534) Index

absolute dominion,151
academic-external scientism,101
Adamski, George,422, 423, 435
Advaita-Vedanta ideology,109, 113
Aetherius Society,104, 429
Affair of the Poisons,224
alienation,261, 276–277
Alienation and Charisma (Zablocki),277
Aliens in America (Dean),54
Alper, Gerald,321
Altemeyer, Bob,269
alternative networks,479–481
alternative spiritualities,43–53
alternative therapies,50–51
American Family Foundation (AFF),192, 193, 195, 200
American Psychological Association,195
Amitabh, Swami Prem,323–324
Amrito, Swami Deva,323
Angelucci, Orfeo,422, 423
animism,373 n.3
Anthony, Dick,243–297
anthroposophy,460
antisemitism,353
apocalyptic millennialism,334–335, 347–348
apostates,190, 191, 193, 208, 235
Applewhite, Marshall Herff,122
Ariès, Philippe,388, 389
Aronoff, Jodi,325–326
Ashtar Command,424
Aum Shinrikyō,24, 25, 144, 157, 158, 169, 176, 198, 342, 503, 507, 509
Australia,170, 171, 176
authoritarianism,269–270
autonomy,246–247
Ayella, Marybeth,327
Baha'i faith,102, 103
Bailey, Alice,422, 446, 460, 478, 480
Bainbridge, William Sims,44, 45, 99, 115, 454
Ballard, Guy,422
Barker, Eileen,5, 48, 157, 261–264
Barrett, Francis,224
Barthélemy, Denis,212
Baudelaire, Charles,227
Beck, Ulrich,84
Beckford, James,49, 92, 286
Belgium,168, 176, 215
Berg, Moses David,309
Berger, Helen,521, 525–527, 529
Berger, Peter,75–77, 78, 86, 89, 520
Bhaktipada,308
Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada,105
Big Sleep, The (Chandler),230
Black, Donald,172–174
Black Mass,224–225, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232
black religions,8
Blavatsky, Helena,103, 422, 459, 480
Bloch, Jon,521–522
Bloch, Robert,230
Bloom, William,477
Bolen, Jean Shinoda,364
Book of the Damned (Fort),421, 431
Boxer rebellion,342
Boyer, Pascal,114, 115
brainwashing,6, 34 n.32
and anti-cult campaigns in Western Europe,208, 210
controversy,20–21, 28
definition of,244, 280, 290 n.23
extrinsic model,249–255
hypnosis factor,256–257
(p. 535)
and legal dimensions of new religions,165–167, 171, 173, 175, 176, 177
Lifton on,287 n.8
in new religious movements,243–297
and North American anti-cult movement,194, 195
personality dynamics,264–269
third-stage formulations,270–282
vs. totalitarian influence,282–285
Branch Davidians,144, 155, 157, 158, 177 n.1, 198, 301, 302, 309, 394
Breault, Marc,309
Bromley, David G.,6, 72, 80–81, 89, 143–162, 184–205, 298–314
Brooke, Tal,122
Bruce, Steve,40, 42, 43, 44
Bruderhof,396
Buddhism,24–25, 108, 342, 495–496, 504
Bullard, Thomas,54
bureaucracy,77
Byakkō Shinkōkai,507–508
Caddy, Eileen,469, 476
Caddy, Peter,476, 480
Campbell, Colin,49, 51, 74, 75, 89
Campbell, John,309
Campbell, Joseph,364, 456
Caodai religion,499–500
cargo cults,4, 8, 335, 339, 425
catastrophic millennialism,148–149
Catholic Church,213–215, 224, 383, 395
celibacy,301
Cellini, Benvenuto,224
Centuries of Childhood (Ariès),388
chakras,407
Chandler, Raymond,230
channeling,373 n.5, 422, 471
charismatic leadership,149–150, 301
Charroux, Robert,431, 432
Chen Tao,146, 158
Che-U, Choe,501
Chiesonkyō,508
Chieu, Nguyen Van,499, 500
children
child abuse,390–396
child custody,397–399
in historical and social perspective,388–390
and legal dimensions of new religions,166–167
in new religious movements,386–416
and Satanism,222, 232–234, 238–240
