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date: 15 August 2018

(p. 1201) Index

(p. 1201) Index

To Be Noted

• Church buildings named for a saint are listed under “Saint,” so you will find S. Agnese fuori le mura, Rome, alphabetized as “Saint Agnese.”

• Arabic names beginning with al- are sorted on their first main element, but Arabic names beginning with Abū are sorted at Abū, and names beginning with Ibn are sorted at Ibn. Thus “al-Manṣūr” will be found in the Ms, but “Abū Bakr” in the As, and “Ibn Sīnā” in the Is.

• Greek and Latin names with alternative spellings are given in square brackets, and double-posted or cross-referenced where appropriate. Roman names have multiple parts, and the person may be most generally known by the second or third part of the name (the nomen or cognomen). In such cases the full Roman name is provided in parentheses, and double-posted or cross-referenced at the full name as well. Thus the reader will find an entry for “Symmachus” (Quintus Aurelius Symmachus), and a cross reference to it at “Quintus Aurelius Symmachus.” A similar case is the entry for “Jacobite or West Syriac Church,” which is double-posted under “West Syriac or Jacobite Church.”

• Syriac names beginning with the title Mār are sorted at Mār; so Mār Isaac will be found in the Ms.

• Page numbers in italics indicate illustrations.

‘Abbasid caliphate, 1068, 1125
‘Abd al-Malik (caliph), 1058, 1088–1089
‘Abdallah ibn Mu’awiya, 1064
‘Abdīšō‘ of Arphelouna, 1007
Abgar of Edessa, 175, 176, 178, 180, 181, 182, 189, 565, 972
Abīkarib As‘ad (king of Ḥimyar), 266–267
Abraha (ruler of Ḥimyar), 284–288, 291–292, 295, 297, 301
Abraham Ałbatanec‘i, 122
Abraham of Kashkar, 1007–1008, 1023
Abraham of Pboou, 236
“Abrəha and Aṣbəha” legend, 292
Abū Bakr (caliph), 1087, 1091
Abū Isḥāq, 1082
Abū Manṣūr al-‘Ijlī, 1064
Abū Muslim, 157
Acacius (bishop of Amida), 1003
Acheiropoietos, Thessaloniki, 943
Achilles Tatius, 978
Acta Sancti Lupi, 36
Acts of Chalcedon, 888
Acts of Mār Mārī, 998
Acts of Paul, 232
Acts of Peter, 232, 1085
Acts of the Persian Martyrs, 997
Acts of Thekla, 565
Acts of Thomas, 565
Ad familiares (Cicero), 835
Ad Populum edict (320 c.e.), 673
Adam [Jing-Jing], 1022–1023
Adeodatus (son of Augustine of Hippo), 690
‘Adī b. Zayd, 307
Adomnán (Irish monk and abbot of Iona), 566, 985
Adone (Marino, 1623), 384
Adontz, Nicholas, 127–128, 130
adultery, law governing, 802–803
Adversus Haereses (Irenaeus of Lyons), 879
Advice to the Bride and Groom (Plutarch), 681
Aediles, Edict of the, 791
Aegidius (Frankish leader), 39
Aelius Aristides [Aristeides], 437–438, 439, 443, 449, 1153, 1176
Aelius Gallus, 1071
Aemilius Asper, 414
Aeneas of Gaza, 455
Aeneid (Virgil), 9, 336, 344
Aethicus Ister, 576, 577
Aëtius [Aetius], 36, 37, 38, 43–46, 105
Afsaruddin, Asma, 1093
Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World (John Philoponus), 575
Against the Galileans (Julian), 448, 450–451
“Against the Pagans” (Augustine of Hippo), 866
Against Proclus on the Eternity of the World (John Philoponus), 574–575
Agapetus the Deacon, 1153, 1161
Agapius the Greek, 441
Agat‘angełos [Agathangelos] (Armenian), 122, 421–422
Agathias of Myrina, 62, 369–370, 372, 386n8, 425, 454, 478, 683, 1066
Agatho (pope), 927
(p. 1202) Agora (film), 1149
Agosti, Gianfranco, xxxvii, 361
agriculture and rural environment, 625–644. See also climate; peasantry
in Arabia, 261
aristocracy and. See under aristocracy
cultivation practices, 631–632
dispersed and fragmented landholdings, 632–633
in Egypt, 198, 199–200, 206, 209–210
imperial decline of sixth century and, 1115
labor arrangements, 634, 636–637
Palladius’ framework for considering, 625–626
patronage systems, 640–643
real estate market, activity of, 633–634
reciprocity and collective action, tensions associated with, 638–640
relationship between town and country, 628–631
tenancy arrangements, 634–635
village settlements in East, 610, 630–631
Agrimensores, 563
Ahrweiler, Hélène, 1149
air, fire, and the heavens, 529, 530–533, 537. See also cosmology
‘Ā’isha, suspected adultery of, 1082, 1083
Aizanas [‘Ēzānā] (king of Ethiopia), 255, 258, 261, 275–281
Aksūm. See Ethiopia
Alamanni, 35, 42
Alans, 36–37, 41
Alaric (Gothic leader), 36, 41, 42, 339
Alaric II (Visigothic king), 15, 40, 47, 794, 838–839
Albert the Great, 1191
Alberti, Leon Battista, 1178
Alcimus Alethius, 409
Alcimus Avitus, 345
Aldfrith (king of Northumbria), 579
Alethia (Claudius Marius Victorius of Marseilles), 345
Alexander of Aphrodisias, 1184
Alexander the Great, 9, 12, 25n7, 364, 437–438, 440
Alexander Romance [Romance of Alexander; Legend of Alexander] (Pseudo-Callisthenes), 364–365, 1150, 1153
Alexandria
Arianism in, 198, 721, 860
bishopric of, 882, 888
library at, 19
Museon, 19
religious violence at, 445–446, 459–460n43, 860–861
Serapeum, destruction of, 850, 888
university quarter, 471
Alexandrian School, 231
Alfred the Great, 894
Algonquin beads, 984, 989
‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, family of, 1064
Allāh, and decline of Arab polytheism, 304–305
Altar of Victory, Rome, removal/restoration of, 347, 776–778, 835, 850
altars in Christian churches, 954–955, 955
Aluoben (Christian missionary to China), xi, 1022, 1023
Alypius (friend of Augustine of Hippo), 414
Ambrose of Milan
Balkans and, 99
as bishop, 876, 882, 883, 884, 886, 888
economic history and, 599
history writing in Late Antiquity and, 413
Italian Renaissance interest in, 1175
on justice and equality, 776, 778
letters of, 828, 835, 836, 837
on marriage and family, 677, 682, 683
monasticism and, 492
on physics and metaphysics, 539
Ambrosiaster (biblical commentator), 676
amicitia, 816, 830, 832, 836
Ammianus Marcellinus
on bishops, 819, 881, 887
on campaigns of disinformation in North Africa, 798
on Central Asia, 144
Hellenism and, 457n12
as historian, 412–413
on Julian, 478, 855–856
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 10–11, 13, 21
on Olybrii, 773
on religious violence in Alexandria, 861
Res Gestae, 413
on rural estates/villas, 606
on Thrace, 107, 108, 109
Western kingdoms and, 34, 35
Ammonas (ascetic), 499, 500, 502
Ammonius Saccas, 454, 455, 471, 476
Amos and Kasiseus, Church of, Chapel of Priest John, Khirbet el-Mukhayyat, Jordan, 949, 950
Amphilochius of Iconium, 366
Amphipolis, Basilica A, northern Greece, 943
amr (God’s command),” Qur’ān’s and Muḥammad’s concern with arrival of, 1090–1099
‘Amr ibn al-‘Āṣ, 190, 204, 207, 209
An Lushan, 157–158
Ananias of Shirak [Širak], 11, 132, 133, 136n87, 156, 428
Anaolsus (Gothic general), 43
Anastasis Rotunda, Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem, 941–942, 942
Anastasius I (emperor), ii, xi, 282, 369, 420, 601, 608, 887, 892
Anaxagoras (philosopher), 475
Ancyra, Council of (314 c.e.), 1003
Ando, Clifford, 974
(p. 1203) Andovk (prince of Siwnik‘), 128
Andrew of Crete [Andrew the Jerusalemite], 1156
Andronicus of Hermopolis, 364, 366
Anemius (bishop), 99
Anianus (referendary of Alaric II), 47
Anicia Juliana, 373
Anicii family in Rome, 598, 605, 606
Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus, 797
animal sacrifice, 850, 854–856
animism in Late Antiquity, 971, 977, 980, 983–984, 988–989
Annales (Nicomachus Flavianus), 412, 417
annona, 198, 209, 734, 894
Anonymous Chronicle, 123
Anthemius (emperor), 47, 341
Anthony [Antony] the Great [the Hermit]. See Antony the Great
Antioch
Persian overthrow of, 115–116
St. Babylas, church of, 942
special authority of bishopric of, 882
Antioch, Council of (324 c.e.), 1003
Antiochene school, 231
Antiochus Chuzon, 800
Antiquities of the Jews (Josephus), 426, 429
Antonine Constitution (Constitutio Antoniniana), 63, 674, 678, 745–747, 749, 754, 791, 827
Antonine Itinerary, 96, 563–564, 571, 605
Antonine plague (165–180 c.e.), 1117
Antoninus (philosopher), 482n84
Antony [Anthony] the Great [the Hermit], 231, 487–488, 494–495, 499–500, 504, 889–890
Aphrahat, 5, 11, 22, 170–172, 1000–1001, 1006
Apion [Appianus] estate and archive, Egypt, 203, 209, 210, 213, 611, 636
Apocalypse of Elijah, 232
Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius, 25n17
apocalypticism
Byzantium, “little eschatology” in, 1157–1160
in religions of Late Antiquity generally, 1065–1067
Apollinarian forgeries, 917–919, 920–921, 924–925
Apollinarians, 865, 918
Apollinarii (father and son poets), 446, 447, 865
Apollinarius of Laodicea, 367
Apollonius Molon, 1184
Apollonius Rhodius, 372, 385n3
Apollonius of Tyana, 364, 372, 495
Apology (Aristeides), 1153
Apology to Constantius (Athanasius), 258
Apophthegmata patrum, 493, 495–499, 497, 504, 1155
Apotheosis (Prudentius), 355n123
Apuleius (Latin prose writer), 857, 1175
Arab conquest. See Islam
Arabs and Arabia, 247–254. See also Ḥimyar; Islam; Makka
agriculture, practice of, 261
Arab language, 307–308
archaeological sites, pre-Islamic, 248–253
Byzantine diplomacy in, 253, 259, 283, 284, 293–295
Christianity in
Church of the East in Arabia, 1005–1006, 1017–1018
height of, 305
Ḥimyar, Christianization of, 294–295
Lakhmids of Ḥīra, 1005–1006
Najrān Christians, 281–284, 289, 290, 1006
cities of, 251, 252
collapse of Arabian kingdoms in sixth century, 297–299
economic and climatic crises prior to hijra, 305–306
Elephant, year/battle of, 286–287
Ethiopia, links to, 247
ethnogenesis, 306–308
external sources regarding, 253–254
geography and climate, 248, 249, 305–306
al-Ḥīra, kingdom of, 296, 297, 1005–1006, 1018
inscriptions and archival documents, pre-Islamic, 251–253, 285–287, 306–307
Ishmael in Bible, identification with, 68
Islamic tradition regarding pre-Islamic Arabia, 308–310
Jafnids, Naṣrids, and Ghassānids [Ghassānites], 293–294, 298
Lakhmids, 1005–1006, 1018
long-distance trade, importance of, 259–261
map, 249
origins of term, 247–248
“out of Arabia” theory of Islamic origins, 1069–1072
as part of Late Antique world, 1071–1072
plague of 541–542 in, 305
Quraysh, tribe of, 272, 286, 287, 295, 301, 303–304, 309–310
Sasanian Persia and, 12, 295–298
sedentary and nomadic populations, 261–262
Arator (Latin poet), 339, 345
Aratus (Greek poet), 576
Arcadius (emperor), 417, 790
Arcadius (son of poet Sidonius), 55n125
Arcadius Charisius, 792
archaeology
in Arabia, 248–253, 305
barbarian migrations and, 71–72
Central Asia, effect of Hunnic invasions on, 146–147
Church of the East, southern wing of, 1017–1018
(p. 1204) economic history and, 598
in Egypt, 196–197, 207
Ethiopia, important sites in, 256–257
of hospitals, 733
house-churches, 937–938
at monastic sites, 489, 504
settlement patters, trends in, 630–631
architecture, sacred. See sacred space
archives, Late Antique use of, 822
Arculf (Frankish bishop), 566
Ardashir (Sasanian ruler), 145, 998, 1068
Arezzo, Geri d’, 1176
Argyropoulos, John, 1183
Arianism
in Alexandria/Egypt, 198, 721, 860
barbarian adherence to, 63
bishops and, 888, 889, 891, 892, 894
citizenship and, 748
historical writing in Late Antiquity and, 411
hospitals, association with, 721, 731, 748, 860
Latin poetry and, 345
Ravenna, Arian baptistery at, 944
in Syria, 184
in Western kingdoms, 37, 47, 891, 892
Ariès, Philippe, 669
Aristarchus sacer (Heinsius, 1627), 383
Aristarchus of Samos, 583n64
Aristides (Aelius Aristides) [Aristeides], 437–438, 439, 443, 449, 1153, 1176
aristocracy
bishops and, 15, 882, 1139n48
conversion to Christianity, 413–414, 863
decline of Western aristocracy, 598–599, 606–607, 615
development of new Byzantine aristocracy, 611–613
history writing in Late Antiquity and Roman aristocracy, 412–415
judicial privileges of, 769–775
marriage, family, and social mobility, 671, 687–692
