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date: 15 February 2019

(p. 499) Index

(p. 499) Index

Abrahams, Roger, 267
Adler, Alfred, 182, 191–93
Adorno, Theodor, 298, 300
Aesop, 279, 280
African Americans, 63
abolition of slavery and, 261
blues narratives and, 264–66
histories of Native Americans and, 173
identities redefined, 267
as inferior and menacing, 173–74
intelligentsia, 262
journalism and stories about, 261, 264
lynching and, 261–64, 268, 280
manhood, violence and, 266–68
marginalization of writers and, 92
as minstrel figures, 280
mob violence against, 261, 262–63
narrator as spectator/brute and, 263–64
poets, 265
racial evolution theory as liberating for, 58, 66
racism against, 64
sexual selection and, 269, 270
as subhuman, 279–80
trauma theory and, 264
writers and naturalism, 257–71
The Age of Innocence (Wharton), 210, 211, 226, 227, 233
Ahnebrink, Lars, 3
Akins, Zoë, 427, 438
Alas, Leopoldo, 78
An Albany Trio: Legs (Kennedy), 251–52
Albee, Edward, 431, 433, 434, 436
Alden, Roberta, 348
Alexis, Paul, 22
Alger, Horatio, 315, 381
Algren, Nelson, 49
Allee, W. C., 212
Allen, James Lane, 245, 412
Allen, Woody, 484
altruism, 189, 211–12, 215, 216, 218
An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion (Lange and Taylor), 476
An American Tragedy (Dreiser), 45, 109, 110, 111, 113, 168, 183, 446
class in, 311
criminal innocence v. guilt and, 348–50
psychology, love and death in, 196–99
sexuality and violence in, 250–51
as source for film noir, 484
American Hungers (Jones), 319n2
American Literary Naturalism: A Divided Stream (Walcutt), 3, 82
“American Literary Naturalism and the Humanistic Tradition” (Pizer), 123
American Literary Realism, 1865–1910, 54
American Literature and Social Change: William Dean Howells to Arthur Miller (Spindler), 300
American Literature and the Universe of Force (Martin), 407
American Temperance Union, 163
The American City Novel (Gelfant), 325
Ames, Robert, 408
Ammons, Elizabeth, 416, 417
“Among Cliff Dwellers” (Norris), 276
Anderson, Maxwell, 427, 438
Anderson, Sherwood, 57–58, 183
male sexuality and, 66
psychology, masculine protest and, 191–93
Anesko, Michael, 93
Anglican Church, 161
animals, 57
baboon defense and sacrifice, 217
female intrasexual competition in, 210–11
fictional characters portrayed as, 282–83, 284
gender role plasticity in, 209
as vicious predator or dumb brute, 230
Anna Christie (O’Neill), 342, 431–32
Anna Karenina (Tolstoy), 105
The Annals of ’Steenth Street (Dunbar-Nelson), 236
Anselm (saint), 157
antiheroes
literary noir and, 49
sad endings, negative heroes and, 427–41
anti-Semitism, 318
Antoine, André, 428
Appadurai, Arjun, 301
Aquinas, Thomas (saint), 157
architects, 450
Ardrey, Robert, 217
Ariel (Plath), 459–60
Aristotle, 86, 157, 386
Arius, 158
Arnold, Matthew, 135, 169
“Art in Aisle 3, by Lingerie, And Feel Free to Browse” (Kimmelman), 301
(p. 500) Ash Can School, 464
influence on Dreiser, Theodore, 465–68
members, 465–66
Asian Americans, 63
L’Assommoir (Zola), 23–24, 25, 26
atavism
crime as, 339–41
degeneration and, 172–80
men’s power over women and, 279
At Fault (Chopin), 225, 233
“At the Pit Door” (Crane), 280
Auerbach, Erich, 95
Auerbach, Jonathan, 366
Augustine, 157
“Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers” (Rich), 447
Austen, Jane, 56, 96, 418
Auster, Paul, 419, 420
Austin, Mary, 230, 427
authors. See writers
autobiographies, 139, 143, 169–70
Autobiography (Mill), 124–25
The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (Johnson), 262, 263, 264, 269
The Awakening (Chopin), 225–26
childbirth and, 235
homoeroticism in, 252–53
marital infidelity plot in, 246
as naturalistic, 237n3
sexual selection in, 60
Babcock, B. W., 114, 115
Bacheller, Irving, 369
Baetzhold, Howard G., 133
Baguley, David, 415
Bahktin, Mikhail, 414
Baker, Houston, 265
Baldwin, James, 258
Balzac, Honoré de, 15, 38, 42, 49, 80, 419
Baraka, Amiri, 265
Barash, David, 213
Barash, Nanelle, 213
Barren Ground (Glasgow), 183, 193–96, 228
Barrett, Clifton Waller, 396
Barthes, Roland, 49, 414
“Bâtard” (London), 178
The Battle with the Slum (Riis), 317
Baudrillard, Jean, 300, 416
Beatty, Richmond Croom, 399
beauty
evolutionary feminism and, 206–8
human standards of, 58
sexy son hypothesis and, 204–6
Becker, George, 81
Beckett, Samuel, 100
“Becoming Cultured and Culture as Commodity” (Smith and Dawson), 300
Becque, Henry François, 428
Beebee, Thomas O., 417
Beer, Thomas, 363
Before Adam (London), 114, 115, 177
behavioral genetics, 128–29
Belasco, David, 429, 430
Bell, Bernard, 416, 417
Bell, Michael Davitt, 143, 412, 414
Bellamy, Edward, 46, 73, 339
Bellow, Saul, 4
Bellows, George, 466
Belluscio, Steven, 269
Belsey, Catherine, 417
Bender, Bert, 151, 212, 217, 230, 237n3, 269
Bentley, Eric, 440
Bentley, Nancy, 226
Berger, John, 108
Bergson, Henri, 57, 66, 81
Berliner, Jonathan, 151
Bernard, Claude, 22, 78, 127
Berry, Walter, 427
Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, 50
Berthoff, Warner, 405, 409
Bester, Alfred, 73
La Bête humaine (Zola), 25–26, 340
Beyond the Pleasure Principle (Freud), 197, 198
the Bible, 270
Bierce, Ambrose, 135, 378
The Big Sleep (Chandler), 351, 484
biology
destiny of race and, 173
evolutionary, 66
birdsong, 57
Birth of a Nation (film), 285
Birthright (Stribling), 66
Black and White Strangers: Race and American Literary Realism (Warren), 257
Black Mask, 350
The Black Riders (Crane), 164, 447–49
Blake, William, 461
Blood Meridian (McCarthy), 252, 253
the blues. See also music
music and, 59, 62
narratives, 264–66
“The Blue Hotel” (Crane), 345
Boas, Franz, 268
bodies
childbirth and laboring, 235
disabled, 234
expendable female, 251
grotesque, 233
obese, 233–34
spectacle of women’s, 231–33
Boeckmann, Cathy, 257
Bogard, Travis, 431
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 123
Bone, Robert, 348
Au Bonheur des dames (Zola), 25–26, 298
Boodin, John Elof, 212
Booth, Michael, 9, 16n2
Born to Kill (film), 483
Borus, Daniel, 361, 370
(p. 501) Boussod-Valadon Galleries, 466, 479n6
Bower, Stephanie, 276
Bowers, Fredson, 398–99, 401
Bowlby, Rachel, 301, 405, 407, 408, 410, 414
Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth, 360, 427
Boyle, Robert, 156
Boyle, T. C., 67
Brace, Charles Loring, 374
Bradley, Sculley, 399
Brady, Patrick, 415, 419
Brady, Thomas, 469
“Brahma” (Dreiser), 454
Brawley, Benjamin, 365
Brecht, Bertolt, 433
Breton, André, 420
Brett, George, 366, 369
Breuer, Josef, 190
Bridle, Augustus, 111
Brill, A. A., 196, 198
Brogan, Red, 347
Brooke-Rose, Christine, 100
Brooks, Peter, 11, 14, 15, 24–25
Brown, Bill, 230, 302, 303
Brown, Charles R., 315
Brown, Grace “Billy,” 111, 113, 347, 348, 381
Brown, Sterling, 265, 385
brutes, 408, 416
animals as dumb, 230
narrator as spectators and, 263–64
naturalist, 413
Buckland, William, 159
Bucknell Review, 83
Buel, Clarence Clough, 390
Bullard, Arthur, 417
“Bunner Sisters” (Wharton), 230
burden of proof, pessimism and, 130–31
Burhans, Clinton S., 133
Burlingame, Edward, 368
Burning Daylight (London), 317
Burton, Richard, 76–77
Buss, David, 207
By the Light of the Soul (Freeman), 233
Cady, Edwin, 82
Caesar’s Column (Donnelly), 46, 308
Caged (film), 483
Cahan, Abraham, 74, 285, 310
Cain, James M., 48, 49, 135, 339, 350, 484, 485, 496n3
“Cain, Naturalism, and Noir” (Orr), 485
California, as woman, 455–57
The Call of the Wild (London), 109, 112, 115, 177, 286, 318, 377, 379
Campbell, Donna, 4, 85, 183, 303, 412, 414, 416, 417
Camus, Albert, 48
Canby, Henry Seidel, 385
Cantos (Pound), 446–47
Capital (Marx), 295, 300
capital punishment, 347, 350
Capote, Truman, 252–53
Cargill, Oscar, 81
Carter, Everett, 82
Carus, Paul, 133
Caruth, Cathy, 264
Carver, Raymond, 419
Casanova, Pascale, 98
“A Case for Lombroso” (Norris), 276–79, 340
Cather, Willa, 66
as journalist, 225
naturalism, women writers and, 223–36
transformed naturalistic romance and, 230
Catholicism, 139, 156, 157–58, 163, 168, 169
Caught (film), 483
Cawelti, John G., 351
Céard, Henri, 22
Center for Naturalism, 54, 67
Chandler, Raymond, 49, 350, 351
film noir and, 484, 486, 490–96
Channing, William H., 292
chaos theory, 127–28, 140, 419
Charles, M., 467
Chartier, Jean Pierre, 485
Chase, Richard, 11, 83
Chesnutt, Charles W., 54, 58, 74, 258, 260–61, 267, 268, 269, 271, 285, 289, 417
Chevrel, Yves, 26
Chicago Poems (Sandburg), 449
childbirth, 235, 245, 460
Children of the Night (Robinson), 74
“The Chinago” (London), 284–89
choice. See sexual selection
“The Choice” (Wharton), 60–61
Chopin, Frederic, 57
Chopin, Kate, 3, 56, 65, 74, 135, 301, 302
commodity culture and, 298
evolutionary biology and, 66
marital infidelity plot and, 246–47
naturalism, women writers and, 223–36
plot of decline and, 230
on sexuality, 242
sexuality and, 241
sexual selection and, 57, 60
as writer in initial group of 1890s naturalists, 241
Zola’s influence on, 224–25
Christianity, 310
cooperation and, 156
Eucharistic ritual in, 165
sexuality, repression and, 242
Christian Science, 169
“Chun Ah Chun” (London), 285
cities
of excess, 331–34
of exile, 334–36
foreign space of, 325–27
grotesque, 323–30
overview of ethnic ghettos and, 322–23
population growth, 1850–1900, in, 336n1
Civello, Paul, 4, 85
(p. 502) civilized society, 53
Civil War, 38, 50, 140, 279, 412, 469
The Clansman (Dixon), 173–74, 268, 285
class, 319n3
class-passing and, 284–85
naturalism and, 307–20
urban poor to new middle, 308
violence, 309
Cleman, John, 280–81
Cleopatra, 211
Cloudstreet (Winton), 99
Cohn, David L., 386
Coles, Robert, 478
Collins, Carvel, 11
Collins, Patrick, 109–10