socialization and education,399–408
Children of God (The Family),187, 188
Children of Jonestown (Wooden),232
China,169, 176, 215, 342, 343, 491, 492, 495–498, 499
Chinese language,492
Chinese Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism (Lifton),252
Chiyoko, Fukuda,507
Chondogyo,501, 502
Chopra, Deepak,50
Christensen, Dorthe Refslund,111
Christianity,49
Christian Science,392
Chryssides, George,108
churches (established religions),18, 26
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,452, 453
Church of Satan,222, 231
Church of the Process,231, 232
Citizens Freedom Foundation (CFF),188, 189, 192, 193
Clark, Elmer T.,18–19
Clark, Jerome,420, 423
Clark, John,391, 398
cognitive psychology,114
cognitive style,454–455
Cohn, Norman,336
Columbine high school shootings,240
Combes, Émile,212
communes,149, 378–379, 400
Communist indoctrination,250–253, 270–275, 279, 281–284
Community of Witches, A (Berger),525–526
compulsivity,268
Consciousness Reformation, The (Wuthnow),258
Consequences of Modernity, The (Giddens),82, 87
conservatorships,165, 190
(p. 536) contrast identities,265
conventionalism,269, 270
conversion,245, 249, 253, 266, 283, 284, 287 n.5, 298, 299, 307
Cornerstone magazine,235
counterintuitive elements,114–115
Cowan, Douglas E.,119–140
Crouzet, Denis,337
Crowley, Aleister,227, 229
Cult Awareness Network (CAN),192–193, 196–200
Cult Controversies (Beckford),286
Cultic Studies Journal,192, 195
cult(s)
anti-cult campaigns in Western Europe,206–210
anti-cult movement,20, 72, 247–248, 286, 303
anti-cult organizations,208–209
apologists,7, 32 n.15
Campbell on,479–480
children in,386–416
contemporary research on recruitment,257–264
controversies over,5–7, 8, 20, 29
definition of,17, 18, 21, 209
deprogramming,6, 20, 165–166, 170, 173, 174, 189–192, 196, 199, 310, 391
domestic accommodation/international expansion stage of anti-cult movement,197–201
emergent stage of anti-cult movement,186–191
expansion/consolidation stage of anti-cult movement,192–197
fertility,227–228
as nonreligions,207
North American anti-cult movement,184–205
progression to new religions,17–21
scientistic,99 See also brainwashing; specific groups
Cunningham, Scott,130
Dalai Lama,108
Damanhur,112
Daoism,496
Dare to Discipline (Dobson),393
Darkness Visible (Hannah),458
Darnell, Susan E.,184–205
Daughters of the Goddess (Griffin),518
Dawson, Lorne L.,57–58, 68–98, 123–124, 149–150
Dean, Jodi,54
deception,288 n.10
defective cognition,278–281, 284, 291 n.25
de Groot, J. J. M.,497
Deikman, Arthur,321–322
deinstitutionalization,77–78, 89
deprivation model,265
deprogramming,6, 20, 165–166, 170, 173, 174, 189–192, 196, 199, 310, 391
Devil Rides Out, The (Wheatley),230
diabolism,226–227, 230
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases,318–319, 327, 328
dianetics,110–111, 458
disaffiliation,298–314
factors precipitating,300–302
new directions in theory and research,306–310
process,303–305
disenchantment,40–42, 59, 61 n.27
disorientation,278–281, 290–291 n.23
distance ordination,127–128
Divine Light Mission,302
Dobson, James,393
Dole, Robert,191
Dopatka, Ulrich,431
doubling,289–290 n.22
dramatic denouements,152–153
Drennen, William T.,323, 324
Durham, Cole,169
Durkheim, Emile,363, 403
Earhart, Byron H.,503
Earthly Bodies, Magical Selves (Pike),527–528
