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date: 17 February 2019

(p. 695) Index

(p. 695) Index

A
Abakoumkin, G., 456
Abecedarian Project, 129
Abramson, L. Y., 315, 320
Acceptance
active denial vs., 306
ambivalence about in U.S., 218
of long-term challenges, 545
MBRP and, 601
by others, 472
primary control and, 272–273
respect and, 273, 388–389
self-acceptance, 37, 53, 91, 98, 219, 471–472
self-verification theory and, 465, 470–471
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), 231
Acronym reduction of disorders (in DSM), 64
Activity Restriction Model of Depressed Affect, 167–169
Actor-Partner Interaction Model (APIM), 412
Adaptation. See also Hedonic adaptation; Positive adaptation
change studies and, 99
cognitive adaptation theory (CAT), 645
creativity and, 262
good adaptation, 120, 127, 129, 130, 117, 118
hedonic adaptation, 190
multiculturalism and, 50
positive adaptation, 118–120, 129, 638
resilience arising from, 117
Additive models of resilience, 122
ADDRESSING identity identification model, 55
Adolescence: Its psychology and its relation to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion, and education (Hall), 150
Adolescence/adolescents. See also 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development; Positive youth development (PYD) perspective
developmental theories about, 150–153
EI and tobacco use testing, 242
Erikson on, 150
Freud (Anna) on, 150
hope/optimism for, 134, 135, 137
as ontogenetic laboratory, 152–153
Penn Resiliency Program for, 138
pubertal issues, 152
scientific studies of Hall, 150–151
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), 407, 408
Adult attachment security, 405–413, 409, 410–411
Affective Disposition scale, 212
Affectivity. See Positive affectivity
Affiliative behavior, 459, 523
Affleck, G., 633–639, 647
African Americans
adult EAC association, 227–228
BFG studies, 638
perceived control of, 274
problem solving and, 348, 352
vs. Caucasians, school satisfaction, 563
The Age of the Crusades (Chesterton), 443
Agency (in hope theory), 324–325
Agentic capability (causal agency), 363
Aging, 165–167. See also Baby boomers
Ahmad, N., 417–424
AI (appreciative inquiry) 4-D cycle, 41
AIR Self-Determination Scale, 362
Akinola, M., 465
Albee, George, 4, 62
Albert, S., 637
Aldwin, C. M., 642
Alexander, C, 607
Alexithymia, and emotions, 227, 252–253, 252t
Allport, G. W., 29
Alper, C. M., 212
Altemus, M., 20
Alternate Uses Test, 262
Altruism, 376, 378–379, 417. See also Prosocial behavior motives
empathy and, 417–424
meditation and, 605
motivational sources of, 421
as part of human nature, 417–418
Alvaro, C., 646
Ambivalence over Emotional
Expressiveness Questionnaire, 226
American Psychiatric Association, 62–63. See also Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
American Psychological Association (APA), 51, 61–62, 105–106, 109, 611
Analects of Confucianism, 27
Analysis paralysis, 281, 291
Angyal, A., 358
Annual Review of Psychology, 188
Anscombe, G.E.M., 26
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 509, 512–514
Antoni, M. H., 228
Antonovsky, A., 89
Appetitive processes in relationships, 456, 457–459
Appreciative inquiry, 40, 41
Approach Avoidance Style subscale (PSI), 347, 352
Approach-oriented motivational state, 367–368
Aquinas, Thomas, 418
Arbisi, P., 211
Aristotle, 25, 31, 394, 400
Arkin, R. M., 350
Armeli, S., 229
Armendariz, J., 349
Arnheim, R., 251
Arnold, K. D., 40
Aron, A., 449, 459
Aron, E. N., 449
Ashby, F. G., 20
Asian Americans, 30, 52–53, 274, 308
Aspirational principles (APA ethics code), 106
Attachment/attachment theory, 405–407, 412, 446. See also Adult attachment security
adult attachment security, 405–413
attachment and love, 449
Attention/concentration, and meditation, 605
Attribution (minding component), 387–388
Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), 316
Austenfeld, Jennifer L., 226–232
Authentic leadership development (ALD), 584
Automatic behavior, 280–283
Autonomic nervous system (ANS), 527, 528, 529
Autonomy, 27, 37, 53, 98, 358, 359, 361
Autotelic personality, 197, 199, 203. See also Flow
Averill, J. R., 240, 249–256
Aversive curiosity model (Lowenstein), 369
Aversive-arousal reduction, 420
Avey, J., 41
(p. 696) Avolio, B. J., 41
Ayduk, O. N., 412
B
Baby boomers, 165–167
Bagozzi, R. P., 379
Balsano, A., 159–160
Baltes, M. M., 159
Baltes, Paul B., 159, 171–181, 174, 176
Bandura, Albert, 4–5, 42, 324, 336, 358, 360, 580, 582. See also Self-efficacy
Barlett, K., 297
Barling, J., 40
Barnes, P. M., 138
Barnum, D. D., 136
Barrett, L. F., 458
Bartlett, M. Y., 441, 442
Baskin, T. W., 431
Bateson, George, 537
Batson, C. D., 220, 417–424
Battistich, V. A., 135
Baumeister, R. F., 452, 682
Baumgardner, A. H., 350
Beecher, Henry Ward, 444
Behavior
behavior activation system (BAS), 456
Behavioral Facilitation System, 208, 210–211
behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 456
multiple meanings of, 287–290
Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 456
Bell, N. E., 212
The Bell Curve (Herrnstein & Murray), 238, 244
Belsky, J., 407
Bender, Jade A., 133–144
Benefit finding and growth (BFG), 140–142, 633–639
concept/definition, 140–141
conceptual home, search for, 636
desirable outcome associations, 635–636
historical background, 634–635
interventions with, 140–142, 638
meaning of statements of, 644–647
measurement of, 141, 636–637
processes of (research), 643–644
Benefit-Finding Scale, 637
Bennett, William, 26
Benson, Herbert, 452
Bentham, Jeremy, 187
Benton, S. A., 575
Benton, S. L., 575
Bergin, D. A., 275
Bering, J. M., 681
Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire, 226
Berkman, L. F., 455
Berkovits, E., 614
Berlin Wisdom Model, 173–175
Bernier, A., 409
Berridge, K. C., 20
Berry, J. W., 457
Berscheid, E., 447, 448, 451
Bersoff, D., 106
Big Brothers/Big Sisters, 149, 156
Biologic approach to love, 448–449
Biswas-Diener, R., 27
Blakely, B. S., 410
Blakeslee, S., 391
Blame
forgiveness and, 289–290
self-blame, 316, 478–479
Blanchard-Fields, F., 178
Blascovich, J., 545
Bleiberg, E., 468
Blumenthal, J. A., 589–594
Boehm, J. K., 667–675
Boesch, E. E., 177
Bond, M., 297–298
Boniwell, I., 299, 300
Bonnano, G. A., 411
Bonneau, R., 520
Bono, G., 431
Bonwell, Ilona, 295–301
Bower, J. E., 635
Bowlby, John, 406, 411
Boyatzis, R., 575
Boyce, T. W., 135
Boyd, J., 378
Boyd, J. N., 297
Brackett, M. A., 242
Bradburn, Norman, 10, 188
Bradley, J. M., 410
Brady, J., 494
Brahma Vihara meditation practice, 605
Brandstadter, J., 272
Brantley, A., 564
Breakwell, G. M., 492, 495
Breast cancer EP longitudinal study, 228–229
Brechman-Toussaint, M. L., 42
Brennan, K. A., 407
Breuer, Joseph, 623
Brewer, M. B., 496
Bricklin, P., 106
Brickman, P., 653, 670
Broaden hypothesis, 15–17
Broaden-and-build theory (of positive emotions), 13, 14–15, 20, 572, 583
Bronfenbrenner, U., 553
Brooks-Gunn, J., 142, 155
Brown, J. D., 467
Brown, L., 106, 158
Bryant, F. B., 299
Buddhism, 381
Build hypothesis, 17–19
Bulman, R. J., 656
Bunce, S. C., 319
Burns, D. J., 494
Burris, C. T., 492
Burt, Jennifer D., 551–557
Buss, D. M., 449
C
Cabib, S., 513
Cacioppo, J. T., 221, 455
Cafferty, T. P., 410