monetary system and, 597–598, 600
new governing classes, development of, 597–598, 602
patronage systems in rural environments, 640–643
political system of Roman empire and, 1117–1118
proliferation of provinces and, 602
Roman real estate, aristocratic control of, 602–603
rural estates of
Armenian aristocracy, villages owned by, 610
management of estates in Eastern empire, 611–612, 613
Western aristocracy’s investment in, 601–602, 603–607, 615
values derived from, 13–16
Aristophanes, 385n3
Aristotle and Aristotelianism
on animate and inanimate, 988
Arabic, translation of Aristotle into, 1024, 1068
Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World (John Philoponus), 575
Church of the East and, 1007, 1024
Commentary on Aristotle’s De Caelo (Simplicius), 574
cosmology of, 573
educational process and, 470, 478, 480n34
on fifth element, 530
Hellenism and, 455
Italian Renaissance, Platonizing in, 1183–1186
in mental world of Late Antiquity, 13, 19
Organon (Aristotle), 470, 1024
on physics and metaphysics, 516, 522, 525, 528–529, 530, 534, 537, 540
on pneuma, 534, 537
Topics (Aristotle), 1024
Armenia, 115–134
animal sacrifice in Christian liturgy of, 856
Arab conquests, impact of, 133–134
aristocrats owning villages in, 610
balanced between Rome and Persia, 117, 119
Christian church in, 117, 119–126
dislocation and diaspora, association with, 118–119
economic history of, 132–133
Gregory of Tours on, 115–118
history writing in, 421–422, 428
hospitals for the poor in, 722, 725, 735
literature translated into Armenian, 118
mental world of Late Antiquity in, 11
military in, 129–132
political and social history of, 127–133
Roman empire and, 117, 119, 130–133
Sasanian Persia and, 115–118, 119, 122, 129–130
sliver hexagrams in, 132
Armstrong, A. H., 522
Armstrong, Karen, 1093
Arnobius, 408
arrhae, 675, 678, 690
Arrian (historian), 563
Arsacius (magister militum), 450
Arsenius of Scetis, 499
art history. See icons; object relations in Late Antiquity; sacred space; specific works of art
Arvandus (Gallic praetorian prefect), 46–47
Aryan myth, 71
As‘ad Tubba‘, 264, 265, 267
Ascensio Isaiae, 232
Ashinas (Turkish sacred clan), 149–150
Asiatic school, Coptic translations from, 232
(p. 1205) Aspar (general), 751
Assyrian Church. See Church of the East
astral determinism, 66–67
Ataxerxes (Persian ruler), 1071
Athanasius of Alexandria
Apollinarian forgeries attributed to, 917–918
Apology to Constantius, 258
Arian crisis and annona, 198
as bishop, 876, 888, 889–890, 893
in Byzantium, 1154
Coptic literature, place in, 234
Ethiopian history and, 258, 274–275
Greek poetry and, 386n9
Life of Anthony (Vita Antonii), 386n9, 487–488, 493, 494–495, 498, 505, 889–890
Life of Athanasius, 236
monasticism and asceticism, 494–495
Athaulf (Gothic leader), 36, 42
Athenian Academy, closure of, 477–478, 850
Athens, as state, 1126
Attic Nights (Aulus Gellius), 1181–1183
Attila the Hun, 15, 36, 37, 62, 101–102, 420, 887, 893, 1179
Augustine of Hippo
“Against the Pagans,” 866
agriculture and rural environment, evidence for, 636, 638
on anti-Christian riots in Calama, 801
on attendance at Christian services, 866
Aulus Gellius, knowledge of, 1181
as bishop, 876, 882, 884, 885, 886
on citizenship, 745
City of God, 415, 745, 791
conversion of, 539–541
decline of Roman empire, interpretation of, 21
history writing in Late Antiquity and, 414–416
hospital in episcopal palace of, 730–731
Italian Renaissance and, 1175, 1188
Italica, correspondence with, 769
on justice and equality, 767, 769
Latin poetry of, 350n23
letters of, 826, 828, 834, 886
On the Literal Interpretation of Genesis, 540
Magnitude of the Soul, 541
on marriage and family, 682, 683, 684, 687, 689, 690, 691, 698n132
monasticism and asceticism of, 492, 493, 505, 890
on “pagan survivals” in Christian practice, 858
on physics and metaphysics, 517, 530, 531, 535, 538, 539–542
Psalm against the Donatists, 350n23
in rural estates/villas, 605
on sacraments, 1189
on slavery, 687
Augustus (emperor), 7, 8, 14, 34, 673, 749, 1071
Aulus Gellius, 349n16, 1173, 1181–1183
Aurelian (emperor), 96, 880
Aurelius Victor, 409, 410, 411, 413
Ausonius (Latin poet and rhetorician), 336–337, 340, 346, 349n16, 410, 414, 416, 683, 691, 747, 829, 835
authority as criterion in Late Antiquity, 20, 579
Avars, 102, 106, 110
Averintsev, S., 362, 364, 377
Avesta, 17, 18
Avienus (Latin author and translator), 351n42, 563
Avitus (emperor), 45, 47, 101, 341
Avitus (geographical writer), 577
Avitus of Vienne (bishop), 829, 836, 891–892
Axum. See Ethiopia
Azzarello, Giuseppina, 611
Babai the Great, 1014, 1015
Babgēn I Ot‘msec‘i (Armenian catholicos), 128
Babowai (Church of the East catholicos), 1004
Babrius (Greek poet), 385n6
Bagnall, Roger, 196, 697–698n120
Bahram [Bahrām, Vahrām] Chubin (Sasanian general), 1015, 1020
Bahram [Bahrām, Vahrām] I (Sasanian ruler), 768
Bahram [Bahrām, Vahrām] II (Sasanian ruler), 998
Bahram [Bahrām, Vahrām] V Gor [Ghor] (Sasanian ruler), 144, 296, 995
Balavariani, 1153
Balkans, 92–111
Christian church in, 94, 98–99, 103–106, 110
Dalmatia/Salona, 102–106
defined, 92
maps, 93, 94
Pannonia/Sirmium, 95–102
Roman military in, 94, 96, 101–102, 104–105, 109
Spalatum (Split), Diocletian’s palace at, 104, 106
Stridon, Jerome on home town of, 101
Thrace/Odessos, 107–110
Banaji, Jairus, xxxvii, 597
baptism
bishop, role of, 885
in Church of the East, 1011–1012
of Constantine, 883
Justinian, forced baptism of pagans mandated by, 849, 859
schismatics, rebaptism of, 880
baptisteries, 937, 938, 944
Bar Shabbā, 1019–1020
(p. 1206) barbarians, xix, 60–78. See also specific peoples, e.g. Visigoths
Christianity and
alternative view of barbarians provided by, 62, 67–68, 77
diplomatic conversion missions, 65, 68
geographical and astral determinism, 66–67
heterodoxy, association of barbarians with, 18, 37, 63
citizenship, access to, 746, 749–751
“decline and fall” of Roman empire and, 68, 70, 74, 1177–1180
dichotomy of Romans and, 60–62
diplomatic contacts with, 64–65, 68
economic studies and, 77–78
ethnic citizenship of, 748
ethnogenesis theory, 69, 74–77
“Flavius,” use of, 750
geographical and astral determinism regarding, 65–67
in history writing in Late Antiquity, 415–417
Italian Renaissance on, 1177–1180
in literature, 61–62
marriages with Romans, 752
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 9, 10, 11
migrations of, 68–74
in military service, 14, 751–752
in modern history, 68–77
new historical approaches to, 77–78
Roman law and, 62–63, 751–754
Roman perceptions of, 61–68
settlement mechanisms, 53–54n87, 752
Western kingdoms founded by. See Western kingdoms
Barberini graecus 336 manuscript, 1156
Barberini Ivory, ii, 1163
Bardaisan of Edessa [Bardesanus], 8–9, 11, 67, 170, 184, 998, 999, 1027n24, 1068
Barsanuphius of Gaza, 499, 500
Barsauma of Nisibis, 1007, 1010, 1030n76
Barsauma of Samosata, 178–179, 181
Basil of Caesarea. See also under hospitals
as bishop, 876, 882, 886
in Byzantium, 1154
Coptic literature and, 234
on education, 473, 476
Eusebius of Caesarea and, 716
Hellenism and, 444
history writing in Late Antiquity and, 411, 412
Letter to Young Men, 444
letters of, 829, 886
liturgy of, 1156
on marriage and family, 680
monasticism and, 492, 493
Syria and, 185
Basil the Cilician, 420
Basilica Nova [Basilica Maxentii/Constantini], Rome, 939
basilicas and churches, 938–943, 940–943. See also sacred space
Batty, Roger, 77
Bauer, Walter, 170
Baur, F. C., 1086, 1087
Ba‘ya of Šahrzūr, 1017
Bayān ibn Sim‘ān, 1064
The Beard-Hater (Julian), 449
Becker, C. H., 1067
Bede, 429, 566, 579
Beeston, A. F. L., 286
being and reality in Late Antiquity, 518–520
Belisarius (general), 423, 1179
Bell, Richard, 1090, 1091–1092, 1093, 1095, 1096
Belting, Hans, 974
Bemarchius, 409
Benedict Biscop, 579
Benjamin (Egyptian patriarch), 199
Benjamin, Walter, 929, 930, 933n31
Beorgor (Alan king), 37
Besa (ascetic), 234, 236
Bethlehem, Church of the Nativity at, 940–941, 942, 987
betrothals, law governing, 674–675, 678
Beyşehir Occupation Phase, 1115
Bible
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, 917–918, 1084–1085
bishops in, 877–878
Coptic literature and, 230–231
Greek poetry adapting, 367, 368, 371–372
Ḥimyar, never quoted in inscriptions of, 295
Latin poetry adapting, 343–348
magi associated with Persia, 21–22, 1023
marriage and family in, 680, 681–682
Peshitta, 170, 171, 173, 182, 185
Philoxenus of Mabbug’s Syriac translation of, 185–186
pilgrim travelogues quoting, 564, 565, 566
Qur’ān and
Christian Gospels and other documentation compared to, 1078, 1080, 1084, 1086–1087, 1089, 1096, 1097
critical techniques developed for study of Bible and, 1086–1087
Hebrew Bible criticism and, 1086–1087
influenced by Bible, 1072, 1090
Roman and Jewish law compared, 794
stones and stone objects in, 984–985
Bibliotheca (Photius), 826
bimetalism, disintegration of, 599
Biondo, Flavio, 1177, 1178, 1180–1181, 1192
Bird-David, Nurit, 977
Birkeland, Harris, 1092, 1093
bishop of Rome. See papacy
(p. 1207) bishops, xix, 876–896
architectural complexes of, 943–945, 945
in Armenian church, 124–126
charity, duty to provide, 885–886. See also hospitals
class origins of, 882
communications of, 819–820, 825, 829, 831–832
Constantine’s impact on status and influence of, 880–883, 893
in Eastern empire, 895–896
elites and elite values in Late Antiquity and, 15, 882, 1139n48
hierarchy of, 882–883
as missionaries, 889
monarchical episcopate, development of, 877–880
monasticism and asceticism, 889–890
multiple roles of, 878–879, 884–890
orthodoxy of communities, responsibility for, 888–889
as preacher, 885
in Roman judicial system, 777–779, 801, 881–882, 886–887
sacerdotal functions, 885
sanctuary, social division between laity and clergy indicated by, 952, 957
urban environment, role in, 886–888
in Western kingdoms, 890–894
Blachère, Régis, 1084, 1085, 1095
Blavatsky, Madame, 538
Blemyomachia, 365–366, 367
blood sacrifice, 850, 854–856
Boccaccio, Giovanni, 1174, 1176
Bodmer papyri/codex, 365, 371–372, 375, 376, 380
body and soul. See physics and metaphysics
Boethius, 47, 351n43, 575, 764, 769
Boitet de Frauville, Claude, 383
bona materna, 673–674
Book of Chastity (Liber Castitatis; Īshō‘dnaḥ of Basra), 1008
Book of the Laws of the Countries (Bardaisan of Edessa), 998
Book of Rules (Ulpian), 795
Book of Steps, 1006, 1032n103
Books of Miracles (Gregory of Tours), 116
Bordeaux Pilgrim, 564, 565, 566, 935–936, 957
Boswell, James, 724
Boud’hors, Anne, xxxvii, 224
Bowman, A. K., 633
Brahe, Tycho, 576
Braudel, Fernand, xxi
Bréhier, Louis, 1149
Breton kings, 39
Breviarium (Alaric II), 47, 794, 838–839
Breviarium (Eutropius), 420, 429
Britain
conversion of, 894
history writing in, 426–427, 429–430
post-Roman ethnic identity in, 18
Brock, Sebastian, 170, 173, 184, 305, 996, 999
Brodersen, Kai, 570
Brown, Peter
on agriculture and rural environment, 652n161
on barbarians, 73–74, 76
on Byzantium, 1148, 1150, 1157–1158
historiography of Late Antiquity, importance to, xv–xvi, xxii, 4
on Islam, 1055, 1056, 1059, 1064, 1069
Italian Renaissance and, 1172
Latin poetry and, 343
The Making of Late Antiquity (1978), 4
monasticism and, 506n9
on physics and metaphysics, 610
on religion in Late Antiquity, 863
The Rise of Western Christendom (2003), 77, 1148, 1150
The World of Late Antiquity (1971), xv, 4, 73, 1055, 1148
Brucker, Johann Jakob, 1186
Brundage, James, 669
Bruni, Leonardo, 1176–1177, 1179–1181, 1192
Brutus (Cicero), 1177
bubonic plague. See plague, Justinianic
bucolic Latin poetry in Late Antique period, 346, 355n112
Buddhism, 144, 150, 151, 158, 1021, 1153
