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date: 20 February 2019

(p. 619) Index

(p. 619) Index

Abduction, 420
Aberrant salience, 518
Absorption spectra, of S‐, M‐, L‐cones, 555 f
Action correction, 400
Action in Perception (Noë), 232
Activating transcription factor (ATF), 101
Activation, 56–57
Active maintenance, 393
Active vision, 251
Activities, 43
Actor‐Critic systems, 387, 393
architecture, 388 f
Adaptation, visual field and, 218
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 101
Adjacency rule conformance, 375 f
Affective dimension, of pain, 523
Affordance climbability, 73, 74
Affordances, 73
object exploration and, 84
Agency, 9
AIB neurons, 163, 164
AIY neurons, 163, 164
Aizawa, Ken, 9
Alcohol withdrawal, object exploration, 75–79
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 33
Alien control, 516
Allen, Colin, 6, 9
Allocentric spatial representation, 311
α‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐5‐methyl‐4‐isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA), 18
Amnesia
anterograde, 16
electroconvulsive shock and, 26
retrograde, 15, 16
Amodal emulator, 321–25, 324 f
Amygdala, 106
consolidation and, 24
quick‐response mechanism of, 589
Anderson, Per, 17
Animal emotions, case for, 522–33
Animal models. See also Nonhuman animals
anxiety‐depression continuum in, 530–31
of depression, 82
of neuropsychiatric disorders, 528–29
Animal welfare, institutions for, 522
Animal Welfare Board, 522
Anisomycin, microinfusion of, 27
Anomalous trichromats, 556
Anosognosia, 474, 476–77
Anterior cingulate (ACC), pain and, 523, 524, 526, 527, 528
Anterior insula, delusional experience and, 515
Anterograde amnesia, 16
Anthropic principle, brain wiring optimization and, 376–77
Antinociception, 132
Anton's syndrome, 475
Anxiety‐depression continuum
in animal models, 530–31
in chicks, 531–32
Aperiodic environments, 44, 45 f
Apparent motion, 330 f
Aristotle
perception and, 229
senses and, 228–31
Artificial scotoma, 210
AS. See Autoscopy
Asomatognosia, 476–77, 493
Capgras/Cotard syndromes and, 500 t
neuroscientific findings, 502–6
Associationist learning, computationalism and, 172–75
Associationist psychology, learning and, 168
Atomic level, multiple realization at, 559
Atomic‐to‐molecular case, of multiple realization, 545–54
Attention, 244
cue competition and, 131
distraction and, 131
Attentional disorders, Zen meditation and, 592
Attractors, concepts with, 609
Attribution errors, 516, 519
Australian Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 523
Autonoesis, 287
Autoscopy (AS), 280, 281
AWC neurons, 158, 163, 164
Bach‐y‐Rita, Paul, 237
Barnes, C. A., 25
Barn owl auditory system, 347
(p. 620) Basal ganglia
experiential blindness and, 293–96
system, 290
Basis functions
emulation and, 337–42
spatial information processing and, 331–37
Beaton, M.J.S., 604, 605
Bechtel, William, 5
Behavior, cellular/molecular mechanisms and, 120
Behavioral inhibition, 82
Behavioral neuroscience, 13, 14, 32
Behavioral Neuroscience, 32
Behavioral objects, 312
Behavioral sciences, theory construction in, 362–63
Behavioral space, 311
Behavioral suppression system, pain and, 528
Behavioral systems, dynamical descriptions for, 363
Behavioral time, 312
Behavioral tracking, ruthless reduction and, 19
Behaviorism, 479
presuppositional questions on, 166–67
Skinner's, 168
Bell, Charles, 240
Bell‐Magendie law, 240
Berlyne paper, 73
Bernstein, Julius, 31
Bickle, John, 5, 13, 20, 27, 35
Biochemistry, 30
Biological clocks, 45–67
activities of, 49–54
blind people and, 47
component entities of, 48–49
explandum phenomenon of, 44–48
mechanisms, 42–44
organization of, 54–56
Biophysical and Biophysical Chemistry Study Section, of NIH, 28
Biophysical Science: A Study Program (Oncley, Schmitt, Williams, Rosenberg, Bolt), 28
Biophysics, 30
Bizzi, Emilio, 33
Blackmore, Susan, 265
Blind people, biological clocks and, 47
Bliss, Tim, 17
Bloch, Felix, 180
Block, Ned, 256, 267
Blocking effect, LTP and, 41
Block's theory, 365
Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, of fMRI, 186 f
bmali gene, 59
bmali transcription, 56–57
Bolt, R.H., 28
Bottom‐up excitory experiments, 61
Bottom‐up inhibitory experiments, 61
Bottom‐up research model, 162
Bottom‐up view, of delusional experience, 513, 514
Bounded‐resource paradigm, 370
Brain
happiness and, 584–87
molecular processes in, 13
positive affect and, 584, 585
systems‐level understanding, 13
Brain activity, cognitive tasks and, 34
Brain‐based experiences, 279–81
Brain‐computer interfaces (BCIs), 433
Brain dimensions, variations, 564t
Brain‐machine interface (BMI), 398, 432–35
cultural/social issues, 437–39
direct, 433, 434f
ethical/legal issues, 437
indirect, 433–34, 434f
military interest in, 439
regulatory/policy issues, 437
remote‐controlled rat and, 438
Brain‐machine interface enhancement, neuroethics of, 435–37
Brain‐machine interface‐related issues, sets of interdependent, 436f
Brain regions
connecting patterns of, 32
networks and, 14
topographical maps of, 31
Brain research, 3
lesion/stimulation studies of, 31
Brain wiring minimization, optimization landscapes and, 370–76
Brain wiring optimization, anthropic principle and, 376–77
Brain‐wise (Churchland), 93
Brazier, Mary, 243
Bridging levels, 61
Brodmann, Korbinian, 562
Brodmann's area, 284
Brodmann's brain regions, 565
combinations of, 564
Bucy, Paul, 29
Buddhism
happiness and, 587–88
positive immune system effects and, 592
Buddhist priests
eudaimonics in, 583
fMRI of, 584
neuroimaging of, 10
Bureau of Animal Welfare, 523
Burley, J., 455
Burnham, William, 15
Cacaque cerebral cortex, functional areas of, 375 f
Cage tilt, 81
(p. 621) Cajal, S., 31
Calibration, sensory input for, 359
Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), 106
cAMP‐PKA‐CREB‐gene targets pathway, 102, 104, 106, 108, 111, 112
cAMP response element (CRE), 101
cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), 18, 22, 24, 106, 107, 149, 559
microinjection experiment, 107 f
phosphorylation and, 111 f
Canadian Animal Welfare Law, 522
CA neurons, 151
Capgras/Cotard syndromes, asomatognosia and, 500 t
Capgras syndrome, 474, 476, 491, 492, 513, 514
Carey, Susan, 172
Cascades, 42
Case‐based reasoning, 420, 422
Casein kinase, 49
Catastrophic interference, of distributed representations, 25
Categorization, 608, 609
Causal connections, discovering/confirming of, 117
Causal hypotheses, 100
sufficient evidence for, 115–19
Causal‐mechanical explanation, 5, 43
Cell membrane
opsin in, 552 f
photopigment molecule in, 552 f
Cell‐to‐tissue case, of multiple realization, 554–58
Cellular cognition, 112
Cellular/molecular mechanisms, behavior and, 120
Cerebrascope, 179
C‐fiber stimulation, 129
Chase control task, 397
Chemero, Anthony, 5
Cherniak, Christopher, 8
Chicks, anxiety‐depression continuum in, 531–32
Chimerical colors, 615
Chirimuuta, Mazviita, 7
Chisholm, Roderick, 174
Chomsky, Noam, 174
Chronesthesia, 287
Chronic mild stress, object exploration and, 81–83
Churchland, Patricia, 3, 4, 5, 8, 70, 92, 93, 443, 479
Churchland, Paul, 70, 422, 479
Circadian rhythms, 5
in Drosophila, 44, 45
endogenously determined, 45
genetics of, 49
mechanisms of, 42–44
nature of, 41–42
persistence of, 44
Circuitry primacy, RF and, 214–15
Circular path, path model on, 359 f
Classical conditioning (CC), 167
Climbability, 73, 74
Climbing, object exploration and, 79–80
Clock genes, 59
Closed‐loop controller, 314 f, 316
Cognition
fMRI and, 179–80
spinal cord and, 129–40
Cognitive errors, 513
Cognitive neuropsychology, philosophy and, 477–80
Cognitive neuroscience, 13, 14, 93
explanatory purview of, 86
optimists/pessimists in, 143–44
SR and, 99
Cognitive Neuroscience Institute, 33
Cognitive Neuroscience Society, 34
Cognitive science
computationalism and, 143
neuroscience and, 542
Cognitive tasks, brain activity and, 34
Cognitive technologies, 130
Coherence, two visual systems and, 271–74
Color, enactivism and, 266–71
“Colour of Happiness” (Flanagan), 583, 584
The Companion to Genethics (Burley, Harris), 455
Compositional relations, in science, 543 t
Computation, NEF and, 353–54
Computational compositionality, 159
Computationalism
associationist learning and, 172–75
cognitive science and, 143
neuroscience and, 160
Computational models, of primary visual cortex RFs, 206–7
Computational neurogenomics, 162
Computational productivity, 159
Computational programs, 158, 159
Computational systematicity, 159
Computational theory of mind, 157, 158, 161
Computer vision, 207
neurophysiology decoupling from, 215–16
Concepts
with attractors, 609
consciousness and, 605–8
Concepts defense content, of subjectivity, 611–16
Concepts defense structure, of subjectivity, 608–11
Conditioned place preference (CPP), pain and, 525
Conditioned stimulus (CS), 134, 135, 167
Conditioning, 133–35
Confabulations, 466–67
causes of, 474
criteria for, 475
(p. 622)
emotional theory of, 482, 483
executive processes and, 489–91
identification and, 480
knowledge and, 480–81
personal relatedness theory of, 483–84
rationality and, 481–82
representational theory of, 484–86
Confabulation syndromes, proliferation of, 474
Connection, of mechanisms, 54
Connection‐clusters, 112
Connectionism, 363
Consciousness, 457–61
concepts and, 605–8
Conscious recall, 148
Conscious states, 606, 607
Consolidation, 15, 16
amygdala and, 24
hippocampus and, 27
Constitution, 542
Constitutive explanation, 59
Constitutive mechanistic explanations, 43
Contact duration, trials, 82 f
Contrast effects, 516
Control, 313, 314
closed‐loop, 314 f, 316
delusional experience of, 516
open‐loop, 314 f, 315
pseudo‐closed‐loop, 316 f
sense of, 463–65
signals, 314, 316
Control theory, divisions of, 313–14
Convergence zones, 610
Convergent four hypothesis
limitation of, 114–15
SR and, 100–115
Cortex, 40Hz oscillations in, 41
Cortical‐basal gangliathalamic‐cortical (CBTC) skeletomotor circuit, 290, 290 f, 291
Cortical columns, organization of, 562
Cortical stimulation, 280
Cosmology, neuroanatomy and, 370–77
Cotard syndrome, 492
Coupling, in visual agnosia, 277–78
Craver, Carl, 5, 17, 21
Creem‐Regehr, Sarah, 294
Crick, Francis, 108
Criteria
advanced, 137
minimum, 137
Cross‐phylogenic inference, 153
Crowding, stress procedures, 81
CRY dimers, 49
Cue competition, attention and, 131
Cultural/social issues, of BMI, 437–39
Cummins, Robert, 58
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 18, 101, 147, 148
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), 100, 103
activators, 101
biochemistry/molecular biology of, 101–2
experiment, 105 f
isoforms, 101
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), 551, 552
Cytoarchitectonic techniques, 564
Cytochrome oxidase staining, 562
Cytoskeletal protein molecules, 551, 559
Dalai Lama, 584, 587, 594
Damadian, Raymond, 180
Darwin, Charles, 539
Davidson, Richie, 583, 592
De Anima (Aristotle), 228, 230
Decision making, 8–9, 463–65
Declarative memory, 146, 289
hippocampus and, 150
systems, 286, 287–88, 287 f
Decoding process, 348
Deductive‐nomological (D‐N) theory of explanation, 420
Deep brain stimulation, 431, 434
Deep Brain Stimulation Consortium, 435
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 435
Delayed nonmatch to sample (DNMS), 171
Delusional experience, 513–20
anterior insula and, 515
bottom‐up view of, 513, 514
of control, 516
empiricist theories of, 514
hallucinations and, 515
top‐down view of, 513, 514
two‐stage model of, 514
DeMaeyer, L.C.M., 31
De Memoria (Aristotle), 230
Democritus, 228
Dendritic spines, 559
functionally significant property variation of, 561 t
hippocampal, 561 t
hydrophobic segment of, 560
shapes of, 560 f
synapses of, 561f
Dennett, Daniel, 7, 58
Dentate gyrus (DG), 22
Depression, animal models of, 82
Derived intentionality, 144