The Color of a Great City (Dreiser), 479n4
Commerce in Color: Race, Consumer Culture, and American Literature, 1893–1933 (Davis), 301
commodity culture
criticism of naturalism as critique of, 300–304
explanation of, 291–92
naturalism and, 291–304
naturalism as critique of, 292–99
compatibilism, 124–26
Comstock, Anthony, 370
Conder, John J., 81, 123
Conklin, E. G., 64
Conn, Peter J., 417
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (Twain), 46
Conrad, Joseph, 48
“The Conspicuous Wasting of Lily Bart” (Yeazell), 302
Constantine (emperor), 158–59
Cooke, Jay, 45
Cooke, Rose Terry, 230, 412
Cooper, Anna Julia, 262
Copernicus, 155, 156
copyrights, 114
Corkin, Stanley, 303
Cornered (film), 483
The Dark Corner (film), 483
The Cost (Phillips), 228
Council of Nicaea, 159
courtship plot
female power of choice in, 56, 59–63
male’s passion/combativeness in, 56–58
music and dance in, 57–58
naturalism, sexual selection and, 56–63
Cowley, Malcolm, 6, 81, 342
Cowper, William, 458
Crane, Stephen, 3, 16n1, 72, 73, 74, 80, 83, 105, 132, 134, 154, 155, 183, 223, 224, 225, 227, 235, 265, 266, 267, 404, 454–55, 458, 461
African Americans as minstrel figures and, 280
cities and, 323
class and, 307, 308, 309, 311
commodity culture and, 301, 302, 303
dialogism and, 415, 416, 418
early life of, 285
editing naturalism, publishing and, 390–93, 396, 398–99
environmental determinism and, 341–42, 344, 345
environment as crushing influence and, 64
evolution of literary naturalisms and, 48
French origins and, 21
human nature and, 65
James, William, and, 184–87
journalism and, 107, 110–11, 280, 469
laboring body and, 235
literary marketplace and, 357, 359, 369
literary realism and, 82
lynching and, 280
male gaze and, 232
nature in naturalism and, 52, 53, 56
as neophyte in literary marketplace, 362–64
plays and, 432
poetry and, 447–49
popular reception of naturalist texts and, 374–76, 379
race and, 268
race, criminality and, 274–75
race and naturalism in short fiction of, 279–84
religion and, 163–65
sexual selection and, 57
social mechanism as monster and, 33–34
typology of documentary and, 110
unromantic machines and, 32
use of stoical force and, 47
visual arts and, 463, 469–75, 479n1
as writer in initial group of 1890s naturalists, 241
Zola’s outlook mirrored in work by, 27
Crane, William, 280
Creative Evolution (Bergson), 66
Crime: Its Causes and Remedies (Lombroso), 174
crime/criminality
in “A Case for Lombroso,” 276–79
in “The Chinago,” 284–89
criminal innocence v. guilt and, 347–50
degeneration and, 174–76
environmental determinism and, 341–47
hard-boiled crime fiction and, 350–51
hereditary determinism and, 339–41
in “The Monster,” 279–84
naturalism and, 339–51
race and, 274–75, 276–84
criminal innocence, guilt and, 347–50
Criminal Man (Lombroso), 64, 340
Criminal Sociology (Ferri), 133
Cross, A. R., 395
Crumbling Idols (Garland), 8, 242, 474
Crunden, Robert M., 314
The Cry for Justice (Sinclair), 316
(p. 503) culture
identity and degeneration of Anglo-American, 172–80
naturalism and commodity, 291–304
The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History 1880–1980 (Lears and Fox), 301
Cummings, Neil, 298, 301
Cummins, Denise, 210
“Curious Shifts of the Poor” (Dreiser), 464, 467, 479n6
custom, tyranny of, 85–88
The Custom of the Country (Wharton), 246
“Daddy” (Plath), 460
Dalton, Mary, 348
The Damnation of Theron Ware (Frederic), 163, 243
dance, courtship plot and, 57–58
The Dance of Life (Ellis), 58
Dark Laughter (Anderson), 58
Dark Princess (Du Bois), 59, 62
The Dark Side of the Screen: Film Noir (Hirsch), 484
Darrow, Clarence, 245, 347, 349
Darwin, Charles, 4, 5, 139, 142, 145, 146, 155, 157, 159, 166, 188, 203, 223, 224, 225, 293, 407, 436
altruism and, 211–12
drama and, 434
ecological web and, 66–67
evolution and, 53–54
on free will, 131–32
group values and, 141
human nature and, 63–66
literary naturalism and, 38–39, 71–72
on male sexual agency, 245
racial evolution theory and, 58, 66
religion and, 160–62, 164
repression and, 65
on role of men/women in sexual selection, 211
sexual selection and, 55, 56–63, 254n5, 269
Darwinism and Divinity: Essays on Evolution and Religious Belief (Durant), 160–61
The Data of Ethics (Spencer), 151, 188
Davidson, Donald, 418
Davis, Ben, Jr., 386
Davis, James C., 301
Davis, Rebecca Harding, 73, 163, 164, 233, 234, 235, 292, 293, 296, 415, 416, 419
class and, 307, 310–11
Dawkins, Richard, 212
Dawson, Melanie, 300
death
death-in-life ending and, 248
tragedy, love and, 196–99
Defoe, Daniel, 96
Degeneration (Nordau), 64
degeneration, atavism and, 172–80
DeLillo, Don, 3, 50, 74, 252, 419, 420
Dell, Floyd, 191, 196
Den Tandt, Christophe, 264, 323
Descartes, René, 156, 158
The Descendant (Glasgow), 228
The Descent of Man (Wharton), 225
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (Darwin), 39, 53, 57, 60, 141, 245
Desire Under the Elms (O’Neill), 191
Determined Fictions: American Literary Naturalism (Mitchell), 4
determinism
crime and environmental, 341–47
crime and hereditary, 339–41
free will, moral responsibility and, 121–36
Freud on, 182–83
naturalistic writers and, 131–36
quantum mechanics, chaos theory and, 127–28
Zola on, 182
DeWall, Nathan C., 205
Dick, Philip K., 73
Dickos, Andrew, 485
Dimock, Wai-chee, 302
disease
crime as, 339
love as, 277–78
The Divine Comedy (Dante), 451
Dixon, Thomas, Jr., 263, 268, 271, 285
degeneration, atavism and, 173–74
racism and, 63
Documentary Expression and Thirties America (Stott), 104
documentary method
definition and uses of, 104
factual research in, 108–11, 113, 114, 115, 116
London, Jack, plagiarism problem and, 111–16
strategies of naturalism, 104–16
typology of, 105–11
Donnelly, Ignatius, 46, 308
Dooley, Patrick K., 184
Dos Passos, John Roderigo, 4, 48, 74, 300, 333, 336, 430, 439, 445
Doubleday, Frank N., 394
Double Indemnity (Cain), 484, 485, 496n3
Double Indemnity (film), 484, 486, 490–96
Douglas, Mary, 301
Douglass, Frederick, 259–60
Dow, William, 415, 419
Dowling, Robert, 257, 303
drama, naturalism and, 427–41
Draper, John William, 155
Dreiser, Emma, 42
Dreiser, Sara, 394, 400
Dreiser, Theodore, 3, 72–74, 80, 83, 123, 132, 154–55, 163, 184, 191, 223–24, 228, 235, 236, 241, 271, 292, 404, 407, 437, 440, 445–46, 450
Ash Can School’s influence on, 465–68
autobiography of, 139, 143, 169–70
cities and, 333–35
class and, 307, 308, 309–10, 311–12, 317, 318
commodity culture and, 297, 300–302
(p. 504) criminal innocence v. guilt and, 347–50
degeneration, criminality and, 176
dialogism and, 415–16, 418
editing naturalism, publishing and, 394–96, 397, 400
environmental determinism and, 343, 344–45
evolution of literary naturalisms and, 38–39
factual research and, 108, 113, 115, 116
female sexuality and, 254n3
film noir influenced by, 484, 493
financial markets and, 45–46
French origins and, 21
on Freud, 190
gender, race and, 409, 411, 413
internal conflict and, 183
journalism and, 347–48
as journalist, 107, 111
literary conventions and, 16n1
literary marketplace and, 357, 361
lynching and, 268
male gaze and, 232
male sexuality and, 66
melodramatic vision and, 10–11, 15
on moral responsibility, 134–35
morality and, 140, 147
naturalistic imagination and, 6–7
nature in naturalism and, 52
plagiarism and, 111
plays and, 432
poetry and, 453–55
popular reception of naturalist texts and, 379–83, 386
power of sympathy and, 188–90
psychoanalysis and, 196
psychology, love, death and, 196–99
race and, 261
religion and, 168
on sexuality, 242, 243
sexual selection and, 61
social mechanism as monster and, 33–34
Stieglitz and Shinn’s influence on, 479n6
truth, art and, 266
typology of documentary and, 105–106, 109
unromantic machines and, 32
use of conciliatory forces and, 40, 42–43
visual arts and, 463, 464–68, 469, 479n1, 479n4
on writers and truth, 266
Zola’s outlook mirrored in work by, 27
Dreiser v. Paramount Publix Corporation, 350
Drop City (Boyle), 67
Dryden, John, 445
Dubois, Jacques, 419
Du Bois, W. E. B., 58–59, 62, 258, 259, 262, 268, 270, 271, 417
Dudley, John, 4, 84, 230, 245, 276, 412
Dugdale, Richard Louis, 340
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 74, 135, 235, 258, 262, 265–66, 289, 303, 357, 369, 417
Dunbar-Nelson, Alice, 236
Dunlop, C. R. B., 349
Durant, John, 160–61
Durgnant, Raymond, 490
Durkheim, Émile, 41
Eastman Kodak Company, 469
Eby, Clare Virginia, 237n10, 302
ecological web, human nature and, 66–67
economics
literary naturalism and, 45–47
new naturalist economy and, 406–9
Eddy, Willard O., 127
editing naturalism
canonization of naturalist texts and, 396–400
conclusions, 400–401
explanation of, 389–90
second thoughts, first editions and, 390–96
Edwards, E. J., 375
The Ego and the Id (Freud), 195
the Eight, 465–66. See also Ash Can School
Elbert, Monika, 230
Eliot, T. S., 114–15, 446
Elliott, Emory, 300
Ellis, Havelock, 57, 58, 61, 244–45
Ellison, Ralph, 265
Elsie Venner (Holmes), 73, 79
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 53, 292, 295
The Emperor Jones (O’Neill), 341
England
Industrial Revolution in, 28
man-made monsters in U.S., and, 27–29
naturalism’s influence in, 21–22
English, Daylanne, 270
the Enlightenment, 158
environmental determinism
crime and, 341–47
prostitution and, 164, 251, 316, 317, 324, 340, 342–43, 470–71
Epicurus, 157, 158
Episcopalians, 165–66
Epoques de la nature (Leclerc), 159
Esau, 270
Ethan Frome (Wharton), 209–10, 211, 226, 227
ethics, 124–26, 134–35. See also moral responsibility
naturalist fiction and evolutionary, 142–52
Eucharistic ritual, 165
eugenics, 64, 340
Evangelical Protestantism, 169
Evans, Anne-Marie, 302