Buhl, Frants, 1091, 1093
Buildings (Procopius), 116, 424
Al-Bukhārī (collector of ḥadīth), 1081, 1089
Bulayïq library, 1021–1022
Burgundian kings, 38, 46, 891–892
Burning Bush, Justinianic complex at site of, Sinai, 945, 946, 954
Buzandaran Patmut‘iwnk‘ (Epic Histories), 119
Byzance après Byzance (Iorga, 1935), 1149
Byzance: Grandeur et décadence (Diehl, 1957), 1149
Byzantine History (Malchus), 420
Byzantium, 1148–1165. See also Constantinople
bureaucratic-administrative structures, 1125
Christianity in
church hierarchy, imperial reliance on, 612–613
essentially Christian character of Byzantium, 1149–1150, 1151, 1163–1164
heterodoxy and orthodoxy, concern with, 1154–1155, 1164
monasticism and asceticism, 1151, 1158, 1164
Orthodoxy (Christianity as civil religion), development of, 1160–1164
theology as new philosophy, 1154–1156
classical versus Late Antique heritage, 1151–1152
concept of, 1148–1150
economic history of Eastern empire, 607–614
(p. 1208) hagiography in, 1152–1154
history writing in Eastern empire. See under history writing in Late Antiquity
“little eschatology” in, 1157–1160
liturgy and liturgical poetry, 1156–1157, 1158–1160
as natural geographical entity, 1121
philosophy in, 1151, 1154–1156
resource distribution in, 1134
silk industry in, 612–613
Caecina Mavortius Basilius Decius, 607
Caesarea in Asia Minor, founding of hospital in. See under hospitals
Caesarius of Arles, 476, 493, 682, 683, 829, 891–892
Caesars (Julian), 408
Caesars (Suetonius), 410
Caetani, Leone, 1078–1179
Cahill, Thomas, xi
Calasso, Roberto, 384
Caldwell, Craig H., III, xxxvii, 92
Callimachus, 365, 370, 385n3
Calvet, Yves, 1018
Cambyses (Persian ruler), 1071
Cameron, Alan, 343, 363
Cameron, Averil, 863
Candidus (historian), 420
Canon (Mary of Egypt), 1156
canon law, 804
canonicity, 924–927
Capgras syndrome, 975–976, 977, 988
Capito (historian), 420
Caracalla (emperor), 63, 745–746, 749, 750, 791
Carmen Pashcale (Sedulius), 345
Carmina Arcana (Gregory of Nazianzus), 380
Carmina Minora (Claudius Claudianus), 339
Carolingian dynasty, xvii, 10, 31, 34, 40, 49, 348, 820, 829, 891, 893, 905n185
Carter, Robert, 305
Cartesian dualism, 517–518, 530, 540, 542–543, 977
cartography, 567–572, 568, 569, 571, 572
Casanova, Paul, 1088, 1091
Cassiodorus
Avitus of Vienne compared, 892
barbarians and, 66, 69
Chronicle, 422
cosmology of Ptolemy and, 575
Gothic History, 424
history writing in Late Antiquity and, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429
Institutes, 427, 575
Italian Renaissance interest in, 1175, 1176
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 15
on Paul of Nisibis, 1007
physics and metaphysics of, 541–542
rural and urban environments, relationship between, 629
On the Soul, 541–542
Variae, 831, 832, 836, 837
Western kingdoms, development of, 47
Castalius (historian), 424
castra, 605–606
Catechetical Lectures (Cyril of Jerusalem), 885
catenae, 20, 933n24
Cathemerinon (Prudentius), 347
Cato the Elder, 699n151
Cave of Treasures, 21
Celenza, Christopher, xxxvii, 1172
celibacy, repeal of Augustan penalties for, 673
Celsus (pagan philosopher), 1185
Cento Nuptialis (Ausonius), 336, 340, 352n52
Central Asia and the Silk Road, 142–158. See also Turks in Central Asia
Chinese control of, 144, 151–152, 154, 158
Church of the East, expansion of, 144, 151, 158, 1019–1022
climate and geography, 142–143, 143, 144
cultural-linguistic groups, 143–144
economy, impact of invasion on, 146–148
end of trade network, 157–158
Hunnic invasion, 144–146
map, 143
Nestorian Monument, Xi’an, China, xi, xiii, xiv, xv, 151, 158, 996, 1022–1024
northward shift of trade routes, 148–149
religions in, 144, 150, 151, 158, 1019–1122
Sasanian Persia and, 144–145, 157
Western section of Silk Road, 155–157
Cerati, André, 600
Cervidius Scaevola, 809n54
CG (Codex Gregorianus), 794, 795, 796, 830, 831, 832
CH (Codex Hermogenianus), 794, 795, 796, 830, 831, 832
Chabbi, Jacqueline, 1085
Chalcidius (Platonic commentator), 576
Chaldean Church. See Church of the East
Chaldean Oracles, 17, 516, 1188
Chapel of Priest John, Church of Amos and Kasiseus, Khirbet el-Mukhayyat, Jordan, 949, 950
Chapters/Mirror of Princes (Deacon Agapetus), 1153, 1161
Chararic (Frankish king), 38
charity. See also hospitals
bishop’s role in providing, 885–886
as Christian value, 719, 723, 730, 866
Charlemagne, xv, 894
chartae. See letters
Chavarría Arnau, Alexandra, 603, 607
Chayanov, A. V., 637
Cherubic hymn, 1156
child donations, 230
child exposure, 686
(p. 1209) Childebert II (Merovingian king), 821–822
Childeric (Merovingian king), 38
childlessness, repeal of Augustan penalties for, 673
children. See also marriage and family
guardianship of minors, 675, 802
hospitals for women giving birth, 734–735
illegitimate, 683, 689
inheritance, 672, 673–674, 679
patria potestas, 670, 672, 684, 685, 802
Chilperic (Merovingian king), 821, 822, 904–905n155
China
An Lushan, rebellion of, 157–158
bureaucratic-administrative structures, 1125
Central Asia, control over, 144, 151–152, 154, 158
economic development in, 1116–1119
geography, effects of, 1120–1121
Islamic use of paper and, 1067
Nestorian Monument, Xi’an, xi, xiii, xiv, xv, 151, 158, 996, 1022–1024
population and demographics compared to Western Eurasia, 1113–1114
ritual penetration of ideologies in, 1131–1132
Roman empire and, 8, 10, 11, 22, 1111–1112
Sasanian contact with, 12
Silk Road, Chinese section of, 152–155
Sogdian merchant graves in, 153–154
Xiongnu invasions, 144, 145–146
Chionites, 145, 146
Chloderic (Frankish king), 38
Chosroes. See entries at Khusrō
Christ
historical Jesus movement, 1078, 1093, 1098–1099
icons and relics of, 971–973, 972, 985
Christian History (Philip of Side), 418
Christian Topography (Cosmas Indicopleustes), 21, 148–149, 255, 259, 260, 573, 579–580, 1019
Le christianisme dans l’empire perse sous la dynastie sassanide (Labourt, 1904), 997
Christianismes orientaux (1993), 225
Christianity. See also Bible; bishops; Church of the East; conversion to Christianity; forgery of religious documents; heterodoxy; liturgy; monasticism and asceticism; object relations in Late Antiquity; orthodoxy; sacred space
animal sacrifice in, 856
apocalypticism of, 1065–1067
in Arabia. See under Arabs and Arabia
Balkans, Christian church in, 94, 98–99, 103–106, 110
barbarians and. See under barbarians
in Byzantium. See under Byzantium
canon law, 804
charity, as value of, 719, 723, 730. See also hospitals
citizenship and, 748
clergy. See also bishops
of Church of the East, 1001–1002
sanctuary, social division between laity and clergy indicated by, 952, 955–957, 956
coexistence with paganism, 859–862, 1012–1013
communication in Late Antiquity and, 819–820
conflict, coercion, and violent incidents, 859–862, 888
Edict of Toleration (313 c.e.), 849
education and, 22, 380, 381, 475–477
fluidity of religious identity and, xviii–xix, 864–865, 888, 1012–1013
Greek poetry and, 365–368, 371–372, 375, 380–382, 386n10
Hellenism and religious identity. See under Hellenism
history, Christian understanding of, 405–406, 407–408
Islam, non-Muslim communities under, 1059–1062, 1129
justice and equality, interest in, 769, 777–779
Late Antiquity, Christian character of, 1149–1150
Latin poetry and, 343–348
law and legal culture affected by, 801–804
marriage and family, influence on, 667–668, 671, 677, 679–684, 686, 693–694
“pagan survivals” in, 857–859, 864–865, 1012–1014
penitential rites, 683
periodization of Late Antiquity favoring, 5
power of church to impose views, 682–684, 865
pragmatic and popular religion, 856–857
Qur’ān on, 1058, 1060, 1061, 1090
rise to dominance, narrative of, 849–851, 1185
ritual penetration of state ideology and, 1132–1133
Roman empire, Christian universality as spiritual heir to, 10, 13, 18–19, 20–21, 1160–1163
in Sasanian Persia. See under Sasanian Persia
social repercussions of, 865–866
terminological issues, 853, 1025
travel writing and, 564–567
universalism of, 1058
Christodorus of Coptos, 363, 369, 372
Chromatius of Aquileia, 414, 492
Chronica (Nepos), 410
Chronica Minora, 53n78
Chronici Canones (Eusebius of Caesarea), 565
(p. 1210) Chronicle (Cassiodorus), 422
Chronicle (Eusebius of Caesarea)
continuations of, 411–412, 416, 426, 428–429
history writing in Late Antiquity revolutionized by, 405–407, 407–408, 421
Chronicle (George Hamartolos), 1150
Chronicle (Hydatius), 416
Chronicle (Jacob of Edessa), 429
Chronicle (John Malalas), 1150
Chronicle (Prosper of Aquitaine), 416, 422
“Chronicle of Arbela,” 421
Chronicle of Edessa, 421
Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite, 296
Chronicle of Michael the Syrian, 298
Chronicle of Siirt [Seert], 172, 998, 999, 1004, 1006–1007, 1008, 1014, 1016, 1019, 1028n29
Chronicle of Thomas, 429
Chronicon Paschale, 428, 721, 722
Chronographer of 354, 410
Chronographia (Eusebius of Caesarea), 118
Chronographia (John Malalas), 429
Church History [Ecclesiastical History] (Eusebius), 175, 236, 274, 408, 414, 416, 421, 426, 880, 996
Church History [Ecclesiastical History] (Philostorgius), 255, 418
Church History (Socrates), 418–419, 426, 447
Church History (Sozomen), 419, 426
Church History (Theodoret of Cyrrhus), 419, 426
Church History (Theodore Lector), 424
Church History [Ecclesiastical History] (Rufinus of Aquileia), 10, 255, 257, 273–274, 414, 415, 418
Church of the East [Nestorians, East Syriac Christianity, Assyrian Church, Chaldean Church], 994–1026
Arab episcopal sees, Synodicon orientale providing information about, 254
Arabian influence, 1005–1006, 1017–1018
in Armenia, 126
in Central Asia, 144, 151, 158, 1019–1022
Christology of, 1009–1011, 1024
“Great Slaughter” (344–379 c.e.), 1000–1002, 1006
in Ḥimyar, 282
historiography of, 995–997
Islam, under, 1015–1018, 1024–1026
Jacobite or West Syriac Church and, 1010–1011, 1016, 1024
Jews, relationship with, 999–1001
lay society and practice, 1011–1014
literacy in, 1007–1008
literature of, 1004, 1006–1009
Manichaeism and, 999, 1010–1011, 1024, 1026
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 18
monasticism and school movement, 1006–1009
Nestorian Monument, Xi’an, China, xi, xiii, xiv, xv, 151, 158, 996, 1022–1024
origins of, 997–1000
sacred space in, 1011–1012
Sasanian Persia and
acculturation to, 1004–1005
court, ecclesiastical relationship with, 1014–1015
persecution of Christians, 1000–1002, 1004, 1006
Synod of 410 c.e., endorsement of, 994–995, 1002–1003
terminological issues, 995–996
Timothy I’s philosophical defense of Christianity before al-Mahdī, 1024–1026
unification of Eastern Christians under single hierarchy, 1002–1006
churches and church architecture, 938–943, 940–943. See also sacred space
Chuvin, Pierre, 852–853
Cicero
Ad familiares, 835
Brutus, 1177
De oratore, 805
De republica, 576
Dream of Scipio (Somnium Scipionis), 576
Italian Renaissance interest in, 1172, 1175, 1176, 1177, 1183–1184
on law and legal culture, 768, 769, 791, 795, 805
letters of, 829, 835
Life of Cicero (Plutarch), 1184
in mental world of Late Antiquity, 13
on physics and metaphysics, 531, 532, 533, 576
Tusculan Disputations, 1183
Cimitile/Nola, tomb of St. Felix at, 856, 947
cities and towns. See urban environment
citizenship, 744–755. See also universal citizenship
access to, 744
in ancient Athens, 1126
Antonine Constitution (Constitutio Antoniniana) granting, 63, 745–747, 791
barbarians and Roman law, 62–63, 751–754
Christianity and, 748
coloni, 63, 615, 637, 726, 752, 801
conveyance of, 754–755
dediticii excluded from, 746, 750
ethnic, 748
expansion of concept of, 747–749
gentiles, 63, 67, 752, 753, 754