(p. 623) Descartes, Rene, 444, 479
De Sensu (Aristotle), 228
Desire
motivation and, 409
neural mechanisms of, 408–14
proattitudes of, 408–14
routing, 396–400
sequences, 393–96
volume control of, 402–6
Desires, instrumental, 386
Desire system, 386, 403 f
internal timers of, 404–5
turning off/on of, 402–6
Detail, two visual systems and, 271–74
Determinism, 463–65
genetic, 463
Deuteranope, retina of, 556
Developmental biology, neurogenomics and, 6
Developmental molecular biology, neurogenomics and, 144–46
Dharma Life (magazine), 583
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM‐IV), 530
Different grain descriptions, multiple realization and, 571–73
Dimensioned accounts, of multiple realization, 569–70
Directional capacity, motivation and, 382–86
Direction‐selective (DS), 210
Dishabituation, 72
Disjunctive propositions, neural pathways and, 156
Disorders of experience, 513
Distraction, attention and, 131
Distraction‐like effects, 132–33
Distractor‐like effects, 132–33
Distributed representations, catastrophic interference of, 25
D‐N theory of explanation. See Deductive‐nomological theory of explanation
Donders, Cornelius, 34
Dopamine, 146, 390, 396, 400, 517
aberrant regulation of, 518
response, 391
signal, 396
updates, 407 f
Dopaminergic cells, 390
Dopaminergic neurons, 8–9
DOX. See Doxycycline
Doxycycline (DOX), 109
Drosophila, circadian rhythms in, 44, 45
Dual systems hypothesis, enactivism and, 274–79
du Bois‐Reymond, Emil, 31, 239
Duncan, Carl, 15
Dynamics, NEF and, 347, 354–56
Dysexecutive prosopagnosia, 492
Dysfunctional introspective processes, 515
Ecological psychology, 227
Effects, production of, 68–69
Egocentric representation, 612
of minds, 486–89
Egocentric space, 7
Egocentric spatial representation, 311
Eichenbaum, Howard, 170
Eigen, Manfred, 28, 31
Ekman, Paul, 583, 589, 590
Electroconvulsive shock, amnesia and, 26
11‐cis‐retinal molecule, 546 f
Eliasmith, Chris, 8
Embedded neuron, 200–219
Embodied activity, neuroscience of, 252
Emergentism, 431–48, 441 t
two implications of, 446–48
Emotional awareness, in nonhuman animals, 525
Emotional processing, neuropsychiatric disorders and, 9
Emotional theory, of confabulations, 483
Emotions, of non‐human animals, 9
Empiricist theories, of delusional experience, 514
Emulation, basis functions and, 337–42
Emulation framework, for temporal representation, 312
Emulation theory, 312–27
representation and, 312–13
temporal generalization of, 327–29
Emulator, 316
amodal, 321–25, 324 f
modal, 321–25, 324 f
modality‐specific, 323 f
Enactivism, 251–96
approach of, 252
claims of, 253–55
color and, 266–71
commitments of, 253–55
conceptual issues of, 255–62
constitutive role of action in, 252
dual systems hypothesis and, 274–79
evidence cited for, 262–71
neural substrates of, 281–93
perceptual consciousness and, 255–58
prismatic adaptation and, 262–65
qualia in, 256, 257
visual development and, 265–66
Enactivist responses
to alternative proposals, 271–79
to troublesome data, 271–79
Encoding mechanisms, 348
of events, 131
linear, 350
Endogenously active agents, 84
(p. 624) Energy‐minimization approaches, 373
Engrams, 25
Entities, 43, 59
Entorhinal cortex (EC), 22, 23 f
Entrained rhythms, 46
factors, 46
Entrainment, 44
Environment, perception and, 218–19
Environmental cues, 46
Epicritic system, 181
Epileptic seizures, 17
Episodic memory, 16
of others, 500–502
systems, 287
systems schematic, 289 f
Epistemic reductionism, 85
Erlanger, Joseph, 28
Ernst, Richard, 180
Ethical debate, on neurotechnological enhancement, 432
Ethical/legal issues, of BMI, 437
Ethically relevant social categories, 423 f
Etiological explanations, 43
Eudaimonics, 582
in Buddhist priests, 583
European Union Panel on Animal Health and Welfare, 522
Evans, Gareth, 218
Excitatory stimulus, from FEF, 292
Executive processes, confabulations and, 489–91
Experiential blindness, 254
basal ganglia and, 293–96
Experiential irrationality, 514
Explanandum phenomenon, 43, 44–48
Explanatory gap problem, of perceptual consciousness, 255–57
Explanatory internal intervening variables, 168
Explans, 43
Explicit memory, 6, 146–48
implicit memory and, 152–55
storage of, 148–50
Exploratory behaviors, 73
Extended brain‐body‐environment systems, 86
Extended cognition, 71, 85
experimental approach, 86
Extended mind hypothesis, 130
External memory, 259
Eye movement, visual scene changes and, 325 f
Face‐reading system, 590
False memory reports, 473
False propositions, neural pathways and, 156
Fast pain system, 181
Faulty hypothesis formation, 513
Faulty reasoning, 516
Feedback control systems, motivation and, 383 f
Feeder mechanism, 384
Feedforward neural networks, 609
Feinber, Todd, 474
Field effect, 275
Filler terms, of mechanisms, 56–57
Flanagan, Owen, 10, 242, 583, 584
Fodor, Jerry, 156, 157, 174, 190, 192, 363, 540
Folk psychology, 70, 71
Force directed placement (FDP) algorithm, 373, 374 f
Forced water swim, stress procedures, 81
40 Hz oscillations, in cortex, 41
Forward model, 316
Fos‐B gene, 145
Frank, Michael, 386
Frankfurt, Harry, 410
Franklin, Benjamin, 96, 97
Freedom, 464
Free‐run rhythms, 45, 46
Free will, 463–65
Fregoli syndrome, 484, 492
Frontal eye fields (FEF), 291
excitatory stimulus from, 292
Fuch, Perry, 526
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 6, 7, 179, 458
BOLD signals, 186 f
of Buddhist priest, 584
cognition and, 179–80
of pain processing, 192–93
techniques of, 185–86
theoretical contributions of, 194–95
Functional reduction, 119–20
Gabor function, 206
Gabor‐Heisenberg‐Weyl uncertainty, 206
Gabrieli, J., 170, 171
Galambos, R., 31
Gallagher, Shaun, 9
Gallant, J.L., 32
Galvanism, 241
Gasser, Herbert, 28
Gaussian functions, 332 f
Gaussian/linear gain, 334 f
Gazzaniga, Michael, 33
Gene
expression, 161
knockout experiments, 18
propagation, 108
shutting off/on of, 160
stem therapy, 438
Genethics, 454, 455
Genetic algorithm, 373 f
Genetic determinism, 463