Cain, K. M., 318
Calhoun, L. G., 38, 635, 638, 641–642
Campbell, B., 448, 670
Campbell, C., 108, 111
Campos, B., 20
Campuses, positive psychology on, 569–577
academic advising application, 573–574
engaged learning, 570
promotion of student's well-being, 575–577
self-determination theory, 570
strengths-based education, 570–573
student leadership development, 574–575
Cantril, Hadley, 187
Capability (causal agency), 363
Capitalization in relationships, 457–458
Caregiver's optimism, 305
Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 151
Carnevale, P.J.D., 503
Cartwright, William, 253
Caruso, David, 237–245, 574
Carver, C. S., 228, 303–309, 582
Case formulation approaches (DSM alternative), 67
CASIO model of intervention, 37
Cassell, E. J., 393–402
Cassidy, J., 468
Castro, C., 377
Caucasian Americans, 52, 213
Causal agency theory (CAT), 360, 362–363
Causal attribution, 76–77
CAVE (content analysis of verbatim explanations) procedure, 316
Celebrating Strengths project, 39
Center for Academic and Social-Emotional Learning, 566
Centre for Applied Positive Psychology (CAPP/UK), 42–43
Centre for Confidence and Well-Being (UK), 42–43
Cerezo, M. A., 319
Chang, E., 52–53, 275
Chang, J., 604
Change
designing studies of, 100–101
models of, 101–102
Changes in Outlook Questionnaire, 636–637
Charng, H.-W., 421
Cheavens, J. S., 323–330
Chesterton, G. K., 440, 443
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 136
Child Development Project, 566
Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), 138
(p. 697) Child-Parent Centers (Chicago), 129
Children. See also Education; Family-centered positive psychology; Positive schools
creativity and, 265–266
healthy, and families, 552–553
and hope, 135–137
HRQOL measurement of, 138–139
lack of gratitude in, 30
optimism intervention with, 138
positive psychology for, 133–144
psychosocial resilience in, 126t
QOL measurement of, 139–140
Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ), 137–138
Children's Hope Scale (CHS), 135, 327, 476
Chiles, C., 378, 380
Chin, J. L., 52
Cho, W., 451
Christensen, A. J., 628
Christie, Juliette, 165–169
Chryssochoou, X., 492, 495
Chryst, C. F., 275
Chunking of behavior, 72
Cialdini, R.B., 420
Civic engagement/virtue, 110–111
Civic participation and SWB, 590–591
Clack, R. J., 80
Clark, L. A., 209
Clark, L. E., 627
Clarke, J., 376
Clausen, J. A., 212
Cleroux, J., 541
Client-centered therapy (CCT), 35, 36
Clifton, Don, 4, 7, 9
Clifton Strengths Prize, 5
Clifton StrengthsFinder™, 571–572
Clore, G. L., 506
Clum, G. A., 348–349
Cobbs, G., 467
Cognitive adaptation theory (CAT), 645–646
Cognitive deficiency (of old people) issue, 166
Cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), 232
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 20, 141, 275, 488
Cohen, S., 191, 212, 519
Cohn, Michael A., 13–21
Coles, Robert, 612
Collectivism, 421
Collins, J., 274, 275
Collins, P., 211
Combs, G. M., 41
Commission on Positive Youth Development, 142
Compassion, 393–402, 418
basic requirements for, 394–395
connecting/identifying with others, 395–397
disconnection (absence of compassion), 397
as evidence for the nature of mankind, 397–398
historical background, 393–394
knowledge of suffering of others, 399–400
love and, 401
medicine and, 400–401
and the nature of suffering, 398–399
of physician's/and positive psychology, 401–402
Compassionate love, 593
Complexity, application to flow, 197
Concentrative meditation, 602
Conditions vs. groups issues, 84–85
Confucius, 25, 27, 381
Conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) service model, 556–557
Connelly, T. W., 136
Consideration of Future Consequences Scale, 297
Constantine, M., 44
Context
causal attribution, 76–77
covariation, 78–79
external context, 73–74
insider vs. outsider perspectives, 74–75, 77–78
intrapsychic context, 73, 74
the “just world phenomenon,” 79
neglect of environmental considerations, 76, 79–80
person/environment as figure and ground, 76–77
positives vs. negatives, 75–76
task focus, 79
Control
benefits of, 272
individual differences with, 274
interventions for increasing, 274–275
measuring perceptions of, 273
methods of getting, 272–273
perceived control, 271–272
primary vs. secondary, 272–273
realism/illusion in effects of, 273–274
Conyne, R. K., 80
Cook, J., 653
COPE (assessment instrument), 226
Coping. See also Emotional approach coping (EAC) with adversity, historical background, 226
benefits of positive affect, 506
benefits of toughness on, 544–546
effective coping studies, 7, 350, 544, 658
emotion-focused, 168, 225, 226, 229, 231, 544, 658
failed in vitro fertilization study, 305
female breast cancer study, 306
optimism, pessimism and, 305–307
positive coping, 55, 657
problem solving appraisal and, 350
reality negotiation as, 475
Ways of Coping Questionnaire, 226
Coping Effectiveness Training (CET), 231
Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), 226
Costa, P. T., 189
Cottle, T. J., 297
The Counseling Psychologist, 44
Counterfactual thinking. See Regrets
Courage
altruism and, 378–379
character development and, 378
efficacy-relevant states and, 378
features (necessary) of, 376
gender differences and, 379
historical background, 375–376
laboratory situations (measure), 380
life data (measure), 380
morally relevant states and, 377–378
negative emotional states and, 377
PsychINFO data, 375
self-regulation and, 379
self-report scales (measure), 379–380
social influence and, 378
types of, 376–377
Courage Measure (CM), 380
Covariation principle, 78–79, 98
Cowger, E. L., 604
Cox, D., 380
Craig, A., 275
Creativity, 261–267
adults and, 266
artistic personalities, 263
cultural encouragement of, 261
defined, 262
early life trauma and, 264
emotional creativity, 240, 249–256
future research directions, 266–267
measurement approaches, 262–263
meditation and, 604–605
nature-nurture issue, 153, 261, 265
psychological disorders and, 264–265
recognition of, 261–262
small-c vs. big-C creativity, 265
young children and, 265–266
Croog, S., 637
Cross, S. E., 451
Cross-cultural psychology, multiculturalism vs., 50
Crozier, J. B., 368
Cruess, D. G., 230
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihalyi, 7, 9, 189, 195–203, 564, 566, 647–648, 690. See also Flow
Cultural contexts (of positive psychology), 49–56. See also Multiculturalism
ADDRESSING model, 55
culturally embedded perspective, 50–51
culturally relevant strengths, 54–55
culture and the construction of self, 53–54
culture in practice, 54–55
(p. 698) culture-bound strengths, 27
culture-free perspective, 50
human diversity model, 52
inferiority to strengths in diversity, 51–52
inferiority/strengths models, 51–52
optimism investigations, 52–53
religion/spirituality, 54
subjective well-being investigations, 53
Culture Fair Intelligence Test, 604
Curiosity (and interest), 367–373
aversiveness of (question), 369
clinical uses of, 371–372
defined, 367–368
future research directions, 372
individual differences in, 369
positive emotions and, 368–369
in the social world, 369–370
well-being and, 370–371
Curry, L. A., 327
D
Dahlsgaard, Katherine, 27, 381
Daily Reconstruction Method, 591
Damasio, A., 528
Damond, M., 361
