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date: 23 October 2018

(p. 679) Index

(p. 679) Index

A
aberrant cognition, 136
acceptance, 476–77
as change mechanism, 478–80
GAD treatment and, 370
open trials, 482–83t
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
evolution of, 477
GAD treatment and, 370
PDA treatment and, 310
protocol, 485
SAD treatment and, 340–41
trials, 481
acceptance-enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for panic (AE-CBT), PDA treatment and, 310
acetylcholine (ACh), 407
acrophobia
DCS and, 329
VRE and, 329
acupressure, 456
acupuncture, 456
acute reactivity
PD and, 114
PTSD and, 116
acute stress disorder (ASD), 6–7, 69
CBT and, 417
classical conditioning model for, 251–52
early learning theory models of, 251–52
external events and, 250
pharmacotherapy, 407
PTSD v., 423
PTSD vulnerability factors and, 253–54
treatment
benzodiazepine and, 407
beta-blockers and, 407
psychological, 423–24
adenosine 2A receptor gene (ADORA2A), 91
adrenal hypertrophy, 112
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 7
AD-depression comorbidity and, 582
CRF and, 79
HPA axis and, 112, 113
noradrenergic pathways and, 271
panic attacks and, 118–19
PD and, 113–14
PTSD acute reactivity and, 116
suppression, 114
Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-Elderly (AMAS-E), 627
aesthetic sensitivity, 544
affect
AD-depression comorbidity and, 582
intensity, 155
age of onset (AOO)
of BDD, 544
comorbidity and, 29
estimating, 20–21
median, 123–24
of OCD, 131
persistence and, 21–22
refining, 669
variation of specific phobia, 22
aggression, OCD and, 58–59
agoraphobia (AG), 5, 35–37, 209
comorbidity in cancer, 602–3
definition of, 35
family studies and, 89
heritability of, 88
ICD-10 and, 23
lifetime prevalence of, 23–24
linkage studies, 89–91, 90
OCD comorbidity in, 61
panic attacks and, 216
perfectionism and, 195
psychodynamic formulations and, 211
PTSD and, 271
standardized measures for, 286
treatment, 182
Agoraphobia Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), 286
agreeableness
OCD and, 200
personality domains and, 190–92
AG. See agoraphobia
alarms, 41
alcohol abuse
panic attacks and, 36
SAD comorbidity, 341
SP comorbidity in, 569–70
alcohol use disorder (AUD), 571
allele variation, 159
allostatic load, 70
alprazolam, 300
ambiguity, 142
modifying interpretive bias and, 146–47
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 648
American Psychiatric Association (APA)
Clinical and Counseling Division, 489
OCD guidelines, 380
PDA treatment guidelines and, 308
PD treatment guidelines and, 302
treatment and, 10
American Psychological Association Task Force and the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 645
amygdala, 8. See also basolateral nucleus of amygdala; central nucleus of amygdala
AD-depression comorbidity and, 581
exposure treatments and, 473
fear and, 155
GAD and, 100
hyperactivity, 98
neurocircuitry, 99, 99f
panic and, 127–28
PD and, 100
(p. 680) PTSD and, 66, 99, 406–7
REM sleep and, 614
SAD and, 99–100
SP and, 100
specific genes, 80–81
stress and, 127–28
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 360
androgen, 131
anger, social phobia and, 211
animal models
challenges for, 81–82
experimental neurosis in, 160–62
validity of, 75–76
vicarious learning and, 166
antalarmin, 79
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 98–99, 100
OCD and, 104
PD and, 101
PTSD and, 100–101
SAD and, 101
SP and, 101
TENC and, 101
anticonvulsants
for GAD, 353–59
PD treatment and, 301–2
PTSD treatment and, 410–11
for SAD treatment, 324
antidepressants, 11
benzodiazepines and, 301
FDA-approved, 516t
for GAD, 352–53
trials for, 354–58t
PD treatment and, 296, 297
PTSD treatment and, 408–10
antipsychotics, atypical
for GAD, 359–60
PD treatment and, 301
PTSD treatment and, 411
for SAD treatment, 325
SRI augmentation and, 380
anxieties.com, 494
anxiety. See also health anxiety
AS and, 193
affect intensity of, 155
animal models of, 75–76
anthropological approach to, 658
assessments, 627
in youth, 643–45
attention and, 137–39
BNST and, 155
childhood, CBT and, 193
chronic, 154
clinical approach to, 657–58
consequences of, 154–55, 220–21
cues, 154, 280–81
culture and, 657–58
depression v., 162–63
development, 162–63
diathesis-stress model of, 163
experimentally-induced, 159–62
fear v., 153
genetic contribution to, 156–59
geriatric, 626
hypochondriasis and, 525
integrated approach to, 658
interpretive bias and, 142–43
maladaptive, 636
maternal, 176
measures of, for rodents, 76–77
as memory structure, 238
nature of, 153–55
obsessional, 392
origins of, 156–67
overlap, with depression, 268
parental, 175–76
sensitivity, 155
sleep disturbance and, 613
social, 180
catastrophic thinking and, 164
stimulus-driven v. cognition-driven, 98
substance-induced, 568
symptoms, 513
treatment, in later life, 628–30
vicarious learning of, 165
worry v., 49–50
in youth, 636–38
Anxiety and Depression Detector (ADD), 515
Anxiety Control Questionnaire, 164
anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), 265
OCD and, 270–71
prevalence of, 273–74
anxiety disorders (ADs)
aberrant cognition and, 136
adolescent v. adult, 125
bias relationship to, 145–47
child, 497
child-adolescent, treatment of, 21
chronic pain and, 551
classification of, 265–66
codification of, 28
cognitions and, 42
cognitive components of, 280
comorbidity in, 28–29, 34, 87, 513–14, 565
comorbidity in autoimmune disorders, 605–6
comorbidity in cancer, 602–3
comorbidity in chronic pain, 602
comorbidity in depression, 576–78
theories, 581–83
time course of, 580–81
comorbidity in GI disorders, 600–601
comorbidity in neurologic disorders, 603–4
comorbidity in personality disorders
prognosis of, 593
treatment of, 593
comorbidity in physical disorders, 596–97
comorbidity in respiratory disorders, 601
comorbidity in sleep disturbance, 615–17
comorbidity in SUD, treatment, 571–73
continuity of, 124–25
co-occurring with depressive disorders, 577t
core features of, 670
core pathology conceptualization of, 442
costs of, 514
CSA and, 176
detection, 513
developmental origins of, 125–26
development of, 280
diagnosis, 97–98
discriminating between, 278
DSM classification of, 441
early onset v. late onset of, 626–27
ethnicity and, 660
etiology of, 671
functional impact of, 514
gender and, 660
genetic epidemiology of, 87–92
genetic vulnerabilities for, 269
medical comorbidity in, 513
molecular genetics of, 89–92
multiple, 515
neuroendocrinology of, 113–18
neuroticism/extraversion distribution, 590f
OCD comorbidity in, 60–61
in older adults, 626
personality disorder traits and, 591–92
common etiology of, 592
personality traits and, 588–92
pharmacological treatment of, 429–30
phenomenology, 97–98
predominant, 278
prevalence of, 512–13
in later life, 625–26
in primary care, 512–13, 515
psychological treatment for, 13t
recognition of, 512–13
relationships between, 269–71
severity of, 272
sleep and, 611
social relationships and, 178–82
societal costs of, 29
specific, 515
substance-induced, 265, 566
treatment, 11–12
of comorbid, 443
recent developments in, 671–74
variables contributing to, 159
in youth
aspects of, 638–39
comorbidity of, 641–42
longitudinal research of, 642–43
prevalence of, 641, 642t
risk factors, 639–41
treatment, 645–49
Anxiety Disorders Interview Scale (ADIS-R), 628
(p. 681) Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS), 266
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children: Parent and Child Versions for DSM-IV (ADIS-C/P), 643
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Lifetime Version (ADIS-IV-L), 266
diagnostic comorbidity and, 267
anxiety-like behavior
environment and, 81
systems modulating, 78–81
anxiety management training (AMT)
efficacy of, 422
for GAD, 365
PTSD treatment and, 418
anxiety sensitivity (AS), 192–95, 203
AD-SUD comorbidity and, 569
assessment by, 281–82
fear of pain and, 558
as mediator, 569
misinterpretation of, 215–18
PTSD and, 198–99
SAD and, 196–97
vicarious conditioning and, 213–14
Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), 36, 286
fear of pain assessment and, 556
fear-related bodily sensations and, 136
insula and, 102
panic onset and, 128
anxiolytics, 81
anxious apprehension model, 226
anxious-misery, 201
AOO. See age-of-onset
applied relaxation, 337. See also relaxation training
GAD treatment and, 365
specific phobia treatment and, 344
applied tension, 12
specific phobia treatment and, 344
approach behavior, 479–80
arginine vasopressin (AVP), 112
aromatherapy, 455
massage and, 453–54
arousal, PTSD and, 6
assessment, 4
behavioral, 283–85
diagnostic, 277–80
diary measures and, 285
domains of, 280–83
feedback as, 288
following treatment, 288
interoceptive, 284–85
multimethod, 288
psychophysiological, 285
purpose of, 277
standardized measures for, 285–88
association
irrelevant, 243
studies, 91–92
asthma, 601
attachment theory, 163
Attacking Anxiety, 492
attention
bias, 137–39
self-focused, 218
threats and, 154
Attentional Control Training task, 436
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
comorbidity, 642
continuity of, 125
OCD and, 131
attributional style, negative, 163
attribution-based models, of PTSD, 256
audio materials, 492
augmentation/refractory sample trials, in OCD, 377t
augmentation strategies
for OCD treatment, 376–78
for SAD treatment, 328
automaticity, mindfulness and, 479
automatic processes, emotion and, 137
automatic thoughts, 446
autonomic nervous system (ANS), 111
autonomic response, 268–69
in rodents, 77
autonomy, encouragement of, 163
avoidance behaviors, 281
assessment by, 281
situational, 281
attentional, 138–39
behavioral assessment and, 284
CBT targeting, 367
for GAD, 367
cognitive-emotional, 234
conditioning and, 252
consequences of, 221
control and, 164
DTS and, 288
experiential v. emotional, 478–79
experimental, 310
exposure treatments and, 468
hoarding and, 243
hypochondriasis and, 526
IU and, 230
obsession and, 240
OCD and, 57
psychodynamic formulations and, 210
PTSD and, 6, 66, 67
in rodents, 76
specific phobia and, 41
targeting, 478–79
worry as, 227
avoidant personality disorder (APD)
SAD and, 37–38
SP v., 588t
axiogenic beliefs, 218
ayurveda, 456–57
azapirones, 359
B
Barlow, Carolee, 80
Barlow, D.H., 226
Barlow et al. protocol, 445
outcome data, 446–47
barriers to care, 519
basal ganglia, 129
basal state studies
PD, 113
PTSD, 115–16
basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA), 406
Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), 627
Beck Depression Index (BDI), 401
Beck, J. G., 225–26
bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), 155
behavioral activation, 466
in BDD treatment, 546
behavioral activation positive affect (BA/P), 157
Behavioral Approach System (BAS), 157
behavioral approach tests (BATs), 284
progressive v. selective, 284
behavioral assessment, 283–85
behavioral experiments, 466
OCD and, 395
behavioral genetic studies, 157–59
behavioral inhibition (BI), 89, 214
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), 157
behavioral models, 211–15
cognitive theories and, 215–20
cultural factors and, 214
evolutionary theories and, 215
temperament and, 214
behavioral stress management (BSM), 534–35
narrative review, 535–36
behavioral theory, of OCD, 129
behavior genetics, 173–74
behavior therapy (BT)
for GAD, 370
for OCD, 392–94
theoretical basis, 392–93
beliefs
dysfunctional, 526–28, 527f
erroneous, 395
hoarding and, 243
of hypochondriasis, 527t
modifying, 369
obsessions and, 241
(p. 682) positive
GAD and, 231, 233
motivational interviewing and, 372
role of, 234
worry and, 230, 368
responsibility, 239–40
worry and, 228–29, 368
benzodiazepines, 11
for AD-insomnia comorbidity, 616–17
adverse effects of, 300
antidepressants and, 301
ASD treatment and, 407
CBT and, 300, 434
for GAD, 359
for nocturnal panic, 618
for older adults, 629–30
PD treatment and, 296, 300–301
in primary care, 517
PTSD treatment and, 407–8
for SAD treatment, 324
side effects, 517
beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, 517
beta-blockers
PD treatment and, 301
in primary care, 517
side effects, 517
bias, 136
attention, 137–39
covariation, 143–45
expectancy, 144–45
eliminating, 145–46
interpretive, 142–43
relation to anxiety disorders of, 145–47
TAF, 241
telescoping, 20
biofeedback, 454
biological challenge paradigm, 193
biological challenges, 284–85
biologically based practices, 452–53
biological models
of panic disorder, 36
of PTSD, 66
biological processes, 7–8
biological treatments, 11
biological vulnerability, 156–59
bipolar disorder
linkage studies, 91
OCD comorbidity in, 60–61
blood-injury phobia, 22
blood pressure, panic attacks and, 36–37
bodily sensations. See also anxiety sensitivity; physical sensations
BSM and, 535
hypervigilance to, 218
hypochondriasis and, 526
misinterpretation of, 215–18
body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) AOO of, 544
cognitive behavioral model of, 544–45
cosmetic procedures in, 542–43
demographics, 543
effect of, 543
future research in, 548
history, 541
mirror gazing and, 547
NICE and, 548
OCD and, 6, 28
presentation, 544
psychopathology, 541–42
risk factors, 544
social anxiety and, 547
treatment
CBT and, 545–47
pharmacotherapy and, 547–48
borderline personality disorder (BPD)
DBT and, 478
PTSD comorbidity in, 589
Borkovec, Thomas, 367
Bosnia, PTSD and, 27
Boston University, 164
brain differences, 97
brain imaging studies, 132
breathing retraining, 629
Brief Social Phobia Scale, 322
Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), 515
British Medical Journal, 127
bupropion
PD treatment and, 301
in primary care, 516
for SAD treatment, 325
buspirone
PD treatment and, 301
in primary care, 516–17
as SRI augmenting agent, 383
C
Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA), 308
treatment and, 10
cancer, 602–3
cannabinoids, 412
capacity consumption, 138
cardiac disorders, 597–600
catastrophic thinking, 164
catecholamine, 116
catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, 92
CCK-B agonists, 114
Centella asiatica. See gotu kola
Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders, 164
central drive studies
of PD, 114–15
PTSD and, 116–17
central nervous system (CNS), 452
central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), 406
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), CRH in, 113
checking rituals, 391
memory and, 141–42
Child Anxiety Impact Scale-Parent Version (CAIS-P), 645
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 645
childhood
anxiety disorders, 497
sexual abuse and, 176
CBT and, 193
psychodynamic formulations and, 210–11
childhood sexual abuse (CSA), 141
CBT for, 647
childhood temperament, 9–10
children. See also youth
AD etiology and, 671
cognitive behavioral model of intervention for, 503f
comorbidity in, 500
indicated prevention for, 503–4
internalization and, 180–81
neglect and, 178–79
with OCD, 384
panic attacks in, 127
panic symptomatology in, 193–94
parenting style and, 163
prevention approaches for, 498
risk factors for, 501–2, 506
selective prevention for, 504–5
universal prevention for, 505–7
untreated, 498
Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), 649
chiropractic, 453
cholecystokinin (CCK)
AD-depression comorbidity and, 581–82
neurotransmitter system, 91
Christchurch Health and Development Study, 124
chromosome linkage studies, 90
chronicity, 21–22
chronic pain, 551–53, 602
conceptual controversies, 553–55
diagnostic features of, 553
fear-anxiety-avoidance model of, 552–53, 554f
(p. 683) fear-avoidance model of, 552f
treatment, 557
cingulate cortex, 80
Clark, David, 9, 241–42
classification, 4, 265–66
categorical approach to, 272
dimensional, 271–73
future directions in, 271, 667–69
multiaxial, 668
thresholds, 271
claustrophobia, 219
cleaning, 58–59
Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I), 352
clinical interviews, 279–80
of youth, 643–44
clinical severity rating (CSR), 266
Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), 287–88
older adults and, 628
clinician rating scales, 628
clomipramine, 376
BDD treatment and, 547–48
efficacy studies of, 433
hypochondriasis treatment and, 535
OCD and, 516
clonazepam, 300
OCD treatment and, 378
in primary care, 517
as SRI augmenting agent, 383
clonidine, 407
cluster analysis, of OCSD, 59
cluster C disorders, 61–62
CO2 exposure, 480
Cochrane Database, 455
cognition restructuring
guilt feelings and, 421
PE and, 419–20
cognitions
anxiety disorders and, 42
anxiety prevention and, 502
worry and, 51–52
cognitive avoidance model, of GAD, 234
cognitive avoidance theory, 226–28
emotional dysregulation model and, 231
empirical support for, 227
cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT), 335–36
phenelzine v., for SAD treatment, 338
cognitive behavioral interventions
cost-effective, 313
for specific phobias, 343
cognitive behavioral model
of BDD, 544–45
for children, 503f
of OCD
of Rachman, 240–41
of Salkovski, 239–40
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 12. See also cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia
access to, 674
AD-depression comorbidity treatment and, 583
for ADs in youth, 645–47
ADs in youth and, 640–41
AD-SUD comorbidity treatment, 571–73
ASD treatment and, 423–24
availability of, 431–33
in BDD treatment, 546
BDD treatment and, 545–47
benzodiazepines and, 300, 434
BSM and, 534–35
narrative review, 535–36
for children, 497–98
chronic pain treatment and, 557
combined with pharmacotherapy, 429–30
for CSA, 647
DCS and, 435–36
discontinuation, SSRI discontinuation v., 379
efficacy of, 442–43
for GAD, 370–72
efficacy studies, 433–34
EMDR and, 418–19
emotion-focused, 646
ERP effectiveness and, 396
family-based, 646
family treatment and, 184
fear of pain treatment and, 557
fear reduction and, 461
fluoxetine and, 433
fluvoxamine and, 433–34
GAD treatment and, 365
group-based, 504
GSAD pharmacotherapy and, 329
hypochondriasis treatment and, 531–35
meta-analysis of, 536
TAU v., 538
individual v. group, for PDA treatment, 312
integrated models of care and, 518
in later life, 628–29
mechanisms of, 430
medication and, for PDA treatment, 311–12
meta-analyses of, 337–38
models of OCD, 240–43
validation of, 245–46
for nocturnal panic, 617–18
OCD treatment and, 240, 375
efficacy of, 246–47
for older adults, 631
PDA and
effectiveness studies, 312–13
efficacy studies, 311–12
research review, 311–13
PDA treatment and, 308
long-term outcome of, 317
PD treatment and, 303
prevention, 508
in primary care, 517
PTSD treatment and, efficacy of, 419–22
Rachman's cognitive behavioral model of OCD, 240–41
RCTs of, 497
relationships and, 182–83
response predictors, 673
SAD treatment and, 334–37, 338–39
cognitive change, 343
selective, 505
self-help, 491
social phobia treatment and, 145, 211
targeting avoidance, 367
therapeutic learning and, 430
tolerability of, 430–31
training, 674
cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), 615–17
effectiveness of, 618
treatment components, 616t
cognitive biases, 41
cognitive change, 343
cognitive components, 280
cognitive distortions, of youth, 636–37
cognitive processes, 218–20
in PTSD, 255
cognitive processing therapy (CPT), 419–21
cognitive restructuring
Erickson et al. protocol and, 446
exposure treatments plus, for SAD, 335–36
meta-analyses of, 338
Norton and Hope protocol and, 444–45
PDA treatment and, 309
self-help treatment and, 493
specific phobia treatment and, 344
cognitive symptoms
anxiety sensitivity and, 192, 194
scar model and, 195
cognitive theory, 9
behavioral models and, 215–20
of OCD, 129–30
cognitive therapy (CT)
barriers to care in, 519
cortisol levels and, 118
efficacy of, for GAD, 370
with ERP, 398–99
ERP v., 397–98, 398t
GAD treatment and, 232, 365
implementation of, 394–95
for OCD, efficacy of, 246–47
OCD and, 394–95
PDA treatment and, 310
PTSD treatment and, 418
efficacy, 420–21
theoretical basis of, 394
collaborative care (CC), 518
Collaborative Care for Anxiety and Panic study (CCAP), 313, 518
barriers to care and, 519
(p. 684) Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS), 589
combination treatments, 12
availability of, 431–33
combination, frontal activation, 436
with DCS, 435–36
NMDA and, 435
for SAD, 326–28, 327t
sequential, 672
use of, 434
for youth, 649
comorbidity, 3–4, 513–14
AD-depression
prevalence of, 576–78
theories, 581–83
time course of, 580–81
treatment, 583–84
AD-personality disorder, 588–91
causal relationship, 591–92
clinical course, 592–94
symptom severity and, 592–93
AD-physical disorder, 596–97, 598–99t
of ADs, in youth, 641–42
AD-SUD
CBT and, 571–73
high-risk hypothesis, 570
lifetime prevalence of, 567t
susceptibility hypothesis, 570
theories, 568–71
third variable for, 568
treatment, 571–73
among anxiety disorders, 28–29
of anxiety disorders, 34
as artifact, 588
in BDD, 541
in cancer, 602–3
in cardiac disorders, 597–600
in children, 500
in chronic pain, 602
continuity and, 125
core pathology conceptualization and, 442
diagnosing, 267, 278–79
DSM-IV hierarchical rules and, 272
epidemiology of, 565–68
in GAD, 49
in GI disorders, 600–601
in hoarding, 630–31
medical, 513, 627
in metabolic disorders, 601–2