hospitals, citizens not favored in, 719–720, 732
laeti, 63, 752, 753, 754
law and legal culture, at center of, 791
legal privileges and obligations conveyed by, 744, 746, 748–749
liberti, 744, 746–747, 750
marriage and family affected by, 679, 690, 702n242, 752
municipal and regional, 747
peregrini, 746, 749–751
slaves’ access to, 744, 746–747, 750
(p. 1211) City of God (Augustine), 415, 745, 791
civil and civic values in Late Antiquity, 13, 15
civilization, concept of, 6, 24n4
Claessen, Henri J.-M., 1121
class and class structure. See also aristocracy; peasantry; slavery
bishops, class origins of, 882
middle class in Byzantium, 607, 608
poor and powerlessness in Late Antique West, 599–600
sanctuary, social division between laity and clergy indicated by, 952, 955–957, 956
in villages of Eastern Mediterranean, 610
wage labor in Byzantium, expansion of, 607–608
Classical Receptions Journal, xxi
Classicianus (legal client of Symmachus), 778
Claudian (Christian epigrammist), 377
Claudian (Claudius Claudianus), 338–339, 340, 363, 377, 378, 384, 751, 825
Claudius I (emperor), 176, 178, 180, 181
Claudius II Gothicus (emperor), 96
Claudius Marius Victorius of Marseilles, 345
Claudius Ptolemy, 8, 11, 19, 22, 66, 253, 568, 573–577, 1068
Clement of Alexandria, 443, 978
Clement of Rome, 897n13, 916
Cleopatra, 8
clergy. See also bishops
of Church of the East, 1001–1002
sanctuary, social division between laity and clergy indicated by, 952, 955–957, 956
client kingship, 32–36, 42, 43, 44, 98
Climacus, John. See John Climacus
climate, 627–628
in Arabia, 248, 249, 305–306
in Central Asia, 142–143, 143, 144
in Ethiopia, 249, 254
imperial decline of sixth century and, 1114–1116
Clodius Albinus, 598
Clovis (Merovingian king), 15, 38, 49, 892–893
CMCL (Corpus dei Manoscritti Copti Letterari) database (Orlandi, 1970s), 227
Codex Gregorianus (CG) [Gregorian Code], 794, 795, 796, 830, 831, 832
Codex Hermogenianus (CH) [Hermogenian Code], 794, 795, 796, 830, 831, 832
Codex Justinianus. See Corpus Iuris Civilis
Codex Salmasianus, 342–343
Codex Theodosianus. See Theodosian Code
“codex of visions,” 365
codifications of law, 794, 795–801, 830. See also specific codes
coins and coinage. See monetary system; numismatics
Collatio of Mosaic and Roman Law (Lex Dei), 794
collected letters, 828–840
format and metadata of original letter, loss of, 833–834
functions of, 834–840
as historical sources, 833
Late antique surge in, 816
types of letter collections, 828–832
collective action in rural communities, tensions associated with, 638–639
Colluthus of Lycopolis, 369, 370
Cologne Mani Codex, 999
coloni, 63, 615, 637, 726, 752, 801
Columba (Irish missionary and abbot of Iona), 427
Column of Trajan, Rome, 570
Cometas (Greek poet), 382–383
Commemoratio (Ausonius), 352n52
Commentary on Aristotle’s De Caelo (Simplicius), 574
Commentary on the Dream of Scipio (Macrobius), 576
Commentary on Micah (Cyril of Alexandria), 1162
Commentary on the Timaeus (Chalcidius), 576
Commentary on the Timaeus (Porphyry), 576
Commentary on the Timaeus (Proclus Diadochus), 452–453, 574
communication in Late Antiquity, 815–840. See also collected letters; letters
archives, use of, 822
bishops’ use of, 819–820, 825, 829
as cultural index, 820–823
embassies and envoys, 816–818
gifts as, 817, 818
as historical sources, 823–826, 833
historiography of, 820
interdependent and performative nature of, 817–818
companionate marriage, 667, 668, 670, 680
comparative state formation. See political systems in Late Antiquity
complexity theory, 1140n69
concubinage, 681, 689–690, 703n248
consanguineous marriage, Sasanian practice of, 1005, 1011
consistory hearings, 790
Consolation of Philosophy (Boethius), 764
Constans I (emperor), 411, 850, 862
Constans II (emperor), 131–132, 133
Constantelos, D. J., 738n50
Constantianus (general), 106
Constantine I the Great (emperor)
Abgar of Edessa as prototype of, 180, 181, 182
baptism of, 883
barbarian settlements of, 752
bishops, impact on institution of, 880–883, 893
churches and basilicas founded by, 939–941, 944
(p. 1212) conversion to Christianity, 850, 851, 1000, 1057
Donation of Constantine, xix, 893
Edict of Toleration (313 c.e.), 849
Ethiopian conversion to Christianity and, 274–275, 293
Hellenism and, 448
historical accounts of reign of, 409
historical writing, new Christian style of, 408
hospitals, 723, 738n50
ideology of Christian Roman empire, 21
judicial procedure under, 765–767, 777–778
laws of, 798, 799, 801–802
Life of Constantine (Eusebius of Caesarea), 801, 1161–1162
marriage and family law under, 673–675, 678, 802
monetary system, restructuring of, 597, 598, 599, 1118
new aristocracy under, development of, 597–598, 602
Pannonia, conquest of, 98, 99
periodization of Late Antiquity and, 4–5, 9
Sasanian Persia, relationship with, 1000, 1002
Zosimus on, 419
Constantine II (emperor), 862
Constantine III (emperor), 42
Constantine IV (emperor), 922
Constantine V (emperor), 1164
Constantinople. See also Byzantium
apocalypticism and, 1066
as both political and religious capital, 1163, 1164–1165
Hagia Sophia, 948–949, 954, 960n57, 986, 986–987, 987
history writing in, 417–420, 423–425, 427–430
liturgical practices in, 953–955
Sasanian siege of, 896
special authority of bishopric of, 882–883
Constantinople, Councils of
I (381 c.e.), 804, 918
II (553 c.e.), 895, 921–923
III (680/1 c.e.), 916, 919, 920, 922, 927, 928, 930–931, 1160
Constantinoplis Christiana (Du Cange), 729
Constantius I (emperor), 96
Constantius II (emperor), 99, 100, 275, 278, 281, 293, 449, 598, 721, 722, 850, 862, 1000
Constantius III (emperor), 35, 41, 42–43
Constitutio Antoniniana (Antonine Constitution), 63, 674, 678, 745–747, 749, 754, 791, 827
Constitutio Tanta, 796
Constitutiones Sirmondiani, 830, 831, 832, 838
Consultatio veteris cuiusdam iurisconsulti, 794
Contra Celsum (Origen), 1185
Contra Symmachum (Prudentius), 347
conversion to Christianity, xviii–xix, 863
by aristocracy, 413–414, 863
Armenia, conversion of, 119–120
of Augustine of Hippo, 539–541
bishops as missionaries, 889
of Constantine, 850, 851, 1000, 1057
diplomatic conversion missions, 65, 68
education leading to, 475–476
effects of, 865–866
Ethiopia, conversion of, 273–276
Greek poetry and, 380
“pagan survivals” despite, 857–859, 864–865
rates of, 853–854, 863
reasons for, 863
ritual penetration of state ideology and, 1132
from Zoroastrianism, 1004, 1005, 1010
Cook, Michael, 1053, 1055, 1081, 1084
Cooper, John, 207
Cooper, Kate, 689
copper coinage (follis), 608
Coptic Grammatical Categories (Shisha-Halevy, 1986), 233
Coptic literature, 224–238. See also Egypt, and specific authors and works
Arab conquest affecting, 224–225, 230, 238
Bible, importance of, 230–231
categorization of, 225–226, 229
Chalcedonian controversy shaping, 229, 236–237
Damian (patriarch), period of, 237
dating of surviving manuscripts, 227
fragmented nature of, 226–227
Greek influence on, 224, 228–229
hagiographies, 234–235, 236, 238
homilies, 229, 235, 236–237
layered nature of content, 229
monastic libraries, survival in, 227–228
Origenist controversy shaping, 229, 231–232, 237
original language of texts, questions regarding, 228
Pachomian material, 228, 231–232
patristic translations, 234–235
pseudepigrapha, commonness of, 228
Shenoute, works of, 228, 230, 233–234, 236, 241n61
Coquin, René-Georges, 225–226
Corcoran, Simon, 798
Corippus (Flavius Cresconius Corippus), 343, 370, 751
Cornelius (pope), 724
Cornelius Nepos, 410
Corpus dei Manoscritti Copti Letterari (CMCL database; Orlandi, 1970s), 227
Corpus hermeticum, 516
(p. 1213) Corpus Iuris Civilis (Code, Digest, and Novellae of Justinian)
in Armenia, 130–131
on citizenship, 747
in law and legal culture of Late Antiquity, 789, 791, 792, 794, 795, 796, 797, 800
as letter collection, 830, 838–839
on marriage and family, 672
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 20
in Western kingdoms, 49
The Corrupting Sea (Horden and Purcell, 2000), 78
Cosmas and Damian, icons in hagiography of, 971–972, 983–984
Cosmas Indicopleustes [Kosmas Indicopleustēs]
on Arabia and Ethiopia, 255, 259, 260, 277, 290
on Central Asia, 148–149
Christian Topography, 21, 148–149, 255, 259, 260, 573, 579–580, 1019
on Church of the East, 1019
cosmological schema of, 573
Hellenism and, 455
mentality of Late Antiquity and, 10–11, 21
world, Late Antique concepts of, 566, 579–580
Cosmic Description (John of Gaza), 377
cosmology
geocentricity of, 583n64
heterodoxy and, 579–580
instrumentalist interpretation of, 584n70
maps and travel writing, relationship to, 572–578
physics and metaphysics of, 529, 530–533, 537
Councils of the Church. See also Council of Chalcedon (451 c.e.) and Chalcedonian controversy; Constantinople, Councils of
Ancyra (314 c.e.), 1003
Antioch (324 c.e.), 1003
Ephesus II (Robber Synod, 449 c.e.), 183, 492
Gangra (340 c.e.), 505, 508n79, 722, 1003
Neocaesarea (314/319 c.e.), 1003
Nicaea I (325 c.e.), 420, 804, 882, 888, 916, 1002, 1003
Nicaea II (787 c.e.), 928, 971
Pisidian Laodicea (347/395 c.e.), 1003
Quinisext Council in Trullo (691–692 c.e.), 124–125, 920, 1160–1164
Serdica (343 c.e.), 893
Theodosius II, monks required to stay out of Councils by, 1164
Council of Chalcedon (451 c.e.) and Chalcedonian controversy. See also Church of the East; Nestorius and Nestorianism; Syria, Syriac, and Syrians
Acts of Chalcedon, 888
Apollonian forgeries and, 917–919, 920–921, 924–925
canons of Council, 804
Church of the East, Christology of, 1009–1011, 1024
Coptic literature shaped by, 229, 236–237
Egyptian Christianity in doctrinal disagreements with empire regarding, 198, 199
Franks and Vandals converted to Chalcedonian orthodoxy, 63
Fronto, letters of (palimpsestic), 829
Jacobite or West Syriac Church, 1010–1011, 1016, 1024
monastic involvement in, 491, 492, 498
Monophysitism/Miaphysitism, 18, 189–190, 283, 420, 579, 895, 924–925, 1010
neo-Chalcedonians, 918, 921, 924–925
Tome (Pope Leo I), 893
Courcelle, Pierre, 539
Cowe, S. Peter, 122
creation ex nihilo, 575, 577, 579
Cribiore, Raffaella, 210
criminal law, 802–804
Croke, Brian, xxxvii, 405
Crone, Patricia, 302, 1053, 1055, 1080, 1083, 1088
Crook, J., 805
culture and learning. See also education; history writing in Late Antiquity; literacy; literature; philosophy; physics and metaphysics
ascetics’ apparent rejection of, 487–488, 493, 494–495
authority as criterion, 20, 579
Hellenism and, 437–438, 441, 447, 448
Islamic tradition regarding pre-Islamic Arabia, 309
mental world of Late Antiquity, role in, 19–21, 341
totalization of learning, 19
traditional culture, continued valuation of, 477–479
Curatio (Theodoret of Cyrrhus), 444–445
currency. See monetary system
cursus publicus, 546, 819
Cycle (Agathias of Myrina), 369, 372
Cyprian of Antioch, 368, 376, 382, 383
Cyprian of Carthage, 723–724, 857, 879–880, 881, 882
Cyprian the Gaul, 345
Cyraicus, Coptic martyrdom of, 235
Cyril of Alexandria, 183, 234, 861, 888, 917–922, 924–925, 927–928, 1162
(p. 1214) Cyril of Jerusalem, 885, 1156
Cyril of Scythopolis, 490
Cyrus and John, Miracles of (Sophronius of Jerusalem), 440–442
Cyrus of Panopolis, 363, 368
Dadīšō‘ (Church of the East catholicos), 978–980, 1004, 1005, 1008
Damascius (pagan philosopher), 385n4, 453–454, 470
Damasus (pope), 887, 893
Damian (patriarch), Coptic literature under, 237
Daniel of Khuzistan, 1017
Dante Alighieri, 1176
Daoism, 1023
Daphniaca (Agathias of Myrina), 370
David (bishop of Basra), 1019
Davies, Wendy, 605
Davis, Stephen, 985
De actibus Apostolorum (Arator), 339, 345
De cursu stellarum (On the Course of the Stars; Gregory of Tours), 576, 577