Danner, D. D., 459
Danoff-Burg, S., 228, 230
Davidson, R. J., 513
Davila, J., 389
Davis, C. G., 641–648
Dawes, Robyn, 421
de Champlain, J., 541
de la Fuentes, C., 109–110
De Volder, M., 299
Deal, A., 554
Deci, E. L., 357, 359, 360, 467, 470
Declaration of Helsinki, 105
Deindividuation, 71–73, 76, 81, 82–83, 85, 86
Dekel, S., 411
Deliberative Polling (DP) project, 591
Delle Fave, A., 198
Dembo, T., 75
Demographic correlates of subjective well-being, 190
Depression, 18, 20, 92–93, 140–141, 152, 157. See also Activity Restriction Model of Depressed Affect
genetic risk factor for, 126
influence on personal control, 274
Penn Resiliency treatment program, 138
pessimism as predictor for, 307
positive psychotherapy for, 38, 44
problem-solving appraisal and, 348
self-efficacy and, 338
spontaneous arising of, 221
Depue, R. A., 211, 512–513
Derrick, J., 412
Derryberry, D., 507
Descartes, René, 398
Deschamps, J. C., 72
DeSteno, D., 441, 442
Deutsch, M., 376, 377
Developmental Diagnostic Classification System, 83–84
Developmental systems theories, 151, 153–155, 160
Deviancy (social edicts), 71
Dewey, J., 250
Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
acronym reduction of disorders, 64
beyond the illness ideology and the, 67–68
controversial inclusions, 63–64
faulty assumptions of, 65–67
GAF approach in, 90
illness ideology and the, 62–63
intellectual deconstruction of, 64–67
MDE symptoms, 90
MIDUS mental disorder diagnosis using, 90
replacement alternatives, 67–68, 83–84
social deconstruction of, 63–64
Dialectical behavior therapy, 231, 469
Dickerson, S. S., 519–524, 533
Dickson, H., 275
Diener, E., 7–11, 38, 42, 53, 188, 190, 214, 452, 653
Diener, M., 189, 214
Dienstbier, R. A., 537–546
Differential Emotions Scale (DES), 208
Dillon, M., 616
Disabilities
of children, and CBC service model, 556–557
cognitive, 144, 364
fSDT and, 361
happiness after, 652–656
hedonic treadmill, set-point theory, and, 653–654
intentionality of happiness following, 655–656
resilience and positive growth following, 656–659
Disclosure research, 625–626
Discontinuity assumption (of DSM), 65–66
Discrimination vs. evaluation, 290–291
Dispositional Flow Scale, 198
Distinctiveness/distinctiveness-seeking, 71–72, 491–498
in historical/cultural context, 494–496
individual differences in, 493–494
and other identity motives, 496–497
people's need for, 492
positive psychology and, 497–498
process of seeking, 492–493
sources of, 495f
Divine Law (of Christianity), 25
Dixon, W. A., 349
Dodgson, P. G., 574
Doise, W., 72
Donne, John, 395–396
Dooley, J., 135
Dopamine hypothesis positive affectivity, 512–514
Dovidio, J. F., 507–508
Doyle, W. J., 212
Dreisbach, G., 507
Drucker, Peter, 4
Dryfoos, J. G., 134
Duncker Candle task, 505
Dunkel Schetter, C., 230
Dunn, D. S., 651–660
Dunn, J. R., 440, 442, 603
Dunst, C. J., 554
Durkheim, Emile, 624–625
Dweck, C. S., 318, 575
DʼZurlilla, T. J., 351
E
Eastern philosphical traditions and wisdom. See also Brahma Vihara meditation practice; Buddhism; Meditation; Transcendental Meditation; Zen meditation
Ebbert, J., 232
Eccles, J. S., 159
Ecological psychology, 79
Ecological theory, for working with families, 553–554
EI interventions, 242–243
flow at school, 200, 202
happy people and, 189, 191
hope intervention strategies, 136
hope-based interventions, 327
life satisfaction and, 31
love of learning association, 30
negative events correlation, 122
optimism and, 305
positive psychology role in, 39
resilience influenced by, 127
student success (defined), 569–570
SWB correlation, 53
Edwards, Lisa M., 49–56
Effective coping studies, 7, 350, 545
Egoism, universal, 417–418
Eiser, C., 138
Ekman, P., 19
Elderly people, aging issues, 166–169
Elliot, A. J., 189, 456
Elliott, T. R., 651–660
Emmons, R. A., 9, 20, 440, 441, 682–683
Emotional approach coping (EAC) assessment of, 226–227
(p. 699) cross-sectional research, 227–228
historical background, 226
intervention controlled studies, 231–232
longitudinal research, 228–229
mechanisms for the effects of, 230
moderators between outcomes and, 229–230
relevant dispositional variable s, 227
Emotional Competency Training Program (American Express), 244
Emotional creativity, 240, 249–256
Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI), 251–252, 252t, 253–254
Emotional expression (EE), 227, 229, 230, 231, 232
Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire, 226
Emotional intelligence (EI)
described, 237
educational interventions, 242–243
four-branch model of, 239–240, 239t
future research directions, 244–245
historical background, 238–239
measurement of, 240–241
research findings, 241–242
workplace interventions, 243
Emotional Intelligence (Goleman), 238
Emotional Literacy in the Middle School (ELMS), 243
Emotional processing (EP), 227, 229, 230, 231–232
Emotion-focused coping, 168, 225, 226, 229, 231, 545, 657
Emotion-focused therapy, 226
Emotion-refocusing techniques, 530
Empathy. See also Prosocial behavior motives
altruism and, 417–424
aversive-arousal reduction, 420
defined, 418–419
“empathy-altruism hypothesis,” 419–424
empathy-specific punishment, 420
empathy-specific reward, 420–421
feelings towards others, self-benefits, 419
forgiveness and, 428
meditation and, 606–607
as situational vs. dispositional, 419
EmWave PC, 533
EmWave Personal Stress Reliever, 533
Endogenous opioids, influence on social support, 523–524
Enlightening concepts. See also Context; Environmental considerations
clinical settings/implications, 80–81
deindividuation, 71–72
distinctiveness, 71–72
four-front assessment approach, 81–82
implications for practice and research, 80–86
insider vs. outsider perspectives, 71, 74–75, 77–78
intrapsychic context, 74
labeling, 71–72, 73, 76
positives vs. negatives (relative potency), 75–76
Enright, R. D., 431
Environmental considerations, 76–77, 79–80
Epel, E. S., 545
Erikson, Erik, 150
Ethical decision-making, 106, 109
Ethical sensitivity (of psychologists), 105, 107, 108, 109
Ethics autobiography, 109–110
Ethics code (of American Psychological Association), 105–106
Ethnocentrism (in-group vs. out-group), 71
Euphoria vs. dysphoria, 221–222
Eurobarometer, 591
European Americans, 30
Evaluation
and mindlessness, 283–284
positive, and mindfulness, 292
regret and, 291
success vs. failure (attitude), 291
Event-related potentials (ERIs), 511
Excuses
mindfulness and, 289
self-esteem and, 476
for self-image protection, 475, 477
Expanded Form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X), 208
Expectancy-value theories, 303–304
Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 198–199, 591
Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, 407
Explanatory style, 313–320. See also Learned helplessness
genetic influence on, 317
media influence on, 318–319
of parents and offspring, 317–318
of teachers, 318
trauma's influence on, 319
Extended Life Orientation Test, 52
F
Facial Action Coding System (FACS), 19
Facial electromyography (facial EMG), 19
False consensus effect, 285
Family data (U.S. Dept. of Education), 551–552
Family empowerment principle (FCPP), 554
Family-centered positive psychology (FCPP), 142, 551–557
collaboration vs. treatment of families, 555–557