Evans, Walker, 317, 476
Evidence as to Man’s Place in Nature (Huxley), 53, 59
(p. 505) evolution. See also Darwin, Charles
evil and, 57
influence on cultural/intellectual life, 88
racial theory of, 58
sexual selection and, 56–63
theory of, 39, 53–54
evolutionary biology, 66
evolutionary feminism, 206–8
evolutionary morality
debate over, 140–42
naturalism and, 139–52
evolutionary psychology (EP)
altruism/reciprocity and, 211–12
evolutionary feminism in “Roman Fever” and, 206–8
explanation of, 203–4
family and, 212–13
Machiavellian intelligence, competition for mates and, 208–11
naturalism and modern, 203–18
reciprocity and, 211–12, 213–15
sexy son hypothesis, Wharton and, 204–6
An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy (Mill), 125–26
experimental novel, problems of, 21–24, 99–100
“The Experimental Novel” (Zola), 127, 182
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animal (Darwin), 53, 57, 65
extra-pair copulation
men and, 207–8
women and, 205
Fabi, M. Giulia, 269
Facing Facts: Realism in American Thought and Culture, 1850–1920 (Shi), 300
facts
distinguishing between fiction and, 113–14
documentary method, research and, 108–11, 113, 114, 115, 116
science and technical, 108–9
truth and, 156
family, EP and, 212–13
Fante, John, 310
Faraday, Michael, 156
Farewell, My Lovely (Chandler), 351
Farm Security Administration, 476, 477
Farm Security Agency, 476
Farrell, James, 73, 74, 130, 135, 241, 310, 433, 439, 440, 441
fatalism
free will, chance and, 126–29
Zola on, 127
“The Fate of a Voice” (Foote), 230
The Father (Olds), 460–61
Faulkner, William, 288
Felski, Rita, 100
females. See also women
animals and intrasexual competition in, 210–11
courtship plot and power of choice by, 56, 59–63
expendable bodies and, 251
objectification of, 33
sexuality, 66, 226, 246–48
women’s body as spectacle and, 231–33
feminism
evolutionary, 206–8
sex-centric movement and, 243–44
femme fatales, 49, 345, 484, 486, 490–96. See also film noir
Ferngren, Gary B., 155
Ferri, Enrico, 133
fiction
creative nonfiction and, 110
distinguishing between fact and, 113–14
evolutionary ethics in naturalistic, 142–52
hard-boiled crime, 350–51
journalism’s influence on, 101, 105, 106–11, 276, 280, 308, 347–48, 469, 476, 477
race and naturalism in short, 274–89
science of, 28
women valuing knowledge gained from, 100
Fielding, Henry, 96
“Fifth Avenue Coach, Winter” (Shinn), 467f
Figg, Robert, 83
Fillebrown, Thomas, 108
film noir. See also Cain, James M.; Chandler, Raymond; Hammett, Dashiell; specific film noir titles
Double Indemnity and, 484, 486, 490–96
femme fatales and, 484, 486, 492–93
hard-boiled crime fiction and, 351
heroes, 487
Kasper Gutman in, 488
literary naturalism and, 483–96
The Maltese Falcon and, 484, 486–90, 492, 495–96
roots, 484
sense of doom in, 492
sexuality in, 484, 489, 490, 492–93
vamps in, 490
voiceover narration in, 491
The Financier (Dreiser), 45, 228, 410
class in, 312, 314, 317
environmental determinism in, 344–45
sexuality in, 243
First Idea, 38
First Principles of a New System of Philosophy (Spencer), 39–40, 139, 143, 160, 168
Fisher, Philip, 303, 407
Fisher, Rudolph, 59, 62–63
Fishkin, Shelly Fisher, 110
Fiske, John, 144
Fitch, Clyde William, 427
Fitch, M. H., 133
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 54, 57, 64, 66, 300
Flaubert, Gustave, 80, 246, 405
The Flea Palace (Shafak), 99
Fleissner, Jennifer, 4, 26, 84, 183, 230, 231, 254n4, 257, 303
class and, 315
on sexuality, 245
(p. 506) Flower, Benjamin, 363
Floyd, Samuel, 265
Folsom, Michael Brewster, 313
Foote, Mary Hallock, 230, 231
Force of Evil (film), 483
forces
in literary naturalism, 38–39, 40–47
as power, 45
types of, 44
Ford, James Lauren, 363
The Ford (Austin), 230
Form and History in American Literary Naturalism (Howard), 4, 104, 296, 408
Foucault, Michel, 242, 254n2, 415, 416
Fox, Richard, 301
France
impressionism, 469, 471–75
naturalism’s origins in, 21–24, 54, 77–78, 98
Second Empire, 26–27
Frazer, Winifred L., 440
Frederic, Harold, 53, 74, 135, 163
literary realism and, 82
sexuality and, 243
sexual selection and, 57, 60–61
as writer in initial group of 1890s naturalists, 241
free love, 244
Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins, 230, 233, 235, 412, 427
free will, 408
determinism, moral responsibility and, 121–36
fatalism, chance and, 126–29
libertarian, 125, 131
French, Warren, 327
Freud, Sigmund, 57, 61, 62, 63, 65, 196, 197, 198–99, 434, 459, 460
on determinism, 182–83
early Freudian age and, 190–91
mental functioning and, 194
pre-Freudian psychology and, 183–84
psychoanalysis and, 190–91, 193–96
sublimation and, 195
Frow, John, 301
The Fruit of the Tree (Wharton), 234
Fuller, Henry Blake, 74
Fulton, David Bryant, 261
Galilei, Galileo, 155, 156
Gallagher, Catherine, 96, 100
Galton, Francis, 340
Gammel, Irene, 411
Gandal, Keith, 319n1
Garland, Hamlin, 3, 74, 231, 359, 404, 427
critical reception and, 375, 376, 380, 390, 391
impressionism and, 472, 474
literary marketplace and, 357, 363–364, 369
melodramatic vision and, 14, 15
naturalistic imagination and, 6, 7, 8
sexuality and, 242, 243
Garland-Thomson, Rosemary, 234
Gassendi, Pierre, 157–58, 158
Gates, Elmer, 108
“Geddo Street” (Dreiser), 453
Gelfant, Blanche, 325
Gemeinschaft (community), 41
gender
excluded margins, race and, 409–14
role plasticity in animals, 209
Gendin, Sidney, 134
genres
defining literary naturalism and, 71–88
difficulties of defining, 93–94
disbelief, speculation and, 96
documentary strategies of naturalism and, 104–16
naturalism and other, 92–101
George, Henry, 15
George’s Mother (Crane), 266, 267
Gerber, Philip, 333, 419
Géricault, Théodore, 474
German Expressionism, 484
Germinal (Zola), 25, 26
Gesellschaft (society at large), 41
Giddings, Franklin, 172–73
Gilder, Richard Watson, 362, 363, 365, 374–75, 378, 383, 390–91
Giles, James, 4, 413
Gillette, Chester, 113, 347, 348, 381, 446
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 73, 74, 339
sexuality and, 243–45
as writer in initial group of 1890s naturalists, 241
Giorcello, Cristina, 302
Gissing, George, 28, 32, 33–34, 301
Gitelman, Lisa, 101
Glackens, William, 466
Glasgow, Ellen, 74, 183, 191, 302
on Jung’s contribution to novels, 193–94
marital infidelity plot and, 246
naturalism, women writers and, 223–36
repression and, 193–96
South’s obsession with heredity and, 230, 237n5
as writer in initial group of 1890s naturalists, 241
Glaspell, Susan, 432
The Glass Key (Hammett), 351
Glazener, Nancy, 224
God, 123, 144, 162, 448–49, 454, 455
as Creator, 161
as punitive, 164
as warrant for empirical inquiry, 158
Gold, Michael, 310, 318–19, 330
Golden Rule, 212. See also reciprocity
Goldsby, Jacqueline, 264, 280
gold standard, 45, 81, 408, 416
Goldstone, Richard, 438
The Gold Standard and the Logic of Naturalism (Michaels), 4, 302
(p. 507) Goodling, Sara Britton, 235, 414, 416, 419
Gorky, Maxim, 428–29
Gosse, Edmund, 76
Gramsci, Benjamin, 300
The Grapes of Wrath (Steinbeck), 204, 463
altruism and reciprocity in, 211–12
environmental determinism in, 345
Lange’s influence on, 475–79
The Greek Anthology, 451
Greenstreet, Sydney, 487, 488
Griffith, D. W., 285, 377
Griggs, Sutton, 258, 262–63, 264, 268, 270, 271
Grimsted, David, 10, 12
group values, 141. See also moral responsibility
Gruber, Laura, 230
Guare, John, 441
guilt, 347–50. See also crime/criminality
Gun Crazy (film), 483
Gural-Migdal, Anna, 496
Gurney, Edmund, 57
Gutman, Kasper (fictional character), 488
Habegger, Alfred, 411, 412, 414
Habermas, Jürgen, 418
habits, 182, 184
Haeckel, Ernst, 57, 59, 63, 64, 149, 223, 225, 269
Hagar’s Daughter (Hopkins), 270
The Hairy Ape (O’Neill), 64, 176–77, 432
Hall, G. Stanley, 245
Hall, Stuart, 409
Halsey, Francis, 389–90
Hamilton, Alexander, 446
Hamilton, Clayton, 8
Hamilton, W. D., 212–13
Hamilton, William, 125–26
Hammett, Dashiell, 49, 135, 350, 351
environmental determinism and, 345
film noir and, 484, 486–90
The Hand of the Potter (Dreiser), 111, 176, 196, 438
Hansberry, Lorraine, 434
Hapke, Laura, 309
Hardy, Thomas, 22–23, 32, 34
historical genesis of monster machine and, 28–29, 30
science of fiction criticized by, 28
Harlem Renaissance, 257, 270. See also African Americans
courtship and women’s power of choice in, 61–62
music and human nature in, 58–59
racial evolution theory and, 66
sexual primitivism and, 58
Harper, Frances E. W., 262
Harris, Sharon, 235, 294
Harris, Trudier, 262
Harte, Bret, 107, 427
Harvey, William H., 415
Hassan, Ihab, 418
Hawkes, David, 300
Hawkins, Willis Brooks, 363, 396, 397
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 143, 411
Haymarket riots, 416
A Hazard of New Fortunes (Howells), 295, 413
Hearst, William Randolph, 368
Hebert, Ernest, 99, 100
Hedda Gabler (Ibsen), 405
Heilman, Robert B., 12, 13
Heinemann, William, 392, 394
Hellman, Lillian, 427, 440
Hemingway, Ernest, 3, 74, 288, 412
literary noir and, 49
male sexuality and, 66
primitive/civilized contrasted and, 48
Henle, James, 439
Hennique, Léon, 22
Henry, Arthur, 394, 400
Henslow, John Stephens, 161
hereditary determinism, 64, 73, 339–41
Herland (Gilman), 73, 244, 339
heroes
antiheroes and, 49
film noir, 487
negative, 427–41
Herrick, Robert, 74, 228
Herschel, William, 140
heterosexuality, 243
Hicks, Granville, 295
Higgins, William, 110
Himes, Chester, 258
The Hindered Hand (Griggs), 262, 263, 264
Hinduism, 454
Hine, Lewis, 317
Hirsch, Foster, 484–85
Hitchcock, Alfred, 404
Hitchcock, Cora, 392
Hitchcock, Ripley, 379, 389–90, 391, 392, 395, 398, 399, 400
Hobbes, Thomas, 81, 126
Hochman, Barbara, 230
Hofstadter, Richard, 188