De deitate Filii et Spiritus Sancti (Gregory of Nyssa), 235
De excidio (Gildas), 426–427
De gentibus Indiae et Bragmanibus (Palladius), 208
De Guignes, Joseph, 145
de Haas, Frans A. J., 515
de Jong, Albert, 1012
De laudibus Dei (Dracontius), 342
De locis sanctis (On the Holy Places; Adomnán), 566, 985
De locis sanctis (On the Holy Places; Bede), 566
De mensuris et ponderibus (Epiphanius of Salamis), 132
De mortibus boum (Endelechius), 346
De mysteriis (On the Mysteries; Iamblichus), 1185, 1187
De opificio mundi (John Philoponus), 580
De oratore (Cicero), 805
de Prémare, Alfred-Louis, 1088–1089
De raptu Proserpinae (Claudius Claudianus), 339
De rebus bellicis, 597–598, 795
De reditu suo (Rutilius Namatianus), 339–340
De republica (Cicero), 576
de Roover, Raymond, 608
De spiritalis historiae gestis (Alcimus Avitus), 345
De vanitate vitae (George of Pisidia), 363–364
Décadence romaine ou Antiquité tardive? (Marrou, 1977), 1150
Decembrio, Angelo, 1182–1183
Decius (emperor), 96, 828, 879
“decline and fall,” historiographical themes of, xiv–xv, xix, 4–5
Augustine’s use of, 21
barbarians associated with collapse of empire, 68, 70, 74, 1177–1180
bishops and, 890
in economic history, 606, 614–616
Islam and, 1054–1055
in Italian Renaissance, 1172–1173, 1179–1181
Latin poetry and, 335
paganism, narrative of decline of, 849–851, 853–854
reasons for imperial decline of sixth century, 1113–1116
religion associated with, 70, 850
Western aristocracy, decline of, 598–599, 606–607, 615
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Gibbon, 1776–1789), xii–xv, xx, 4
on barbarians, 61, 69–70
on Byzantium, 1149–1150
on Islam, 1054, 1055
Italian Renaissance and, 1172, 1180
on justice and equality, 767
Latin poetry and, 336, 338
on marriage and family, 679
monasticism and, 505n2
dedicatory letters, 826–827, 837
dediticii, 746, 750
Deioces, tyrant of Media, 780n7
Deliyannis, Deborah, xxi
Della famiglia (Alberti, Leon Battista), 1178
Delogu, Paolo, 615
Demetrios (patriarch of Antioch), 998
Democritus, 528
demographics. See population and demographics
demons
paganism and, 852, 855
in physics and metaphysics, 536
Demosthenes, 469
Demougeot, Emilienne, 750
Descartes, René, 517–518, 530, 540, 542–543, 977
Description of Hagia Sophia (Paul the Silentiary), 375, 379
Description of Greece (Pausanias of Magnesia), 563
desert fathers. See monasticism and asceticism
Desiderius of Cahors, 837, 841n9
Dexippos, 47–408, 417
Dhamar‛alī Yuhabirr (king of Ḥimyar), dynasty of, 263–268
diachronic versus synchronic treatments of Late Antiquity, xxi, 5–6
Diadochus of Photike, 501
Dialogue with Trypho (Justin Martyr), 1165n12
Dialogues (Pope Gregory I), 1157
Diatessaron, 174, 175, 176, 182, 185, 189, 355n123
Didache, 877–878, 897n18, 916
Didaskalia, 897n18
Didius Julianus, 602
Diehl, Charles, 1149
Digest of Justinian. See Corpus Iuris Civilis
Dillon, John, 516
Dio Cassius, 745
(p. 1215) Diocletian (emperor)
in Balkans, 96, 97, 104, 105, 106
Christians, persecution of (303–313), 236, 880
Greek encomium to, 364
Lactantius on, 601
law and legal culture under, 678, 792, 794, 798
Manichaeism, rescript letter against, 794
Maximum Prices edict (301 c.e.), 798
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 5
provinces under, 205, 602
religion, public expenditures on, 854
Spalatum (Split), Diocletian’s palace at, 104, 106
Diodore of Tarsus, 411–412
Dionysiaca (Nonnos of Panopolis), 361, 363, 365, 367, 370–371, 375, 376, 378, 381–384
Dionysius the Areopagite [Pseudo-Dionysius], 541, 916–917, 1154, 1155, 1188
Dionysius Periegetes, 385n1, 563
Dioscorides (medical writer), 253
Dioscorus of Alexandria, 198, 236
Dioskoros of Aphroditō [Dioscorus of Aphrodito] and Dioskoros archive, 203, 211, 370, 376
Diospolis, miraculous column of St. George at, 985
diplomacy in Late Antiquity, 64–65. See also political systems in Late Antiquity
divination, 855, 862
Divine Institutes (Lactantius), 344, 791
Doctrina Addai, 172–177, 180–182, 187, 189, 190
The Doctrine of the Subtle Body in Western Tradition (1919), 538
Dodds, E. R., 538, 544n12
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 1058, 1061
Domnio (bishop and martyr), 105
donatio ante nuptias, 668, 675, 678, 690–691
Donation of Constantine, xix, 893
Donatists, 18, 880, 893, 1189
Donner, Fred, 1059, 1062, 1063, 1084, 1087
Doresse, Jean, 275
Dorotheus of Gaza, 501, 505
Dorotheus the Syrian, 1068
Doubts about Galen (Zakariyyā’ al-Rāzī), 1068
Doubts about Ptolemy (Ibn al-Haytham), 1068
dowries, 672, 675, 690, 691, 703n248
Dracontius (Latin poet), 342
Drake, H. A., 869n64
Dream of Scipio (Somnium Scipionis; Cicero), 576
Drewes, A. J., 278
Drijvers, H. J. W., 170–171, 180
Du Cange, C. du F., 729
dualism, Cartesian, 517–518, 530, 540, 542–543, 977
Dura-Europos house-church, 937, 938
Durliat, Jean, 215n26
Duval, R., 170, 172
Dyophysites, 18, 921, 924–925. See also Church of the East
Dyotheletes, 922, 931
East Syriac Christianity. See Church of the East
Eastern empire. See Byzantium
Eastern Goths. See Ostrogoths
Eastern Philosophy (Ibn Sīnā; Avicenna), 1068
Ecclesiastical History [Church History] (Eusebius), 175, 236, 274, 408, 414, 416, 421, 426, 880, 996
Ecclesiastical History [Church History] (Philostorgius), 255, 418
Ecclesiastical History [Church History] (Rufinus of Aquileia), 10, 255, 257, 273–274, 414, 415, 418
The Echo Maker (Price, 2006), 975
Eclogues (Virgil), 336, 346
economic history, 597–616. See also monetary system
aristocracy, changes in, 597–599, 606–607, 611–613. See also aristocracy
of Armenia, 132–133
barbarians, new approaches to, 77–78
in Byzantium, 607–614
church hierarchy, Byzantine reliance on, 612–613
Egypt, importance of, 198–201, 208–210
Ethiopia and Arabia, importance of long-distance trade for, 259–261
Islam’s emergence as dominant economic power, 615–616
Makka, as commercial power, 300–302
Middle Ages, transition to, 614–616
middle class in Eastern empire, 607, 608
multiple trajectories of, 597–599
pagan practice and, 854
political systems in Late Antiquity and, 1116–1119
poor and powerlessness in Late Antique West, 599–600
pre-hijra economic crisis in Arabia, 305–306
provinces, proliferation of, 601, 602
Roman real estate, aristocratic domination of, 602–603
rural estates/villas, Western aristocratic investment in, 601–602, 603–607, 615
slaves and mancipia, 615
taxation, 600, 601, 632–633, 634, 745, 1059, 1117, 1135
urban commercial vitality in Eastern Mediterranean, 608–609, 612–614, 615–616
village settlements in East, 610
wage labor in Eastern empire, expansion of, 607–608
in Western empire, 599–607
(p. 1216) Edessa, foundation history of, 174, 175–177, 180–182, 187
Edict Ad Populum (320 c.e.), 673
Edict of the Aediles, 791
Edict of Maximum Prices (301 c.e.), 798, 799
Edict of Toleration (313 c.e.), 849
Edictum Perpetuum (Praetorian Edict), 791–792, 793
education, 467–479. See also culture and learning
Athenian Academy, closure of, 477–478, 850
Christianity and, 22, 380, 381, 475–477
Church of the East, school movement in, 1006–009
as classical value, 13, 468
Greek poetry and, 363, 370, 373–375, 377, 378–380
Hellenism and, 437–438, 441, 447, 448
influence of, 474–477
levels and stages of, 468–471
mental world of Late Antiquity, role in, 19–21
of monks, 501–502, 503–505
paganism and, 475–477
places of study, 471–472
rhetorical rules, 373–375
social and intellectual community, school as, 472–474
totalization of learning and, 19
traditional culture, continued valuation of, 477–479
Egeria (Roman pilgrim), 17, 173, 565–566, 936–937, 957
Egidius of Rheims, 821–823
Egypt, 195–214. See also Alexandria; Coptic literature
agricultural importance of, 198, 199–200, 206, 209–210
Arab conquest of, 199, 214
Arianism in, 198, 721, 860
aristocracy, emergence and evolution of, 611–612
Christianity in
adoption of religion by empire and, 197
consolidation of monasteries, 203
crises shaping, 229–230
doctrinal disagreements with empire regarding, 198, 199
ecclesiastical administration, 205–206
influence of, 213–214
papyri sources on, 197
periodization of Late Antiquity and, 213
communications routes and ports, 207–209
economic importance of, 198–201, 208–210
Greek poetry in, 362–363, 365–366, 370
hospitals in, 729–730
imperial administration in, 205
literacy in, 210–212
map of Egypt and Levant in Late Antiquity, xlii
monastic life, social setting of, 489–490
Nile, importance of, 195, 196, 199–200, 206–207
pagarchy in, 205, 612
papyri sources for, 196–197
periodization of Late Antiquity in, 212–213
Persian occupation of, 198–199
plague of 541–542 in, 201–202, 215n26
population of, 200–203, 215n26
uniqueness of, 195–196
urban environment in, 203–205
Egypt in Late Antiquity (Bagnall, 1993), 195–196
Eichman, Ricardo, 305
ekphrasis, 374
Elements of Astronomy (Proclus Diadochus), 574
Elephant, year/battle of, 286–287, 301
Elesbaa (Ethiopian ruler), 1154
Elias (provincial governor of Caesarea), 715
Elias (hagiographer), 187
Elias (bishop of Merv), 1020
“Elinskij Letopis,” 1150
Ełišē [Elishe] (Armenian historian), 123, 422, 428
Elisha (nephew of Church of the East patriarch), 1014, 1035n159
elites. See aristocracy
Ella Aṣbəḥa [Kālēb] (king of Ethiopia), 259, 261, 275, 283–284, 288–292
Emmel, Stephen, 233
empires and states in Late Antiquity. See political systems in Late Antiquity
Enchiridion (Handbook; Pomponius), 781
endelechia, 1183–1185
Endelechius (Latin poet), 346
engagements, law governing, 674–675, 678
England. See Britain
Enneads (Plotinus), 522, 530, 533, 1188, 1189
Ennodius of Pavia, 347–348, 422, 423, 836, 1175
entelechia, 1183–1185
environmental change. See agriculture and rural environment; climate
environmental determinism, 65–66
Ephesus, First Council of (431 c.e.), 420, 800, 804, 920, 922, 927–928
Ephesus, Second Council of (449 c.e.) [Robber Synod], 183, 492
Ephorus (geographer), 11
Ephrem the Syrian, 170–173, 182–190, 727–728
Ephthalites [Hephthalites], 144–145, 146
epic Greek poetry, 370–371
Epic Histories (Armenian), 422, 610, 722
Epictetus (Greek philosopher), 478
Epigrammata Bobiensia, 351n42
epigrams, 342, 372–373
Epiphanius (Historia Tripartita), 426, 429
Epiphanius (sophist), 447, 476
Epiphanius of Salamis, 132, 411
Epiphanius, monastery of, 237
episcopal leadership. See bishops
(p. 1217) Epistula Apostolorum, 232
epistulae. See collected letters; letters
Epistulae Austrasicae, 832
Epithalamium Fridi (Luxurius), 342
Epitome de Caesaribus, 413
Epitome of law (Hermogenian), 795
equality in Late Antiquity. See justice and equality
Eratosthenes (geographer), 8, 572–573
eschatology. See apocalypticism
Essarhaddon (Assyrian king), 1071
Ethiopia [Aksum, Axum], 254–259
Arabia, links to, 247
archaeological sites, 256–257
conversion to Christianity, 273–280
decline of, 299–300
external sources regarding, 258–259
‘Ēzānā, reign of, 276–281
geography and climate, 249, 254
Ḥimyar as tributary of. See under Ḥimyar
inscriptions from, 257–258, 288–289
long-distance trade, importance of, 259–261
map, 249
terminological issues, 254–255
ethnic citizenship, 748
ethnic identities, post-Roman, 18
ethnogenesis theory
Arab identity, origins of, 306–308
for barbarians in Europe, 69, 74–77
ethopoea, 374
Etymologiae (Isidore of Seville), 427, 576
Eucharist. See liturgy
Euchologion, 1157
Eudocia (daughter of Valentinian III), 37
Eudocia, Aelia (empress), 179, 368, 372, 375, 376, 380, 382, 383, 418
Eudoxia, Licinia (empress), 795, 883
Eudoxius of Antioch, 883
Eudoxus of Cnidus, 573
Eufrasius Basilica and ecclesiastical complex, Poreč, Croatia (ancient Parentium, Istria), 944–945, 945, 949, 950, 952, 955–957, 956