Genetic essentialism, 455
(p. 625) Genetics, 454
of circadian rhythms, 49
Genomics, 163n1
Gillett, Carl, 9
Glutamate, 18, 158
Glutamate release, 555
Goal‐directed systems, 383
Goals, sequences of, 392–96
Gold, Ian, 7
Goleman, Dan, 585
Golgi, C., 31
G protein molecule, 551
Grau, Jim, 6, 132, 133, 134
Green fluorescent protein (GFP), 106
Grush, Rick, 7, 174
Gyatso, Tenzin, 584, 594
Habituation, 72
Hacking, Ian, 68
Hallucinations, delusional experience and, 515
Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (Müller), 240, 243
Hand effect, 275
Happiness
brain and, 584–87
Buddhism and, 587–88
neural seat of, 10
Hardcastle, Valerie, 6–7
Harris, J., 455
Hartley, David, 240
Hartline, Haldan K., 200
Hastings Center Report, 436
Hebb, Donald, 16, 108, 167
Hebbian learning, 24, 108
Heeger, David, 212
Hegel, G., 479
Held and Hein's kitten experiment, 265–66
Helmholtz, Hermann, 239, 324
Helmholtz phenomenon, 325
Henle, J., 115
Hennevin, Elizabeth, 36n
Heterogeneous reductions, 119
Heuristics of science, SR and, 99
Heyser, Charles, 5
Higher level science, 121–23
Higher level states, 605
Hillyard, Steven, 33
Hippocampal encoding/consolidation structure, 288 f
Hippocampal system, 22
schematic diagram of, 23 f
Hippocampus
architecture of, 23–24
consolidation and, 27
core areas, 23, 23 f, 24
declarative memory and, 150
memory and, 16, 17, 24
synaptic structures of, 159
Hirst, William, 33
Hirstein, William, 9
History of Neurophysiology in the 19th Century (Brazier), 243
History of science, SR and, 99
Hochberg, Julian, 273
Holism/dualism, 440 t, 443–44
Homuncular explanation, 58
Houk, James, 396
How‐actually models, 57–59
How‐plausibly models, 58
How‐possibly models, 57–59
How to Solve It (Polya), 99
Hox genes, 145
Hubel, David, 7
Hull, Clark, 167
Human cone opsins, 551
Hume, David, 479, 603
Huntington's disease (HD), 295
Hybrid reductionism, 85
Hydrophobic segment, of dendritic spines, 560
Hyperpolarizaton, 552
Hypnosis, pain phenomenology and, 524
Hypnotic induction studies, pain processing and, 527
Ideal explanatory text, 57
Identification, confabulations and, 480
Identity theory, 593
Illes, Judy, 8
Implementation, 542
Implicit memory, 6, 16
explicit memory and, 152–55
Indian Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Acts, 522
Individual variation, in nervous system, 558–66
Inefficiencies, in institutionalized science, 93–95
Inference, 608
“Inference to the best explanation,” 419–27
Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), 284, 285, 286
Inferior parietal lobule (IPL), 284, 285, 286
Information hierarchy, 606
Information processing, in psychology, 13
Inhibitory networks, surround effects and, 208–9
INSPEC, 123
Institute for Biodiagnostics of the National Research Council of Canada, 7
Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), 94
Institutionalized science, inefficiencies in, 93–95
Instrumental conditioning, 135–38
Instrumental desires, adoption of, 386–92
Integration, 108–13
Intellectual History of Psychology (Robinson), 228
(p. 626) Intentionality, 153
original, 155–57
Intentional neural manipulations, object exploration and, 83–84
Intention types, 411, 411 f
Internal timers, of desire system, 404–5
International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), 184, 523
Intertheoretic reduction, 70, 119
failure of, 85
Intertrial intervals (ITIs), 109, 110 f
Intervening causality, 120
Intervening levels, mechanistic reduction and, 19–21
Intrinsic timing, 44
An Introduction to the Theory of Perception (Parsons), 226
Introspection, 607
contents of, 611, 613
Intuition, 616
Jacobson's organ, 233
James S. McDonnell Foundation, 33
Jeannerod, Marc, 410
Jessel, Thomas, 92
Johnson, Marcia, 489
Jones Leonard, B., 25
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 34
Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 32
Kabat‐Zinn, Jon, 592
Kalman filter (KF), 317, 317 f, 318, 319, 320, 327, 328
Kalman gain, 320, 321, 329
Kandel, Eric, 92, 133, 144
Kant, Immanuel, 479
Keeley, Brian, 7
Kim, Jaegwon, 567, 568
Klüver, Henrich, 29
Knowledge, 607, 608
confabulations and, 480–81
Knowledge argument, 602
Knowledge how, 147
Koch, R., 115
Koch (Henle) Postulates (Henle, Koch), 115
Koch's postulates, 115–16
Korsakoff's syndrome, 473, 475
Kraepelin, Emil, 529
Kuehni, Rolf, 270
Kuffler, Stephen, 32
Kuhn, Thomas, 96, 97
Landreth, Anthony, 8
Languge‐bsed deductive inference, 347
Lashley, K.S., 25
Late‐long‐term potentiation (L‐LTP), 101
Latent inhibition, overshadowing and, 134–35
Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), 606
Lateral intraparietal area (LIP), 291, 292
Lauterbur, Paul, 182
Law of specific nerve energies (LSNE), 227, 239, 240, 243
axioms of, 240–41
Learning
associationist psychology and, 168
connection weight adjustments and, 609
memory and, 6
neural network models of, 172
LeDoux, J.E., 27, 33
Left‐hand grasp coefficients, 337
Lehninger, A.L., 31
Lesion/stimulation studies, of brain research, 31
Lewis, D.J., 26
Leyden jar, 97
Limb recognition
anomalies of, 493–97
classifying disorders of, 497–500
disorders of, 499 t
neuroscientific findings, 502–6
Linear functions, 333 f
Localization, 20
Location, of mechanisms, 54
Locke, John, 479
Logical deduction, 119
Lømo, Terje, 17
Long‐term memory, 15
brain systems for, 286, 287 f
implicit, 146–48
Long‐term potentiation (LTP), 5, 16, 122, 139, 148
blocking effect and, 41
cellular phenomenon of, 17
LTI control, dynamics equation for, 355 f
Ludwig, Carl, 239
Luminous consciousness, 594
Lycan, Bill, 58
Macaques, ocular dominance columns of, 563 f
Mach, Ernst, 324
Machamer, Peter, 6
Magendie, François, 240
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 34
Mandik, Pete, 10
Manipulationist view, 53
Mansfield, Peter, 180
(p. 627) Massive multiple realization (MMR) hypothesis, 540, 542
philosophical objections to, 567–75
Mathew's effect, 95
McClelland, J.L., 7