in neurological disorders, 603–5
in OCD, 60–62, 384
order of onset, 568
patterns of, 669
in PDA, 314–15
PD-SUD, 569
personality factors and, 203–4
in physical disorders, 283
prevalence for AD-SUD, 566
psychiatric, 513, 627
in PTSD, 68–69
PTSD-SUD, 570
in respiratory disorders, 601
in SAD, 341–42
SP-alcohol abuse, 569–70
in specific phobia, 41
treatment of, 443
compassionate mind training, 546
competence, control and, 160
complementary and/or alternative medicine (CAM), 451
body-based practices, 453
commonly used, 452t
with conventional medical treatments, 457
future of, 672
mind-body intervention strategies and, 454–55
whole medical systems and, 456–57
compliance. See homework compliance
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 20
prevalence of agoraphobia and, 23
prevalence of SEPAD and, 25
prevalence of social phobia and, 24
compulsions
definition of, 57, 391
ERP and, 393
maintaining, 401
nonclinical, 58
obsessions v., 129–30
reassurance-seeking behavior and, 270
relationship with obsessions, 245
spontaneous decay of, 392
in youth, 638
computer-based treatments, 675
Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Cocaine Dependence (CTPCD), 572
conditioned response (CR), 77
conditioning model for PTSD and, 251–52
conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioning model for PTSD and, 251–52
conditioned stimulus-unconditioned response (CS-US) association, 411
extinction learning and, 463
conditioning. See also Pavlovian conditioning; superconditioning
avoidance and, 252
classical models, 8
dose-dependent response model, 251–52
learned fear and, 77
model for ASD, 251–52
model for PTSD, 251–52
PTSD and, 66, 126
theories, 211
two-factor theory, 252
vicarious, 166
specific phobia and, 213–14
conduct disorder (CD)
comorbidity, 642
continuity of, 125
conscientiousness
OCD and, 200
personality domains and, 190–92
PTSD and, 197–98
Consensus Statement on Social Anxiety Disorder, 328
construct validity, 75–76
contamination obsessions, 58–59, 391
psychosocial environment and, 283
context-specificity, 470
continuity, 124–25
heterotypic, 125
homotypic, 125
control
avoidance behavior and, 164
competence and, 160
cortisol and, 164–65
diminished sense of, 156, 159–65
emotional, 220
illusion of, 216
locus of, 162–63
loss of, HPA axis and, 162
parental, 174–76
perceived
AD-depression comorbidity and, 582
moderational v. mediational, 164
social phobia and, 218
Coping Cat, 497, 503
for ADs in youth, 646
Coping Koala, 503–4
Coping Questionnaire (CQ), 644
coping strategies
maladaptive, 529
problem-based v. emotion-based, 502
Coping with Illness Anxiety, 531–34
core pathology conceptualization, 442–43
accessibility of, 443–44
dissemination of, 443–44
coronary heart disease (CHD), 597
correlations, illusory, 144–45
cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit, 98
OCD and, 99f, 105
corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 7, 154. See also corticotropinreleasing hormone
AD-depression comorbidity and, 582
anxiety-like behavior modulation and, 78–79
early experiences and, 161
pituitary gland sensitivity and, 161
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). See also corticotropin-releasing factor
in CSF, 113
gene, 92, 158
HPA axis and, 112, 113
PD central drive and, 115
in stress response, 112
cortisol
cognitive therapy and, 118
control and, 164–65
experimental neurosis, 160–61
(p. 685) HPA axis and, 112
panic attacks and, 118–19
PD and
basal state studies, 113
central drive, 115
PTSD and, 115–16
SEPAD and, 164
specific phobia and, 118
co-rumination, 181
cosmetic procedures, 542–43
cosmetic surgery, 542–43
costs
of anxiety disorders, 514
of chronic pain, 551
reducing, 674–75
course of illness, 21–22
covariation bias, 143–45
CRF1 antagonists, 79
cross-cultural factors, PTSD and, 69
cued recall tests, 139–40
cultural factors, behavioral models and, 214
cultural influences, 10, 181
culture
anxiety and, 657–58
formation off, 659
GAD and, 661–62
OCD and, 660–61
PD and, 659–60
PTSD and, 661
SAD and, 660
somatic symptoms and, 661–62
culture-bound syndromes, 10, 659
D
dACC. See dorsal ACC
danger
learned, 165–67
somatic symptoms v., 166
DA. See dopamine
Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), 288
DCS. See D-cycloserine
d-cycloserine (DCS)
acrophobia treatment and, 329
as augmentation gent, 378
combination treatment with, 435–36
extinction learning mechanisms and, 466–67
memory consolidation and, 339
PTSD treatment and, 412
SAD treatment and, 325, 339
VRE and, 344
DeCode group, 90
deep brain stimulation (DBS), 378–79
for OCD, 378–79
defensive startle, 76–77
deficits, 136
dementia, 630
de-methylation, 81
depression
allele variation and, 159
anxiety v., 162–63
BDD comorbidity in, 543
biochemical processes of, 7–8
chronic pain and, 551
comorbidity
in BDD, 541
in PDA, 314–15
comorbidity in ADs, 576–78
theories, 581–83
time course of, 580–81
treatment, 583–84
GAD v., 48
genetic studies of, 269
glutamate and, 360
helplessness v., 162
hypochondriasis treatment and, 531
medical comorbidity in, 513
OCD treatment and, 401
OCD v., 579
overlap, with anxiety, 268
in primary care, 515
social phobia and, 269–70
depressive disorders
co-occurring with ADs, 577t
GAD v., 578
PTSD v., 578–79
depressive rumination, 52
desensitization, systematic, 461–62
development processes, 9–10
dexamethasone, 113
dexamethasone suppression test (DST)
PD and, 114–15
PTSD and, 114–17
diabetes, 601–2
OCD treatment and, 385
diagnosis
establishing, 278–79
predominant, 278
validating, 667
(p. 686) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
anxiety disorder codification and, 28
anxiety disorders and, 34
BSI-18 and, 515
CAM and, 451–52
clinical approach of, 657–58
future direction of, 667–69
OCD and, 28
SAD definition and, 37
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V)
dimensional classification of, 273
improvements in, 668
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), 4
agoraphobia, 36
anxiety disorder comorbidity and, 28–29
anxiety disorders in, 441
APD and, 37–38
ASD and, 423
classification system of, 265–66
continuity of psychiatric disorders and, 124
cultural formation and, 659
culture and, 658–59
culture-bound syndromes and, 659
disorder constructs, 267–69
DSM-III-R v., 267
GAD classification, 350
GAD diagnosis and, 48
GAD diagnostic criteria and, 366
hierarchical rules, 272
hierarchy rules, 267
ICD v., 19
inconsistency of, 272
molecular genetics and, 89
panic attacks and, 41
panic disorder
baseline diagnosis of, 36
definition and, 35
prevalence of agoraphobia and, 23
prevalence of GAD and, 25–26
prevalence of social phobia and, 24
PTSD diagnosis and, 259
SAD and, 37–38, 638
schizo-obsessive disorder and, OCD comorbidity with, 61
somatic symptoms in, 637
specific phobias and, 5–6, 209
subtypes of, 39
TKS and, 660
trauma definition, 67
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM–IV–TR)
ASD and, 250
BDD and, 541
chronic pain diagnosis and, 553
GAD diagnostic criteria and, 48
hypochondriasis diagnosis in, 529–30
obsessions and, 51
OCD classification, 391–92
OCD features and, 56–57
prevalence of SEPAD and, 24
PTSD and, 250
SUD diagnosis, 566
symptom criteria, 578
traumatic stressors and, 251
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition (DSM-III)
anxiety disorders in, 441
DSM-IV v., 20
GAD diagnostic criteria and, 47, 225, 366
panic disorder definition and, 35
phobic disorders and, 39
trauma definition, 66–67
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised (DSM-III-R)
anxiety disorder comorbidity and, 87
anxiety disorders in, 441
DSM-IV v., 267
GAD diagnostic criteria and, 350, 366
prevalence of GAD and, 25
diagnostic criteria, 3–4, 19–20
differences in, 20
Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA), 644
Diagnostic Interview Schedule, prevalence of agoraphobia and, 23
Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), 19–20
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC), 644
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 478
diary measures, 285
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), 457
difference in patient report, 266
dimensional data, 266
Diogenes' syndrome, 630
discontinuation studies, 379–80
disease, illness v., 658
disgust, OCD and, 105
disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS), 69–70
distress disorders, 669
comorbidity in, 28
distress factor, 668–69
dmPFC. See dorsal mPFC
dopamine (DA)
OCD and, 376
PTSD and, 407
dorsal ACC (dACC), OCD risk factors and, 129
dorsal mPFC (dmPFC), 101–2
dose-dependent response model, 251–52
dosing, single acute v. chronic, 82
dot-probe paradigm, 138, 146
doubt, pathological
OCD and, 57
triggers, 394
dream anxiety disorder. See nightmare disorder
dropout rates, 431t
hypochondriasis treatment and, 536
self-help treatment and, 491
drug abuse, panic attacks and, 36
dsythemic disorder, diagnostic reliability of, 266
dual processing models of PTSD, 255–56
duloxetine, for GAD, 353
DUP25, 91
duration (E) criterion, 68
dysmorphophobia. See body dysmorphic disorder
dysthymia
GAD comorbidity and, 49
prevalence, 577
E
early experiences
anxiety vulnerability and, 164
CRF and, 161
early learning theory models, 251–52
eating disorders
OCD and, 28
specific phobia v., 6
E criterion. See duration criterion
effectiveness studies, of ERP, 396
efficacy studies
of CBT, 433–34
of combined treatments, 433–34
pharmacotherapy, 433–34
ego-dystonicity, 241–42
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), for OCD treatment, 378
emotion. See also expressed emotion
automatic processes and, 137
GAD and, 231–32
perceptual memory and, 154
emotional attachment problems, hoarding and, 243
emotional disorders, dimensional classification of, 273
emotional dysregulation model, 231–32
emotional functioning, of youth, 637
emotional overinvolvement (EOI), 182
emotional processing
extinction learning mechanisms and, 465
sleep disturbance and, 614–15
emotional processing models, for PTSD, 253–58
emotional processing theories
criticism of, 258
fear activation and, 471
emotional regulation therapy, for GAD, 233
emotional skills
facilitation of, 479
regulation of, 479
emotion-focused therapy (EFT), PDA treatment and, 311
emotion regulation, worry and, 51
emotions, fear of, 478
energy medicine, 455–56
engagement, in BDD treatment, 545–46
environment
anxiety-like behavior and, 81
family, 176
genetics and, 173–74
psychosocial, assessment by, 282
twin studies and, 173
epidemics, 525
Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA), 566
MDD comorbidity and, 580
