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date: 25 March 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article focuses on the two ways in which the visual arts and naturalistic expression are interrelated during the 1890s and 1930s. The first stems from the immersion of both visual artists and writers in a similar social and artistic milieu, one which encouraged expression to take roughly parallel form and shape in both areas of expression. The second concerns a more specific act of borrowing from a visual form by a writer. It begins by discussing the impact of an 1890s school of New York urban realism in photography and the graphic arts on Theodore Dreiser's Sister Carrie and the relationship of Stephen Crane's writing to photography and impressionism. It then examines the influence of 1930s documentary photography on John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath.

Keywords: New York urban realism, photography, graphic arts, Theodore Dreiser, Stephen Crane, John Steinbeck, naturalist expression

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