McConnell, James V., 123
McDonnell Foundation, 34
McDougall, William, 15
McGaugh, J.L., 24
McNaughton, B.L., 25
M‐cone photopigment, sensitivity curve, 545 f
Meagher, Mary, 6, 133
Measured states, 314
Measurement inverse, 338
Measurement update, 319
Mechanisms
of circadian rhythms, 42–44
connection of, 54
developing/testing accounts of, 20
filler terms of, 56–57
hierarchy of, 61
interlevel relations testing, 61
levels of, 59–62
location of, 54
mechanistic reduction and, 19–22
of memory consolidation, 22
models of, 42
schematic of, 43 f
size/shape/orientation of, 55
subcomponents, 20
temporal constraints of, 55
working parts of, 20
Mechanism sketches, 56–57
Mechanistic explanation, 43
adequate, 59
normative restraint, 47
Mechanistic reduction, 5, 14, 27
intervening levels and, 19–21
mechanisms and, 19–22
productive continuity and, 21–22
start‐up/termination conditions of, 21
Medial intraparietal cortex (MIP), 398
MEDLINE, 123
Melatonin release, 47
Mele, Alfred, 409, 410
Memory. See also specific memory
consolidation, 102
episodic, 16
explicit, 6
hippocampus and, 16, 17, 24
implicit, 6, 16
learning and, 6
long‐term, 15
procedural, 16
protein synthesis and, 16
puromycin and, 16
recall mechanism of, 150–52
Memory consolidation, 14–18
mechanisms of, 22
Memory storage, continuity of, 155
Mens Project, 29
Mental biophysics, 29
Mental representation, semantics and, 363–65
Mentor‐student relationship, in scientific discovery, 95
Mescaline, visual effects of, 29
Mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF), 26
Messenger RNA (mRNA), 101
Metta meditation, 591
Military interest, in BMI, 439
Mill, John Stuart, 117
Miller, George, 33
Miller, R.R., 26
Mill's methods, 117–19
agreement, 117
concomitant variation, 117
difference, 117
residues, 118
Mind and Brain: Dialogues in Cognitive Neuroscience (LeDoux, Hirst), 33
Mind ‐brain problem, 129–31
Minds
computational theory of, 157, 158, 161
egocentric representation of, 486–89
Minimally conscious state (MCS), 458, 459
Mirror neuron network
anatomic diagram of, 284 f
connectivity within, 285 f
Mirror neurons, 283–84, 285
Misanin, J. R., 26
Misguided beliefs, 515
Misidentification syndromes, 475
mild variants of, 493
neuroscientific findings, 502–6
representational theory of, 487
Modal emulator, 321–25, 324 f
Modality‐specific emulator, 323 f
Model actogram, 45 f
Model‐driven reinforcement learning, 386
Molecular cognition, 112
Molecular intervention, ruthless reduction and, 19
Molecular processes, in brain, 13
Molecule/mind links, 92
Monkey translational vestibular ocular reflex, 347
Montague, Read, 387
Moore, G.E., 480, 481
Moral cognition, 466–67
Morality, 419
Morris water maze, 69, 150
(p. 628) Motivation, 8–9
desire and, 409
directional capacity and, 382–86
emerging theory of, 381–415
feedback control systems and, 383 f
negative feedback and, 383–84
online correction and, 400–401
positive feedback and, 384
Motivational control system, hierarchical structure of, 413 f
Motivational salience, 517
Motor control, 326–27
Mouse thalamus axon
nine‐terminal arbor of, 372 f
subarbor of, 372 f
mperi knockouts, 61
mRNA. See Messenger RNA
Müller, Georg Elias, 15
Müller, Johannes, 227, 239, 240, 242, 243
Multidimensional state space, 609
Multilevel mind‐brain relations picture, 92
Multiple realization
at atomic level, 559
atomic‐to‐molecular case of, 545–54
cell‐to‐tissue case of, 554–58
different grain descriptions and, 571–73
dimensioned accounts of, 569–70
methodological isolation of psychology and, 573–75
in nervous system, 558–66
psychological science immaturity and, 570–71
species‐specific narrow identities and, 567–69
strength of evidence for, 565
univocal realization and, 567–69
Mundale, Jennifer, 9
Munsell chips, 268
Murphy system, 322
Nader, K., 27
Nagel, Ernest, 70, 119, 410
Nagel, Thomas, 602
Nagelian reduction, 541
National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Strokes (NINDS), 435
National Institutes of Health (NIH), 29
Biophysical and Biophysical Chemistry Study Section of, 28
National Research Council of Canada, 7
National Science Foundation (NSF), 93
Natural stimuli, RF and, 214
Nauta, W.J.H., 31
Negative alteration, 104–5
Negative feedback, motivation and, 383–84
Nervous system
independent levels of organization in, 539
individual variation in, 540, 558–66
levels in, 558–66
multiple realization in, 558–66
Network optimization theory, 371
Networks, brain regions and, 14
Neural activity, 13
of pain, 525
Neural correlate view (NCV), 594
Neural engineering framework (NEF), 347
computation and, 353–54
dynamics and, 347, 354–56
levels, 361
models, 361
philosophical consequences of, 360–65
rat navigation and, 357–60
representation and, 347, 348–53
synthesis and, 356–57
theories of, 360–61
transformation and, 347
Neural mechanisms, of desire, 408–14
Neural network models, of learning, 172
Neural pathways
disjunctive propositions and, 156
false propositions and, 156
Neural substrates, of SMC, 281–93
Neural subsystem, generic, 356 f
Neuroanatomy
cosmology and, 370–77
neurocomputation and, 7–8
Neurobehaviorism, prototypical examples of, 169–72
Neurobiological criterion, of senses, 227
Neurobiological facts, senses and, 226–27
Neurobiological levels, 539
Neurocomputation
models of, 346–66
neuroanatomy and, 7–8
Neuroethics, 8–9, 419, 454–68
of BMI enhancement, 435–37
Neuro‐eudaimonics, 582–98
Neurogenomics
developmental biology and, 6
developmental molecular biology and, 144–46
Neurolaw, 8–9
Neuromatrix, 184
Neuron (journal), 32
Neuronal network conditioning, 154
Neuron‐electrode interface, 431
Neuron network, 609
Neurons
AIB, 163, 164
AIY, 163, 164
AWC, 158, 163, 164
CA, 151
as discrete cells, 31
dopaminergic, 8–9
electrical properties of, 31
(p. 629)
embedded, 200–219
in primary visual cortex, 200
Neurophenomenology, 594
Neurophilosophy, 3, 4
psychiatry and, 9
of subjectivity, 601–16