epidemiological survey, of sleep, 613
epidemiological surveys
of comorbidity, 555–56
considerations for, 20–21
mental disorders in, assessment of, 19–21
epigenetic inheritance, research, 132
equifinality, 181–82
Erickson et al. protocol, 445–46
outcome data, 446–47
escitalopram, for SAD treatment, 323
ethics, human experiments and, 166
ethnicity, 660, 662
event-related potential (ERP), 104
evolutionary theories, behavioral models and, 215
expectancy-free living, 367
expectancy violation, extinction learning mechanisms and, 465–66
Expert Consensus Guidelines, 11
Expert Knowledge Systems, 11
explanatory therapy, 534
narrative review, 535
exposure therapy
CT and, 421
models of, 462
PTSD and, efficacy of, 419–20
PTSD treatment and, 418
exposure treatments
context-specificity and, 470
designing, 467–68
duration of, 470–71
fear activation during, 471–72
(p. 687) fear of pain treatment and, 558
review of, 558
frequency of, 470–71
graduated, 447
history of, 461–62
hypochondriasis treatment and, 534
narrative review, 535
mechanisms of, 462–64, 467
meta-analyses of, 338
mindfulness and, 479
moderators of, 472
outcome maximizing, 467–72
outcomes, 469–70
pharmacotherapy and, 432–33
plus cognitive restructuring, for SAD, 335–36
for SAD, 335
social phobia and, 468
specific phobia treatment and, 343
sustained excitation during, 472
exposure with response prevention (ERP), 238
augmentation, 399–400
CBT model validation and, 245
comorbid OCD-SUD and, 572
CT v., 397–98, 398 t
CT with, 398–99
description of, 393
effective studies of, 395–97
effects of, 396 t
efficacy of, 395
frequency of, 400
mechanisms of action, 393–94
medication v., 399
for OCD, efficacy of, 246–47
OCD treatment and, 392–93
poor insight and, 400
RET v., 397
for youth, 646
expressed emotion (EE), 182, 401
extinction learning, 463–64
mechanisms of, 464–67
extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), 80–81
extraversion
ADs and, 590 f
OCD and, 199–200, 201
personality disorder assessment and, 588
personality domains and, 190–92
PTSD and, 197–98
SAD and, 195
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), 12
key components n, 672
PTSD treatment and, 417–19
efficacy of, 421–22
relaxation training and, 420
specific phobia treatment, 344
eye tracking, attentional avoidance and, 139
F
face recognition, attention and, 138
face validity, 75
false alarms, 156
nonclinical, 165
False Safety-behavior Elimination Therapy (F-SET), 445
familial aggregation, 88–89
Familial Enhancement of Avoidant Responding (FEAR), 175
family, 174–78
ADs in youth and, 641
CBT and, 184
discussions, 183
environment, 176
OCD and, 178
treatment, 183–84
family history, AD-SUD comorbidity and, 568
family studies, 88–89
faulty inference processes, 242–43
F criterion, 68. See also functional impairment
fear. See also fear of pain
acquisition, 8, 462, 464
activation, during exposure treatments, 471–72
amygdala and, 155
amygdala neurocircuitry and, 99
anxiety v., 153
behavioral assessment and, 284
conditioned, 211
conditioning models, 66
cues
pharmacotherapy and, 432
for PTSD, 258
of emotions, 478
enhanced by stress, 81
of fear, 212–13
habituation and, 462–63
learned, 254
PTSD and, 406
in rodents, 77
meaning of, 220
as memory structure, 238–39
nature of, 155–56
obsessional, acquisition of, 392
panic attacks v., 41
of physical sensations, 282
reduction, 461, 463
return of, 463
extinction learning and, 464
situational, exposure treatments and, 468
social learning and, 180
system, 156
unconditioned, 211
without panic, 216
fear and avoidance hierarchies (FAH), 284
fear-anxiety-avoidance model, of chronic pain, 552–53, 554 f
Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), 556
fear-avoidance model, of chronic pain, 552 f
fear disorders, comorbidity in, 28
feared stimulus, hypervigilance to, 239
fear factor, 668–69
FearFighter, 492–93
Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE), 286
fear of pain, 551–52, 553
anxiety sensitivity and, 558
assessment
methods, 555–57
rationale, 555
questions, 558–59
specific phobias v., 555
treatment
features, 557–58
frequency, 558
review, 558
Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III (FPQ-III), fear of pain assessment and, 556
fear-potentiated startle (FPS), 77
fear-related bodily sensations, 136
fears
learned, 177–78
obsessional, 391
fear structures, 226
feedback, 288
feedback inhibition
of PD, 114–15
PTSD and, 116–17
fight or flight response, 156
fire, hoarding and, 631
5-HT1A receptor, 78, 360–61
AD-depression comorbidity and, 581
5-HT. See serotonin
five-factor model (FFM), 190–92
IHM and, 202–3
OCD and, 200
specific phobias and, 201–2
flashbacks, 98
flight-fight system (FFS), 157
flight or fight response, 41
CRF and, 79
mind-body intervention and, 454
neuroendocrinology of, 113
in youth, 640
flinch response, 76
fluoxetine
BDD treatment and, 547
CBT and, 433
for SAD treatment, 339
hypochondriasis treatment and, 535
meta-analysis of, 536
PTSD treatment and, 408–9
for SAD treatment, 322–23
(p. 688) fluphenazine, 411
fluvoxamine
CBT and, 433–34
hypochondriasis treatment and, 535
for SAD treatment, 321–22
focus, cultivating, 478
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) antidepressants, 515, 516 t
GAD medications, 351 t
GAD pharmacotherapy and, 350
SNRIs and, 299
supplements and, 457
forgetting, directed, 141
FPQ-III Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III
free recall tests, 139–40
freezing, 156
in rodents, 76
Freud, Sigmund, BDD and, 541
FRIENDS program, 504
effectiveness, 505
long-term, 507
universal prevention and, 505–6
frontal activation, 436
Frost, R., 243–44
functional connectivity, 104
functional impairment, 4
PTSD and, 68
sleep disturbance and, 613 f
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
combination treatment and, 436
PD and, 127
G
gabapentin, for SAD treatment, 324
GAD-7, 287
screening, 515
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
ADs in youth and, 640
PD treatment and, 297
PTSD treatment and, 410
gastrin related peptide (GRP), 80
gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 600–601
gastrointestinal problems, GAD comorbidity in, 49
Gate Control Theory of Pain, 551
gatekeepers, 250
gender, 662, 669
gene-by-environment (GxE) interaction, 93
gene-environment intersection, 165
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 3-4, 7
amygdala and, 100
AOO of, 21
autonomic arousal and, 268–69
classification, 350
clinical features of, 47–49
cognitive model for, MCT and, 368
comorbidity in, 49
comorbidity in asthma, 601
comorbidity in chronic pain, 602
comorbidity in depression, treatment, 583–84
continuity of, 124
CT and, 232
culture and, 661–62
depression v., 48
depressive disorders v., 578
diagnosis, 47–49
history of, 47–48
diagnostic criteria, shifting, 366
as dimensional construct, 577
dot-probe paradigm and, 138
dropout rates, 431
early onset v. late onset of, 626–27
emotional dysregulation model of, 231–32
emotional regulation therapy for, 233
FDA-approved medications, 351 t
5-HT1A receptor and, 360–61
genetic vulnerabilities for, 269
glutamate and, 360
heritability of, 88
heterocyclic antidepressants and, in primary care, 516
ICD-10 and, 48
integrated models of care and, 518
interpretive bias in, 142
intolerance of uncertainty model for, 230–31
IU and, 233
latent factor, 270
MBSR and, 481
MCT for, 233–34
memory bias and, 140
metacognitive model of, 228–30
mindfulness and, 481
model of anxious apprehension for, 226
models of, 234
NAC and, 360
NATs and, 226
neurocircuitry and, 105
neuroendocrinology of, 118
neuroimaging of, 105
neuroticism and, 202, 589
nightmare disorder and, 618
OCD and, 51, 270–71
OCD comorbidity in, 61
in older adults, 674
panic attacks and, 278
pathological worry v., 229
personality factors in, 201
pharmacotherapy for, 350–52
positive beliefs and, 231
prevalence of, 25–26, 48–49
in primary care, 515
quality of life and, 282
reclassification of, 668–69
recurrence of, 25–26
schema theory and, 225–26
sleep and, 611
standardized measures for, 287
SUD comorbidity in, 566
symptom criteria, 578
as syndrome, 231–32
taxonomic development of, 225
TCAs and, in primary care, 516
treatment, 232–33, 364
ACT and, 370
anticonvulsants for, 353–59
antidepressants for, 352–53
antidepressant trials for, 354–58 t
atypical antipsychotics for, 359–60
azapirones for, 359
belief modification and, 369
benzodiazepines for, 359
CBT and, 365
CBT targeting avoidance, 367
CBT targeting IU, 367
comorbidity in, 443
disorder-specific, 366–67, 371–72
early interventions, 364–65
efficacy, 233–34, 370–72
experimental therapeutics in, 360
future of, 372–73
generalist, 365–66
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and, 359
integrative psychotherapy and, 369–70
motivational interviewing and, 372
problem solving and, 368
self-help, 491
SNRIs for, 353
TCAs for, 353
written emotional disclosure and, 372–73
treatments, psychological, 364–70
worry and, 226
worry in, 49–51
worry v., 48
in youth, 638
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV), 232
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale (GADSS), 287
generalized psychological vulnerability, 159–65
generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD)
pharmacotherapy in, 321–25
pharmacotherapy of, 329
(p. 689) general neurotic syndrome, 267, 274
genes
amygdala specific, 80–81
cingulate cortex specific, 80
discovery in rodents, 79–80
genetic polymorphism, 87
genetics
AD-depression comorbidity and, 581
ADs in youth and, 640
association studies and, 91–92
behavior, 173–74
core pathology conceptualization an, 442
environment and, 173–74
epidemiology of anxiety disorders, 87–92
family studies and, 88–89
linkage studies and, 89–91
molecular, of anxiety disorders, 89–92
PD risk factors and, 128
studies, 269
in temperament models, 165
triple vulnerability theory and, 156–59
twin studies and, 88
German Health Survey, 596
Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
AD-personality disorder comorbidity and, 592–93
reliability of, 271
glucocorticoid receptor (GR), 81
glucocorticoids
dexamethasone and, 113
effect of, 112
glucose metabolism, 102
glutamate, 360
OCD and, 375–76
PTSD treatment and, 411
glycowithanolides (WSG), 456–57
good manufacturing practices (GMP), 457
gotu kola, 453
Gray's behavioral inhibition system, 154
group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS), 605
guilt feelings
PTSD and, 421
reducing, 422
GxE interaction. See gene-by-environment interaction
H
habituation, 462–63, 465
emotional processing and, 465
Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), 352–53