Hollywood. See film noir
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 73, 79, 114, 135
Holyfield, Evander, 88
Homberger, Eric, 330
The Home: Its Work and Influence (Gilman), 244
Home to Harlem (McKay), 59
A Hoosier Holiday (Dreiser), 347
Hopkins, L. A., 42
Hopkins, Pauline, 74, 258, 262, 268, 270, 285, 416
Hosseini, Khaled, 100
The House Behind the Cedars (Chesnutt), 269
The House of Mirth (Wharton), 33, 145–47, 226, 227, 296, 302, 303, 368, 427
male gaze in, 232
marital infidelity plot in, 246
projected titles for, 237n4
“The House of Pride” (London), 285
The House of Seven Gables (Hawthorne), 143
(p. 508) Howard, Bronson, 10
Howard, June, 4, 84, 104, 107, 296, 299, 319n1, 323, 327, 405, 407, 408, 409, 410, 414
narrator as brute/spectator and, 263–64
on naturalism, 297
Howe, Irving, 26
Howells, William Dean, 73, 74, 76, 78, 80, 81, 86, 88, 95, 96, 243, 294, 300, 303, 323, 405, 415, 427
class and, 308
courtship plot, sexual selection and, 57, 60
critical reception and, 375, 376, 380, 391
gender, race and, 413
human nature and, 65, 66
literary marketplace and, 360
naturalistic imagination and, 7–8
nature in naturalism and, 53
realism and, 408, 411, 417, 418
typology of documentary and, 106, 107
How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (Riis), 308, 317, 323, 413, 469, 479n9
Hughes, Langston, 265
Hugo, Victor, 78, 429
human nature
behavioral genetics and, 128–29
ecological web and, 66–67
environment’s influence on, 64
evolutionary roots of, 203
Harlem Renaissance and, 58–59
hereditary determinism and, 64, 73
novels as scientific case studies of, 77–78
related elements in puzzle of, 63–66
Hume, David, 132, 134
Huret, Jules, 22
Hurm, Gerd, 332, 337n6
Hussman, Lawrence, Jr., 144
Huston, John, 486, 490
Huxley, Julian, 54, 55, 203, 224, 225
Huxley, Thomas Henry, 53, 59, 132, 133, 141, 143
Huysmans, Joris-Karl, 22
Hwang, David Henry, 441
Hyde, George Merriam, 71
Ibsen, Henrik, 405, 428
identity
degeneration of Anglo-American culture and, 172–80
determined at moment of conception, 64
poetry and women’s, 451
racial, 263
redefining African-American, 267
Ideology (Hawkes), 300
If I Don’t Six (Reid), 98–99
immigrants, 413. See also class
ethnic ghettos and, 322–23
as inferior race, 173, 276
Imperium in Imperio (Griggs), 268
impressionism, 469, 471–75
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (Jacobs), 259
In Cold Blood (Capote), 252–53
The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age (Trachtenberg), 301
industrialism. See also the monster machine
shift from agrarian society to, 26, 27, 38, 39
Industrial Revolution, 28
Ingersoll, R. Sturgis, 397
Innes, Christopher, 433
An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding (Hume), 132
insanity
bootleg whiskey and, 341
love as disease and, 277–78
mental disorders and, 183–84, 197–98
Invisible Storytellers: Voice-Over Narration in American Fiction Film (Kozloff), 491
“The Irish Section Foreman Who Taught Me How to Live” (Dreiser), 312
The Iron Heel (London), 167, 405
class in, 308–9, 314
economic power in, 46–47
Isherwood, Baron, 301
Jack, Peter Monro, 385
Jackson, Gregory, 94, 97
Jacobs, Harriet, 259–60
Jacobs, Lea, 496
Jacobson, Karen F., 129
James, George Wharton, 167
James, Henry, 15, 53, 56, 60, 65, 74, 80, 81, 86, 135, 140, 142–43, 323, 407, 427
as naturalist, 54–55
review of Zola, 52
sexual selection and, 57
James, William, 53, 55–56, 141–42, 183
depth psychology and, 190
on habits, 182, 184
on link between experience and action, 184
psychology, Red Badge of Courage and, 184–87
Jameson, Fredric, 410, 415
jazz age, 57. See also music
Jeffers, Robinson, 123, 455–58, 459–61
Jennie Gerhardt (Dreiser), 236, 395–96, 397, 400
Jewett, Sarah Orne, 412, 418
Jews, 63, 64, 318
Jews Without Money (Gold), 318, 330
Jim Crow laws, 258, 263, 265
John Barleycorn (London), 314, 315
Johns, Cloudesley, 133, 149, 367
Johnson, B. S., 99–100
Johnson, James Weldon, 74, 258, 262, 263, 264, 269, 270, 285, 289, 417
Johnson, Robert Underwood, 363
Johnson, Willis Fletcher, 363
Jones, Alexander, 132–33
Jones, Gavin, 319n2
(p. 509) Jones, Howard Mumford, 386
Jones, LeRoi, 433
Joule, James, 156
journalism, 243
African American stories and, 261, 264
fiction influenced by, 101, 105, 106–11, 276, 280, 308, 347–48, 469, 476, 477
muck-raking, 314
writers and, 107, 109, 110–11, 225, 276, 280, 347–48, 469, 476, 477
The Jukes: A Study in Crime, Pauperism, Disease, and Heredity (Dugdale), 340
Jung, Carl, 168, 191
novels and, 193–94
The Jungle (Sinclair), 106, 296, 319n3, 413, 450
class in, 307, 313–14
criminality in, 341
environmental determinism in, 342, 343–44
Jurnak, Sheila Hope, 16n1
Kane, Robert, 126
Kaplan, Amy, 101, 405, 407, 411, 413, 414, 418
Kazin, Alfred, 81, 83, 400, 405, 409
Keats, John, 448
Kelley, Edith Summers, 231, 235, 241, 246–47
Kelly, George, 440
Kennedy, Tanya Ann, 229
Kennedy, William, 49, 251
Kepler, Johannes, 156
Kerouac, Jack, 49
Kidd, Benjamin, 149
Kilmer, Joyce, 380
Kim, Sharon, 146
Kimmelman, Michael, 301
Kingsley, Charles, 161
Kingsley, Sidney, 434, 440
“The King’s Favor” (Crane), 280
Kipling, Rudyard, 377
The Kite Runner (Hosseini), 100
“The Knife” (Crane), 280
Knock on Any Door (Motley), 346
“Koolau the Leper” (London), 285
Kozloff, Sarah, 491
Kristeva, Julia, 414
Krutch, Joseph Wood, 382
Ku Klux Klan, 173–74
Kushner, Tony, 441
Labor, Earle, 149
Labor’s Text: The Worker in American Fiction (Hapke), 309
The Lady of the Aroostook (Howells), 57
Lamarck, Jean Baptiste de, 140, 155, 157, 159, 160
Lamarckian principle, 63, 140, 145, 148, 268, 270
Lamb, Robert Paul, 300
Landmarks in the Struggle between Science and Religion (Simpson), 155
Land of the Free (MacLeish), 476, 477
Lane, John, 370, 380
Lange, Dorothea, 317, 475–76, 478–79, 480n16
“Untitled,” 477, 478
Lange, W. W., 397
Laplace, Pierre-Simon, 123, 140
Lars, Åhnebrink, 81
Larsen, Nella, 61–62, 235, 236, 241, 270
death-in-life ending and, 247
sexuality and race as signifiers of value and, 233
Last Exit to Brooklyn (Selby), 332, 336
Lawson, Andrew, 302
Lawson, John Howard, 433, 439
“The Law of Life” (London), 179
“The League of the Old Men” (London), 285
Lears, T. J. Jackson, 301
Lecky, W. E. H., 225
Leclerc, Georges Louis, 159
LeConte, Joseph, 41, 57, 63, 133–34, 147, 149, 165, 166, 245, 269
Lee, Hermione, 367
Lehan, Richard, 27, 28, 85, 145, 198, 230, 234, 266, 407
The Leopard’s Spots (Dixon), 173, 263, 268
Leopold, Aldo, 67
Leopold, Nathan F., 113
Levine, Lawrence, 267
Lewandowska, Marysia, 298, 301
Lewis, Robert, 280, 300
Lewis, Sinclair, 74, 412
libertarian free will, 125, 131
Lichtenstein, Nelson, 361
“Life in the Iron-Mills” (Davis), 73, 233, 235, 293
class in, 307, 310–11, 314
Life Studies (Lowell), 459
Light, James, 439
Lilly, W. S., 77
Lincoln, Abraham, 217
Linderg, David C., 155
Link, Eric Carl, 4, 29, 92, 95, 121, 230
Liszt, Franz, 57
literary devices, 11
literary marketplace
crafting proletariat myth, London, Jack, and, 365–67
Crane as neophyte in, 362–64
Dunbar as race champion or poet for hire in, 364–65
explanation of, 357–59
naturalist writers and, 357–71
Wharton mastering, 367–69
writer as cog in machine and, 360–62
writers, factory work, “The Iron Madonna” and, 359–60
literary naturalism
core naturalistic novel and, 38
Darwin and, 38–39, 71–72
definition of, 71–72
degeneration and atavism in, 172–80
(p. 510) determinism, free will, moral responsibility and, 121–36
dialogical to postclassical definition of, 414–20
economic power and, 45–47
explanation of, 71
film noir and, 483–96
forces in, 38–39, 40–47
gender, race and, 409–14
identifying literary naturalists in, 72–74
individual and community’s place in, 40–42
in late nineteenth century, 75–79
literary noir and, 49
neo-realism’s roots in, 47–48
new naturalist economy and, 406–9
as offspring of transcendentalism, 82
as part of narrative mode, 38
as pessimistic realism, 81–82
postmodern turn of, 404–6
pre-Freudian psychology and, 183–84
as product of social era, 49–50
psychology and, 182–99
refashioning, 404–20
return to First Idea in, 38
sexuality and, 241–54
structuralism and, 49
Technocracy and, 46
as transformed literary movement, 37–51
in twentieth/twenty-first centuries, 79–85
tyranny of custom and, 85–88
wheat as economic symbol and, 45
literary noir
antiheroes in, 49
femme fatales in, 49, 345
literature
naturalism as future of, 22
obscenity in, 21–22
philosophy and, 121–24
“Little Dramas of the Curbstone” (Norris), 340
The Little Lady of the Big House (London), 191
Locke, Alain, 61
Loeb, Jacques, 134–35
Loeb, Richard Albert, 113
The Log from the Sea of Cortez (Steinbeck), 67
Lombroso, Cesare, 64, 110, 174–75, 176, 340
London, Charmian, 168
London, Jack, 3, 72, 73, 74, 80, 83, 105, 132, 154, 155, 163, 204, 223, 224, 226, 241, 266, 271, 404, 427, 431, 445, 446, 458
atavism and, 177–80
belief in survival of fittest creation and, 114
class and, 307–9, 314–15, 317, 318
class-passing and, 284–85
ecological web and, 66–67
economic power, political force and, 46–47
environment as crushing influence and, 64
factual research and, 113, 114–16
on free will, 133
gender, race and, 411, 412, 413
human nature and, 65
as journalist, 107
laboring body and, 235
literary marketplace and, 357, 359, 361, 369
in literary marketplace crafting proletariat myth, 365–67
male sexuality and, 66
melodramatic vision and, 15
morality and, 140, 149–150, 151, 152
naturalistic imagination and, 6, 7
nature in naturalism and, 52, 54
plagiarism problem and, 111–16
popular reception of naturalist texts and, 376–79, 383
possible suicide and, 320n5
primitivism and, 267