Neurophilosophy (Churchland), 3, 4, 5, 92, 93, 443
Neurophysiological experiments, images as stimuli in, 204 f
Neurophysiology, decoupling computer vision from, 215–16
Neuropsychiatric disorders
animal models of, 528–29
emotional processing and, 9
Neuroscience, 13, 27–28
behavioral, 13
cognitive, 13
cognitive science and, 542
computationalism and, 160
of embodied activity, 252
explanation in, 42
philosophy of, 439–46, 440 t441 t
systems, 13
unconsidered, 279–96
Neurosciences Research Program (NRP), 28, 29
associates in, 30
Neurosciences Research Program Bulletin, 30
Neurosciences Research Symposium Summaries, 30
Neuroscientific levels, properties at, 568
Neurotechnological enhancement, ethical debate on, 432
Neurotechnology, 440 t, 441 t
Neurotransmitters
reduction in release of, 553
shutting off/on of, 160
New Scientist, 585
Newton, Isaac, 96
The New York Times, 583, 584, 585
Niv's model, 407
N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate (NMDA), 18, 26, 122, 123, 138, 149
N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR), 106, 150
Nociception, 522
Nociceptive receptors, 188, 189, 193
Noë, Alva, 7, 227, 232, 233, 252, 276, 278, 293, 294
Nonbehavioral paradigm, 171
Nondeclarative memory, 289
systems, 286, 287 f, 288–89
Nondeterministic polynomial‐time complete (NP‐complete), 371
Nondisjunctive proposition, 156
Nonhuman animals. See also Animal models
emotional awareness in, 525
pain in, 524–26
suffering of, 523
Nonhuman animal studies, of noxious stimuli, 522
Nonlocal analysis of frequency, 205
Normalization model, 213
“Not all objects are created equal” experiment, 79–81
Novelty reactivity, animal studies of, 72
Noxious stimuli, nonhuman animal studies of, 522
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 180
Object choice, 83
Object contact
duration, 80 f
trials, 76 f, 78 f
Object exploration, 71–74
affordances and, 84
alcohol withdrawal, 75–79
chronic mild stress and, 81–83
climbing and, 79–80
decrease of, 81
empirical/methodological conclusions, 83–85
familiarization phase of, 81
intentional neural manipulations and, 83–84
observed effects, 84
philosophical conclusions, 85–87
touch and, 79–80
Object recognition, 72
distributed training, 110 f
Observation experiments, 102–4
Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and His Expectations (Hartley), 240
Observed effects, of object exploration, 84
Observed signal, 317, 338
Ocular dominance columns, of macaques, 563 f
Oculomotor circuit, for saccade control, 292 f
Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, 523
Olfactory protein genes, 146
On Certainty (Wittgenstein), 481
Oncley, J., 28
Online correction, motivation and, 400–401
“On the Luminosity of Being” (Gyatso), 594
On the Origin of Species (Darwin), 539
Open‐loop controller, 314 f, 315
Operant conditioning chamber, 68–69
Opsin
biochemistry of, 556
in cell membrane, 552 f
human cone, 551
Optic ataxia, 276
(p. 630) Optimists/pessimists, in cognitive neuroscience, 143–44
Optimization landscapes, brain wiring minimization and, 370–76
Orbitofrontal cortex, 391, 392
O'Regan, J. Kevin, 252, 267
O'Reilly, R.C., 25, 386
Organ criterion, of senses, 227
Organisms, phenotypic diversion of, 540
Organizational features, 43
Orientation channels, 205
Oscillator, SCN AS, 60
Out‐of‐body experience (OBE), 280, 281
brain locations of, 281 f
Oxytocin, 419
Pacherie, Elizabeth, 411
Pacherie's dynamic theory of intentions, 412
Pagnoni, Guiseppe, 591
Pain
ACC and, 523, 524, 526, 527, 528
affective dimension, 523
behavioral suppression system and, 528
conclusions on, 191–92
CPP and, 525
definition of, 523
difficulties in imaging, 186–89
hypnosis and, 524
imaging studies, 189–91
inhibitory system, 181–84, 183 f
neural activity of, 525
in nonhuman animals, 524–26
placebos and, 184
processing system, 181–84, 181 f
quantitative dimension of, 523
subjectivity of, 184
two system theory of, 182
Pain phenomenology, cortical substrates of, 523–24
Pain processing
fMRI of, 192–93
hypnotic induction studies and, 527
Pain studies, potential confounds of, 526–28
PANIC theory, 258
Paradigms, of science, 97
Parallel Distributed Processing (Rumelhart, McClelland), 7
Paralysis denial, 475
Paraventricular nucleus (PVN), 46
Parietal reaching region (PRR), 398, 399, 400
Parieto‐occipital (PO), 398
Parkinson's disease (PD), 295
Parsons, John, 226
Passive vision, 251–52
Path integration, 357
in rat, 358
Path model, on circular path, 359 f
Pathological self‐referential narratives, 515
Pathways, 42
Pavlovian conditioning, 167
Penfeld, W., 280
Perception, 607
Aristotle and, 229
contents of, 611, 612
environment and, 218–19
sensation and, 6–7
Perceptual consciousness
enactivism and, 255–58
explanatory gap problem of, 255–57
Perceptual presence, puzzle of, 271
Periaqueductal gray region (PAG), 182
Period genes, 61
PER proteins, 49
Perseveration, 15
Persistent vegetative state (PVS), 458, 459
Personal relatedness theory, of confabulations, 483–84
Personhood, 461–63
Person recognition
anomalies of, 491–93, 498 t
classifying disorders of, 497–500
neuroscientific findings, 502–6
severe disorders of, 494 t
Pew Charitable Trusts, 33
Phantom limb, 494, 495
Phase precession, 359
Phenomenal character, 603
Phenomenal concepts, 604
Phenotypic diversion, of organisms, 540
Pheromone‐detecting vomeronasal sense, 7
Pheromones, 233
Philipeaux, J.M., 243
Philipona, David, 267
Philosophical objections, to MMR hypothesis, 567–75
Philosophy, cognitive neuropsychology and, 477–80
Philosophy of mind, subjectivity and, 602–5
Philosophy of psychology, 540
Philosophy of science, 540
Phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), 103 f, 108, 109
Phosphorylation, CREB and, 111 f
Photopigment, 544, 545
Photopigment molecule, 551
in cell membrane, 552 f
Physical chemistry, 30
Physiological psychology, 32
Pilzecker, Alfons, 15
Pittendrigh, Colin, 44
Placebos, pain and, 184
Pleasure, 409