ecological theory framework, 553–554
family empowerment (principle), 554
family-identified vs. professional determined needs, 555
healthy children and families, 552–553
parent-child relationships, 553
skills/competencies acquisition (principle), 554–555
strengthening of social supports, 555
use of existing family strengths, 555
Family-centered services (FCSs), 554–557
Fast Track Prevention trial (for conduct problems), 129
Fava, 37
Fazzari, D. A., 411
Feather, N., 297–298
Federmeier, K. D., 511
Feeney, B. C., 407
Feigl, Herbert, 85
Feinstein, C. B., 361
Feminist ethics, 109
Festinger, Leon, 291
Fincham, F. D., 389
Fingfeld, D., 378
Finkel, E. J., 389
Finn, S. E., 471
Firstenberg, I. R., 386
Fischer, P., 378
Fisher, C. B., 106
Fitch, V. L., 275
Florell, D., 135
Flow Questionnaire, 198
Flow Scale (10-items), 198
Flow theory (of Csikszentmihalyi), 195–203
autotelic personality, 197
characteristics of, 195–196
complexity and, 197
conditions for entering, 195
consequences of, 199
developmental role of optimal experience, 195–197
emergent motivation component, 196
experiential landscape of, 201–202
fostering of, 202
future research directions, 202–203
goals/feedback structures, 196–197
measurements of, 198–199
measuring autotelic personality, 199
mindfulness and, 282
model (original), 196f
nature and dynamics of, 199–202
of psychologists, 108
at school, 200
temporal dynamics of, 200–201
at work, 200
Flugel, J. C., 187
Folkman, S., 229
Fordyce, G. A., 38, 191, 606, 672
Forensic psychology, 39–40
Foret, M. M., 299, 300
(p. 700) Forgiveness, 427–432
careworthiness and, 428
expected value and, 428
health/well-being associations, 430–431
interventions, 431–432
measurements of, 428
mindfulness and, 289–290
personality predictors of, 429–430
safety and, 428–429
Fortune phenomenon, 75
Foster, W., 142
Foucault, Michel, 220, 394, 396
Foundations for a Science of Personality (Angyal), 358
4-H Boys & Girls Clubs, 149, 156, 159
4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, 149, 157–160. See also Positive youth development (PYD) perspective
Four-front approach to assessment, 54–55, 81, 83–84
Fowler, Raymond, 4
Fraley, R. C., 411
Frank, Jerome, 329
Frankenhaeuser, M., 540–541
Frankl, V. E., 680, 682
Frankl, Viktor, 328
Franklin, Benjamin, 26
Frazier, P. A., 228
Frederickson, B. L., 108, 565
Frei, J. R., 449
Freud, Anna, 150
Freud, Sigmund, 61, 189, 250, 422, 623, 624
Freund, A. M., 159, 178
Frey, D., 378, 591
Frias, D., 319
Friedman, S. L., 80
Friesen, W. V., 19, 459
Fromkin, H. L., 493
Fulford, D., 303–309
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 511, 513
Functional self-determination theory (fSDT), 359–361
Fundamental negative bias, 66, 84, 85. See also Context
difficulties created by, 81
DSM and development of, 66
fundamental negative bias, 73–74
implications for practice and research, 83
insider vs. outsider perspectives and, 77
intrapsychic factors, 79
labeling and, 73
potency value of negatives and, 75–76
Future Anxiety Scale, 297
G
Gable, S. L., 455–460, 658
Gaertner, S. L., 507–508
Gagne, M., 230
Galea, S., 141
Gallagher, Matthew W., 3–6
Gallup, George, 187
Gallup World Poll, 42, 591
Gardner, H., 238
Gardner, W. L., 221
Garmezy, Norman, 117
Gasper, K., 506
Geary, D. C., 271
Gee, W., 376
Gender-related EAC effects, 229
General Mysticism subscale (of ECI), 253–254
General Social Survey, 591
General Temperament Survey (GTS), 209
Generic Core Scales (for QOL measurement), 140
Gerbner, G., 318
Germer, C. K., 386
Gerrish, B. A., 438
Gestalt psychology, 361, 624
Gestsdóttir, S., 159
GHQ-30 measure (ofdistress), 42
Gilbert, D. T., 654, 655
Gilbert, P., 275
Gilman, R., 135, 561–567
Glaser, R., 520
Glllham, J. E., 137
Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), 82, 83, 90
Global awareness (of psychologists), 110–111
Glynn, L. M., 230
God, 25
Gold, E. R., 319
Goldenberg, J. L., 411
Goleman, D., 238, 602
Gonzaga, G. C., 20, 458
Gonzalez, J. L., 628
Good adaptation (in resilience)
defining/assessing threats to, 120
judgments of, 118
predictors of, 127
preservation, protection, recovery of, 130
programs for promotion of, 129
the Good life. See also Gratitude
characteristics of/questions about, 8, 187
components of, 21, 187
flow perspective of, 195
growing interest in, 14
helping children learn about, 143
notional variances, 110
rehabilitation and, 39
wisdom/life longing association to, 172–173, 174, 176
Good lives model (GLM) of rehabilitation, 40
Good outcomes, 118, 120, 123–124, 124f, 304
Gootman, J. A., 159
Gorman, B. S., 296, 297
Gormley, B., 409
Goschke, T., 506
Gottlieb, Michael C., 105–111
Gottman, J., 388, 451, 456
Gough, H. G., 174
GQ-6 measure of trait gratitude, 439
Grateful people, 439–443
Gratitude, 437–444
definition, 436–439
expressing (happiness intervention), 672–673
for God, 443
the good of, 441–443
happiness and, 442
historical background, 437–438
interventions, 39, 191
lack of, in children, 30
measures of, 439
research methodologies, 440–441
SWB and, 441
trait gratitude, 371, 439
Gray, J. A., 544
Graybeal, A., 629
Greeks (Ancient), 25
Greene, B., 107
Greitemeyer, T., 378
Gross, L., 318
Gross National Happiness (GNH), 42
Group-level helplessness, 314
Groups vs. conditions issues, 84–85
Growth curve modeling of change, 101–102
Grzywacz, J. G., 93
Gubin, A., 431
Guichard, A. C., 407
Guilford, J. P., 262
Gurin, Gerald, 187
Gustavson, B. J., 227
H
Hagen, K. A., 135
Hagengiama, A., 431
Haidt, J., 690
Hale, R. L., 135
Hall, Granville (G.) Stanley, 150–151
Hall, R., 561–567
Hancock, K., 275
Handbook of Child Psychology (Damon & Lerner), 153
Handelsman, Mitchell M., 105–111
Hannah, S., 377, 378
Hannon, P. A., 389
Happiness. See also Life satisfaction measures; Subjective well-being (SWB); Unhappy people
after disability, 652–656
Aristotle on, 32
avowed happiness, 188
characteristics of, 652–653
Chinese vs. Koreans/Japanese, 50
chronic, influential factors, 671
definitions, hedonic/eudaemonic, 20
early studies of, 10
excess emphasis on, 36
gratitude and, 442
(p. 701) gross national happiness index, 591–592
happy people, qualities of, 668–670
individual set-point for, 670, 671
interventions, 38–39, 672–673
love and, 452
positive emotions as markers, 13
Psychological Bulletin reviews of, 188
Quality of Life Therapy and, 37
sustainable, promise of, 667–675
VIA strength correlates, 30
Happiness: A Guide to Developing Life's Most Important Skill (Ricard), 471
Harker, L., 459
Harlow, H. F., 447
Harrington, Susan, 35–45
Harris, John, 255, 493
Harter, S., 467
Hartfield, E., Hartigan, J. A., 603
Harvey, J. H., 385–391
Hatfield, E., 448, 450
Hays, P. A., 54
Hazan, C., 449, 450
Head Start, 129
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), 138–139
Heart
heart rate variability (HRV), 528
positive emotions, spirituality and, 533–534
role in emotional experience, 529–531
Heart rhythm coherence feedback training, 533
Heartland Forgiveness Scale, 428
HeartMath Institute, 528, 531, 532
Hecht, M. L., 450
Hedonic adaptation, 38, 190, 654, 670–673, 675
Hedonic treadmill effect, 38, 653–654, 670–671
Hedonic well-being, 90
Hegel, G. W. F., 396
Heibert, B., 604
Heider, F., 387