psychoanalysis and, 190–91
race, criminality and, 274–75
race and naturalism in short fiction of, 284–89
on sexuality, 243
sexual selection and, 61
“survival of the fittest” and, 166–68
typology of documentary and, 109
Long, Hudson E., 399
Long, Lisa, 92, 94
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 448
Looking Backward, 2000–1887 (Bellamy), 46, 73, 339
Lorimer, George Horace, 362
A Lost Lady (Cather), 232
“Lost in the Land of the Midnight Sun” (Bridle and Macdonald), 111–12, 114, 115
Lourdes (Zola), 225
love
as disease and insanity, 277–78
free, 244
plot, 291–92
tragedy, death and, 196–99
Lovejoy, Arthur, 85
“Love of Life” (London), 111–12, 115. See also plagiarism
Lowell, Robert, 458–59
Lukács, Georg, 26, 97, 105, 296, 414, 416
Luks, George, 466
Lutherans, 169
Lutz, Tom, 183
Lyell, Charles, 52–53
Lyell, George, 140
lynching, 261–64, 268
“The Lynching of Jube Benson” (Dunbar), 262
Lyotard, Jean-François, 419
Macdonald, J. K., 111
Machiavellian intelligence, men and women, competition for mates and, 208–11
machines. See also industrialism; the monster machine
as mythic monster, 30
unromantic, 32–35
(p. 511) MacLeish, Archibald, 476
Madame Bovary (Flaubert), 246, 405
Madame Bovary’s Ovaries: A Darwinian Look at Literature (Barash and Barash), 213
Maggie, A Girl of the Streets (Crane), 27, 33, 73, 164, 227, 233, 265, 301, 318, 362, 390, 400, 418
African Americans as minstrel figures in, 280
class in, 307, 309, 311
environmental determinism in, 341–42
grotesque city in, 323–25
male gaze in, 232
popular reception of naturalist texts and, 374–79
prostitution in, 432, 436
sexuality in, 248, 250
use of force in, 47
visual arts, Riis, and, 469–71
Mailer, Norman, 4, 412
Maimonides, Moses, 157
Main-Travelled Roads (Garland), 6, 231
male gaze, 232–33
males. See also men
blue-gilled perch as “cheater,” 209
courtship plot and passion/combativeness of, 56–58
physical strength and, 234
sexuality, 66, 245, 248–51
as spectators and male gaze, 232–33
violence and African-American, 266–68
Winesburg, Ohio, masculine protest and, 191–93
The Maltese Falcon (film)
film noir and, 484, 486–90, 492, 495–96
Kaspar Gutman in, 488
The Maltese Falcon (Hammett), 351
environmental determinism in, 345
film noir and, 484, 486–90
Malthus, Thomas, 159
Maner, John K., 205
Manly, Alexander, 261
The Man-Made World or, Our Androcentric Culture (Gilman), 244
Mann Act, 343
“Mapping the Culture of Abundance: Literary Narratives and Consumer Culture” (Shulman), 300
Marais, Eugene, 217
Margraf, Erik, 237n3
marital infidelity plot, 246–47
The Market-Place (Frederic), 60–61
Marlowe, Christopher, 398, 445
The Marrow of Tradition (Chesnutt), 261, 267, 268, 269
Martin, Jay, 182
Martin, Ronald, 6, 149, 407
Martin Eden (London), 12, 13, 150, 152, 190, 314, 315, 317, 320n5
Marx, Karl, 46, 49, 84, 149, 295, 297, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 409, 416
masculine protest, 191–93
Masters, Edgar Lee, 74, 451–53
Match Point (film), 484
Maudesly, Henry, 184
“Mauki” (London), 285
Maupassant, Guy de, 224, 226
Medan group and, 22
on Zola, 22
Mauss, Marcel, 301
“Maverick” (Foote), 230
Maxwell, James Clarke, 156
Mayhew, Anne, 293
The Mayor of Casterbridge (Hardy), 28–29
McBride, Kecia Driver, 303
McCarthy, Cormac, 3, 73, 74, 251, 253, 440
McCarthy, Mary, 440
McClure, Samuel S., 112, 114, 359, 369, 393
McElrath, Joseph, 133–34, 276
McKay, Claude, 59
McTeague (Norris), 74, 129, 165, 225, 284, 303, 413, 418
atavism and, 175
blues narrative and, 265
class in, 307, 309
criminality in, 340–41, 446
documentary, plagiarism and, 113
editing process and, 393, 397
evolution of literary naturalisms and, 41–44
film noir and, 484, 487
human nature and, 63
melodramatic vision and, 11, 12–13, 14
mental disorders in, 184
morality and, 148
as naturalistic gothic, 325–27
naturalistic imagination and, 6
new naturalistic economy and, 407
racism in, 63–64, 276
sexuality in, 248–50
typology of documentary and, 106, 109
Medan group, 22
media, fiction influenced by, 101
melodrama, normal world v. world of, 16n2
Melville, Herman, 65, 73, 160, 163, 316
The Memoirs of an American Citizen (Herrick), 228
“Memories of West Street and Lepke” (Lowell), 459
men
antiheroes and, 49
courtship plot and passion/combativeness of, 56–57
Darwin on role of sexual selection and, 211
evolutionary feminism and influence on, 206–8
extra-pair copulation and, 207–8
Machiavellian intelligence and competition for mates between women and, 208–11
paternity question and, 205–6, 209
power over women and atavism in, 279
sexuality and, 244
sexy son hypothesis and, 204–6
(p. 512) Mencken, H. L., 376, 379, 380, 382, 395, 397, 431, 437
Mendel, Gregor, 39, 54, 63
Mennonites, 169
mental functioning, 194
Mephisto Walzer (Liszt), 57
Merish, Lori, 303
mermaids, 57
Methodists, 163
Mexican Americans, 63
Meyer, George W., 127
Michaels, Walter Benn, 4, 84, 234, 302, 333, 405, 408, 410, 411, 414, 415, 416
Michelangelo, 164
“The Mighty Rourke” (Dreiser), 312–13
“Migrant Mother” (Lange), 478
Mildred Pierce (film), 484
Mill, John Stuart, 124–26, 131
Miller, Arthur, 433, 436, 441
Miller, Jordan Y., 440
Mimesis (Auerbach), 95
minstrel figures, 280
Mitchell, Lee Clark, 4, 84, 130, 280, 299, 415, 419
Mob Rule in New Orleans (Wells), 261
mob violence, 261, 262–63
Moby-Dick (Melville), 160, 163, 316, 382
A Modern Instance (Howells), 66
A Modern Lover (Moore), 21
Moers, Ellen, 464
the monster machine
as consequence of science, 25
Crane and, 27
French origins, experimental novel and, 21–24
Hardy and historical genesis of, 28–29, 30
man-made monsters in England, U.S., and, 27–29
Norris and, 29–32
unromantic machines and, 32–35
Zola and, 24–27
“The Monster” (Crane), 233, 268
naturalism and race in, 279–84
Montgomery, C. W., 110
Moods, Philosophic and Emotional, Cadenced and Declaimed (Dreiser), 453–54
Moody, William Vaughn, 434
Moore, George, 21, 23, 28
moral responsibility
compatibilism, ethics and, 124–26
free will, determinism and, 121–36
Morgan, Thomas, 266
Morgan, William, 94
Morris, Pam, 418
Morrison, Toni, 289, 310
Motley, Willard, 346
“Muckers” (Sandburg), 450
A Mummer’s Wife (Moore), 28
Munroe, Lily Brandon, 364
murder. See also crime/criminality; film noir
capital punishment and, 347
as self-defense/act of kindness, 345–46
Murphy, Brenda, 434
Murphy, Edward, 110
music
birdsong and, 57
blues, 59, 62, 264–66
courtship plot, sexual selection and, 57–58
Harlem Renaissance and, 58–59
Mydans, Carl, 476
My Dogs in the Northland (Young), 109, 112, 114
Nagel, James, 472
Nana (Zola), 52, 105, 340
Naremore, James, 419, 484, 490, 496n2
Narrating the News (Roggencamp), 101
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave Written By Himself (Douglass), 259
narrators
as bystander and spectator, 263–64
class and, 309
double-consciousness of, 264
film-noir voiceover, 491
The Narrow House (Scott), 235
Nast, Thomas, 415
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 261
Native Americans, 53, 63, 167, 173, 225, 455
Native Son (Wright), 111, 113, 346–47, 348
naturalism. See also literary naturalism
African American writers and, 257–71
class and, 307–20
commodity culture and, 291–304
commodity culture critique and criticism of, 300–304
crime and, 339–51
as critique of commodity culture, 292–99
documentary strategies of, 104–16
drama and, 427–41
editing, 389–401
evolutionary morality and, 139–52
French origins of, 21–24, 54, 77–78, 98
industrialization/urbanization’s influence on, 26, 27, 38, 39
misconceptions about, 236
modern EP and, 203–18
nature in, 52–68
and other genres, 92–101
poetry and, 445–61
religion and, 154–70
in science and theology, 157–62
short fiction, race and, 274–89
in transatlantic context and monster machine, 21–36
visual arts and, 463–80
women’s writing and characteristics of, 229–36
women writers and, 223–36
(p. 513) Naturalism in American Fiction (Conder), 124
“The New Naturalism” (Lilly), 77
Natural Theology; Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity (Paley), 159
nature. See also animals
courtship plot, sexual selection and, 56–63
ecological web and human, 66–67
in naturalism, 52–68
naturalism and explanation of, 52–56
related elements in puzzle of human, 63–66
soul transcending, 53
negative heroes, sad endings and, 427–41
“The Negro in Art: How Shall He Be Portrayed?” (Du Bois), 58
neo-realism, 47–48
neurasthenia, 183
The Neurotic Constitution (Adler), 191
New Grub Street (Gissing), 28, 33–34
Newlin, Keith, 438
Newspaper Days (Dreiser), 139, 143
The New Negro (Locke), 61
New Thought Movement, 242
Newton, Isaac, 156, 158
“New Year’s at San Quentin” (Norris), 340
Nichols, Mary Gove, 244
Nicodemus, 168
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 149, 150, 151, 167, 168, 191, 407, 409
nineteenth century, literary naturalism in late, 75–79
“91 Revere Street” (Lowell), 459
Nixon, Robert, 348, 384
No Escape (film), 483
nonfiction, creative, 110
No Place for Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880–1920 (Lears), 301
Nordau, Max, 64, 110
Norris, Charles, 397
Norris, Frank, 3, 72, 74, 80, 83, 86, 122, 129, 132, 140, 154, 155, 163, 223, 226, 230–31, 259, 284, 404, 415, 418, 437, 441
blues narrative and, 265
as “Boy Zola,” 21, 87
cities and, 323
class and, 307, 308, 309, 315–16
commodity culture and, 300, 302
courtship plot, sexual selection and, 62
on crime, 340
criminal innocence v. guilt and, 348
definition of naturalism and, 429
on degeneration and criminality, 174–76
determinism and, 133–34
early life of, 285
editing naturalism, publishing and, 393–95, 396
environmental determinism and, 342, 343