benzodiazepines and, 359
Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), 628
health anxiety, 527 t
dysfunctional beliefs and, 529
factors involved in, 528 f
hypochondriasis v., 538
reinforcement of, 529
health care utilization, 4
heart rates, during panic attacks, 36–37
helplessness, moderation of, 162
heritability, 88–89. See also epigenetic inheritance
family studies and, 89
heterocyclic antidepressants, 516
heterogeneity, 670
high-risk hypothesis, 570
hippocampus, 98–99, 103
AD-depression comorbidity and, 581
exposure treatments and, 473
HPA axis and, 160
OCD risk factors and, 129
PTSD and, 407
hoarding, 58–59
characteristics, 630
comorbidity, 630–31
fire and, 631
health risks, 631
interventions, 631
in later life, 630–31
linkage studies, 91
model for, 243–44
homeopathy, 456
homework compliance
PDA treatment and, 316
SAD treatment and, 342–43
homographs, 143, 146
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
BDD and, 543
GAD treatment and, 359
human experiments, ethics and, 166
hyperarousal symptoms
DTS and, 288
PTSD and, 67–68
Hypericum perforatum. See St. John's wort
hypertension, 600
hyperthyroidism, 601
hyperventilation, 193
hypnosis, 454
hypochondriasis. See also health anxiety
abridged, 526
assessment methods, 530–31
assessment rationale, 529–30
cognitive-behavioral model of, 526–27
diagnosis of, 525–26
dysfunctional beliefs of, 527 t
etiology of, 526–29
health anxiety v., 538
OCD and, 6, 28
prevalence of, 526
prospective monitoring of, 530–31
specific phobia v., 6
treatment, 531–35, 532–33 t
CBT and, 531–35
history of, 531
improving, 537–38
meta-analysis, 536
outcome predictors, 537
pharmacotherapy and, 535
review, 535–36
treatment planning, 529–31
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 79, 111
activation, PD and, 113–14
acute reactivity, in PTSD, 116
AD-depression comorbidity and, 581–82
control, loss of, 162
description, 111
dysregulation, 119
experimental neurosis and, 160
hippocampus and, 160
SAD and, 117
study of, 112–13
hypothesis testing, 466
I
illness, disease v., 658
imagery, in BDD, 545
imagery rehearsal, GAD treatment and, 365, 367
imagery rehearsal therapy, for nightmare disorder, 518
imipramine
hypochondriasis treatment and, 535
panic attacks and, 34
PD treatment and, 297
Impact of Event Scale (IES), 288, 628
impulsivity, OCSD and, 59
inductive reasoning, OCD control and, 246
inference-based approach (IBA), for OCD, efficacy of, 246–47
inferences, 242–43
information processing
biased, 234
distorted, 219
emotional processing v., 257
hoarding and, 243
models, AD-depression comorbidity and, 583
models for PTSD, 254–57
theory, ego-dystonicity and, 242
(p. 690) information shock, 256
inhibition, partner support of, 180–81
insight, OCD treatment and, 400
insomnia, 611. See also cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia
consequences of, 613
pharmacotherapy for, 616
insula, 8, 98–99, 102
OCD and, 105
PTSD and, 102–3
SAD and, 103
SP and, 103
TENC and, 102–3
intakes, group treatments and, 444
integrated models of care, 517–19
Integrative Hierarchical Model of Anxiety and Depression (IHM), 191–92
FFM and, 202–3
intended action, 479–80
interference, assessment by, 282
internalization
children and, 180–81
disorders, 28
targeting, 478–79
International Classification of Diseases, eleventh revision (ICD-11), 668
International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10)
anxiety disorder codification and, 28
CAM and, 451–52
DSM-IV v., 19
GAD and, 48
OCD and, 28
prevalence of agoraphobia and, 23
prevalence of GAD and, 25
International Consensus Group on
Depression and Anxiety, 334–35
Internet
based treatments, 675
for PDA, 313
delivered prevention programs, for PDA, 314
limited access, 492–93
NIMH and, 489
open access programs, 494
self-help treatment and, 492
interoceptive exposure, 309
interpersonal/emotional processing (I/EP), 369–70
efficacy of, 371–72
interpersonal mechanisms, 582
interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), 340
interpretation bias, 142–43
Interpretation of Intrusions Inventory (III), 245
interpretive bias, 146–47
intervention continuum, 501 f
interviews. See also clinical interviews fear of pain assessment and,557
motivational, 372–73, 673
older adults and, 628
review questions, lifetime, 20
screening, 514
structured, 279
intolerance of uncertainty (IU)
CBT targeting, for GAD, 367–68
GAD treatment and, 233
model for GAD, 230–31
model of GAD, features of, 234
intrusions, 288
intrusive thoughts, 394
significance of, 241
in vivo exposure, 12
PDA treatment and, 309
IQ, 126
Iraq, 405
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
comorbidity in, 600
GAD comorbidity in, 49
K
Kandel, Eric, 80
kava, 452
Kendler, Kenneth, 158
L
Larkin et al. protocol, 445
outcome data, 446–47
last observation carried forward analysis (LOCF), 322
anticonvulsants for GAD and, 359
SSRIs for GAD and, 352
latent class analysis (LCA), 29
latent factor, OCD v. GAD, 270
learning
anxiety prevention and, 502
exposure-based, 469–70
extinction, 463–64
fear, 254
prior, 254
safety, 464
social, 180
therapeutic, 430
learning theory, 165–67
contemporary, 254
for PTSD, 253–58
specific phobias and, 177–78
lemon balm, 452–53
levetiracetam, 324
Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), 286
SAD treatment response and, 328
lifetime prevalence
for AD-SUD comorbidity, 567 t
of agoraphobia, 35
of agoraphobia without panic disorder, 23–24
estimating, 20–21
of OCD, 391–92
of panic disorder, 22, 35
persistence and, 21–22
of PTSD, 27–28
of SAD, 38
of specific phobia, 40
limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis, 111
linkage studies, 89–91
locomotor behavior, 76
locus coeruleus (LC), PD and, 296
longitudinal-developmental studies, 123
long-term outcome, of PDA treatment, 316–17
low excitement seeking, 62
Lumpkin et al. protocol, 446
outcome data, 446–47
M
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 129
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), 297
magnetic therapy, 456
major depressive disorder (MDD) AS and, 194
ACTH suppression and, 114
comorbidity, in PDA, 314–15
comorbidity in OCD, 580
comorbidity in PTSD, 580
dimensional ratings of, 271
OCD comorbidity in, 60
panic attacks and, 36
prevalence, 577
social phobia and, 270
Marks, Isaac, 37
marriage, social phobia and, 179
massage, 453–54
Meaney, Michael, 81
medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 98–99, 101
combination treatment and, 436
PD and, 102
PTSD and, 101–2
SAD and, 102
SP and, 102
TENC and, 101–2
(p. 691) medical background, assessment by, 283
medical disorders, OCD treatment and, 385
medications, 11. See also pharmacotherapy
CBT and, for PDA treatment, 311–12
effectiveness, 380
ERP v., 399
GMP of, 457
hypochondriasis, 525
for OCD, 381 t
meditation, 629
OCD and, 455
Mellisa officinalis. See lemon balm
memory. See also situationally accessed memory; verbally accessed memory
bias, 139–42
consolidation, 467
DCS and, 339
distrust, 142
emotional, 465
exposure, PTSD treatment and, 420
inhibition, 141
models, for PTSD, 253–58
OCD and, 141–42
PCC and, 103
perceptual, emotion and, 154
priming effects on, 141
PTSD and, 406
reconsolidation, 406
structures, 238–39
tasks, 140–41
traumatic, recurrence of, 255–56
mental defeat, 256
mental disorders
definition of, 667
in epidemiological surveys, assessment of, 19–21
mental illness, 657
metabolic disorders, 601–2
metacognitive model of GAD, 228–30
features of, 234
treatment and, 233
metacognitive therapy (MCT), for GAD, 233–34, 368–69, 371–72
metyrapone, 117
Midwest Center for Stress and Anxiety, 492
mind-body intervention strategies, 454–55
mindfulness, 476–77
automaticity and, 479
case studies, 480–81
as change mechanism, 478–80
experiments, 480
GAD treatment and, 370
open trials, 482–83 t
research, 480–81
trials, 481
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), 477–78
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), 477
GAD and, 481
panic and, 481
Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), 514
minimal-contact interventions (MCIs), PDA treatment and, 313
minimal-contact therapy, 489, 491, 493
minimum contact control (MCC), 628
mirror gazing
BDD and, 547
goals, 547 t
mirtazapine, 409
in primary care, 516
Mississippi Scale for Combat Related PTSD, 628
mitogen activated kinase (MAPK), 80
mixed disorders, epidemiology of, 19
MMPI-PK, 628
Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MI), 286
modifying action tendencies, 445
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
ADs in youth and, 648
ASD treatment and, 407
CBT and, for SAD treatment, 338
for GAD, 350
for GSAD, 321
monotherapy randomized controlled trials, 376
PD treatment and, 299–300
for SAD treatment, 323
side effects, 516
as SRI replacement, 383
mood disorders
AD comorbidity in, 578
OCD comorbidity in, 60–61
mood regulation, sleep disturbance and, 614
mood stabilizers, PTSD treatment and, 410–11
morbidity, anxiety disorders and, 87
Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), 644
Multidimensional Inventory of Hypochondrial Traits, 430
Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), 195
specific phobias and, 202
multifinality, 181–82
multilevel trait predictor model (MTPM), 203
multiple sclerosis, 603–4
muscle dysmorphia, 542
music therapy, 454–55
mutual maintenance, 570
myocardial infarction (MI), 597–600
MySelfHelp.com, 494
N
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), 360
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), 451
National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), 566
anxious-misery and, 201
depressive disorders and, 577
GAD prevalence and, 48–49
PTSD and, 68–69
PTSD and PDA and, 271
National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), 22
ADs in later life and, 625
depressive disorders and, 577
late onset ADs and, 625
median AOO and, 123–24
panic disorder prevalence and, 35
SAD prevalence and, 38
National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), 566
AD-personality disorder comorbidity, 589
National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), 545, 548
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Internet and, 489
natural disaster, PTSD and, 27
NCS-R, anxiety disorder comorbidity and, 87
nefazodone
in primary care, 516
for SAD treatment, 323
negative affectivity (NA), 442
AS and, 194
in youth, 637
Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire (NASSQ), 644
Negative Affect Syndrome, Barlow et al. protocol and, 445
negative automatic thoughts (NATs), 226
worry v., 232
negative problem orientation, 230
worry and, 231