Eugippius (hagiographer), 39
Eunapius of Sardis, 21, 362–363, 417–418, 419, 420, 471
Euphorion (Greek poet), 385n3
Eupraxius (imperial official), 420, 800
Euprepius (Alexandrian intellectual), 476
Eurasia in Late Antiquity, map of, xli
Euric the Goth, 34, 46
Eusebia (empress), 449
Eusebius of Caesarea
on Abgar of Edessa, 175
Armenian sources for, 118
Basil of Caesarea and, 716
on bishops, 880, 883
Chronicle
Chronici Canones, 565
Chronographia, 118
continuations of, 411–412, 416, 426, 428–429
history writing in Late Antiquity revolutionized by, 405–407, 407–408, 421
Coptic translations of, 236
Ecclesiastical History [Church History], 175, 236, 274, 408, 414, 416, 421, 426, 880, 996
Hellenism and, 443, 444, 445, 447
as historian, 405–407, 407–408, 411, 414, 418, 421, 426, 428–429
ideology of Christian Roman empire and, 21, 1161–1162
laws of Constantine preserved in works of, 799
Life of Constantine, 801, 1161–1162
Onomasticon, 564–565
Praeparatio Evangelica, 444
Rufinus of Aquileia and, 274
on water used in sacred spaces, 947
Eusebius of Nicomedia, 882, 883, 889
Eusebius of Vericelli, 492
Eustathius of Epiphaneia, 423
Eustathius of Sebaste, 721–722
Eustathius of Thessalonica, 383, 1152
Eustochius of Caesarea, 411
Eutharic (consul and son-in-law of Theoderic), 422
Eutropius (historian), 409–413, 420, 424, 429
Eutyches [monk and heresiarch], 920–921
Eutychianus (historian), 409
Evagrius Ponticus [Evagrius of Pontus], 240n34, 425, 427, 495, 499, 500, 501–502, 505, 832, 836
Evangeliorum libri IV (Juvencus), 344, 372
Evans Grubbs, Judith, 671, 697n105
Ewald, Heinrich, 1086, 1087
Excerpta Valesiana, 426
Expositio totius mundi et gentium, 95, 102, 103, 107, 108, 566, 577, 578, 609
Exuls (Kavafis, 1914), 384
‘Ēzānā [Aizanas] (king of Ethiopia), 255, 258, 261, 275–281
Ezekiel (Church of the East patriarch), 1011
The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization (Ward-Perkins, 2005), 1149
The Fall of Troy (Triphiodorus of Panopolis), 364
families. See marriage and family
Fariana, 773–774
Fāṭima (daughter of Muḥammad), 1064
Faustus of Byzantium, 422, 722
Favorinus (sophist), 449–450, 1182
Festus (historian), 409, 410, 411, 413
Ficino, Marsilio, 1186, 1188–1192
Fiey, Jean-Maurice, 997
fifth element (Aristotle), 530
fire, air, and the heavens, 529, 530–533, 537. See also cosmology
(p. 1218) Firmilian of Caesarea, 904n166
Firmus of Caesarea, 718
Flandrin, Jean Louis, 669
Flavian of Antioch, 886
Flavian of Constantinople, 920
Flavius Anastasius, 612
“Flavius,” barbarian use of, 750
Flavius Cresconius Corippus, 343, 370, 751
Flavius Josephus, 426, 429, 1150
Flavius Licerius Firminus Lupicinus, 422
Flavius Merobaudes, 339
Flavius Valila [Theodobius], 751
Flavius Wallia (Gothic leader), 36, 37, 42
florilegia, 927–929, 1155
Florus (historian), 424
follis (copper coinage), 608
For the Temples (Pro templis; Libanius), 804, 856, 863
forgery of religious documents, xix, 916–933. See also specific forgeries
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, 917–918
canonicity and, 924–927
context, efforts to control, 924–926
copies, originals, and authenticity, 929–931
crime, not regarded as, 919–920
ethical dimensions, failure to explore, 919–924
florilegia, 927–929
tension between ideology of continuity and inevitability of change leading to, 918–919, 924
theodicy as means of document testing, 930–931
theological argumentation, rhetoric of, 916–919, 920, 927, 931–932
undermining of written authority by, 926–929
Forma Urbis Romae (map), 570–572, 571, 572
Forms, Platonic, 525–527
Forte, Antonio, 1023
fortifications, urban and rural, 630
Forty-Eight Saints and Martyrs, Church of, Armenia, 116–117
Forty Martyrs of Sebasteia, 116–117
Fountain of Knowledge (Pege gnoseos; John Damascene), 1155
fountains, used in sacred spaces, 947
428 AD: An Ordinary Year at the End of the Roman Empire (Traina, 2009), xxi
Fowden, Elizabeth Key, 1063
Fowden, Garth, 863, 1057, 1059, 1063
Fragmenta Vaticana, 794
Framing the Early Middle Ages (Wickham), 78, 213
Francovich, Riccardo, 614–615
Frange (bookbinder), 211
Frankfurter, David, 853, 855, 863
Franks
bishops under, 892–893
bureaucratic-administrative structures, failure to establish, 1127
Carolingian dynasty, xvii, 10, 31, 34, 40, 49, 348, 820, 829, 891, 893, 905n185
Chalcedonian orthodoxy, conversion to, 63
integration of Gallic aristocracy and Frankish ruling class, 615
kings of, 38–39
Merovingian dynasty, 10, 38, 40, 49, 50, 599, 615, 821, 892–893, 895, 1129
post-Roman ethnic identity of, 18
Roman world, connection to, 50
Fredegund (Merovingian queen), 821
Frederic (Gothic prince), 36, 44, 45, 46
Freud, Sigmund, 977
Fronto (orator and tutor of Marcus Aurelius), 47, 829
Frontonianus of Salona, 106
Frumentius (bishop of Ethiopia), 274–275, 889
fundi, 606
Funk, Wolf-Peter, 231
Gabriel of Maishān, 1016
Gabriel of Sinjār, 1010
Gadara (king of Ethiopia), 277–278
Gaiseric (Vandal king), 37, 44, 45, 47
Gaius (lawyer), 790, 795, 796
Galen (physician and medical writer), 470, 534, 537, 542, 717
Galerius (emperor), 96, 98
Galla Placidia (regent and empress), 36, 44
Gallic Chronicle of 452 c.e., 416
Gallic Chronicle of 511 c.e., 416–417
Gallic War (Julius Caesar), 422
Gangra, Council of (340 c.e.), 505, 508n79, 722, 1003
Garnett, Richard, 384
Garnsey, Peter, 750, 768
Garsoïan, Nina G., 120
Gascou, Jean, 209, 211, 611, 612
Gaudemet, Jean, 679, 697n105
Gaul
aristocracy of, 615
bishops in, 891
history writing in, 416–417
Latin poetry in, 338–341, 348
letters and letter collections, 820–821, 829
rural estates/villas in, 603–604, 607
Gaza, Hellenism and religious violence at, 445, 446
Geary, Patrick, 75
Gelasius (correspondent of Sidonius), 837
Gelasius (pope), 850
Gelasius of Cyzicus, 420
Geminus, 577
gentiles, 63, 67, 752, 753, 754
Gentilismus, 75–76
(p. 1219) geography. See also world, Late Antique conception of
of Arabs and Arabia, 248, 249, 305–306
cartography, 567–572, 568, 569, 571, 572
of Central Asia and the Silk Road, 142–143, 143, 144
determinism, geographical, 65–66
of Ethiopia, 249, 254
Late Antiquity, geographical breadth of, xi–xvi, xx–xxi, 3–4
political systems and, 1119–1121
Geography (Ananias of Širak), 156
Geography (Ptolemy), 568, 573, 582n48, 583n66
geopolitics of Late Antiquity, centrality of Roman empire to, 6–13
George (scholar employed by Makarios of Antioch), 923
George of Alexandria, 408–409, 860–861, 888
George Boktīšō‘, 1024
George the Grammarian, 385n6
George Hamartolos, 1150
George of Izla, 1010
George of Pisidia, 363–364, 367, 382, 386n6
Georgics (Virgil), 336
Georgios Gemistos Plethon, 1152
Georgios Gennadios Scholarios, 1151
Gepids, 102
Gerasa (Jerash, Jordan), St. Timothy’s basilica at, 947
German nationalism and barbarian studies, 71–72, 75
Germania (Tacitus), 62, 69, 70
Germanus (patriarch of Constantinople), 987
Germinius (bishop), 99
Gerson, Lloyd, 522, 525, 1184
Gervasius of Tilbury, 567
Gessius, 470, 475
Getica (Jordanes), 69–70, 424
Ghassānids [Ghassānites], 293–294
Giardina, Andrea, 6, 25n8, 212
Gibuldus (Alamannic king), 36
Gigantomachy, Greek (Claudian), 377, 379
Gilakios (Armenian commander), 118–119
Gildas, 426–427
Gildo (Moorish king), 35
Gillett, Andrew, xxxvii, 815
Gilliot, Claude, 1088
Giraldus Cambrensis, 578
Glory of the Martyrs (Gregory of Tours), 116
Glycerius (emperor), 46, 47, 105
Gnosticism, 229, 230, 516, 537, 1154
Goar the Alan, 34, 36–37
“god fearers,” pagan-Jewish, 854
Godegisel (Vandal king), 37
Godelier, M., 1130
“God’s command (amr),” Qur’ān’s and Muḥammad’s concern with arrival of, 1090–1099
Goehring, James, 232, 498
Goffart, Walter, 73, 76
gold coinage in monetary system, 599–600, 608, 614
Goldhill, Simon, 978
Goldziher, Ignác, 1078, 1081
Goody, Jack, 669, 679
Gordian III (emperor), 7
Gorges, Jean-Gerard, 603
Görke, Andreas, 1082–1083
Gospel of Judas, 229, 238n3
Gospel of the Savior, 229
Gothic History (Cassiodorus), 424
Goths
Gog in Bible, identification with, 67
in Illyricum, 101, 105–106, 109
in Jordanes’ Getica, 69–70
as kingdom within imperial territory, 43–44
kings of, 39–40
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 9
movement into imperial territory, 41–43
post-Roman ethnic identity of, 18
grammar, as stage of classical education, 469
Gratian (emperor), 100, 304, 410, 412, 772, 776, 780n13, 850, 883
Gray, Patrick, 917–920, 924, 925
Great Canon (Andrew of Crete), 1156
“Great Slaughter” (344–379 c.e.) of East Syriac Christians, 1000–1002, 1006
Greece
Athenian Academy, closure of, 477–478, 850
Athens, as state, 1126
early Christian churches in, 942, 943, 947
Greek language, culture, and thought. See Hellenism
Greek poetry, 361–384
audience for, 378–380
Christianity and, 365–368, 371–372, 375, 380–382, 386n10
chronological survey of, 36–370
critical views of, 361–362
in Egypt, 362–363, 365–366, 370
genres, 370–373
later reception of Late Antique works, 382–384
metrical rules, 376–377
performance of, 377–378
rhetorical rules, influence of, 373–375
significance in Late Antique world, 362–363
verse paraphrase, importance of, 373, 375–376
Greenwood, Tim, xxxvii, 115
Gregorian Code [Codex Gregorianus or CG], 794, 795, 796, 830, 831, 832
Gregory I the Great (pope), 10, 106, 831, 837, 876, 893, 894, 1154, 1157, 1172
Gregory of Antioch, 425, 832
Gregory (Armenian bishop), 125
(p. 1220) Gregory the Illuminator, 119, 122–123, 124
Gregory of Nazianzus [Gregory Nazianzen; Gregory the Theologian]
as bishop, 876, 882, 884
in Byzantium, 1151, 1154, 1155
Carmina Arcana, 380
Coptic literary tradition and, 234
on education and school community, 473, 475, 477
Greek poetry of, 362, 366, 369, 371, 377, 379–380, 382–384, 385n6
Hellenism and, 448–449
On His Life, 380
On His Own Verses, 366
history writing in Late Antiquity and, 410, 411, 412
Homilies, imperial manuscript of, 1151
on hospital of Basil of Caesarea, 716, 717, 718, 725, 733
on Julian, 448–449, 725
letter collections, 828, 829
Gregory of Nyssa, 185, 234, 235, 411, 412, 492, 532, 716, 882, 1154
Gregory Palamas, 1155
Gregory of Tours
Armenian visitor and, 115–118, 121, 132
as bishop, 892–893, 895
Books of Miracles, 116
communication in Late Antiquity and, 821–823
On the Course of the Stars (De cursu stellarum), 576, 577
Egypt and, 207
as historian, 426
History of the Franks, 115–118, 892–893
Latin poetry and, 348
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 15
on regenerative potential of material objects, 980, 982
on Trinitarian doctrine, 904n159
Western kingdoms, role in, 38, 52n43, 892–893, 895
Grey, Cam, xxxvii, 625
Griffith, Sidney, 175, 183
Grumbates (king of the Chionites), 144, 146
guardianship of minors, 675, 802
Guarino of Verona, 1178, 1183
Gubo Barrayo, 190
Guidobaldi, Federico, 602
Gunderic (Vandal king), 37
Gundioc (Burgundian king), 38, 46
Gundobad (Burgundian king), 38, 46, 49, 892
Gundomadus (Alamannic king), 35
Guran, Petre, xxxvii, 1148
Guria (Syrian martyr), 182, 187
Gwynn, David M., xxxvii, 876
Gyselen, Rika, 130
Ḥabīb (Syriac saint), 182, 188
ḥadīth, 1078, 1081, 1082, 1085
Hadrian (emperor), 674, 791, 792, 793
Hagarism (Crone and Cook, 1977), 1055
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, 948–949, 954, 960n57, 986, 986–987, 987
hagiography
in Byzantium, 1152–1154
in Coptic literature, 234–235, 236, 238
Egeria’s travelogue and, 565
icons in hagiography of Cosmas and Damian, 971–972, 983
letter collections, use of, 837
as monastic literature, 494–495
sīra traditions of life of Muḥammad, 1079–1083
Syrian normalizing process in, 170–190
al-Ḥajjāj (governor of Iraq), 1088
Haldon, John, xxxvii, 1111
Hallowell, Alfred, 984
Halsall, Guy, 74