evolution of literary naturalisms and, 40
factual research and, 108–9, 113
film noir and, 487
gender, race and, 412, 413
human nature and, 65
journalism and, 107, 109, 276
literary marketplace and, 357, 359, 361, 369
literary realism and, 82
lower-class protagonists in, 236
masculine sexuality and, 288
melodramatic vision and, 10, 12–15
mental disorders and, 183–84
monster machine and, 29–32
music and, 57
naturalist gothic and, 325
naturalistic imagination and, 6–7
nature in naturalism and, 52
new naturalist economy and, 406–7
poetry and, 445, 446
primitivism and, 267
progressive evolutionary development and, 147–49
race, criminality and, 274–75
race and naturalism in short fiction of, 276–79
racism and, 63–64
religion and, 165–66
romance and, 97
on sexuality, 243
sexual selection and, 57
typology of documentary and, 105–6
use of combative force and, 41–45, 47
on violence, 263
as writer in initial group of 1890s naturalists, 241
on Zola as romantic, 22, 79
Zola’s outlook mirrored in work by, 27–28, 29–32
Norton Anthology of English Literature, 126
novels
antagonism between romance/naturalism in, 76
buddy, 213
degrees of truth in, 97, 100
experimental novel and problems of, 21–24, 99–100
Glasgow on Jung’s contribution to, 193–94
without monster machines, 32–35
ongoing, nonlinear, repetitive motion in, 230
as scientific case studies of human nature, 77–78
social realism and, 83
source materials for, 111–13
utopian, 73
“The Novel with a ‘Purpose’” (Norris), 10
No Way Out (film), 483
Numbers, Ronald L., 155
Oakley, John M., 276
Oates, Joyce Carol, 3, 49, 74, 310
factual research and, 113, 115
sexuality and, 251
obscenity, Zola and, 21–22
O’Connor, Flannery, 279
(p. 514) The Octopus (Norris), 62, 86, 149, 166, 231, 233, 315, 316, 318, 407, 446
environmental determinism in, 342, 343
monster machine in, 27–28, 30–32
use of force in, 47
Vanamee subplot in, 31–33
Odets, Clifford, 428, 433, 434, 440
Odysseus, 211
Oedipus Complex, 191
Of Mice and Men (Steinbeck), 204, 217
altruism and reciprocity in, 211–12
environmental determinism in, 345–46
reciprocity in, 211–12, 213–15
Olds, Sharon, 458, 460–61
The Old Man and the Sea (Hemingway), 67
Oliver, Kelly, 485
O’Neill, Eugene, 176–77, 191, 436, 438
drama and, 428, 430, 431, 432, 433–35, 439–40
environmental determinism and, 342
environment as crushing influence and, 64
racial atavism and, 341
One Way Street (film), 483
“Onion Days” (Sandburg), 450
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (Darwin), 39, 53, 56, 139, 159, 160–61, 225
“The Open Boat” (Crane), 47, 52, 110, 165, 303
O Pioneers! (Cather), 229, 231
originality, writers and, 115–16. See also plagiarism
Orr, Christopher, 485–86, 491, 496n3
Osborne, Theodore, 77
Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy (Fiske), 144
Out of the Past (film), 483
The Oxford Handbook of American Literary Naturalism, 4, 93
Page, Thomas Nelson, 268
Page, Walter Hines, 394
Paine, Albert Bigelow, 132
paintings, 114, 471–75
“A Pair of Silk Stockings” (Chopin), 298
Paley, William, 159
Palmer, R. Barton, 485
Papke, Mary E., 130, 230, 302, 420
Parker, Hershel, 399, 401
Parrington, Vernon Louis, 80, 83, 84, 85, 295, 404, 405, 420
pessimistic realism and, 81–82
Passing (Larsen), 233, 237n9, 270
Pater, Walter, 48
paternity questions, 205–6, 209
The Pathology of Mind (Maudesly), 184
Peattie, Elia, 230, 231
The People of the Abyss (London), 151, 307
Perry, David, 417
perversion, sexual, 254n2
pessimism, burden of proof and, 130–31
Petry, Ann, 236, 241, 258, 296, 303
naturalism, women writers and, 230, 234
sexuality and, 248
Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart, 234, 235, 416
Phillips, David Graham, 50, 74, 228, 235, 361, 412, 417, 432
class and, 307
on criminality, 341
environmental determinism and, 342–43
male gaze and, 232
Phillips, John, 366, 369
philosophy, literature and, 121–24
Philosophy of “As If” (Vaihinger), 191
photojournalism, 308, 310, 314, 315, 469
Brady and, 469
Evans and, 317, 476
Lange and, 475–79
Stieglitz and, 464–65, 468
physical strength, 234
The Physical Basis of Mind and Morals (Fitch), 133
Pierce, James, 79, 80
Pieta, 164
The Pit (Norris), 45, 57, 86, 236
Pizer, Donald, 4, 6, 83–84, 85, 129, 133–34, 230, 234, 237n3, 237n6, 362, 380, 399, 406–7, 419, 420, 430, 496
on crime, 340
on definition of naturalism, 445
on film noir, 483, 486
on internal conflict, 183
on misconceptions about naturalism, 236
on naturalist writers, 258
sexuality and, 241
on study of naturalism, 121–25, 274–75
plagiarism
London, Jack, and problem of, 111–16
paintings, copyright and, 114
as survival of fittest creation, 114–15
Plath, Sylvia, 458, 459–60
Plato, 157, 295–96, 298
Playback (Chandler), 351
Playing in the Dark (Morrison), 310
Playwrights’ Theatre, 432
Plessy v. Ferguson, 258
plots
of decline, 223, 230
film noir, 483–96
ironic, 230
love, 291–92
marital infidelity, 246–47
sexual selection and courtship, 56–63
The Pluralistic Philosophy of Stephen Crane (Dooley), 184
Poe, Edgar Allan, 160, 378
poetry
Crane and, 447–49
Dreiser, Theodore, and, 453–55
Jeffers and, 455–58, 459–61
(p. 515) Lowell and, 458–61
Masters and, 451–53
naturalism and, 445–61
Olds and, 458, 460–61
Plath and, 458, 459–60
Sandburg and, 449–50
poets, 265. See also specific poets
Poole, Ernest, 417
Poore, Charles, 385
Poovey, Mary, 96
Pope, Alexander, 445, 458
Porfirio, Robert G., 487
The Portion of Labor (Freeman), 235
The Portrait of a Lady (James), 57
Possessed (film), 483
Post-Historic Man (Seidenberg), 40
The Postman Always Rings Twice (Cain), 48, 339, 350, 484, 485, 496n3
postmodernism, naturalism and, 404–6, 407
Pot-Bouille (Zola), 99
Pound, Ezra, 446–47
poverty, 308
“Curious Shifts of the Poor” and, 464
slum conditions and, 469
power
as force, 45
lynching’s “terribly real,” 264
of men over women, 279
sexy son hypothesis and women’s, 204–6
of sympathy, 188–90
wheat’s mystical, 408
will to, 191
The Power of Music (Gurney), 57
Presbyterians, 194
Price, Richard, 310
Primer of Philosophy (Carus), 133
primitive society, 53, 58
The Princess Casamassima (James), 54, 142–43
Principia philosophiae (Descartes), 158
Principles of Geology (Lyell), 52–53
Principles of Psychology (Spencer), 141, 189
The Principles of Psychology (James), 53, 184, 188
prisons. See also crime/criminality
criminal innocence v. guilt and, 347, 349–50
as obsolete, 339
“The Problem of Philosophy in the Naturalistic Novel” (Pizer), 122–23
prostitution
drama and, 432, 436
as environmental determinism, 164, 251, 316, 317, 324, 340, 342–43, 470–71
Mann Act and, 343
protagonists, fated to die, 142–43
Protestants, 163, 169
Proust, Marcel, 419
Provincetown Players, 432, 439
“The Psalm of Life” (Longfellow), 448
Psychanalysis (Brill), 196
Psycho (film), 404
psychoanalysis, 190–91, 193–96. See also Freud, Sigmund
psychology
An American Tragedy and, 196–99
depth, 190
early Freudian age and, 190–91
James, William, Red Badge of Courage and, 184–87
literary naturalism and, 182–99
literary naturalism and pre-Freudian, 183–84
naturalism and modern evolutionary, 203–18
repression, Barren Ground and, 193–96
Sister Carrie, Spencer and, 188–90
somatic style of, 183
Winesburg, Ohio, masculine protest and, 191–93
Psychology: Briefer Course (James), 184
Psychology of the Unconscious (Jung), 168, 191
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (Freud), 198
publishing
editing naturalism and, 389–401
literary marketplace and, 357–71
popular reception of naturalist texts and, 373–87
Pudd’nhead Wilson (Twain), 341
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, 106
Puritans, 190
“The Purse-Seine” (Jeffers), 455
Pynchon, Thomas, 135
Quakers, 163, 169, 310
quantum mechanics, 127–28
Quay, Sara, 303
Questionable Charity (Morgan), 94
The Quest of the Silver Fleece (Du Bois), 259, 268, 270
Quicksand (Larsen), 235, 237n6, 237n9
courtship plot and women’s power of choice in, 61–62
death-in-life ending in, 248
race. See also racism
biology as destiny of, 173
criminality and, 274–75, 276–84
degeneration of Anglo-American culture and, 172–80
excluded margins, gender and, 409–14
fetishization of Anglo-Saxon, 227
identity and, 263
immigrants as inferior, 173, 276
riots, 261
sexuality as signifier of value with, 233
short fiction, naturalism and, 274–89
skin color and, 58
stratification of higher and lower, 173
sub-human state and issues of, 63–64
race suicide, 173, 269
racial evolution theory, 58, 66
(p. 516) racism
Anglo-Saxon supremacy and, 63–64
badman as heroic as counterforce to, 267
degeneration, atavism and, 172–80
difference between racialism and, 275
psychological effects of, 263
Radano, Ronald, 264
Radway, Janice, 100, 101
Rahv, Philip, 81, 83
Railsback, Brian, 212
railways
clock time standardized by, 27
as monster machines, 25–26, 30–31
Raine, Anne, 230
Rainsford, William S., 166
Rampersad, Arnold, 62
Raper, Julius Rowan, 237n5
Rascoe, Burton, 386
Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan, 241, 246
readership, signifying function of, 230
Reading the Romance (Radway), 100
realism, 22
defining, 71, 76, 80, 94, 95, 100–101, 106
first realists and, 65
literary naturalism as pessimistic, 81–82
neo-, 47–48
social, 83
urban pictorial, 464–66
Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature (Pizer), 4
reality television, 95
reason, altruism and, 189
The Reasonableness of Faith (Rainsford), 166
Rebecca Harding Davis and American Realism (Harris), 294
reciprocity
altruism and, 211–12
in Of Mice and Men, 213–15
A Red Record (Wells), 261
Red Rock (Page), 268