Eastern religions,258, 491–513
Eckankar religion,8, 370
eclecticism,509
ecological spirituality,51–52
education,399–408
elective affinity,252
(p. 537) Eliade, Mircea,363–364
elitism,460
Eller, Cynthia,516–518, 522
Emerging Network, The (York),520
Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith,164
Enchanted Feminism (Salmonsen),518–519
Encyclopedia of American Religions,22–23
Ennōkyō,507
Erikson, Erik,253–255, 265
eschatology,345–346, 431
esotericism,445–465
cognitive style,454–455
definitions of,445–449
and mainstream society,455–458
and religious change,459–462
rituals,451–452
social formations,449–451
ethnic religions,26–27, 28
Euhemeros of Messana,431
European Court of Human Rights,168, 216
Evangelical Christians,17
Evans, Carolyn,168
exemplary dualism,265
Experimentation in American Religion (Wuthnow),258
expert systems,83, 85
exposure,258
Faivre, Antoine,446–447
false self,276, 278–281, 290 n.22
Falun Gong,169, 176, 343, 498
family,378–379, 399–400
Family, The,187, 188, 301, 302, 309, 310, 387, 393, 397, 406
Family, The (Sanders),232
fantasy literature,55–56
feminist spirituality,516–517
feminist witchcraft,368–369, 372
fertility cults,227–228
festivals,524–525, 527–528
Fiat Lux community,425
films,54, 56
Findhorn colony (Scotland),469, 472, 474, 476, 480, 481
Fishman, Steven,457
Fort, Charles,421, 431
France,168, 176, 198–199, 206–220, 224, 229, 343
Frazer, Sir James,228, 363, 515
FREECOG,188
Freedom of Thought Foundation,189
Freemasonry,457–458
Freud, Sigmund,318, 364
fundamentalism,91, 148, 234
Gage, Matilda,227
Galanter, Marc,151, 262, 266
Gardner, Gerald,368, 515
Garner, Alan,55
George, Robin,194
Germany,168, 176, 198–199
Ghost Dance (Mooney),336
Giddens, Anthony,69–70, 81–93, 526, 528, 529, 530
Girard, René,364
Glick, Leonard,59
globalization,83, 85, 86, 90, 91, 216
Goddess,368, 369, 516–519, 522
Goffman, Erving,365
Goi, Master,508
Golden Bough, The (Frazer),228, 363, 515
Gorman, Herbert S.,229–230
grandiosity,151
Grand Unification Theories,113
Greece,25, 178 n.7
Greening of America (Reich),401
Greil, Larry,207
Griffin, Wendy,518
Grünschloß, Andreas,419–444
Guanyin cult,496
Gurdjieff, George I.,19, 400
Habermas, Jürgen,529–531, 532
Hadden, Jeffrey K.,119–140
Hale-Bopp (comet),144, 420
Hammer, Olav,44, 111, 112, 445–465
Hammond, Phillip,246
Hannah, Walton,458
Hansen, Kirby,127
Hardman, Charlotte E.,386–416
Hare Krishna. See Krishna Consciousness
Harry Potter tales,55
(p. 538) Harvey, Graham,516
Hawthorne, Nathaniel,229
Hawthorne: A Study in Solitude (Gorman),229
Hay, Louise,477
health,524
Heaven's Gate,122–124, 144, 157, 198, 300, 302, 420, 426
Heelas, Paul,47, 468, 519–520
Heiler, Friedrich,500
Heinlein, Robert,55
Hennebry, Jenna,57–58, 123–124
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn,132–134
Hero with a Thousand Faces, The (Campbell),364
hero worship,370–371
Hervieu-Léger, Danièle,210–216
Hess, David J.,100
high-demand organizations,149, 150, 264
Hill, Christopher,337
Höfler, Otto,456
Holmes, Ernest,101
Holt, John,401
Holy Smoke (film),170
home schooling,402
Hong, Nansook,301
Hong Xiuquan,497–498
House of Judah,392
Houteff, Florence,302
Hubbard, L. Ron,110–111, 309, 360, 398, 427–429, 454, 458
human sacrifice,230, 231
Humphreys, Christmas,108
Hunter, Edward,250
Hunter, James Davison,77–80