Hamartigenia (Prudentius), 355n123
Handbook (Epictetus), 478
Handy Tables (Ptolemy), 575
Hanno the Carthaginian, 562
Harper, Kyle, xxxvii, 667
Harries, Jill, xxxvii, 341, 789
Hārūn al-Rashīd (caliph), 1024
Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, 1065
Ḥaśśān Yuha’min, 267–268
Hauser, Stefan, 1018
Hausleiter, Arnulf, 305
Hawran (Syrian volcanic plateau), 609–610
Hawting, Gerald, 1070, 1088
Heath, Malcolm, 805
Heather, Peter, 73, 750
heavenly bodies. See cosmology
Hecataeus of Miletus, 563
Heinsius, Daniel, 383
Helena, discovery of True Cross by, 176, 178, 179
Helikonios (historian), 417
Helladius of Antinoe, 366
Hellenism, 437–456
Alexander the Great and, 437–438
heterodoxy, associated with, 447
as historiographical concept, 437–440
Islam and, 1067–1069
in Julian’s reign, 445–451
in Latin world, 457n12
paideia and, 437–438, 441, 447, 448
philosophy and, 451–456
religious identity and, 440–445
in Julian’s reign, 445–451
philosophy and, 453–455
Henoticon (Zeno), 1009
Hephaistion, 576
Hephthalites. See Ephthalites
Heptateuch (Latin poem), 345
Heraclius (emperor), xvii, 5, 24, 106, 131–132, 198, 199, 297, 896, 1153
Herlihy, David, 669, 688
Hermeias, 460n46
Hermeric (Suevian king), 37
Hermes the Babylonian, 1068
Hermetica and Hermes Trismegistus, 530–531, 1187, 1188, 1189
Hermias of Hermopolis, 363, 366
Hermogenian Code [Codex Hermogenianus or CH], 794, 795, 796, 830, 831, 832
Hermogenian[us] (jurist), 794, 795, 830, 832
Hero and Leander (Musaeus the grammarian), 369
Herodian dynasty of Judaea, 34
Herodotus
on barbarians, 62
on Deioces, tyrant of Media, 780n7
on Egypt, 195
on Ethiopia, 254
history writing in Late Antiquity and, 407, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 421, 429
travel writing and, 563
Heroikai Theogamiai (Peisander of Laranda), 362, 364
Hesiod, 385n3, 442
Hesychast movement, 1155
Hesychius (bishop of Dalmatia), 105
Hesychius (lawyer and historian), 424
heterodoxy. See also specific heterodox belief systems
accusations under the law, establishment of procedures for, 765–767
as analytical category, 68
Armenian exposure to, 120–124, 126
barbarians associated with, 18, 37, 63
bishops’ responsibility for orthodoxy of communities, 888–889
Byzantine concern with, 1154–1155, 1164
Church of the East, Christology of, 1009–1011
citizenship rights and, 748
cosmology and, 579–580
Ephrem the Syrian, heresiology of, 184
Hellenism associated with, 447
in Islam, 1061
Latin poetry addressing, 345
orthodoxy, Late Antique concern with, xix, 18
Roman law regarding, 803
Syrians and, 172–173, 184
Heussi, Karl, 488
Hexaemeron commentary tradition, 577, 580
Hexapla (Origen), 565
Hierakiōn of Oxyrhynchos, 206
Hierios, 613
Hierocles, 408
Hilarion of Thavatha, 495, 858
Ḥimyar, 262–273
Arabia Deserta, conquest of, 272–273
coinage of, 260
Dhamar‘alī Yuhabirr, dynasty of, 263–268
Ethiopia, as tributary of, 281–297
Abraha (Christian Aksūmite), reign of, 284–288, 291–292, 295, 297, 300
“Abrəha and Aṣbəha” legend, 292
Christianization of Ḥimyar, 294–295
Jews, persecution of, 284, 289, 290
Kālēb (king of Ethiopia) and, 283–284, 288–292
Najrān massacre and defeat of prince Joseph, 281–284, 289, 290, 1057
overthrow of Aksūmite rule, 297
external sources regarding, 253
‘Ēzānā (king of Ethiopia) and, 277–278
rejection of polytheism and favoring of Judaism in, 265, 266, 269, 270–272, 279–280, 302, 1057
Sasanian Persia and, 296
Shuriḥbi’īl Yakkuf, dynasty of, 269
Hindus, under Islam, 1060
Hipparchus (Greek astrologer, astronomer, and geographer), 573, 584n70
Hippocrates (Greek physician), 79n34
Hippodameia (Triphiodorus of Panopolis), 364
Hippolytus of Rome, 893
al-Ḥīra, Arab kingdom of, 296, 297, 1005–1006, 1018
Hishām ibn al-Kalbī, 286, 308
Historia Augusta, 10, 413, 791, 917
Historia critica philosophiae (Brucker), 1186
Historia Lausiaca (Lausiac History; Palladius), 495, 819
Historia Monachorum in Aegypto, 495
Historia Religiosa [Historia Philotheos] (Theodoret of Cyrrhus), 183, 188, 495
Historia Tripartita (Theodore Lector), 426, 429
historical Jesus movement, 1078, 1093, 1098–1099
A Historical Narrative of the Distress which occurred in Edessa, Amida, and All Mesopotamia (Ps.-Joshua), 421
historiography of Late Antiquity, xi–xvi, xix, xxi–xxii, 3–6. See also “decline and fall,” historiographical themes of
barbarians in modern history, 68–77
Byzantium, concept of, 1148–1150
Church of the East, 995–997
on codification process, 800
communication, study of, 820
communications as historical sources, 823–826, 833
Greek poetry, critical views of, 361–362
Hellenism and, 437–440
Islam, xv, xvi
as Late Antique religion, 1053–1056, 1069–1072
sources for earliest history, problem of, 1056–1057, 1078–1079
Latin poetry, classicizing bias regarding, 335–337
of marriage and family, 669–671
Marxist historiography, 1122, 1148–1149
religion and religious diversity, 851
of Syriac and Syrians, 170–172
History (al-Ṭabarī), 1079
History (Łazar P‘arpec‘i), 129, 130
History against the Pagans (Orosius), 415
History of Albania (Moses Daskhurantsi), 428
History of the Church of Alexandria, 236
History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Gibbon, 1776–1789). See Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
History of Florence (Bruni), 1176
History of the Florentine People (Bruni), 1179–1180
History of the Franks (Gregory of Tours), 115–118, 892–893
History of Joseph the Carpenter, 229
A History of Private Life (Paul Veyne), xviii, 669
history writing in Late Antiquity, 405–430. See also specific texts and authors
Arab conquests affecting, 428, 429
in Armenia, 421–422, 428
barbarian invasions, accounting for, 415–417
Christian understanding of history, Eusebius’ adaptation of, 405–406, 407–408
classical tradition and, 407
in Eastern empire
395–500 c.e., 417–420
500–600 c.e., 422–425
600–700 c.e., 427–430
influence of new Christian forms in fourth century, 408–412
law and legal culture, historical place of, 791–792
mentality of Late Antiquity, role of history in, 20–22
methodological approaches, 406–407
Roman aristocracy and, 412–415
in Sasanian Persia, 425
in Syriac, 421, 428–429
as unified divine time span, 407–408
in Western kingdoms, 422–423, 426–427
Hodges, Richard, 614–615
Hodgson, Marshall, 1079
Holy Apostles, Church of the, Constantinople, 942
“Holy Land,” concept of, 935–937, 978, 979
Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem, 940–942, 942, 980, 987
Homer, 364, 368, 371, 373, 375, 442, 443, 503, 504
Homeric Centos, 368, 372, 375, 380
Homilies (John Chrysostom), 1153
Homilies (Gregory of Nazianzus), imperial manuscript of, 1151
homilies in Coptic literature, 229, 235, 236–237
Homily on Easter (Melito of Sardis), 232
Homily on Ephrem (Jacob of Serugh), 187
Homily on Shmouna and Guria (Jacob of Serugh), 187
Homily on the Siege of Constantinople of 626 c.e. (Theodore Synkellos), 1153, 1162
Honorius (emperor), 43, 105, 338, 417, 629, 801, 835
Honorius Augustodunensis, 567
Horace, 828
Horapollo [Horapollon] (Greek poet), 363, 366
Horden, Peregrine, xxxvii, 78, 715
Hormizd IV (Sasanian ruler), 1014
Horologion, 1157
Horsfall, Nicholas, 583n58
Horsiesi (monk), 231, 232
Hosius [Ossius] of Cordoba, 677, 883
hospitals, 715–736
Basil of Caesarea, foundation of
beneficiaries of, 717–720
official concerns regarding, 715–716, 732
purpose of, 716–717, 719
charity, as Christian value, 719, 723, 730
Christian precursors to, 720–724
citizens not specially favored by, 719–720, 732
effects of, 733–736
in Islamic world, 736
Jewish parallels, 726–727
pagan parallels, 725–726
reasons for founding hospitals, 730–733
size and numbers, 728, 729, 734
for slaves, 725–726, 736
space, Christian production of, 732–733
successors of, 727–733
terminological issues, 717, 718
for women giving birth, 734–735
Zoroastrian parallels, 725
“the Hour,” Qur’ān’s and Muḥammad’s concern with arrival of, 1090–1099
house-churches, 937–938, 938
Hoyland, Robert, xxxviii, 1016, 1053
Hrip‘simē (Armenian saint), 119, 122
humanist concerns and Late Antiquity, 1173–175. See also Italian Renaissance and Late Antiquity
Humfress, Caroline, 794, 805
Hunger, Herbert, 1149, 1150
Hunneric (Vandal king), 37, 903n150
Huns
Central Asia, Hunnic invasion of, 144–146
in Illyricum, 101–102
mentality of Late Antiquity and, 15
Western kingdoms, establishment of, 36, 37, 45
Huntington, Samuel, 1055
Hurgronje, Snouck, 1090–1091
(p. 1223) Hydatius (chronicler), 21, 37, 416
Hyginus (Roman writer), 726
Hymn to Helios the King (Julian), 450
Hymns (Proclus), 368
Hymns against Heresies (Ephrem), 184
Hypatia, 575, 861, 888, 1149
hypostases (One, Intellect, and Soul), 524–527
Iambi ad Seleucum (Amphilochius of Iconium), 366
Iamblichus, 532, 535, 1185–1189, 1191
Iaudas (Berber chief), 606
Ibas of Edessa, 921–922, 925, 927
Ibn ‘Abd al-Ḥakam, 207, 209–210
Ibn Abī l-Ḥuqayq, 1082, 1083
Ibn Ḥawqal, 1021
Ibn al-Haytham, 1068
Ibn Hishām, 1079, 1080
Ibn Isḥāq, 1079, 1080
Ibn Khaldūn, 1124
Ibn Sa‘d, 300
Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), 1068
icons. See also object relations in Late Antiquity
animism and, 983–984, 988–989
of Christ, 971–973, 972
Cosmas and Damian, icons in hagiography of, 971–972, 983–984
flatness and two-dimensionality of, 973, 973–974
healing power in paint of, 971–972
iconoclastic controversy, 974–976
of Peter, 973, 973–974
Pygmalion story and, 983
regenerative potential of material world and, 983–984
relics and images, equivalency of, 971–973, 972, 973
of Sergius and Bacchus, 971, 972, 973
L’idéologie politique de l’Empire byzantin (Ahrweiler, 1975), 1149
idolatry and object relations. See object relations in Late Antiquity
Ignatius of Antioch, 878, 916, 1154
Iliad (Homer), 364, 368, 371, 375, 384, 437
illegitimate children, 683, 689
Illyricum. See Balkans
Imago Mundi (Honorius Augustodunensis), 567
imitatio in Latin poetry, 336–338, 344
immaterial and material things. See physics and metaphysics
“Imperial History,” 410
Imru’ al-Qays, 248
incense, use of, 984
incestuous marriage, Sasanian practice of, 1005, 1011
India
Church of the East, expansion of, 1019
Egypt, trade with, 208–209
Hindus, under Islam, 1060
knowledge of Rome in, 11
legitimating processes and ideologies of states in, 1127, 1129–1131
Sasanian contact with, 12
use of term in Greek and Roman texts, 255
indissolubility, marital doctrine of, 668, 677, 680, 693
inequality, Late Antique concerns about. See justice and equality
Inglebert, Hervé, xxxviii, 3
Ingold, Tim, 977
inheritance, 672, 673–674, 679
injustice, Late Antique concerns about. See justice and equality
Innocent III (pope), 919
Institutes (Cassiodorus), 427, 575
Institutes (Gaius), 796
Institutes (Justinian), 789–790, 796, 838
Institutiones (Quintilian), 1182
Institutiones grammaticae (Elements of Latin Grammar; Priscian), xi–xii, xii, xv
Intellect, One, and Soul (three hypostases), 524–527
Introduction to Astronomy (Geminus), 577
Invectives against a Physician (Petrarch), 1174
Iorga, N., 1149
Iran. See Sasanian Persia
Ireland
history writing in, 427
Priscian’s Institutiones, Old Irish glosses on, xi–xii, xii, xv
Irenaeus (Illyrian saint), 98–99
Irenaeus of Lyons, 879, 1154
Irish Chronicle (Columba), 427
irrigation infrastructure in Egypt, 206
Isaiah of Gaza, 501, 504
Isaurika (Pamprepius), 420
Isidore (envoy of Theophilus of Alexandria), 816–819, 828
Isidore of Pelusium, 499, 500
Isidore of Seville, 66, 427, 576, 577, 631, 693, 1172
Isis, cult of, 854
Islam, 1053–073. See also Muḥammad; Qur’ān
apocalypticism in, 1065–1067
Armenia, effect of Arab conquests on, 133–134
bureaucratic-administrative structures, 1125