Heimpel, S. A., 467
Heller, W., 513
Helping/volunteerism studies (Piliavin), 7
Helplessness theory. See Learned helplessness
Hendrick, C., 448, 449, 450
Hendrick, S., 448, 450
Henry, J., 659
Heppner, P. P., 345–352
Herrnstein, R. J., 238
Herzberg, F., 580
Hetzel, R., 569–577
Hewitt, John P., 217–224
Heyman, G. D., 318
High-performance work ethics (HPWPs), 581
Hinton-Nelson, M. D., 135
Historical background of applied problem solving, 346
of benefit finding and growth, 634–635
of compassion, 393–394
of courage research, 375–376
of emotional approach coping, 226
of emotional creativity, 250
of emotional intelligence, 238–239
of gratitude, 437–438
of health concept, 89
of hope theory, 323–324
of learned helplessness, 313–314
of positive psychology, 7–9
of positive workplaces, 580–581
of resilience, 117–118
of romantic love, 447–448
of self-efficacy, 336
of time, 295–296
of toughness theory, 540–541
of Values in Action project, 26–27
of writing about emotional experience, 623
Hobbes, Thomas, 397
Hobel, C. J., 230
Holland, R. W., 428
Holmes, J. G., 450
Hope/hope theory, 323–330, 349
Adult Hope Scale, 333
agency with pathways, 324–325
bias toward in children, 134–135
in children, 135–136
Children's Hope Scale, 135, 327, 476
concept/definition, 134–135
coping and, 328
defined, 582
emotions and, 325
future directions for, 330
goal-directed thought, 325–326
interpersonal relationships and, 329–330
intervention with children, 136
measurement of, 135, 327
origins of, 323–324
pathways thinking, 324
performance and, 327
physical health and, 327–328
as POB component, 41
psychological adjustment and, 328
State Hope Scale, 327, 581
Trait Hope Scale (adult), 135, 326–327, 476
Hopelessness, 348–349
Horney, K., 468
Hornsey, M. J., 493
Horwitz, E., 232
House, J. S., 455
Hoyt, W. T., 389
Huang, P. H., 589–594
Hubbard, B., 212
Hudson, L. M., 275
Huebner, E. S., 561–567
Hulme, E., 569–577
Human agency and self-determination, 357–358
Human diversity model (of positive psychology), 52
Human Equation (Pfeffer), 581
Human happiness studies, 10
Human helplessness, 314–315
Human strength studies (Clifton), 7, 8
Humanistic psychology, 7
Hume, David, 336, 418
Hunt, W., 274
Huppert, F. A., 42
Hynes, G. J., 228
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 520, 521, 522, 524, 531
I
Ickovics, J., 140, 141, 545
Illness ideology
clinical psychology defined by, 36–37
conception of “mental disorder,” 63
deconstruction of, 61–68
and the DSM, 62–63
replacement alternatives, 67–68
Rogers' challenge of, 43
Illusion, in the effects of personal control, 273–274
Impact of Traumatic Stressors Interview Schedule, 141
Impression formation (interpersonal perception), 71
Inaction, myth of, 291–292
Indirect models of resilience, 123
Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology appreciate inquiry, 41
employee engagement, 40–41
organizational scholarship/behavior, 41
transformational leadership, 40
Inhibition research, 625–626
Insider vs. outsider perspectives, 71, 74–75, 77–78
Institute of HeartMath, 528, 531, 532
Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire, 273
Intellectual deconstruction of the DSM, 64–67
Intelligence, and meditation, 604
Interactive models of resilience, 122–123
Internal working model, of self and other, 406
International Association for Counseling Services, 576
Interpersonal approaches (DSM alternative), 67
Interpersonal perception (impression formation), 71
Intimacy and self-verification, 468–469
Intrapsychic context, 73, 74
“Is thinking.” See Self-verification
Isen, A. M., 20, 221, 503–515
Isom, J., 513
(p. 702) J
Jackson, S. A., 198
Jahoda, Marie, 4, 10
James, William, 250, 336, 530, 615
Janoff-Bulman, R., 642
Janowski, K. M., 576
Jaycox, L., 137
Jelicic, H., 157
Jetten, J., 497
Job's dilemma, 25
Johnson, B., 108
Johnson, B. H., 134
Johnson, K. J., 509
Johnson, Rebecca J., 133–144
Johnston, M., 275
Jones, R., 141
Joseph, Stephen, 35–45
Joy, 14, 15, 19
Judaism, 27
Judgments, of self-acceptance, 98
Jung, Carl, 534
Just world phenomenon, 79
K
Kahn, R. L., 168
Kahneman, D., 42
Kant, Immanuel, 421
Karremans, J. C., 428
Kashdan, T. B., 230, 367–373
Kasser, T., 189, 359
Kastenmuller, A., 378
Katsura, H., 494
Kazakina, E., 297, 299
Keith, D., 317
Kelley, H., 385–386, 390, 391
Keltner, D., 20, 369, 459
Kemeny, M. E., 522
Kent, D. K., 273
Kernis, M. H., 467
Kerr, B., 692
Kessler, R. C., 90, 141
Keyes, Corey L. M, 89–94
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., 455, 456, 520
Kieffer, S. C., 230
Kim, Y., 189
Kimble, Gregory, 65
Kindness, committing acts of, 672
King, L. A., 191
King, S. P., 299
Kinzie, J., 569
Kirk, S. B., 232
Kirschman, KeriJ., 133–144
Kirson, D. A., 511
Kitayama, S., 53, 54
Kitchener, K. S., 106
Kivenson-Baron, I., 410
Klein, L. C., 533
Kliewer, W., 136
Knapp, Samuel, 105–111
Knee, C. R., 230
Knowing and being known (minding components), 386–387
Kocan, E. R., 449
Kogan, N., 76
Konarska, M., 542
Koocher, G. P., 111
Kuh, G. D., 569, 571
Kuhlman, D. M., 494
Kuhn, Thomas, 281
Kumashiro, M., 389
Kunzmann, Ute, 171–181
Kutas, M., 511
Kvetnansky, R., 542
L
LaBarre, W., 250–251
Labeling (enlightening concept)
fundamental negative bias and, 73
neglect of environmental considerations and, 76
out-group differentiation, 71
within-group differentiation, 72
Labouvie-Vief, G., 227
Landis, K. R., 455
Langer, E. J., 386
Langston, C. A., 484
Larkey, L. K., 450
Larose, S., 409
Larsen, R. J., 319
Laurenceau, J., 458
Law firms, as positive institutions, 589–590
Lazarus, R. S., 10, 229, 368–369, 538
Learned helplessness, 540, 541. See also Explanatory style
attributional reformulation of, 315–316
historical background, 313–314
human helplessness, 314–315
in law schools, 590
Leary, M. R., 452, 467
Lechner, S. C., 228, 633–639, 639
Lee, Dong-gwi, 345–352
Lee, J. A., 449–450
Lennings, C. J., 296
Leon, A., 211
Lepore, S. J., 521, 522
Lerner, J. V., 157, 158, 159, 469
Lerner, R. M., 157
Lester, P., 377
Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), 240
Levenson, R. W., 226, 642
Levine, R., 297
Levine, S., 637
Levine, Seymour, 540
Leviton, G. L., 75
Lewin, K., 296–297
Lewis, C S., 443
Lewis, H. A., 136
Lichtenthal, W. G., 230
Lichter, S., 38
Life coaching, 8, 41–42
Life longings (Sehnsucht), 172
age and the expression of, 178–179
assessment of, 177
characteristics (six), 176–177
divergent validity of, 178
future research directions, 180–181
strategic use of, 179
successful development and, 179–180
vs. related concepts, 178
Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), 304
Life satisfaction measures. See also Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS); Subjective well-being (SWB)
achievement oriented individuals, 189
correlations with, 31–32
emotional intelligence and, 242
global judgments, 188–189
resource building and, 18f
in school, 562
of youths, 30
Life trauma (early) and creativity, 264
Life-span psychology, 176
Likert scales, 55, 141, 326
Lindsay, D., 376
Linguistic Analysis and Word Count (LIWC), 626, 627–628
Linguistic style matching (LSM), 628
Linley, P. A., 35–45, 300
Linton, S., 20
Lishner, David A., 417–424
Litman, J. A., 369
Little, Todd D., 357–364
Locke, John, 336, 358