neurasthenia, 661–62
neuroanatomy
functional, 98
locations, 98 f
neurobiology
extinction learning mechanisms and, 465–66
of PTSD, 406–7
triple vulnerability theory and, 156–57
neurochemistry, 581–82
neurocircuitry, 98
amygdalocentric, 99 f
functional connectivity, 104
GAD and, 105
OCD and, 104–5
pertinent, 98–99
neuroendocrine function, 111
triple vulnerability theory and, 164–65
neuroimaging
of GAD, 105
treatment studies, 105–6
neurological disorders, 603–5
neurophysiology, AD-depression comorbidity and, 581
neurosis
definition of, 265
experimental, 160–62
neurosurgery, for OCD, 379
neuroticism
ADs and, 589, 590 f
GAD and, 202
genetic factors for, 128
OCD and, 199–200, 201
OCD comorbidity in, 62
PD and, 192–93
personality disorder assessment and, 587–88
personality domains and, 190–92
PTSD and, 197–98, 202
self-criticism and, 196
stability and, 157
neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N-BI), 157
neuroticism/extraversion, AD-depression comorbidity and, 582
neurotransmitters
OCD and, 375–76
PD and, 296
neutralization, OCD and, 130
neutralizing acts, 240, 244
New England Journal of Medicine, PD causes and, 127
New Zealand's National Health Committee, 11
nightmare disorder, 618
nocturnal, 611
night terrors, 617
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), 254
in combination treatments, 435
extinction learning mechanisms and, 466
nondirective supportive therapy (NST), 647
nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, 612
noradrenergic pathways, abnormalities, 271
noradrenic/specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), 11
norepinephrine (NE)
antagonists, ASD treatment and, 407
PD and, 296
PTSD and, 407
Norton and Hope protocol, 444–45
outcome data, 446–47
nosology, 125
Number Need to Treat (NNT) analysis, SAD treatment efficacy and, 326
numbing symptoms. See also avoidance
DTS and, 288
PTSD and, 6, 67
O
obsessions. See also contamination obsessions
avoidance and, 240
beliefs and, 241
catastrophic misinterpretation of, 240
chronic worry v., 270
compulsions v., 129–30
convergence of, 244–45
definition, 51
definition of, 56–57, 391
development of, 401
disturbance characteristic of, 239
ego-dystonic, 241–42
ERP and, 393
as inference, 242
nonclinical, 58
relationship with compulsions, 245
suppression of, 245–46
worry and, 51–52
in youth, 638
Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ), 245
Obsessive-Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG), 244–45
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 3–4, 6, 98
ADHD and, 131
androgen and, 131
anxiety disorder NOS and, 270–71
AOO of, 21, 131
association studies of, 92
augmentation/refractory sample trials in, 377 t
avoidance behaviors and, 281k
behavioral experiments and, 395
behavioral models for, 392
behavioral theory of, 129
CBT and, 240
characterization of, 391–92
checking rituals, 141–42
clinical course of, 131
clomipramine and, 516
cognitive models of, 394
cognitive restructuring, 244
cognitive theory of, 129–30
comorbidity, 60–62
in BDD, 541
comorbidity in depression, treatment, 583
comorbidity in MDD, 580
comorbidity in SUD, treatment, 572
convergence of models for, 244–45
cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit and, 98, 99 f
covariation with PTSD, 130
culture and, 660–61
danger and, 165
definitions of, 56–57
depression v., 579
developmental approach to, 128–31
development of, 167
diagnostic features of, 56–57
diagnostic reliability of, 266
disgust and, 105
dropout rates, 431
family and, 178
family studies and, 89
FFM and, 200
GAD and, 51, 270–71
heritability of, 88
heterogeneity of, 130–31
hoarding model, 243–44
intrusive thoughts and, 394
IU and, 231
latent factor, 270
lifetime prevalence of, 391–92
linkage studies, 89–91
medications, 381 t
meditation and, 455
memory functioning in, 141–42
mindfulness and, 481
monotherapy randomized controlled trials for, 376
(p. 693) natural history of, 131
neurobiological risk factors, 129
neurocircuitry and, 104–5
neuroimaging treatment studies and, 106
neuroticism and, 589
neurotransmitters and, 375–76
neutralization and, 130
as OC spectrum disorders, 668
in older adults, 626
PANDAS and, 605–6
pediatric, 646
SSRIs for, 648
personality factors in, 199–200
pharmacology, 376–78
prevalence of, 21, 28
psychological approach to, 238
psychological models for, 129–30
psychosocial environment and, 283
psychosocial risk factors, 130
Rachman's cognitive behavioral model of, 240–41
research, new, 131
Salkovski's cognitive behavioral model of, 239–40
standardized measures for, 286–87
subclinical, 131
subtypes, 57 t, 130–31
SUD comorbidity in, 566
suppression of, 245–46
symptom criteria, 579
symptom subtypes, 58–59
approaches to, 59–60
TCAs and, in primary care, 516
Tourrette's syndrome comorbidity in, 129
treatment, 375
algorithm, 382–83 f
BT and, 392–94
CBT and, 448
clinical course, 379
combined, 433
with comorbidity, 384
CT and, 394
DCS and, 435
depression and, 401
discontinuation, 384
discontinuation studies, 379–80
dosages, 381 t
EE and, 401
ERP and, 392–93
ERP with CT and, 398–99
ERP with medication and, 398–99
ERP with medication and, 398–99
initial management approaches, 380
long-term outcome of, 379–80
motivation to begin, 402
natural history, 379
outcome literature, 395–400
outcome predictors, 400–401
PDs and, 401
poor insight and, 400
relationships and, 182
second-line management approaches, 380–83
side effects, 381 t
somatic approach, 378–79
in special populations, 384
surgical approach, 378–79
variations, 400
treatment efficacy, 246–47
Tripartite Model and, 199
in youth, 638–39
Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), 286–87
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)
OCD and, 6
OCD comorbidity in, 61–62
obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD), 6, 59, 668
OCD comorbidity in, 60
O'Connor, K., 242–43
Öhman, Arne, 215
older adults
ADs in, 626
benzodiazepine for, 629–30
CBT for, 631
GAD in, 674
OCD in, 626
PD in, 629
pharmacotherapy for, 629–30
self-reporting, 627–28
SSRIs for, 630
omega-3 fatty acids, 453
oncoprotein 18/stathmin, 80
ondansetron, 325
openness
OCD and, 199–200
personality domains and, 190–92
open trials, 482–83 t
opposite action tendencies, 466
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
comorbidity, 642
continuity of, 125
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 98
glucose metabolism and, 102
OCD and, 104
OCD risk factors and, 129
ordering, 58–59
order of onset, comorbidity, 568
organization, hoarding model and, 243
Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS), 285
overanxious disorder (OAD), 641
SAD and, 38
overconsolidation model for PTSD, 255
overestimating, 143–44
P
Paced Auditory Serial Attention Task, 436
Padua Inventory—Washington State University Revised (PI-WSUR), 287
Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS), 553
fear of pain assessment and, 556
panic
amygdala and, 127–28
ASI and, 128
behavioral models for, 212–13
cognitive theory of, 215
fear without, 216
genetic factors for, 128, 158
MBSR and, 481
nature of, 155–56
nocturnal, 617–18
nonclinical, 155
physical conditions and, 283
spontaneous, 156
symptomatology, 193–94
Panic Attack Record, 285
panic attacks, 5, 209. See also panic disorder
ACTH and, 118–19
agoraphobia and, 216
alarms and, 41
in children, 127
comorbidity in asthma, 601
comorbidity in hyperthyroidism, 601
cortisol and, 118–19
cued, 5, 35
fear v., 41
GAD and, 278
imipramine and, 34
limited symptom, 5
maintaining factors of, 41–42
model of, 216 f
nocturnal, 611
panic disorder v., 22
parental modeling and, 177
physiological changes during, 36–37
social phobia and, 209–10
symptoms of, 35
triggers, 36
uncued, 5
without panic disorder, 35–36
Paniccenter.net, 494
panic control treatment (PCT), 309–10
panic disorder (PD), 5, 35–37, 98
AS and, 194
ACC and, 101
acute reactivity and, 114
(p. 694) amygdala and, 100
autonomic arousal and, 268
barriers to care, 519
basal state studies, 113
biological models of, 36
causes of, 127
central drive of, 114–15
chronicity of, 35
comorbidity in asthma, 601
comorbidity in depression, treatment, 583
comorbidity in IBS, 600
comorbidity in SUD, 569
treatment, 571
controlled studies of, 296
covariation bias in, 145
culture and, 659–60
definition of, 35
developmental approach to, 127–28
diagnostic reliability of, 266
dropout rates, 431
family studies and, 89
feedback inhibition of, 114–15
fMRI and, 127
heritability of, 88
hippocampus and, 103
HPA activation and, 113–14
HPA axis dysregulation and, 119
IHM and, 192
interpretive bias in, 142
lifetime prevalence of, 22
linkage studies, 89–91
maintenance of, 9
mPFC and, 102
neuroendocrinology of, 113–15
neuroimaging treatment studies and, 106
neuroticism and, 192–93, 589
OCD comorbidity in, 61
OFC glucose metabolism and, 102
in older adults, 629
overview, 295–96
panic attacks v., 22
parental modeling and, 177
PCC and, 104
pharmacotherapy of, 296–302, 298 t
physical sensations and, 281–82
in primary care, 515
psychological theories of, 36–37
PTSD and, 271
risk factors, 127–28, 295–96
specific phobia v., 6, 39–40
standardized measures for, 286
SUD comorbidity in, 566
symptom criteria, 579
syndrome, 90–91
TCAs and, in primary care, 516
treatment
CBT and, 303
combined, 433–34
duration of, 302
goals of, 296
relationships and, 182
research, 302
in youth, 637, 639
Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), 286
treatment goals and, 296
panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA)
CBT and
effectiveness studies, 312–13
efficacy studies, 311–12
research review, 311–13
clinical features of, 314
CT and, 310
medical comorbidity in, 314–15
PCT and, 309–10
prevention research, 313–14
psychiatric comorbidity in, 314–15
PTSD and, 271
standardized measures for, 286
treatment
CBT and, 308
comprehensive, 309
cost-effective, 313
homework compliance and, 316
interpersonal factors in, 315–16
long-term outcome, 316–17
outcome predictors, 314–16
strategies, 308–9
therapist variables and, 316
panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP), PDA treatment and, 310–11
Parallel Distributed Processing Connectionist Neural Network (PDP-CNN), 466
paraventricular nucleus (PVN), 112
parental modeling, 177–78
parental reporting, 645
parent-child attachment, 9, 176–77
parenting, 174–76
parenting style
ADs in youth and, 641
vicarious learning and, 165–66
parenting styles, 162–63
parents, psychopathology and, 183
parent training, 503–4
paroxetine, 409
hypochondriasis treatment and, 535
for SAD treatment, 322
partner relationships, 178
inhibition and, 180–81