Central Asian long-distance trade, end of, 157
Church of the East under, 1024–1026
Coptic literature affected by, 224–225, 230, 238
as economic power, 615–616
Egypt, Arab conquest of, 199, 214
Hellenism and, 1067–1069
in historiography of Late Antiquity, xv, xvi
as Late Antique religion, 1053–1056, 1069–1072
sources for earliest history, problem of, 1056–1057, 1078–1079
(p. 1224) history writing in Late Antique empire and, 428, 429
holy persons in, 1063–1065
hospitals, 736
inscriptions, devotional, 1062–1063
Khārijīs, 1061, 1064
as Late Antique religion, 1053–1056, 1069–1072
legitimating processes and ideologies, 1129
literature of, 1061–1062
mental world of Late Antiquity and expansion of, 23–24
monetary system, continuation of, 615
non-Muslim communities under, 1059–1062, 1129
orthodoxy and heterodoxy in, 1061
“out of Arabia” theory of, 1069–1072
periodization of Late Antiquity favoring, 5
political power, association with, 1057–1058
polytheism in Arabia, decline of, 302–305
pre-Islamic Arabia, traditions regarding, 308–310
ritual penetration of state ideology in, 1132
Sasanian Persia
Arab conquest of, 297, 1015–1018
influence of, 1068
Shī‘īs, 1061
sources for earliest history, problem of, 1056–1057, 1078–1079
Sunnīs, 1061, 1083
Syrian Christianity and, 190
Syrian educational culture, influence of, 478
Timothy I’s philosophical defense of Christianity before al-Mahdī, 1024–1026
universalism of, 1058–1059
isnād criticism, 1080–1083, 1088
Īšō‘dad of Qaṭar, 1017
Īšō‘yabh I (Church of the East patriarch), 1014, 1018, 1034n146
Īšō‘yabh II (Church of the East patriarch), 1016
Īšō‘yabh III (Church of the East patriarch), 1016, 1017, 1025
Italian Renaissance and Late Antiquity, 1172–1196
Aulus Gellius, influence of, 1181–1183
barbarian invasions, beliefs about effects of, 1177–1180
concepts of Late Antiquity and, 1172–1173
“decline and fall,” historiographical themes of, 1172–1173, 1179–1181
formal versus common speech, debate over, 1177
humanist concerns and, 1173–1175
Latin literature and language, interest in, 1174–1177
philosophy
Aristotle and Plato, efforts to resolve, 1183–1186
Christianity and, 1185–11892
monotheism, viewed through prism of, 1185
Neoplatonism, 1187
Platonism and Platonizing, 1183–1192
Italian War against the Goths (Bruni), 1180
Italica (legal client of Symmachus), 769–770, 771, 774–775
Italy in Late Antiquity. See also Goths; Lombards; Ostrogoths; Rome
crisis of sixth and seventh centuries in, 614–615
decline of aristocracy in, 606–607, 615
Justinian’s reconquest of, 894
rural estates/villas in, 603–604
itinerarium genre, 563–564, 565, 570, 578
ius civile and ius gentium, 791
ius honorarium, 791
ius liberorum, 674, 675
ius publicum, 791
Jabal al-Tayrin, Egypt, impression of Christ’s hand at, 985
Jacob Baradeus, 895
Jacob, Christian, 562
Jacob of Edessa, 429
Jacob of Nisibis [James of Nisibis], 11, 119, 185, 189
Jacob of Serug, 186–187, 189
Jacobite or West Syriac Church, 1010–1011, 1016, 1024; See also Syria, Syriac, and Syrians; Monophysitism/Miaphysitism
Jafnids, 293–294, 298
Jalons pour une histoire de l’eglise en Iraq (Fiey, 1970), 997
James of Nisibis [Jacob of Nisibis], 11, 119, 185, 189
Jamharat al-nasab (Hishām ibn al-Kalbī), 308
Janin, R., 729
Jenkins, Philip, 996
Jerome
Aethicus Ister attributed to, 577
Chronici Canones and Onomasticon (Eusebius of Caesarea), translations of, 565
history writing in Late Antiquity and, 410–416, 423, 427
on home town of Stridon in Illyricum, 101
Italian Renaissance interest in, 1175
mental conception of Late Antiquity, 10
monasticism and, 490, 491, 492
on “pagan survivals” in Christian practice, 858
on resurrection of the body, 528
on Virgil, 349n16
women, relationships with, 692, 802, 978
Jerusalem
Armenia, influence of Jerusalem church in, 120–121
Dome of the Rock, 1058, 1061
Holy Sepulcher, 940–942, 942, 980, 987
special authority of bishopric, 882–883
(p. 1225) Jesus
historical Jesus movement, 1078, 1093, 1098–1099
icons and relics of, 971–973, 972, 985
Jewish War (Josephus), 426, 429
Jews and Judaism
apocalypticism of, 1065
Arabia, decline of polytheism in, 303
Aramaic, rabbinic use of, 25n16
Basil of Caesarea’s hospital and, 716, 718
bishops and community relations with, 888
Bordeaux Pilgrim, Jewish sites in, 564
Christian imperial display, use of language of, 174–175
Christian sacrifices patterned on ancient Jewish practices, 856
Church of the East and, 999–1001
citizenship rights, 748
Ḥimyar
Ethiopian conquest, persecution of Jews following, 284, 289, 290
rejection of polytheism and favoring of Judaism in, 265, 266, 269, 270–272, 279–280, 302, 1057
hospitals, Jewish, 726–727
Islam, non-Muslim communities under, 1059–1062
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 18
monastic letters and, 500
pagan-Jewish “god fearers,” 854
Qur’ān on, 1058, 1060, 1061, 1090
Roman and Jewish law compared, 794
Syriac world and. See Syria, Syriac, and Syrians
Talmudic tradition, authority as criterion in, 20
Jing-Jing [Adam], 1022–1023
Johannis (Corippus), 343
John I (pope), 892
John the Almsgiver, 734
John of Antioch, 428
John of Biclaro, 425, 427
John Cassian, 493, 495, 501, 502, 553n176, 577, 889, 1155–1156
John Chrysostom
as bishop, 876, 883, 884, 885
in Byzantium, 1153, 1154
Coptic literature and, 234–235
On David and Saul III, 235
economic history and, 607, 610
Ekloga of the Homilies, 1153
on hospitals, 727, 732, 734
Italica, correspondence with, 769
letter collections, 828, 829
liturgy of, 1156
on marriage, 667–668, 671, 682, 683, 688, 690–691, 692, 693
monasticism and, 491, 492, 502
on “pagan survivals” in Christian practice, 858
John Climacus [John Klimakos; John Klimax; John Climax; John of Sinai], 498, 501, 502, 1154
John of Damascus [John Damascene], 929, 1154, 1155, 1157
John the Deacon, 837
John Diacrinomenos, 420
John of Ephesus, 187–188, 189–190, 201–202, 425, 609, 864, 1010
John of Epiphaneia, 425
John of Fars, 1017
John of Gaza, 369, 374, 377, 385n6
John Geometres, 383
John Hephaestu, 189, 190
John the Lydian, 424, 608, 792
John Lydus, 454
John Malalas, 117, 130, 275, 283, 284, 288, 423, 425, 429, 454, 1150
John Moschos, 441
John the Nazarite, 188
John of Nikiu, 253
John of Phenek [John bar Penkāyē], 1016, 1060
John Philoponus
Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World, 575
De opificio mundi, 580
On the Eternity of the World against Philoponus (Simplicius), 575
Hellenism and, 455
physics and metaphysics of, 532, 535–536, 542, 548n97, 552n155
Against Proclus on the Eternity of the World, 574–575
world, Late Antique conception of, 530, 574–575, 579–580
John of Sinai [John Climacus; John Climax; John Klimax], 498, 501, 502, 1154
John of Tella, 187, 190
John Troglita, 343
John Tzetzes, 1152
Johnson, Aaron P., xxxviii, 437
Johnson, Samuel, 724, 730
Johnson, Scott Fitzgerald, xi, xxxviii, 562
Johnston, David, 792
Jones, A. H. M., xv, xxii, 602, 614, 863, 1055
Jordanes, 69–70, 424
Joseph (Ḥimyarite prince), 282–284, 289
Joseph (Church of the East patriarch), 1014
Joseph the Hymnographer [Joseph of Thessalonica; Joseph the Studite], 1157
Josephus (Flavius Josephus), 426, 429, 1150
Joshua the Stylite, Ps.-(Syriac historian), 421
Jovian (emperor), 409
Jovinus (imperial usurper), 37, 38
Judaism. See Jews and Judaism
(p. 1226) Julian (emperor)
Armenia and, 121
The Beard-Hater, 449
Caesars, 408
divorce under, 676, 802
education and, 476–478, 798
Eusebius of Nicomedia as guardian of, 882
Against the Galileans, 448, 450–451
Hellenism and, 445–451, 453
history writing in Late Antiquity and, 408–409, 411, 413, 418
hospital of Basil of Caesarea and, 719, 725
Hymn to Helios the King, 450
letter collections, 828
mental world of Late Antiquity and, 21
paganism, efforts to revive, 849, 855–856, 865, 881, 888
Syria and, 187
Western kingdoms and, 35
Julian of Neapolis, 174
Julian Romance, 187
Julian Saba, 183, 185
Julianist doctrine, 295
Julianus (jurist), 809n54
Julianus (sophist), 471
Julius Caesar, 422
Julius Julianus, 882
Julius Nepos, 105
justice and equality, 764–779. See also law and legal culture
accusations, establishment of procedures for, 765–767
aristocracy, judicial privileges of, 769–775
Christianity and, 769, 777–779
imperial influence and, 771–773, 775–778
importance of philosophical ideas about, 764–765
tension between, 767–770
Justin I (emperor), 283, 290, 423
Justin II (emperor), 102, 117, 132, 343, 370, 608, 677
Justin Martyr, 1154, 1165n12
Justina (empress), 99
Justinian I (emperor). See also Corpus Iuris Civilis
African and Western re-conquests by, 9, 15, 50, 894
Apollonian forgeries and, 918
Arabia and Ethiopia, diplomats sent to, 253, 259, 283, 284, 293
aristocracy and church hierarchy, reliance on, 612, 613
Armenia and, 130–131
Athenian Academy, closure of, 477–478, 850
Barberini Ivory possibly depicting, ii
bishops under, 894, 895
churches and basilicas founded by, 945, 946, 948–949
divorce laws under, 677, 679
Egypt under, 198
expansionist aims of, 1058
forced baptism of pagans mandated by, 849, 859
Greek poetry under, 369–370
history writing under, 423–424
hospitals and, 729
in Illyricum, 102, 106, 109–110
Institutes, 789–790, 796, 838
letter collections, 828
monetary system, changes to, 608, 613–614
pagarchy, edict relating to, 612
periodization of Late Antiquity and, 5
religious policy of, 1154
Republican framework for concept of lawgiving and, 789
tension between rule-based law and imperial discretion acknowledged by, 790
Justinian II (emperor), 1160–1163
Justinianic Code. See Corpus Iuris Civilis
Justinianic plague (541–542 c.e.). See plague, Justinianic
Juvencus, 344–345, 372
Juynboll, G. H. A., 1082
Ka‘ba, 286, 295, 302, 304, 309, 1070
Kaiserkritik, 179–181, 190
Kālēb [Ella Aṣbəḥa] (king of Ethiopia), 259, 261, 275, 283–284, 288–292
Kalends of January, celebration of, 858
Kavafis, Konstantinos [Cavafy], 384
Kawād [Kavad, Khavadh] I (Sasanian ruler), 116, 144, 1014
Kellia, monastery at, 489, 504
Kelly, Christopher, 790
Kennet, Derek, 305
Kepler, Johannes, 576
Keydell, Rudolf, 361
Khālid ibn al-Walīd, 297
Khālid ibn Ma’dan, 1065
Khārijīs, 1061, 1064
Khorezmians, 143, 157
Khotanese, 143
Khusrō [Khusro, Khusraw, Khusrau, Chosroes] I Anōshervān [Anūshirwān] (Sasanian ruler), 116–117, 129, 145, 296, 307, 425, 609, 1014, 1015, 1058, 1068
Khusrō [Khusro, Khusraw, Khusrau, Chosroes] II Aparvez (Sasanian ruler), 12, 13, 24, 122, 131, 297, 1010, 1015, 1018
Khuzistan Chronicle, 1020
Kidarites, 145, 146
Kirdīr (Zoroastrian chief priest), 998
Kister, Meir J., 286, 301, 1006, 1098
Kitzinger, Ernst, 975, 988
Kom el-Dikka, Alexandria, 471
Konon (pope), 1160
Koran. See Qur’ān
Korotayev, Andrey, 306
(p. 1227) Kosmas Indicopleustēs. See Cosmas Indicopleustes
Kosmas of Maïouma, 1157
Kossinna, Gustaf, 72, 76
Krader, Lawrence, 1121
Kulikowski, Michael, xxxviii, 31
Kyros (Egyptian official), 199
la Vaissière, Étienne de, xxxviii, 142
labor arrangements for agricultural lands, 634, 636–637
Labourt, Jerome, 997
Lactantius, 344, 409, 601, 769, 791
Ladder of Heavenly Ascent (John Climacus), 498, 502
laeti, 63, 752, 753, 754
Lakhmids, 1005–1006, 1018
Lammens, Henri, 302, 1078–1079
land and land ownership. See also agriculture and rural environment
Armenia, aristocrats owning villages in, 610
Roman real estate, aristocratic domination of, 602
The Last Byzantine Renaissance (Runciman, 1970), 1152–1153
Late Antiquity, xi–xxiv, 3–24
agriculture and rural environment in, 625–644. See also agriculture and rural environment
barbarians in, xix, 60–78. See also barbarians
Byzantium and, 1148–165. See also Byzantium
Christian character of, 1149–1150
citizenship in,