Hutton, Ronald,515
Huysmans, J.-K.,227
Hyams, Hanna,322
hypnosis,256–257, 284, 291 n.24
ideological totalism,252
India,25, 370
individualism,92, 126, 247, 460–461
institutionalization,529–531
institutional risk environments,85
interaction,259, 265
Internet,119–140
intimacy,173
Introvigne, Massimo,206–220
Islam,340–342, 343, 344
Italy,214
Jacobs, Janet,400
Japan,3, 19, 20, 24, 144, 169–170, 176, 491, 503–508
Japanese language,491, 492
Jehovah's Witnesses,396
Jenkins, Philip,221–242
Jesus movement,266–267
Joachim of Fiore,336
John-Roger,370–371
Jones, Jim,265, 308
Jonestown murder-suicides,191, 207
Jōsei, Toda,505
Judaism,213
Jung, Carl,405
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss,378
Katz v. Superior Court,190
Kindred Spirit magazine,474
King, George,104, 429–430
Kirkpatrick, R. George,359–377
Knight, Peter,54
Korea,342, 491, 499, 501–503
Korean language,492
Koresh, David,301, 309, 338, 394
Krishna Consciousness
and anti-cult movement,187, 188, 194
children in,310, 395–396, 407
economic problems,301
expulsion or demotion of members,308
as high-demand group,264
Hunter on,79
negative syncretism,107
personality studies of devotees,268
and science,102, 105–106, 107, 109
and suicide,146
kundalini,407
La-Bas (Huysmans),227, 229
Laing, R. D.,399
(p. 539) Lambert, Yves,92
Landes, Richard,333–358
Langone, Michael,391
Lanning, Kenneth,238
Lasch, Christopher,86
LaVey, Anton,106, 231
Lawrence, Richard,104
leaders,149–150, 301, 370
Leek, Sibyl,515
legality,163–183
legitimacy,258, 529
Leland, Charles Godfrey,228
Leo XIII (pope),213
Lester, Toby,3
Lévi, Eliphas,227, 445
Levine, Saul,6, 263–264
Lévi-Strauss, Claude,363
Lewis, James,101, 106, 169, 421, 525
Lifton, Robert,248, 249, 251–253, 257, 265, 273–274, 277, 281, 283, 284, 289–290 n.22
Lijiao,496
liminality,58–59
Lincoln, Bruce,450
Listening People, Speaking Earth (Harvey),516
Living in the Lap of the Goddess (Eller),516
longevity,496
Lord of the Rings, The (Tolkien),55–56
Lotus Sutra,504, 511 n.21
Lovecraft, H. P.,429
Love Family,301
Lucis Trust,470
Luhrmann, Tanya,522–523
Lu Zhongyi,497
Lyon, David,46
Lytton, Bulwer,227
McGrath, Melanie,58
MacLaine, Shirley,477
Maclean, Dorothy,476, 480
McMartin preschool case,233, 238–239
Maffesoli, Michel,529, 532
Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft (Lewis),525
Magus, The (Barrett),224
Maharaj Ji,302
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi,104, 113
Making of a Moonie, The (Barker),5
Malinowski, Bronislaw,362
Manson, Charles,232
marriage,381
Martin, Dorothy,424
Maslow, Abraham,405
Mathers, Samuel Liddell “MacGregor,”132
Matrix, The (film),54
Matter, Jacques,445
Matthews, Caitlin,472
Matthews, John,472
Mazu cult,496
mediumship,471
Melton, J. Gordon,3, 7–8, 16–35
Mendel, Arthur,343
Merrifield, Jeff,112
metatechnology,135 n.6
Meyer, F. E.,22
Michelet, Jules,226
millennialism,148–149, 333–358
agenda for future research,349–353
antisemitism,353
apocalyptic,334–335, 347–348
conspiracy theory,351–352
eschatology,345–346
gender studies,351
policy issues,352–353
progressive,348–349
scholarship on,335–344
types of,333–335
Millerite movement,148
Mills, Jeannie and Al,308
mind control. See brainwashing
modernization and modernity,77–78, 90
recasting conditions of,82–84
responses to Consequences of Modernity,87–89