pathoplasty models, 191
in PTSD, 199
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), 514–15
patient retention, 430–31
Pavlovian conditioning, 154
PDs, OCD treatment and, 401
pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS), 129, 605
pediatric OCD and, 605–6
peer
acceptance, 179
social learning and, 180
victimization, 180
Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 233, 287
older adults and, 627
peptic ulcer disease (PUD), 600–601
perceived criticism (PC), 315
perceptual distortion, 219–20
perfectionism, 195
OCD and, 200
SAD and, 196
persistence, 21–22
personal history, 530
personality disorders, 10–11
assessment, dimensions v. categories, 587–88
OCD comorbidity in, 61–62
traits, 588
ADs and, 591–92
personality factors, 202–4
comorbidity and, 203–4
hierarchical organization of, 190–92
personality-psychopathology relationships, 273
personality traits, 10–11
as AD risk factors, 591
ADs in youth and, 640
anxiety disorders and, 588–92
personality disorder traits v., 588
PE-SIT protocol, 421
pharmacotherapy. See also medications
for AD-insomnia comorbidity, 616–17
for ADs in youth, 647–49
ASD, 407
availability of, 431–33
BDD treatment and, 547–48
CBT and, 12
for SAD treatment, 338–39
combined with CBT, 429–30
comorbid PTSD-SUD and, 572
core pathology conceptualization and, 442–43
cost of, 514
efficacy studies, 433–34
exposure treatments and, 432–33
fear cues and, 432
for GAD, 350–52
general considerations, 517
of GSAD, 329
(p. 695) hypochondriasis treatment and, 532–33 t, 535
research, 538
review of, 536
mechanisms of, 430
for OCD, 376–78, 380–85
for older adults, 629–30
of panic disorder, 296–302, 298 t
patient retention and, 430–31
in primary care, 515–17
PTSD, 407–11
in SAD, 321–25
tolerability of, 430–31
phenelzine
CBGT v., for SAD treatment, 338
PD treatment and, 299–300
social phobia treatment and, 145
phobias. See also specific types
blood, 213
injury, 213
phenomenology of, 98
psychological processes and, 8–9
phobic disorders, 39
Photograph Series of Daily Activities (PHODA), 557
physical abuse, OCD and, 130
physical disorders
comorbidity in, 283
comorbidity in ADs, 596–97
physical sensations. See also bodily sensations
assessment by, 281–82
interoceptive assessment and, 284–85
physiological hyperarousal, 268
Piper methysticum. See kava
pituitary gland, sensitivity, CRF and, 161
placebo, 537
polysomnography (PSG), 612
positron-emission tomography (PET), PTSD acute reactivity and, 116
posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), 98–99, 103
PD and, 104
PTSD and, 104
SAD and, 104
SP and, 104
post-stress syndromes, other, 70
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 3, 6
ACC and, 100–101
acute reactivity and, 116
agoraphobia and, 271
allostatic load and, 70
amygdala and, 99
AOO of, 21
ASD v, 69
ASD v., 423
associated features, 68–69
attribution-based models of, 256
avoidant/numbing symptoms, 67
basal state studies, 115–16
biological models of, 66
borderline personality disorder comorbidity in, 589
CBT and, 417
central drive studies and, 116–17
characteristics of, 405–6
classical conditioning model for, 251–52
clinical interviews and, 279
clinical issues, 70
cognitive processes in, 255
comorbidity in, 68–69
comorbidity in cancer, 602–3
comorbidity in chronic pain, 602
comorbidity in depression, treatment, 583–84
comorbidity in MDD, 580
comorbidity in MI, 597–600
comorbidity in SUD, 570
treatment, 572–73
complex, 69–70
conceptualization of, 259
conceptualized, 406
covariation with OCD, 130
cross-cultural factors and, 69
CSA-related, 141
cultural influences on, 181
culture and, 661
depressive disorders v., 578–79
developmental approach to, 126–27
diagnosis and, DSM-IV, 259
diagnostic criteria, 66–68
directed forgetting and, 141
dropout rates, 431
dual processing models of, 255–56
dual representation model of, 256
early learning theory models of, 251–52
emotional processing models for, 253–58
emotional processing models of, 257–58
epidemiology, 70
external events and, 250
fear cues, 258
feedback inhibition and, 116–17
functional impairment and, 68
hippocampus and, 103
HPA axis dysregulation and, 119
hyperrarousal symptoms, 67–68
incubation period, 406
insula and, 102–3
interpretive bias in, 143
lifetime prevalence of, 27–28
memory models for, 253–58
metyrapone and, 117
mPFC and, 101–2
neurobiology of, 406–7
neuroendocrinology of, 115–17
neuroimaging treatment studies and, 105–6
neuroticism and, 202
new learning theory models for, 253–58
nightmare disorder and, 618
ongoing stressors and, 68
overconsolidation model for, 255
overview, 65–66
partial/subsyndromal, 69
pathoplasty models in, 199
PDA and, 271
PD and, 271
persistent symptoms of, 250
personality factors in, 197–99
pharmacotherapy, 407–11
phenomenology, 97–98
preevent risk factors, 253
prevalence of, 26–28
prevention of, 127
in primary care, 515
prior learning and, 254
psychological models of, 65–66
psychotherapy and, 127
reactivation of, 68
reclassification of, 668–69
reexperiencing symptoms, 67
relapse of, 68
REM sleep and, 614–15
risk factors, 70, 126
self-reporting, 628
social support and, 68
standardized measures for, 287–88
stress response theory of, 257
SUD comorbidity in, 566
symptoms
co-occurence of, 259
criteria, 578–79
treatment
AMT efficacy and, 422
anticonvulsants and, 410–11
antidepressants and, 408–10
antipsychotics and, 411
cannabinoids and, 412
comorbidity and, 443
CS-US association and, 411
CT and, 420–21
DCS and, 412, 436
dissemination of, 424–26
efficacy of, 419–22
EMDR and, 421–22
future of, 411–12
manualized, 424–25
mood stabilizers and, 410–11
psychological, 417–19
self-help, 491
self-help and, 491
SSRIs and, 408–10
training, 425
two-factor theory, 252
uncontrollability of, 253
vulnerability factors for, 253–54
vulnerability to, 197–99
written emotional disclosure and, 372–73
in youth, 646
in youth and, 639
prazosin, for older adults, 630
predictive validity, 75
predominantly self-help therapy, 491
(p. 696) prefrontal cortex
AD-depression comorbidity and, 581
exposure treatments and, 473
pregabalin, for SAD treatment, 324
pregnancy, OCD treatment and, 384–85
preparedness theory, 40
presence-absence ratings, 266
prevalence. See also lifetime prevalence
of AD-depression comorbidity, 576–78
of ADs in youth, 641, 642 t
for AD-SUD comorbidity, 566
of anxiety disorders, 512–13
of GAD, 25–26, 48–49
of hoarding, in later life, 630
of hypochondriasis, 526
of OCD, 28
of panic disorder, 35
of PTSD, 26–28
ratios, 21–22
of SEPAD, 24–25
of social phobia, 24
of specific phobia, 22–23
prevalence rates, 3–4
prevention, 125
in children, 498
indicated, 499
for children, 503–4
effectiveness of, 507
multilevel programming, 508
of PTSD, 127
research, 507–9
directions in, 508
principles for, 501–2
selective, 499
for children, 504–5
effectiveness of, 507
strategies, 499–501
training, 508
universal, 499–500
for children, 505–7
effectiveness of, 507–8
primary care
anxiety disorders in, 512–13
barriers to care in, 519
hypochondriasis treatment and, 531
integrated models of care, 517–19
pharmacotherapy, general considerations, 517
psychosocial interventions, 517
treatment options, 515
Prime-MD, 514
probability estimation, OCD control and, 246
proband, 568
problem solving
GAD treatment and, 368
negative problem orientation and, 230
worry and, 50
Project MATCH, SAD comorbidity and, 341
prolonged exposure (PE) therapy, 419
dissemination, 425
propranolol, ASD treatment and, 407
psychiatric disorders, roots of, 124
psychoanalytic theory, 210–11
psychodynamic theories, 210–11, 220
psychodynamic therapy
for SAD, 340
for specific phobia, 344–45
psychoeducation, 534
in BDD treatment, 545
fear of pain treatment and, 557
hypochondriasis treatment and, 531
narrative review, 535
psychological models
for OCD, 129–30
panic disorder and, 36–37
of PTSD, 65–66
psychological processes, 8–9
psychological treatments, 11–12, 13 t
evidence-based, for PDA, 308–11
for GAD, 364–70
for PTSD, 417–19
psychoneuroticism, 591
psychopathology
developmental research and, 132
dimensional approach to, 668
dimensional models of, 272
parental, 183
psychosocial stressors, 10
psychotherapy, 11–12
hypochondriasis treatment and, 532–33 t
integrative
efficacy of, 371–72
for GAD, 369–70
interpersonal, hypochondriasis treatment and, 537
PTSD and, 127
supportive, 344–45
PTSD Checklist, 515
public health, 514
public speaking, SAD and, 38
PubMed, 597
Purdon, C., 241–42
Q
quality of life
comorbidity and, 514
loss of, 282
sleep and, 612–13
quantitative trait loci (QTLs), 81
linkage studies and, 91
questionnaires, 285. See also self-reporting
quetiapine, for SAD treatment, 325
R
rACC. See rostral ACC
Rachman, S., 240–41
randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
of CAM, 451–52
of ERP, 395
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, 612
amygdala and, 614
emotional processing and, 614
nightmare disorder and, 618
PTSD and, 614–15
rational emotive therapy (RET), 397
reaction time (RT), 138
reactivation, of PTSD, 68
reassurance-seeking behavior
compulsions and, 270
hypochondriasis treatment and, 534
reboxetine, 325
reciprocal inhibition, 462
recognition tests, 139–40
reexperiencing symptoms, 6
PTSD and, 6, 67
reinforcement, patterns of, 283
relapse, of PTSD, 68
relationships, treatment outcome and, 182–84
relaxation training. See also applied relaxation
EMDR and, 420
exposure treatments and, 462
GAD treatment and, 232–33
Larkin et al. protocol and, 445
for older adults, 629
PDA treatment and, 309
in primary care, 517
for SAD, 337
relevant constructs, 670–71
reliability, 266–67
structured interviews and, 279
religious obsession, 58–59
repetition, 243
repetitive behavior, 58
repetitive thought, 52
research, 125
development in, 671–74
GAD-specific, 366
prevention
directions in, 508
principles for, 501–2
respiratory disorders, 213, 601
response, predictors of, 673
response prevention
ERP and, 393
hypochondriasis treatment and, 534
narrative review, 535
responsibility, 239–40
restless leg syndrome (RLS), 603
reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase-A (RIMAs), 300
for GSAD, 321
for SAD treatment, 323–24
reward deficiency, OCSD and, 59
rhesus monkeys, 160
(p. 697) rhinoplasty, 543
riluzole, 360
risk factors
for ADs, 591
for ADs in youth, 639–41
for BDD, 544
for children, 501–2, 506
for OCD, 129
for PTSD, 70, 126–27
preevent, 253
risperidone, 411
ritualistic behavior, 58
ERP and, 393
faulty inference processes and, 242–43
obsessional anxiety and, 392
ritual of inaction, 210
Robillard, S., 242–43
rodents
gene discovery, 79–80
measures of anxiety for, 76–77