Lockwood, G. A., 275
Loewenstein, G., 369
Loewy, E. H., 401
Lopez, F. G., 405–413, 409
Lord, H. G., 375–376, 377
Loss, making sense of, 641–648
Love
across cultures, 451
attachment and, 449
evolution of, 449
happiness and, 452
love triangles, 449
measurement of, 450
passionate love, 445–450, 591
passionate/compassionate love, 447
prototypes of, 447
respect and, 451–452
romantic, history of, 447–448
self expansion and, 449
sexuality and, 452
social approach to, 448
styles of 449–450
subjective well-being and, 452
Love Attitudes Scale (LAS), 450
Love is Never Enough (Beck), 391
Low, C. A., 635
Lowrance, R., 507
Lucas, R. E., 38, 188, 653
Luciana, M., 211
Lumley, M. A., 227
(p. 703) Luthans, F., 41, 579–586
Lynn, M., 493, 497
Lyons, E., 495
Lyubormirsky, S. L., 561–562
M
MacArthur Foundation, 90
MacIntyre, Alisdair, 397
Mackintosh, V. H., 135
MacLean, C., 604
Maddocks, A., 138
Maddux, J. E., 36–37, 61–68, 142, 335–341
Magai, C., 408
Mahoney, A., 611–617
Maio, G., 389
Maisel, N. C., 455–460
Major depressive episode (MDE), 90–93
Maladaptiveness of self-verification, 470
Malarkey, W., 520
Malle, B. F., 387
Maltby, John, 35–45
Maner, J. K., 422
Mani, M. M., 136
Manne, S., 228, 229, 458
Mantra meditation, 602
Manzi, J. M., 496
Marital status and subjective well-being, 190, 212
Markus, H. R., 53
Marold, D. B., 467
Marriage
“good marriage”, 391
happiness and, 190
love marriage, 447
love s link with, 448
marital status and SWB, 190, 212, 447
Marsh, J. G., 576
Marshall, T. C., 494
Marston, P. J., 450
Maslow, Abraham, 4, 189, 196, 250, 580, 602
Massimini, F., 198
Masten, A. S., 583, 656
Mastery Scale (Pearlin and Schooler), 273
Matlock-Hetzel, S., 576
Mayer, John D., 237–245, 574
Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), 237, 241, 244
Mayseless, O., 410
McAdams, D. P., 636
McClain, T. M., 240
McCrae, R. R., 189
McCubbin, J., 524
McCullough, M. E., 20, 389, 430, 431, 437, 438, 439, 564
McDermott, D., 135
McDougall, William, 418, 423
McFarland, C., 646
McGill, K. J., 467
McGregor, D., 580
McKee, A., 575
McMillen, D. W., 571
McNeal, R., 136
McRoy, R. E., 349
Meaning in life, 126, 299, 646, 679–685. See also Purpose in life
definition of, 682
issues in defining, 681–682
multifaceted definitions, 681
PTG and, 641–644
purpose (definition), 680
as remedy for “existential vacuum”, 328
research on, 680
searching for, 683–684
significance (definition), 680–681
sources of, 683
of statements of benefits and growth, 644–647
Means-End Problem Solving Procedure (MEPS), 347
Meditation, 599–606. See also Brahma Vihara meditation practice; Mindfulness; Spirituality/spiritual experiences; Transcendental Meditation; Vipassana meditation; Zen meditation
definition, 601–602
original intentions of, 602
positive physiological findings, 603–604
positive psychological findings, 604–607
self-actualization techniques, 53, 173, 176, 180, 186, 607
Mednick, S. A., 262
Meeks, B. S., 450
Mellen, S.L.W., 449
Mello, Z. R., 299
Memory, and meditation, 604
Mendes, W. B., 467
Menninger, Karl, 4
“Mental disorder” concept of DSM, 63–64, 66
Mental health
categorical diagnosis of, 91t
as flourishing/too little flourishing, 92–94
latent factors of, 91–92
markers of, 123
population approaches to, 42–43
as “something positive,” 89–90
two-continua model, 90–92
WHO definition, 90
Meyer, G., 72, 431
Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS), 90, 93–94
Mikulas, W. L., 603
Mikulincer, M., 408, 412
Military personnel, and EI, 242
Miller, C. J., 303–309
Miller, E. K., 508, 513
Miller, George, 4
Mindfulness. See also Mindlessness; Vipassana meditation
behavior, multiple meanings of, 284–290
blame and forgiveness, 289–290
controlled processing and, 282
description, 279–280
discrimination vs. evaluation, 290–292
excuses and, 289
flow and, 282
inaction, myth of, 292–293
mindlessness vs., 280, 282–283
regret and, 287–289
uncertainty, automatic behavior and, 280–283
vs. positive evaluation, 293
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, 37, 605–606
Mindfulness-based relapsed prevention (MBRP), 606
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), 603, 605, 606–607
Minding
acceptance and respect (component), 388–389
attribution (component), 387–388
behaviors, 390–391
continuity and, 390
knowing and being known (component), 386–387
popularity of, 386
reciprocity in, 389–390
as relationship connection, 385–386
Mindlessness, 280–284, 292, 386, 574–575
Mine-thine problem, 75
Ming, M. E., 230
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 347–348
Mitchell, S. A., 452
Mithaug, D., 361–362, 363, 364
Modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDES), 19
Moncaster, N., 494
Montgomery, D. T., 42
Mood and self-esteem, 220–223
Moral Law, 25
Morality, 25–26, 109, 249, 483, 607
Moreno, E. M., 511
Mortensen, H., 228
Motivation
altruism and, 421
approach-oriented state of, 367–368
flow theory and, 196
hope/hope theory and, 324
influence on negative bias, 74
intrinsic, 195–196, 198, 200, 359, 368, 370
Motivation and Personality (Maslow), 580
(p. 704) Mowrer, O. H., 238
Mueller, C. M., 318
Multiculturalism, 50, 52–53, 110
Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), 209, 210
Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS), 562–563
Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS), 241, 242
Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL), 19, 208, 209
Munich Civil Courage Instrument, 380
Murphy, Lois, 117, 118
Murray, C., 238
Murray, S. L., 450
Myers, B. J., 135, 452
Mysticism, 252t, 253–255
N
Nakamura, Jeanne, 195–203
Naragon, Kristin, 207–214
Narcissistic Personality Disorder, 488
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 62, 130
Naturalistic approach to love, 448–449
Nature-nurture issue, 153, 261, 265
Need for Uniqueness (NFU) scale, 493–494
Negative affectivity, 207–208
Negative bias. See Fundamental negative bias
Negative emotions
forgiveness for coping with, 430
positive emotions vs., 14, 15, 457, 532, 580
SAM arousal and, 538
social support buffering of, 522
states of, 377
writing and, 626
Negative realities, acknowledgment of, 172
Nemeth, C., 378, 380
NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PIR), 209
Neuroendocrine mediators, of toughening, 539–540
Neuropsychological underpinnings of positive affect, 511–512
New Economics Foundation (UK), 42–43
New York City, EI interventions, 243
Newby-Clark, I., 467
Newcomb, M. D., 274
Newman, J. R., 240
Newton, F. B., 575
Newton, Isaac, 295
Nezu, A. M., 348, 351
Niederhoffer, K. G., 621–631
Nietzche, Friedrich, 249, 254
No Platonique Love (Cartwright), 253
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., 299, 641–648
Norman, S. M., 41
Norton, P. J., 380
Nowlis, S. M., 494
Nunley, E. P., 240
Nuremburg Code, 105
Nussbaum, Martha, 396
Nuttin, J., 297
O
Observer Rating Form (for adults observing children), 135
Omarzu, J., 391
On Becoming a Person (Rogers), 471
Ong, A. D., 5, 97–103
Ontogenesis, 173, 174–175, 178
Opioids (endogenous), influence on social support, 523–524
Optimal life-span development, 197
Optimism, 303–309. See also Explanatory style
of caregivers, 305
concept/definition, 137, 303–304
cultural issues, 308