and secularization,41–42
social psychological consequences of,84–87
Molko and Leal v. Holy Spirit Association,194
Monk, Maria,235
Monnastre, Cris,132
Moon, Sun Myung,115, 159, 301–302, 502
(p. 540) Mooney, James,335–336
Moonies. See Unification Church
Morton, John,371
motivation,258, 276
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness. See MSIA
MSIA (Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness),370–371, 372
Müeller, Max,363
Murphy-O'Connor, Cardinal,49
Murray, Margaret,228
Myōkō, Naganuma,505
myth,359–377
definition of,360
general perspectives on,362–366
and leader as hero, holy one,370–371
as lived reality,366–368
self-exploration, values, and ritual through,368–370
underanalysis of,361–362
Napoleon I,212–213
Nathan, Debbie,239, 240
Nation of Islam,25, 380
Native American religions,8
Nazism,456
Needleman, Jacob,19–20
Neil, A. S.,400
Nelson, Geoffrey,21
Neo-Paganism,514–533
neotribes,529
Never Again the Burning Times (Orion),524
New Age Movement, The (Heelas),519–520
New Age spiritualities,43, 49, 50, 58–59, 460–462, 466–490
in action,471–473
alternative networks,479–481
examining consensus view,468–471
and Neo-Paganism,519–522
prospects for studies,481–483
seeker role,474–479
Newbrough, John Ballou,421–424
New Religions, The (Needleman),19
new religious movements (NRMs)
as adaptations to new social circumstances,76
amid secularization,43–46
boundary and disciplinary issues,7–9
“brainwashing” in,243–297
children in,386–416
definition of,27
disaffiliating from,298–314
in East Asia,491–513
esotericism in,445–465
identifying,27–30
introduction to,16–35
legal dimensions of,163–183
Lester on,3
limitations of previous conceptions of significance of,77–82
mythic dimensions of,359–377
progression from cults to,17–21
progression from religious family traditions to,24–26
and psychology,317–332
and science,99–118
and social conditions of late modernity,82–89
sociocultural significance of,68–98
studies of,3, 4, 21–24, 30
“ufological” themes in,419–444
and violence,143–162
women in,378–385
and the World Wide Web,119–140
New Spirituality, Self and Belonging (Bloch),521
Newton, Michael,7
Newton, Paul,399
New Vrindaban community,308
New Zealand,171
Nichiren,504
Nikkyō, Niwano,505
Norman, Ernest,367
Norman, Ruth,367, 422
Nurse's Handbook of Alternative and Complementary Therapies,50
occultism,23, 53, 54, 55, 56, 62 n.36, 66 n.94, 227, 231
Ofshe, Richard,256, 283, 284, 397
(p. 541) “Oh, Gods!” (Lester),3
Ōmoto,506
online religion,119–140
opportunity,258
Order of the Golden Dawn,227
Orion, Loretta,524–525, 529
Pagan spiritualities,43, 55–56, 57, 516
Pak Chung-Bin,502
paleo-SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence),431–432
Palmer, Susan,105, 116, 378–385
paranoia,151
Parsons, Jack,227
Parsons, Talcott,403
Partridge, Christopher,39–67
passive convert,249
Paulsen, Norman,427
Pearce, Jane,399
Pentecostal movement,3–4, 8, 25
Peoples Temple,265, 308
personality dynamics,264–269
Persuasions of the Witch's Craft (Luhrmann),522
Piepkorn, Arthur C.,22
Pike, Sarah,521, 527–528
Place Called Dagon, The (Gorman),229–230
Planetary Connections,474
pluralization,41, 76
Politics of Feminist Spirituality (Spretnak),369
popular culture,53–58
primitive consciousness hypothesis,281–282
privatization,76, 90, 91