The Red Badge of Courage (Crane), 65, 86, 163, 165, 183, 195, 375–76, 391, 398–99
environmental determinism in, 344
psychology, James, William, and, 184–87
use of force in, 47
visual arts, impressionism and, 469, 471–75
Reesman, Jeanne Campbell, 149
the Reformation, 156, 163
Reid, Elwood, 98–99
religion. See also specific religions
Dreiser, Theodore, and, 139
and literary naturalists, 162–70
naturalism and, 154–70
the Renaissance, 159
repression, 65
psychology and, 193–96
sexual, 194
sexuality and Judeo-Christian, 242
research, documentary method and factual, 108–11, 113, 114, 115, 116
Resettlement Administration, 476
Resisting Regionalism: Gender and Naturalism in American Fiction (Campbell), 4
“A Reversion to Type” (Norris), 340
Revolutionary Road (Yates), 319
Rice, Elmer, 433, 434, 438, 439, 440
Rich, Adrienne, 447
Richards, Grant, 393–94
Richardson, Carl, 484
The Riddle of the Universe (Haeckel), 59, 64
Riedl, Gary, 286
Riis, Jacob, 308, 310, 314, 315, 317–18, 323, 374, 413, 469–71, 479n8
Riley, James Whitcomb, 107
Rise of the Novel (Watt), 95
The Rise of Silas Lapham (Howells), 95, 106
Roach, Joseph R., 430, 433, 434
The Road (McCarthy), 252, 253
The Roan Stallion (Jeffers), 455–57
Robert, Elizabeth Maddox, 296
Roberts, John W., 267
Robinson, Edwin Arlington, 74, 346
Rockefeller, John D., 410
Rockwell, Norman, 88
Rodin, 176
Roggencamp, Karen, 101
Rohrbach, Augusta, 270
“Roman Fever” (Wharton), 204, 211
evolutionary feminism in, 206–8
Le Roman expérimental (Zola), 22, 23, 24, 77–78, 98
science as subservient in, 25
romanticism, 76
defining, 71
as hereditary virus, 22
Zola and, 22–23, 78–79
The Romantic Comedians (Glasgow), 233
romantic virus, 22
Roosevelt, Theodore, 50, 267, 308, 310, 313–14, 317, 378
Rosenbach, A. S. W., 396
Rosenberg, James L., 7
Ross, Edward, 172–73
Rossetti, Gina, 230
Rothstein, Arthur, 476
Rotundo, Anthony, 411
Rougon-Macquart (Zola), 25–26, 98, 291, 340
sadism, 278–79
Sadoul, Georges, 486
“St. Columba and the River” (Dreiser), 312–13
St. Jean, Shawn, 135
Saltus, Edgar, 76
Sanctuary (Faulkner), 288
A Sand County Almanac (Leopold), 67
Sandburg, Carl, 449–50
Sapphira and the Slave Girl (Cather), 234
(p. 517) “Sarrasine” (Balzac), 49
Satan Met a Lady (film), 486
Satter, Beryl, 254n3
Saunders, Steven M., 485
Saussure, Ferdinand de, 49
Sawaya, Francesca, 231
Scarborough, Dorothy, 241, 246
Schrader, Paul, 485, 491
Schriber, Marysue, 146
Schudson, Michael, 107
science
behavioral genetics and, 128–29
chaos theory, quantum mechanics and, 127–28
evolution as savior of modern, 59
of fiction, 28
monster machines as consequence of, 25–26
naturalism in theology and, 157–62
physiology of, 182
as subservient, 25
technical facts based on, 108–9
Science and Religion: A Historical Introduction (Ferngren), 155
Scopes, John Thomas, 54, 155
Scott, Evelyn, 235, 236, 241
Scott, Howard, 45–46
Scribner, Charles, 368
“The Sculptor’s Funeral” (Cather), 231
The Sea-Wolf (London), 6, 86, 151–52, 167–68, 226, 377–79, 446
Sedgwick, Adam, 161
Seguin, Robert, 312, 319n1
Seidenberg, Roderick, 40–41
Selby, Hubert, 332, 333
Seltzer, Mark, 84, 245, 405, 407, 408, 415
sex-centric movement
feminist views of, 243–44
masculinist views of, 243
sexuality, 253n1
female, 66, 226, 246–48
female marital infidelity and, 246
in film noir, 484, 489, 490, 492–93
Judeo-Christian repression and, 242
literary naturalism and, 241–54
male, 66, 245, 248–51
moderate/right-wing conservatives and, 242–43
perversion and, 254n2
race as signifier of value with, 233
sadism and, 278–79
sex-centric reformist movement and, 243
triangular situations and, 250–51
violence and, 250–51, 252–53, 261
women’s marital entrapment and, 246–47
sexual primitivism, 58
sexual repression, 194
sexual selection, 55, 254n5
African-American writers and, 269, 270
birdsong and music in, 57
naturalism, courtship plot and, 56–63
primitive society and, 58
sexual struggle, components of, 56
sexy son hypothesis, 204–6
Seyersted, Per, 237n3
Shack People, 99–100
Shafak, Elif, 99, 100
Shakespeare, William, 445
plagiarism and, 111
pre-Darwinian courtship and, 56
Sharratt, Bernard, 16n2
Shaw, Irwin, 434
Sheehan, Donald, 362
Sheldon, Edward, 431, 436
The Sheltered Life (Glasgow), 246
Shepard, Sam, 434
Sherman, Stuart P., 83, 382
Sherwood, Robert, 428
Shi, David, 300
Shinn, Everett, 465, 466, 467, 468, 479n6
Shulman, Robert, 303
Shulman, Sarah Way, 300
The Silent Partner (Phelps), 235
Sillen, Samuel, 386
Simenon, George, 419
Simmel, Georg, 41
Simpson, J. Y., 155
Sinclair, Upton, 3, 6, 74, 106, 109, 235, 296, 300, 302, 316, 361, 404, 412, 413, 439, 450
class and, 307, 308, 313–14, 318, 319n3
criminality and, 341
environmental determinism and, 342, 343
naturalistic gothic and, 328–29
Singer, Robert, 496
Singley, Carol J., 302
Sister Carrie (Dreiser), 183, 231, 303, 317, 395, 405
canonization of, 397, 399
cities and, 333–35
class in, 307, 311, 312, 314
crime and, 349–350
environmental determinism in, 343–44
film noir and, 484, 493
gender, race and, 411
immediate/omniscient voice in, 143–44
male gaze in, 232
man-made monsters and, 27
melodramatic vision and, 10–11
new naturalist economy and, 407, 408
popular literary conventions in, 16n1
power of sympathy, Spencer and, 188–90
religion and, 168, 169
sexual selection in, 61
social class and, 319n3
Stieglitz and Shinn’s influence on, 479n6
typology of documentary and, 106–107
unromantic machines and, 33–34
visual arts and, 463, 464, 468
women as naturalist writers and, 236
Skaggs, Peggy, 237n3
“Skunk Hour” (Lowell), 459
(p. 518) “Skyscraper” (Sandburg), 450
slavery, abolition of, 261
Sloan, John, 466
Slumming in New York: From the Waterfront to Mythic Harlem (Dowling), 257
Smedley, Agnes, 310
Smith, Johnston. See Crane, Stephen
Smith, Robert “Yank,” 434
Smith, Susan, 300
Smuts, Jan Christian, 212
Social Purity Movement, 243
Social Statics (Spencer), 141, 188
The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective (Appadurai), 301
society
grotesque body as threat to, 233
industrialism and shift from agrarian, 26, 27, 38, 39
primitive and civilized, 53
sociobiology, 254n8
Les Soirées de Médan (Medan group), 22
soliloquy, 11
somatic style, 183
Sonntag, W. L., Jr., 466
soul, transcending nature, 53
Soul of the Ape (Marais), 217
The Souls of Black Folk (Du Bois), 59, 258, 262
source materials. See also plagiarism
as fair game for creative work, 114
for novels, 111–13
Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases (Wells), 261
South Moon Under (Rawlings), 246
“South of the Slot” (London), 178–79
spectators
double-consciousness of, 264
narrators as brutes and, 263–64
Spellbound (film), 483
Spencer, Herbert, 4, 155, 157, 159, 168, 184, 203, 223, 225, 269, 270, 434
altruism, reason and, 189
altruism and, 212
class and, 315
Darwinism and, 39
evolutionary development and, 160
evolutionary morality and, 140–41
on free will, 132, 133
individual, community and, 40–41
individualism and, 150
melodramatic vision and, 11
morality and, 139, 142, 149, 151
naturalistic imagination and, 8–9
nature’s conflicting forces and, 40, 42–43
scientific determinism and, 293
scientific physiology and, 182
Sister Carrie, power of sympathy and, 188–90
social and political significance of, 320n5
“survival of the fittest” and, 140
Spindler, Michael, 300
Spoon River Anthology (Masters), 74, 451–53
The Sport of the Gods (Dunbar), 235, 265, 266–67, 303
Stalin, Josef, 407
Stange, Maren, 317
The Star Rover (London), 73
Stedman, Arthur, 389
Steffens, Lincoln, 412
Stein, Gertrude, 416
female sexuality and, 66
racism and, 64
Steinbeck, John, 3, 4, 67, 74, 135, 204, 351, 434, 463, 480n15
altruism and, 211–12
drama and, 434, 440–41
environmental determinism and, 345–46
journalism and, 476, 477
reciprocity and, 211–12, 213–15
visual arts and, 475–79
Stendhal, 419
Stephen Crane and Literary Impressionism (Nagel), 472
“Stephen Crane’s Own Story” (Crane), 110
Stepto, Robert, 263
Stevens, Wallace, First Idea and, 38
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 107
Stieglitz, Alfred, 464–65, 468, 479n6
Stockham, Alice, 243
The Stoic (Dreiser), 317
Stokes, George Gabriel, 156
The Story of Ab (Waterloo), 114, 115
Stott, William, 104
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 319n3
The Street (Petry), 236, 237n10, 303
“catalogue of refuse” in, 230
sexuality in, 248
spectacle of desire/repulsive truth-teller in, 234
strength, physical, 234
Stribling, T. S., 61, 66
Strindberg, August, 428, 431, 432, 433, 434, 436, 437, 439, 441
structuralism, 49
Strunsky, Anna, 366
Stryker, Paul, 476
Studies in the Psychology of Sex (Ellis), 58, 244
Styron, William, 4
sublimation, 195
Sui Sin Far, 74, 285, 416
Sullivan, Louis, 450
Sumner, William Graham, 245
degeneration, atavism and, 172–73
Sundquist, Eric, 257, 260, 407
The Sun Also Rises (Hemingway), 48, 57
“Superman,” 168
“survival of the fittest,” 140, 166–67
Susan Lenox: Her Fall and Rise (Phillips), 232, 341, 405
Swinton, John, 392
(p. 519) sympathy, power of, 188–90
Synge, John Millington, 433
Synthetic Philosophy (Spencer), 188
Sypher, Wylie, 9
A System of Logic (Mill), 125
Talmage, Thomas DeWitt, 374
Tarbell, Ida, 410
Taylor, Paul, 476
Tebbel, John, 362
Technocracy, 46
Teller, Charlotte, 417
Tennyson, Alfred (lord), 65
La Terre (Zola), 21
Terrell, Mary Church, 262
Tess of the d’Urbervilles (Hardy), 28
A Text-book of Operative Dentistry (Fillebrown), 108
Théâtre Libre, 428
“Their Blood Is Strong” (Steinbeck), 477, 479, 480n15
them (Oates), 251
theology, naturalism in science and, 157–62
The Theory of the Leisure Class (Veblen), 300, 301
Thérèse Raquin (Zola), 98, 278, 496n3