defined, 582
health crises studies, 304–305
health promotion studies, 306–307
interventions with children, 138
longevity and, 308
measurement of, 137–138
meditation and, 606
multicultural investigation of, 52–53
pessimism, coping and, 305–307
physical well-being and, 307–308
postpartum depression study, 304
SWB and, 304–305
transition to pessimism, 308
vs. pessimism, 308
Optimism Scale, 583
Organization behavior studies, 580
Ostroff, J., 228, 229
Other-oriented empathic emotion, 419
Outcomes. See Good outcomes
Out-group differentiation, 71
Out-of-school time (OST) activities, 159–160
Oxytocin, influence on social support, 523–524, 531, 533
P
Paez, D., 628
Paleari, F. G., 389
Panksepp, J., 459
Parent-child relationships. See Family-centered positive psychology (FCPP)
Pargament, K. I., 611–617
Park, C. L., 635
Park, N., 20, 25–32, 38–39, 229, 441, 571
Parker, H., 141, 583
Parks, 37–38
Partridge, C., 275
Partridge, R. T., 227
Pascarella, E. T., 571
Passionate love, 447–452, 593
Passionate Love Scale, 450
Pasupathi, M., 174
Paternalism, positive, 592–594
Pathologization of clinical psychology, 62–64
Pathway models (ofresilience), 124–125
Pathways thinking (hope theory), 324–325
Pauwels, Brian G., 385–391
Payne, W. L., 238
Peace in the Family (EI intervention), 243
Peacemaking and forgiveness, 427
Pearlin and Schooler Mastery Scale, 273
Pearlman, L. A., 431
Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™), 140
Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto, 49–56
Pelham, B. W., 466
Penn Resiliency Program (for adolescents), 138, 316
Pennebaker, J. W., 621–631, 673
Perceived control, 271–272
Perèz-Rincòn, H., 253
Peronnet, F., 541
Personal Control subscale (PSI), 347
Personal Growth (PWB measure), 100
Personal Happiness Enhancement Program (PHEP), 606
Personality predictors of forgiveness, 429–430
Personality psychology, self-determination in, 358–359
Person-centered approach. See Client-centered therapy
Person-focused models (of resilience), 121–122, 123–124
Pessimism, 303
of Asian Americans, 52–53
coping, optimism and, 305–307
definition, 303–304
health-defeating behaviors and, 307
multicultural investigation of, 52–53
regarding happiness change, 670–671
transition to optimism, 308–309
vs. optimism, 308
Petavratzi, F., 494
Peterson, C., 317, 319, 441, 571, 576, 658
Peterson, Christopher, 25–32, 38–39, 108, 143
Pfeffer, J., 581
Phelps, E., 157, 159–160
Phillips, K. M., 228
Philosophy, self-determination in, 358
Physical health
hope/hope theory and, 327–328
positive affectivity and, 212–213
problem solving appraisal and, 349–350
self-efficacy and, 338–339
Physiologic/social approach to love, 449
Pietromonaco, P. R., 458
Piliavin, Hane, 7, 421
(p. 705) Pinover, W., 232
Pipes, R.B., 109
Pittman, K., 155
Pituitary-adrenal-cortical (PAC) system, 538, 539, 544–545
Pleasure principle (Freud), 189
Plomin, R., 80
Policy, SWB measures of, 591–592
Pollard, E. L., 552, 555
Pope, K. S., 107
Population Communications International, 42
Positive adaptation
BFG association, 638
defining/assessment of, 118–120
historical background, 129
promotive/protective factors, 120
Positive affectivity. See also Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire
cultural influences, 213
dangerous risk taking reduced by, 509–511
demographic/environmental correlates, 211
dopamine hypothesis, 512–514
flexibility in thinking and, 505–509
genetic evidence for, 210
hierarchical structure of, 208
job/marital satisfaction and, 212
links to psychopathology, 211–212
measures of, 208–210
negative vs., 207–208
neurological basis of, 210–211
neuropsychological basis of, 511–512
neuropsychological underpinnings of, 511
physical health and, 212–213
raising of, 213–214
social behavior and, 504–505
Positive Affectivity Negative Affectivity Scale (PANAS), 512
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), 19, 99, 208
Positive capital intervention (PCI), 41
Positive emotions, 13–21. See also Broaden hypothesis; Broaden-and-build theory; Build hypothesis
definition, 14
facial measures of, 19
future research directions, 19–20
health and, 18–19
heart's role in, 529–531, 533–534
as marker of well-being, 13
measurement of, 19
negative emotions vs., 14, 15
physiological/neurological connections, 19–20, 528–529
physiology of, 528–529
psychophysiological coherence and, 529
refocusing tools, techniques, 531–532
self-report measures, 19
short and long-term effects, 15–19
spirituality and, 533–534
stress and, 18
SWB/PWB and, 98–99
Positive ethics, themes/variations, 105–111
described/defined, 106–107
global awareness, 110–111
professional awareness, 108–110
self awareness, 107–108
Positive organization behavior (POB), 41, 581, 583
Positive organizational scholarship (POS), 41, 581
Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), 42
Positive paternalism, 592–594
Positive psychology
adult attachment security relation to, 405–413
applications of, 35–45
on campus, 569–577
of change, understanding of, 5
for children, 133–144
compassion and, 401–402
critics and future of, 9–10
distinctiveness and, 497–498
elaboration of “positive” in, 98–100
family-centered (FCPP), 551–557
future directions/goals of, 10–11, 689–693
historical background, 7–9
making the case for, 3–5
medical model vs., 36–37
meditation and, 599–606
multiculturalism and, 49–56
science-practice integration, 6
self-verification theory and, 465–468
strengthening the case for, 5–6
wisdom and, 172
Positive psychology applications, 35–45
client-centered therapy (CCT), 35, 36
fundamental assumptions of, 43
future directions, 44
industrial/organizational psychology, 40–41
life coaching, 41–42
medical model vs. positive psychology, 36–37
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, 37, 605, 606
population approaches/public policy, 42–43
positive psychotherapy, 37–38
quality of life therapy, 37, 574
theoretical basis for, 43
universality of (question), 44
usage determination, 43–44
well-being therapy, 37, 576
Positive psychotherapy, 37–38
Positive Relations with Others (PWB measure), 100
Positive schools, 561–567
characteristics of, 563, 563–564
conceptualization, measurement, 560–561
demographic characteristics, 561
school variables, 563
student-level satisfaction correlates, 561–562
teacher-classroom variables, 565–566
Positive Temperament scale (of General Temperament Survey), 209
Positive workplaces
contemporary approaches, 581
creation of, 584–585
historical background, 580–581
organization behavior, 581–582
positive psychological capital, 583–584
Positive youth development (PYD) perspective, 149–150, 151. See also Developmental systems theories
components of, 155–156
conclusions about, 156
defining features of, 154t
five Cs of, 155, 157–158
4-H study of, 157–160
origins of, 153
Positives vs. negatives, relative potency, 75–76
Positron emission tomography (PET), 513
Postpartum depression study (on optimism), 304
Posttraumatic growth (PTG), 38, 140–141, 643
benefits vs., 641–642
meaning and, 641–644
refinement of understanding of, 647–648
Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), 141, 636
Posttraumatic stress, and EAC, 228
Predator avoidance play (of adults), 15