progressive millennialism,148
prophetic movements,145, 302
proteanism,277
psychology,317–332
Pugh, Liebie,476
Pye, Michael,491–513
Qabala,224
Rabinovitch, Shelley TSivia,514–533
Rabinowitz, Dorothy,240
racism,288 n.11, 288 n.17
Radical Departures (Levine),5–6
Raelian religion,104–105, 379, 382, 383–384, 420, 432
Raising Hell (Newton),7
Randolph, Paschal Beverly,227
Rappaport, Roy,458
rationalization,42, 76, 78
Reclaiming community,519
recovered memory,233
reenchantment,46–53, 58–59, 532
Regardie, Israel,132
Reich, Charles,401
Reid, Síân Lee,514–533
Reiki,462, 473
reincarnation,49–50, 52, 63 n.50
Reiyūkai,504–505
relative deprivation,495
relief effect,266
religion
as cultural resource,92
decline of in modern society,40–42
Giddens on,88
on Internet,119–140
as personal preference,41–42, 76, 90, 91
as product to be marketed,76
psychological/psychiatric study of,318–321
and science,99–119
Stark and Bainbridge on,45 See also new religious movements; specific religions
Religious Bodies of America,22
Religious Freedom Restoration Act,164
Revolt in the Stars (Hubbard),427
Richardson, James T.,51, 59, 163–183, 207
Richer, Eugene,379
Rise of Christianity, The (Stark),173
risk,84–85, 91
Risshō Kōseikai,505
ritual,451–452, 515
ritual magic,223–224, 227
Rivera, Geraldo,221, 236
Robbins, Thomas,72, 73, 80–81, 89, 243–297
(p. 542) Robertson, Roland,91
Robin George vs. ISKCON,194
Robinson, Wendy Gale,122–123
Robitaille, Gustav,379
rock music,231
Roland, Pete,237
Ross, Rick,122
Rothstein, Mikael,99–118
Rowling, J. K.,55
Rudin, Marcia,391
Russia,175, 215
Sabbats,225–226, 228, 232
Sadaputa dasa (Richard Thompson),105
Sahaja Yoga,397, 407
Salem witches,229
Saliba, John,54, 317–332
Salmonsen, Jone,518–519
salvation,246, 346
Sanders, Ed,232
San Francisco Bay area (Calif.),19–20
Sant Mat,370
Satanic Ritual Abuse (SRA),222, 234, 238–239
Satanism,106, 221–242
in America,228–231
Black Mass,224–225
breeders and survivors,235–236
collapse of panic over (1992–1995),238–240
origins of,223–226
panic of 1980s,232
popularization (1965–1980),231–232
teenage,236–238
witches' Sabbats,225–226
Satan Seller, The (Warnke),235
Satan's Silence (Nathan and Snedeker),239
Scarf, The (Bloch),230
Schein, Edgar,248, 251, 273–274, 281–284, 287 n.7
science,99–118
Science of Mind (Holmes),101
scientism,111–114
scientistic cults,99
Scientology
auditing ritual,458
child custody case,398–399
fees,457
Guardians Office,308–309
Hunter on,79
and hypnosis,256
and Internet,124–125
origin myth,360
as powerful and belligerent,199
quest for “religious technology” and “new science,”427–429
and science,110–111
spectacular empirical claims,453–454
Scott, Jason,199
Secret Doctrine, The (Blavatsky),103, 459
Sectarianism and Religious Persecution in China (de Groot),497
sects,18–19, 21, 27, 28, 206–207
secularization,41–44, 46–47, 51, 59, 75–77
seeker role,466, 474–479
self-estrangement theory,245–246
self-fulfillment,86
Selfica,112
self-realization,405
Sellers, Sean,237
Sentes, Bryan,105, 116
separatism,269
sex complementarity,381
sex polarity,381
sexual abuse,222
sexuality,383
sex unity,381
Shadow Out of Time (Lovecraft),429
shin shukyo,3, 19
Shupe, Anson,6, 184–205
siege mentality,151
Simmel, Georg,450
Simmonds, Robert,266–267
Singer, Margaret,194, 283, 284, 397
Sinnett, Alfred,445
Small Sects in America, The (Clark),19