role-playing, reverse, 547
rostral ACC (rACC), 100–101
OCD and, 104–5
RUPP Anxiety Group, 649
S
safety
behaviors, 218–19
eliminating, 469–70
precautions, 209
in PTSD treatment, 70
Salk Institute, 80
Salkovskis, P. M., 239–40
scar model, 191
of AS, 195
Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia in School-Age Children (K-SADS), 643–44
schema theory, 225–26. See also cognitive theory
intolerance of uncertainty model and, 231
Salkovski's cognitive behavioral model of OCD and, 239
schizo-obsessive disorder, 61
schizophrenia
Expressed Emotion and, 182
OCD comorbidity in, 61
schizotypal personality traits, 593
Schmidt protocol, 445
outcome data, 446–47
SCL-90-R
BSI-18 and, 515
older adults and, 628
Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), 644
screening programs, 514–15
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 11
AD-depression comorbidity treatment and, 583
ADs in youth and, 647–49
alternatives, 376–78
augmentation, 376–78
BDD treatment and, 547–48
CBT and, for SAD treatment, 338
discontinuation, CBT discontinuation v., 379
for GAD, 350, 352
in special populations, 352–53
hypochondriasis treatment and, 535
neuroimaging treatment studies and, 105
for OCD, 376–78
efficacy of, 246–47
OCD v. depression and, 579
for older adults, 630
PD treatment and, 297–99
pregnancy and, 384–85
in primary care, 515
PTSD treatment and, 408–10
SAD treatment and, 321–25
response, 328–29
side effects, 515
TKS and, 660
selegiline, 325
self-administered therapy, 489, 490
self confrontation, 493–94
self-criticism, 196
PTSD and, 198
self-harm disorders, OCD and, 28
self-help treatments, 488, 675
ethics of, 494–95
meta-analysis of, 491
overview, 490t
recent studies, 491–94
self-medication hypothesis, 568
self-monitoring forms, 285
self-perception, social phobia and, 217
Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD (SRIP), 628
self-regulation
metacognitive model of GAD and, 228
PTSD risk factors and, 126–27
self-reporting
for children, 644
fear of pain assessment and, 556–57
in older adults, 627–28
scales, 285
screening, 514–15
sensation-focused intensive therapy (SFIT), PDA treatment and, 310
sensitivity
aesthetic, 544
parenting style and, 163
in PTSD treatment, 70
separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD)
agoraphobia and, 23
cortisol and, 164
developmental approach to, 127
prevalence of, 24–25
prevention of, 123–24
serotonin (5-HT), 7–8
anxiety-like behavior modulation and, 78
hypothesis, 376
PTSD and, 407
serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), 11
CBT and, 429–30
course of, 280
etiology of, 7–11
FDA and, 299
for GAD, 350, 353
for GSAD, 321
introduction to, 4–7
monotherapy randomized controlled trials, 376
neurobiological approach to, 4
PD treatment and, 297–99
psychological approach to, 4
PTSD treatment and, 410
for SAD treatment, 323
side effects, 515
as SSRI alternative, in OCD treatment, 378
serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs)
augmentation, 376–78, 380–83
replacement, 380–83
serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR), 7–8
SAD treatment response and, 328–29
sertraline, 409
for older adults, 629
for SAD treatment, 322
Sesbania grandiflora, 456
sexual abuse. See also childhood sexual abuse
childhood anxiety disorders and, 176
OCD and, 130
sexual obsession, 58–59
shame
PTSD treatment and, 422
social phobia and, 211
Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST), 627
shyness, 195
(p. 698) sibling relationships, 178
simple phobia. See also specific phobia
family studies and, 89
linkage studies, 91
SimP. See simple phobia
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), association studies of, 92
situationally accessed memory (SAM), 256
skills deficit, 281
sleep
ADs and, 611
age and, 612
assessment, 612
deprivation, 614
disturbance
anxiety and, 613
CBT-I for, 615
comorbid in AD, 615–17
emotional processing and, 614–15
functional impairment and, 613f
mood regulation and, 614
quality of life and, 612–13
social anxiety
BDD and, 547
behavioral models for, 212
social anxiety disorder (SAD). See also generalized social anxiety disorder; social phobia
AS and, 196–97
ACC and, 101
alarms and, 41–42
amygdala and, 99–100
CBT for, 334–37
cognitions and, 42
comorbidity in depression, treatment, 583
culture and, 660
definition, 37–38
dropout rates, 431
FFM and, 195–97
hippocampus and, 103
insula and, 103
lifetime prevalence of, 38
mPFC and, 102
neuroendocrinology of, 117–18
neuroimaging treatment studies and, 106
PCC and, 104
perfectionism and, 196
personality factors in, 195–97
phenomenology of, 38–39
remission, 328
standardized measures for, 286
subtypes, 341
symptom criteria, 579
treatment
ACT and, 340–41
alternate approaches, 340–41
augmentation strategies, 328
benzodiazepines and, 324
CBT v. drug, 326
cognitive change, 343
combination therapy, 326–28, 327 t
drug comparison, 326 t
efficacy, 325–26
efficacy studies, 433
expectancies, 342
homework compliance, 342–43
IPT and, 340
MAIOs and, 323
outcome factors, 341–43
pharmacology and CBT for, 338–39
psychodynamic therapy and, 340
relaxation strategies and, 337
resistance, 328
response predictors, 328–29
RIMAs and, 323–24
SNRIs and, 323
SSRIs and, 321–25
SST and, 336–37
tricyclic antidepressants and, 323
in youth, 637
Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS), 286
Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C), 646
social performance, social skills v., 179
social phobia, 5. See also social anxiety disorder
AOO of, 21
association studies of, 92
CBT and, 211
control and, 218
cultural influences on, 181
danger and, 165
depression and, 269–70
diagnostic reliability of, 266
exposure treatments and, 468
family studies and, 89
genetic studies of, 269
heritability of, 88
linkage studies, 89–91
marriage and, 179
model of, 217f
panic attacks and, 209–10
prevalence of, 24
quality of life and, 282
self-perception and, 217
shame v. anger and, 211
with social skills, 179
treatment, 145
triggers, 166–67
social phobia (SOP), in youth, 638
Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI), 286
Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), 286
screening, 515
social rejection, 10, 178–79
social relationships, 178–82
social skills
perceived, 166–67
SAD and, 38
social performance v., 179
social skills training (SST), for SAD, 336–37
social support, PTSD and, 68
societal costs, 29
SocP. See social phobia
Socratic questioning
in primary care, 517
PTSD treatment and, 418
somatic approaches, to OCD treatment, 378–79
somatic clusters, OCSD and, 59
somatic symptoms
anxiety sensitivity and, 192
culture and, 661–62
danger v., 166
scar model and, 195
of youth, 637
somatoform disorders, panic attacks and, 36
South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), 661
specificity, 125
specific phobia (SP)
comorbidity in, 41
phenomenology of, 40–41
specific phobias (SP), 5–6
ACC and, 101
alcohol abuse comorbidity in, 569–70
amygdala and, 100
AOO of, 21
AOO variation of, 22
APD v., 588 t
attentional avoidance and, 139
behavioral models for, 211–15
cognitive behavioral interventions for, 343–44
comorbidity in BDD, 541
comorbidity in cancer, 602–3
comorbidity in SUD, treatment, 571–72
covariation bias and, 144–45
definition of, 39–40
developmental approach to, 127–28
DSM-IV and, 209
fear of pain v., 555
FFM and, 201–2
heritability of, 88
hippocampus and, 103
insula and, 103
learned, 177–78
lifetime prevalence of, 40
mPFC and, 102
MPS and, 202
neuroendocrinology of, 118
neuroimaging treatment studies and, 106
panic disorder v., 39–40
PCC and, 104
personality factors in, 201–2
pharmacological treatment of, 329
prevalence of, 22–23
prevention of, 123–24
in primary care, 515
(p. 699) psychoanalytic theory and, 210–11
self-administered therapy and, 490
skills deficit and, 281
subtypes, 39
SUD comorbidity in, 566
symptom criteria, 579–80
treatment, outcome predictors, 345
twin studies of, 158
vicarious conditioning and, 213–14
vicarious learning and, 166
youth and, 639
speeches
attention and, 138
PCC and, 104
safety behaviors and, 218–19
stability, neuroticism and, 157
standard community care (SCC), 647
standardized measures, 285–88
startle reflex, 77
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 233
older adults and, 627
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), 644
stathmin, 80
stimulus control, GAD treatment and, 365
St. John's wort
CAM and, 451
for SAD treatment, 325
stop, look, and listen state, 154
Streptococcus pyrogenes, 605
stress
amygdala and, 127–28
controllable v. uncontrollable, 160
CRF and, 78–79
fear enhancement by, 81
nontraumatic, 70
tolerance, hypochondriasis and, 526
stress-diathesis disorder, 126
stress inoculation therapy (SIT), 418
PE and, 419–20
stressors
autonomic response to, in rodents, 77
ongoing, PTSD and, 68
PTSD risk factors and, 70, 126
traumatic, 251
unpredictable, 160
stress response, CRH in, 112
stress-response dampening models, 568
stress response theory of PTSD, 257
Stroop interference
attention and, 137
overriding, 138
structural equation modeling, 88
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID), 266
hypochondriasis assessment and, 530
older adults and, 628
proliferation of, 279–80
Substance Dependence PTSD Therapy (SDPT), 572
substance use disorders (SUDs)
comorbid, 565
comorbidity, 642
comorbidity in ADs
lifetime prevalence of, 567 t
treatment, 571–73
comorbidity in OCD, treatment, 572
comorbidity in PD, 569
treatment, 571
comorbidity in PTSD, 570
treatment, 572–73
comorbidity in SP, treatment, 571–72
diagnosis, 566
in youth, 643
subtypes, understanding, 670
sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), 597
suicide
BDD comorbidity in, 543
risk, 4
superconditioning, 255
superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), 456
supplements, 457
supportive counseling (SC), for ASD, 423–24
surgery, do-it-yourself, 543
surgical approaches, to OCD treatment, 378–79
susceptibility hypothesis, 570
sustained excitation, during exposure treatments, 472
symmetry, 58–59
symptom induction exercises, 284–85
systematic review, 490–91
T
taijin kyofusho (TK), 39
cultural influences on, 181
culture and, 660
Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), 556
Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures
Teacher Report Form (TRF), 645
telephone-based treatments, 675
temperament
AD-depression comorbidity and, 582
ADs in youth and, 640
behavioral models and, 214
temperament models, 156–57
genetics in, 165
TENC. See also trauma-exposted non-PTSD control
ACC and, 101
hippocampus and,