Thomas, Brook, 418
Thompson, G. R., 300
Thompson, Maurice, 88
Thomson, James, 458
Thomson, William, 156
Thoreau, Henry David, 53
Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex (Freud), 195
Tietze, Tom, 286
Tillman, Ben, 263, 268
time, standardization of, 27
Time and Commodity Culture: Essays in Cultural Theory and Postmodernity (Frow), 301
The Titan (Dreiser), 45, 228
class in, 317
“To Build a Fire” (London.), 52, 179–80
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 310
Todorov, Tzvetan, 275
To Have and Have Not (Hemingway), 49
“The Toil of the Laborer” (Dreiser), 312–13
“Told in the Drooling Ward” (London), 179
Tolstoy, Leo, 80, 105
Tompkins, Jane, 7
Tonnies, Ferdinand, 41
Toomer, Jean, 416
Totten, Gary, 303
Touch of Evil (film), 483
To Wake the Nations: Race in the Making of American Literature (Sundquist), 257
Trachtenberg, Alan, 301
The Traitor (Dixon), 173, 174, 268
transcendentalism, 82
trauma theory, 264
A Traveler from Altruria (Howells), 73
Treadwell, Sophie, 433, 438
Trigo, Benigno, 485
Trilogy of Reconstruction (Dixon), 173–74
Trivers, Robert, 212–13, 215
“True Art Speaks Plainly” (Dreiser), 242
truth
fact and, 156
obese bodies as repulsive tellers of, 233–34
Plato’s illusion of reality for, 296
writers and, 266
Turner, Frederick Jackson, 50
Turner, James, 155
Twain, Mark, 46, 74, 132, 133, 284, 341, 427
Twentieth-Century American Literary Naturalism: An Interpretation (Pizer), 4
twentieth/twenty-first centuries
literary naturalism in, 79–85
transcendentalism in, 82
Twisted from the Ordinary (Papke), 230, 303
tyranny, 85–88
Tyson, Lois, 303
Tyson, Mike, 88
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Stowe), 319n3
Under the Gaslight (Daly), 111
“Under the Lion’s Paw” (Garland), 15
The Unfortunates (Johnson), 99–100
United States
industrialization’s influence in, 27
man-made monsters in England and, 27–29
Unnatural Selections: Eugenics in American Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (English), 270
“Untitled” (Lange), 477, 478
urbanization, 27, 38
USA (Dos Passos), 48
utopian novels, 73
Vaihinger, Hans, 191
Valley of the Moon (London), 229
The Valley of the Moon (London), 61, 66–67
The Value of Things (Cummings and Lewandowska), 301
vamps, film noir, 490
Van Doren, Carl, 382
Vandover and the Brute (Norris),
atavism, degeneration and, 175–176, 267, 408
canonization and, 396–97
“catalogue of refuse” in, 230
city as dangerous trap and, 266
crime and, 340
devolution and, 226
editing process and, 393, 394
grotesque cities and, 327
literature, philosophy and, 122
melodramatic vision and, 12, 13–14
religion and, 165
sexuality in, 243
Varricchio, Mario, 302
(p. 520) The Vast and Terrible Drama: American Literary Naturalism in the Late Nineteenth Century (Link), 4
Veblen, Thorstein, 41, 300, 301–2
Verging on the Abyss: The Social Fiction of Kate Chopin and Edith Wharton (Papke), 302
Victorian Age, 154–55
violence, 408
African-American manhood and, 266–68
class, 309
homoerotic, 252–53
lynching, 261–64, 268, 280
murder and, 345–46
sexuality and, 250–51, 252–53, 261
trauma theory and, 264
The Virginian (Wister), 285
visual arts. See also paintings; photojournalism
Crane and, 469–75
Dreiser, Theodore, and, 464–68
explanation of, 463–64
influence of social condition on, 463–64
naturalism and, 463–80
Steinbeck and, 475–79
Vivas, Eliseo, 40, 135
Von Rosk, Nancy, 303, 416
Waisbrooker, Lois, 244
Walcutt, Charles C., 3, 4, 7, 11, 82, 83, 84, 85, 124, 127, 406, 407, 414, 461
divided-stream argument and, 453
poetry and, 445–46
Walden (Thoreau), 300
Walker, Margaret, 384
Walker, Nancy, 228, 237n3
Wallace, Alfred Russel, 53, 140
The Walls of Jericho (Fisher), 59, 62–63
Ward, Joseph A., 303
Ward, Lester F., 244
War Is Kind (Crane), 447, 449
Warren, Kenneth, 257, 413
Washington, Booker T., 259
Washington, George, 217
Wasserstein, Wendy, 441
“The Wasteland” (Eliot), 115, 446
Waterloo, Stanley, 114
Watson, H. B. Marriott, 76
Watt, Ian, 95, 420
Weber, Max, 41
Weber, Myles, 302
Weeds (Kelley), 235, 246–47, 248
Weissman, August, 63
Wellek, Rene, 85
Wells, Ida Barnett, 261–62, 280
Wertheim, Stanley, 363
Wertime, Richard A., 332
West, James L. W., 399–400
Westermarck, Edvard, 225
Wharton, Edith, 3, 74
commodity culture and, 301, 302, 303
determinism, naturalistic authors and, 135
drama and, 438
feminism and, 218
French origins and, 21
ironic plotting and, 230
literary marketplace and, 357, 360, 370
marital infidelity plot and, 246
mastering literary marketplace, 367–6
morality and, 140, 145–147, 149
naturalism, women writers and, 223–36
nature in naturalism and, 56
Plato’s cave and, 296
sexual selection and, 60–61
sexy son hypothesis and, 204–6
social mechanism as monster and, 33–34
on tragedies with happy endings, 427–28
unromantic machines and, 32
as writer in initial group of 1890s naturalists, 241
What Is Man? (Twain), 132, 133
What the Social Classes Owe to Each Other (Sumner), 172
What Was Naturalism?, 3
wheat, 87
economic symbology of, 41, 45, 47, 316
as force of nature, 31–32, 44, 148, 166
mystical power of, 231, 408
White, Andrew Dickson, 155
White, Barbara, 206
“White Angel Bread Line” (Lange), 476, 478
Whited, Lana A., 419
White Fang (London), 167, 177–78, 318
Whitman, Walt, 160
Wiebe, Robert, 409
“The Wife of His Youth” (Chesnutt), 260
Wilde, Oscar, 427
Wilder, Billy, 486, 490, 491
Wilder, Thornton, 438
Williams, James, 366
Williams, Raymond, 296–97, 418
Williams, Tennessee, 433, 434, 436, 437
Williams, Tony, 496
will to power/to seem, 191
Wilson, August, 441
Wilson, Christopher, 101, 261, 358, 361, 371, 412, 414
Wilson, E. O., 218
The Wind (Scarborough), 246
Winesburg, Ohio (Anderson), 183, 191–93, 451
Wingfield, Amanda, 434
“Winter on Fifth Avenue” (Stieglitz), 465, 479n6
Winther, Sophus, 436
Winton, Tim, 99, 100
Wister, Owen, 285
Witherow, Jean, 237n3
Without God, Without Creed: The Origins of Unbelief in America (Turner), 155
Witla, Eugene, 466–68
“The Witness” (Petry), 296
(p. 521) Witschi, Nicolas, 230
Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, 163, 164
The Woman Within (Glasgow), 193, 225
women
body as spectacle, 231–33
California described as, 455–57
childbirth and, 235, 245
courtship plot and power of choice by, 56, 59–63
Darwin on role of sexual selection and, 211
demeaned by men’s contempt, 192
evolutionary feminism and, 206–8
extra-pair copulation and, 205
female objectification and, 33
femme fatales and, 49, 345
intelligentsia and African Americans, 262
Machiavellian intelligence and competition for mates between men and, 208–11
marital sexual relationships, entrapment and, 246–47
men’s atavism and power over, 279
mermaid’s voices and, 57
naturalism and characteristics of writing by, 229–36
as naturalist writers, 226, 245–46
poetry and identity of, 451
prostitution and, 164, 251, 316, 317, 324, 340, 342–43, 432, 436, 470–71
rural/wilderness landscapes and place of, 230–31
sexy son hypothesis and, 204–6
singing vulgar blues, 59
as trapped baby-making machines and nurturer, 460
valuing knowledge gained from fiction, 100
as vamps in film noir, 490
writers and naturalism, 223–36
Women, Compulsion, Modernity: The Moment of American Naturalism (Fleissner), 4, 257
Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution (Gilman), 243–44
Wood, Michael, 100
Woodhull, Victoria, 244
Wordsworth, William, 126, 449, 455, 458
The Word and Its Witness: The Spiritualization of American Realism (Jackson), 94
World Almanac and Book of Facts 2002, 336n1
The World of Goods (Douglas and Isherwood), 301
The World Republic of Letters (Casanova), 98
Wright, Richard, 3, 74, 111, 135, 212, 241, 250–51, 258, 289, 310, 346–47, 348
altruism and, 215, 216, 218
city of excess and, 331
factual research and, 113, 115
plagiarism and, 111
popular reception of naturalist texts and, 383–87
writers. See also specific writers
determinism and naturalistic, 131–36
human courtship and pre-Darwinian, 56–57
identifying American literary naturalist, 72–74
inartistic skills of naturalist, 29–30
initial group of 1890s naturalist, 241
literary marketplace and naturalist, 357–71
marginalization of African American, 92
naturalism and African American, 257–71
naturalism and characteristics of women, 229–36
naturalism and women, 223–36
originality and, 115–16
pessimistic determinism and naturalistic, 81–82
Pizer on naturalist, 258
plagiarism and, 111–16
sexual selection and African-American, 269, 270
as solely responsible for unique work, 114
truth and, 266
women as naturalist, 226, 245–46
Yang, Seokwon, 303
Yates, Richard, 319
Yeazell, Ruth Bernard, 302
“The Yellow Wall-Paper” (Gilman), 244
Yerkes, Charles, 45
Young, Egerton, 109, 112, 113
Zabarella, Jacopo, 157
Zangwill, Israel, 76
Zayani, Mohamed, 419, 420
Zimbardo, Rose A., 434
Zitkala-Să 74, 416
Zola, Émile, 3, 4, 80, 87, 100, 259, 278, 288, 298, 301, 376, 405, 430, 433, 437, 445
commodity culture and, 291–292
on crime, 340
on determinism, 182, 340
determinism, naturalistic authors and, 134
dialogism and, 414, 415, 419
evolution of literary naturalisms and, 38
on fatalism, 127
film noir and, 496n3
influence on Chopin, Kate, 224–25
as literary architect, 23
man-made monsters in England, U.S., and, 27–29
Medan group and, 22
monster machine and, 24–32
narrative distinctions between Tolstoy and, 105
naturalism’s origins in France with, 21–24, 54, 77–78, 98
nature in naturalism and, 52
obscenity and, 21–22
as originator of naturalism, 98
romanticism and, 22–23, 78–79
sad endings and, 428, 429
silent cinema influenced by, 496
slice of life and, 296
unromantic machines and, 34 (p. 522)