Snedeker, Michael,239
social control,164–170
social formations,449–451
socialization,399–408
social repulsion,173
Social Teachings of the Christian Churches (Troeltsch),17
(p. 543) sociology,9
Sōka Gakkai,24–25, 505–506, 509
Solar Logos Foundation,427
Solar Temple,144, 159, 198, 207, 301, 322
Spangler, David,470, 472
Spencer, Judith,235
spirituality,61 n.28
Spretnak, Charlene,369
Sri Mataji,407–408
Stanesby, Derek,102
Starhawk (writer),130
Stark, Rodney,44, 45, 173, 454
status,172
Steiner, Rudolph,400, 459–460
Stenmark, Mikael,101
Strange Gods (Bromley and Shupe),6
Stranger in a Strange Land (Heinlein),55
Stratford, Lauren,235
stress,258
structural differentiation,530
Sufism,27
suggestibility,258, 262, 278–281, 284
suicide,122, 144, 146
Sullivan, Harry Stack,400
Sutcliffe, Steven J.,466–490
syncretism,107–114
Taiping movement,342, 497–498
Takata, Hawayo,462
Taylor, Bron,51
teenagers,47, 57, 236–238
Temple of Duality (Web site),127, 128
Temple of Set,222, 231
Tenrikyō,506
Tenshō Kōtai Jingū Kyō,507
Theosophy,102, 103, 422, 423, 459, 480
Ti and Do,302, 308
Tolkien, J. R. R.,55–56
Tonghak,501–502
totalism,252–254, 269–270
Transcendental Meditation (TM),102, 104, 106, 109, 113–114, 401, 448–449, 452, 453, 457
Traube, Elizabeth,54
Trevelyan, George,476
triangulation,158
Triumph of the Moon, The (Hutton),515
Troeltsch, Ernst,17–18
Trompf, G.,433
Trung, Le Van,500
trust,84, 85–86, 88, 91, 254
Tsunesaburō, Makiguchi,505
Tsutomu, Niimi,503
Tumminia, Diana G.,359–377
Turner, Victor,58
Twelve Tribes,167, 168
Tylor, Edward B.,363
UFO Encyclopedia (Clark),420
ufologies,419–444
birth of modern esoteric,421–424
gods as ancient astronauts,431–433
quest for “religious technology” and “new science,”427–431
UFOs (unidentified flying objects),54, 115, 339
UFOs and Popular Culture (Lewis),421
Unarius Academy of Science,366–368, 372
Unification Church,5, 7, 8, 30, 146, 158, 169, 187, 188, 190, 194, 261, 262, 264, 266, 301, 302, 310
Unitarianism,103
Universal Life Church,127–128, 135 n.6
Urban, Hugh,123
Usui, Mikao,462, 473
U.S. v. Fishman,194, 397
Vaisnava-Bhakti theology,105, 106, 109
Valiente, Doreen,368
van Gennep, Arnold,58
Van Tassel, George,422
vegetarianism,496
Vietnam,342, 491, 499–500
Vietnamese language,492
violence,143–162
von Däniken, Erich,431, 432, 433
Vorilhon, Claude,432
Vos, Frits,500
vulnerability,258–259
Wainwright, Martin,49
Waldorf schools,400
(p. 544) Wallis, Roy,78–80, 107
Walter, Tony,50, 51, 52
War in Heaven (Williams),227
Warnke, Mike,235
Waterhouse, Helen,50, 52
Way International, The,146
Way of Unity,496–497
Weber, Max,18, 39, 41, 71, 373 n.3
Weil, Andrew,50
Weird Tales,230
Westcott, William Wynn,132
Western Esotericism,23–24
Wheatley, Dennis,230, 231
White, Vernon,46
White Lotus movement,342, 495
Wicca,47, 57, 129–132, 231, 526
Williams, Charles,227
Wilson, Bryan,19, 43, 44, 52, 76, 77
Wilson, Colin,321
Winter, John,309
Witch Cult, The (Murray),228
witch-hunts,239–240
women,378–385
Won Buddhism,502–503, 509
Wooden, Kenneth,232–233
Woodhead, Linda,53
Woodman, Willilam Robert,132
World Evangelical Alliance,27
World Wide Web,119–140
Wuthnow, Robert,258, 262
Yinger, J. Milton,18, 21
York, Michael,47, 520–521, 522
“Young Goodman Brown” (Hawthorne),229
Zablocki, Benjamin,271–275, 277–285, 289–291 nn.22–25