Polya, Geroge, 99
Population representation, 351
Positive affect
brain and, 584, 585
prefrontal cortices and, 585
Positive alteration, 106–8
Positive feedback, motivation and, 384
Positive immune system effects, Buddhism and, 592
Positron emission tomography (PET), 34
Posner, Michael, 33, 34
Posterior parietal cortex (PPC), 325, 331, 398
Postsynaptic currents (PSCs), 351
Postural signals, 339
Potassium ions, 31
Pouget, Alexandre, 312
Prediction, 328, 386
Prefrontal cortices, positive affect and, 585
Preparadigm phase, of science, 96–97
Price, H. P., 233
Primacy effects, 516
Primary Value Learned Value (PVLV), 386–88
critic, 389 f
Primary visual area (V1), 606
Primary visual cortex
neurons in, 200
recent findings, 207–12
RFs, 206–7
Principles of Neural Science (Kandel, Schwartz, Jessel), 92
Prismatic adaptation, enactivism and, 262–65
Proattitudes, of desire, 408–14
Problem‐solving heuristics, 160–61
Procedural memory, 16
system, 290, 290 f
Process, 313, 314
Process models, 316
Productive continuity, mechanistic reduction and, 21–22
Propositional knowledge, 603
Propositional representation, 144
Protanope, retina of, 556
Protein expression, 161
Protein kinase A (PKA), 18, 101, 559
Protein synthesis, memory and, 16
Protopathic system, 181
Pseudo‐closed‐loop control, 316 f
Psychiatry, neurophilosophy and, 9
Psychic blindness, 29
Psychological phenomena, trajectory emulation and, 329–30
Psychology, information processing in, 13
Psychoneural reductionism, 92
Psychophysics, 205–6
Psychosis, 517
Publication databases, searchable, 123–24
Purcell, Edward, 180
Puromycin, memory and, 16
Putamen, 397
Putnam, Hilary, 567
Puzzle of perceptual presence, 271
Quadratic assignment problem (QAP), 373
Qualia, 236, 237
in enactivism, 256, 257
Qualitative valence, 517
Quantitative dimension, of pain, 523
Quintillian, 15
R. See Repetition
Racine, Eric, 8
Raichle, Marcus, 33, 34
Railton, Peter, 57
Rate code view, 349
Rate coding, biologically plausible, 352 f
Rationality, 9
confabulations and, 481–82
Rats
navigation, 357–60
pain tests on, 526
path integration in, 358 f
remote‐controlled, 438
Reality monitoring, 489
Realization, 542
levels of, 60, 61
Real reductionism, 121
Recall mechanism, of memory, 150–52
Recency effects, 516
Receptive field (RF), 200
circuitry primacy and, 214–15
classical, 201–5
dynamic, 209–10
expanding classical, 212–13
maps, 203 f
natural stimuli and, 214
piecemeal solutions, 213–14
theoretical strategies of, 212–18
Reconceptualizations, 261–62
Reconsolidation, 26
Reducing theory, laws of, 119
Reduction. See also specific reduction
epistemological thesis of, 70
failure of, 86
(p. 632)
ontological thesis of, 70
reduction and, 69–71
reductionism and, 69–71
in scientific practice, 119–21
Reductionism, 5, 440 t, 442–43
Reductionism simpliciter, 85
Reflectance coefficients, 268
Regulatory/policy issues, of BMI, 437
Reinforcement learning framework, 386
Remote‐controlled rat, BMI and, 438
REM sleep, 36n
Repetition (R), 167
Representation. See also specific representation
denial of, 258–61
emulation theory and, 312–13
NEF and, 347, 348–53
Representationalists, 258
Representational momentum, 330
Representational states, 153
syntactical manipulation of, 157
Representational theory, 161
of confabulations, 484–86
of misidentification syndromes, 487
Representing and Intervening (Hacking), 68
Research and development investment, 93
Response‐outcome (R‐O), 136
Retina
cross‐section of, 544 f
of deuteranope, 556
of protanope, 556
Retinal cells, 32
Retinal pathways, schematic diagram of, 274f
Retinal states, 605
Retinohypothalamic tract, 46
Retroactive amnesia, 15, 16
Retrograde, amnesia, 15, 16
Reverse engineering, 58
REV proteins, 57
Reward
determinants, 387 f
gradients of, 406–8
vigor of, 406–8
Ribot, Théodule‐Armand, 15, 16
Ribot's law, 16
Ricard, Matthieu, 584
RNAi, 145
Robins, Sarah, 5
Robinson, Daniel, 228
Rodent navigation system, 347
Rods and cones, structure of, 551 f
Rolls, Edmund, 23, 24
Rosenberg, Alex, 6
Rosenberg, M.D., 28
Roskies, Adina, 8
Rumelhart, D.E., 7, 25
Ruthless reduction, 14, 18–19, 71
behavioral tracking and, 19
critique of, 35
limitations of, 21, 22
molecular intervention and, 19
Ryle, Gilbert, 479
S‐, M‐, L‐cones, absorption spectra of, 555 f
Saccade control, oculomotor circuit for, 292 f
Salience effects, 516, 517
Sara, Susan, 26
Scandinavian Physiological Society, 17
Schafe, G.E., 27
Schizophrenic delusion, 513, 514, 517
Schizophrenic psychosis, 520
Schmitt, Francis, 28, 29, 30
Schneider, A. M., 26
Schroeder, Timothy, 409
Schultz, Wolfram, 390
Schwann, Theodor, 239
Schwartz, James, 92
Science
compositional relations in, 543 t
different disciplines of, 98
economic investment in, 94
expansion of, 94
higher level, 121–23
inefficiencies of, 93–95, 113–14
levels of, 60
paradigms of, 97
practical training, 97
preparadigm phase of, 96–97
sociological factors in, 97
subjective factors in, 97
Science of Research (SR), 5, 91
characterization of, 95–96
cognitive neuroscience and, 99
convergent four hypothesis and, 100–115
discipline of, 95–99
heuristics of science and, 99
history of science and, 99
scientific creativity and, 98–99
second hypothesis, 119–23
sociology and, 99
Scientific creativity, SR and, 98–99
Scientific disciplines, emergence of new, 96–98
Scientific discovery
mentor‐student relationship in, 95
training in, 95
Scientific literature
analysis of, 94
citations of, 94
Scotoma, artificial, 210
Scoville, William, 16, 17
Searle, John, 479
Sejnowski, Terry, 33, 93
Self‐agency
problems with, 515
signal disruption and, 516
Self‐representation, 463
Semantic memory systems, 287
Semantics, mental representation and, 363–65
Sensation, perception and, 6–7
Sense organs, case against, 231–38
Senses
Aristotle and, 228–31
neurobiological criterion of, 227
neurobiological facts and, 226–27
neurophysiological criterion of, 227
organ criterion of, 227
unconscious, 236
Sensoimotor contingencies (SMCs), 254, 255, 260, 280, 282, 283
encoding criteria, 283
neural substrates of, 281–93
processing criterion, 291
Sensorium, 242
Sensory input, for calibration, 359
Sensory‐motor pathway, 152
Sensory residual, 319
Sensory signals, 339
Sequential action selection, 397
Serial reaction time (SRT), 172
Serotonin, 146
Shepherd, Gordon, 33
Sherman, W., 26
Short‐term memory
implicit, 146–48
as limited‐capacity buffer, 132
Siddhartha Gautama, 596
Sigmoid function, 336 f
Signal disruption, self‐agency and, 516
Silva, Alcino, 5
Simon, Herbert, 58
Simple vector‐mechanical processes, 371
Size/shape/orientation, of mechanisms, 55
Skeletomotor circuit, CBTC, 290, 290 f
Skinner, B.F., 167
Skinner box, 69
Skinner's behaviorism, 168
Sleep‐wake cycle, 44
Slow pain system, 181
Sociability, 419, 420
Social transmission of food preferences (STFP), 103
experiment, 103 f
Society for Neuroscience, 3, 5, 14, 16, 31
Sociological factors, in science, 97
Sociology, SR and, 99
Soiled bedding, stress procedures, 81
Sometimes Opponent Processes (SOP), 132
Spatial aspect, 338
Spatial frequency, 205
Spatial information processing, basis functions and, 331–37
Spatial organization, 54
Spatial representation
allocentric, 311
egocentric, 311
Spatiotemporal trajectory representation, 340
Species‐specific narrow identities, multiple realization and, 567–69
Specific sense‐energy, 242
Spence, Kenneth, 167
Spezifische Sinnesenergien, 242
Spinal circuits, 139
Spinal cord
cognition and, 129–40
injuries, 131
philosophical implications of, 138–40
Spinal cord‐based learning, 6
Spinal plasticity, 130
Spinal reflexes, 130
Split‐brain syndrome, 473, 474, 475
Startle response, 589
Start‐up/termination conditions, of mechanistic reduction, 21
State‐space form, 355
State variables, 355
Steiner tree optimization, 371
Stewart, Matthew, 6
Stimulus‐response‐reward (SRR), 167
Stressor presentation, 82
Stress procedures, 81
Strobe light, stress procedures, 81
The Structure of Science (Nagel), 119
Subgoals, adoption of, 386, 400
Subjective factors, in science, 97
Subjectivity, 10
concepts defense content of, 611–16
concepts defense structure of, 608–11
neurophilosophy of, 601–16
philosophy of mind and, 602–5
Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), 390
Substrates, 42
Suffering, of nonhuman animals, 523
Sufka, Kenneth, 9
Superior temporal sulcus (STS), 284, 285, 286, 292
Supplementary eye fields (SEF), 291
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), 46, 59
as oscillator, 60
synchronous firing of, 52
time‐keeping mechanism in, 48
Surround effects, inhibitory networks and, 208–9
Synapses, of dendritic spines, 561 t
(p. 634) Synaptic efficacy, 17
Synaptic network, 160
Synaptic pathways, 154
Synaptic plasticity, 17
Synaptic structures, of hippocampus, 159
Synchronous firing, of SCN, 52
Syntactical manipulation, of representational states, 157
Synthesis, NEF and, 356–57
A System of Logic (Mill), 117
Systems, 42
Systems biology, 145
Systems neuroscience, 13, 32
Tactile receptors, 188
Tactile‐visual substitution system (TVSS), 237, 238
Tail flick, 132
Tamoxifen, 104
Teleosemantics, 156
Temporal constraints, of mechanisms, 55
Temporal decoding, 349, 350 f
diagram, 350 f
Temporal generalization, of emulation theory, 327–29
Temporal lobe stimulation, 280
Temporal‐parietal junction, diagram of, 503 f
Temporal representation, 349
emulation framework for, 312
Tensarama, 374 f
Terry Schiavo case, 459
Theoretical neuroscience, 346
Theory, levels of, 60
Thigmotaxis, 83
Thompson, Richard, 32
Three Faces of Desire (Schroeder), 409
Timeaus (Plato), 228
Time‐keeping mechanism, in SCN, 48
Time update, 319
Timing code view, 349
Timing coding, biologically plausible, 352 f
Timing mechanism, 44
Tool development, 99
Top‐down excitatory experiments, 62
Top‐down inhibitory experiments, 62
Top‐down research model, 162
Top‐down view, of delusional experience, 513, 514
Touch, object exploration and, 79–80
Tracking, 120
Trajectory emulation, 327–30
psychological phenomena and, 329–30
Trajectory estimation, 330
Transformation, NEF and, 347
Transitive relation, 554
A Treatise of Human Nature (Hume), 603
Tuning curve resemblance, 359
Tuning curves, 359
Two visual systems
coherence and, 271–74
detail and, 271–74
Tye, Michael, 258
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS), 134, 167
Unconscious perception, 607
Unconscious states, 605
Univocal realization, multiple realization and, 567–69
U.S. Animal Welfare Act, 523
Value proxies, 387
van Essen, D.C., 32
Vasopressin, 419
Ventral tegmental area (VTA), 390
Vertebrate pain signals, 131
Vincent, Jean‐Didier, 437
Vipassana meditation, 591
Vision research, 252, 274
Visual agnosia, 29, 275
coupling in, 277–78
Visual awareness, 254
Visual consciousness, 607
Visual development, enactivism and, 265–66
Visual effects, of mescaline, 29
Visual experience, 272–73
Visual field
adaptation and, 218
early mammalian, 202 f
natural stimulation of, 211
Visual processing hierarchy, 7, 606, 607
Visual prosthetic devices, 7
Visual scene changes, eye movement and, 325 f
Visual sensitivity, 254
Visual short‐term memory (VSTM), 272
Vivid daydreaming, 489
Volume control, of desire, 402–6
Vomeronasal organ (VNO), 233, 235
Vomeronasal sense, pheromone‐detecting, 7
Vomeronasal states, 236
Vomeronasal system, 234–35
Vulpian, A., 243
Warwick, Kevin, 438
Watson, James, 108
Weldon, Morgan, 9
Wiesel, Torsten, 7
Wilhelm von Brücke, Ernst, 239
Williams, R. C., 28
(p. 635) Wilson, M. A., 25
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 479, 481
Working memory systems, 347
direct/indirect pathways in, 395 f
World Color Survey (WCS), 268
focal choice data, 269 f
Zebrafish escape and swimming control, 347
Zeitgebers, 46
Zeki, Semir, 32
Zen meditation, attentional disorders and, 592
Zeugmtography, 180
Zipser Andersen model, 331, 333, 334, 336