Prefrontal cortex (PFC), 514
Pressman, S. D., 191
Pribram, K. H., 528
Principles of Medical Ethics (AMA), 400
Principlism, 421–422
Prisoner's Dilemma game, 424, 428
Problem solving appraisal, 345–352
coping, 350–351
future research directions, 352
historical background, 345–352
measuring, 347
physical health, 349–350
psychological adjustment, 347–349
training interventions, 351–352
vocational issues, 351
Problem Solving Confidence subscale (PSI), 347
Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), 347–348, 352
Problem-focused strategies, 231, 305
Problem-solving training (PST) interventions, 351–352
(p. 706) Process-/product-based creativity assessment, 263
Professional awareness (of psychologists) ethical acculturation, 108–109
ethical reasoning/decision-making, 109
moral traditions, 109–110
prevention of problematic behavior, 110
Profile of Mood States (POMS), 208
Project Competence resilience study, 124
Prosocial behavior motives, 421–423
Prosser, E. C., 83
PsyCap, 579, 583, 586
Psychlnfo database, 226
Psychological adjustment, and problem-solving appraisal, 347–349
Psychological Bulletin reviews of happiness, 188
Psychological capital (PK), 197
Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), 583
Psychological immune system, 654
Psychological Well Being scale, 99
Psychological well-being (PWB)
convergent/discriminant validity of, 99
evidence of measurement variance, need for, 99–100
idiographic evidence, need for, 99
parsing of well-being, 98–99
Psychologists
global awareness of, 110–111
professional awareness of, 108–110
self-awareness of, 107–109
Psychosocial resilience, in children/youth, 126t
Puglisi-Allegra, S., 511
Purpose in life, 37, 53, 98, 102, 679. See also Meaning in life
Pury, C.L.S., 375–381
Q
Quality of life (QOL)
concept/definition, 138–139
health-related (HRQOL), 138–139
interventions (with children), 140
measurement of (in children), 139–140
Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™), 140
Quality of Life Therapy, 37, 576
R
Rachman, S., 376, 377
Ralph, J. A., 467
Rand, K. L., 323–330
Rank, Otto, 250
Rapoff, M. A., 136
Rashid, T., 37–38
Rate, C., 376
Rath, J. F., 350
Rathune, K., 690
Reactive time, 296
Realism, in the effects of personal control, 273–274
Reason (of human beings), 25–26
Recapitulation theory (Hall), 150
Reed, M.J.G., 656
Reeve, J., 504
Regalia, C., 389
Regan, P. C., 448, 449, 451
Regrets, 177, 178
conditions for, 287–289
evaluation and, 291
goals and, 288
of maximizers, 669
mindfulness and, 288
normative “appropriate” behavior and, 289
Rehabilitation. See Disabilities
Reich, J. W., 275
Reis, H. T., 361, 456, 458
Reivich, K., 137, 576
Reker, G. T., 684
Relapse prevention, and meditation, 605–606
Relationships
appetitive processes in, 456–457, 458–459
aversive processes in, 456–457
of friendships, 460
health in, 455–456, 459
interpersonal, and biology, 459
intimacy and responsiveness in, 458
minding as relationship connection, 385–386
positive emotions and, 457
shared novel experiences in, 458–459
social support and capitalization in, 457–458
subjective well-being in, 455–456
Relaxation training, 602
Remote Associates Test (RAT), 262, 505–506
Rempel, J. K., 492
Reschly, A. L., 561–567
Resetar, M., 275
Resilience, 117–130. See also Disabilities
definition, 118, 580
diagnostic model, 124f
findings (summary) on, 126–127
future directions, 130
historical background, 117–118
pathway models, 124–125
person-focused models, 120–121, 123–124
Project Competence study, 124
psychosocial, in children/youth, 126t
related terms, 119t
risk gradient, 122f
strategies for fostering of, 127–129
variable-focused models, 120, 121–123
Resilience Scale, 581
Resnek, Lawrie, 63
Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP), 243
Resource constraint proposition, 280–281
Respect Toward Partner Scale, 451–452
Rest, J. R., 107, 109
Rholes, W. S., 410
Ricard, Matthieu, 471
Righteous conduct, 25
Rimé, B., 621
Rini, C., 230
Risk taking, reduced by positive affectivity, 509–511
Risk-need rehabilitation approach, 40
Roberts, M. C., 565
Roberts, Michael C., 133–144
Robertson, J. M., 575
Robinson, T. E., 20
Rogers, Carl, 35, 36, 43, 196, 471
Role Breadth Self-Efficacy Scale, 583
Romantic couples and EI, 242
Romantic love, 20, 448, 449, 451, 452
Ronan, G. F., 348
Rosch, E., 602
Rose, G., 42
Rosenberg, M. L., 552, 555
Ross, Alan, 64
Ross, K., 378
Ross, Lee, 285
Ross, M., 467
Roth, J., 142, 155
Rothbaum, F., 272–273, 314
Rothemund, K., 272
Rowe, J. W., 168
Rubin, Z., 447, 451
Rubinstein, M. F., 386
Rusbult, C. E., 389
Rutter, Michael, 117
Ryan, R. M., 357, 359, 467, 470
Ryff, C. D., 37, 601
Ryle, Gilbert, 336
S
Salovey, P., 237–245, 572
Sanders, C. A., 42
Sandman, C. A., 230
Sandvik, E., 188, 189
Sankis, L. M., 64
Satcher, David (Surgeon General), 90
Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), 99, 194
Scharf, M., 410
Scheibe, Susanne, 171–181
Scheier, M. F., 303–309, 307, 582
Schkade, D. A., 655
Schleyer, E. J., 564
Schneider, B., 566
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 396–397, 401
Schotte, D., 348–349
Schreiner, L. A., 569–577
Schuchter, L. M., 230
Schuh, J. H., 569
Schulman, P., 317
Schut, H., 456
Schwartz, S. H., 422, 604
Schweitzer, M. E., 440, 442
Scollon, C. N., 38, 653
Scouting, 149, 155
(p. 707) Seattle Social Development Project, 566
Seidlitz, L., 188, 189
Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC), 159
Self, culture and construction of, 53–54
Self Science approach (to EI), 243
Self-acceptance, 37, 53, 91, 98, 219, 471–472
Self-actualization techniques, 53, 173, 176, 180, 186, 607
Self-Attributed Need for Uniqueness (SANU), 493–494
Self-awareness of psychologists, 106–108
Self-compassion, and meditation, 606
Self-construal theory, 53–54
Self-determination/self-determination theory, 357–364
causal agency theory (CAT), 360, 362–363
complementary views, 364
education application, 568
functional self-determination theory (fSDT), 359–361
human agency and, 357–358
in personality psychology, 358–359
in philosophy, 358
self-determination theory (SDT), 359–361
self-efficacy and, 364
as self-regulated problem solving, 361–362
Self-efficacy, 335–341, 580
defined, 336
historical background, 336
imagined experiences, 337–338
performance experiences, 337
physical health and, 338–339
physiological/emotional states, 338
psychotherapy and, 339–340
self-determination and, 364
self-regulation and, 339
source of beliefs, 336–341
SWB and, 338
verbal persuasion, 338
vicarious experiences, 337
Self-efficacy theory (Bandura), 4–5, 42
Self-esteem
cultural vision fostered by, 223
deconstructing discourse of, 217–219
defined (Hewitt), 219
differing versions of, 218–219
emotional anchoring of, 219, 222–223
expressive individualism aspect of, 222
individual seeking of, 219
languaging of, 220, 222–223
modern understanding of, 217–218, 222
mood and, 219–220
reality of, 219–222
self-verification and, 470–471
social construction of, 217–224
social determinism and, 221
Self-realization construct (Gestalt), 361
Self-regulated learning theory (Mithaug), 364
Self-regulation response, 361
Self-Report Form (children and hope), 135
Self-Report Form (regarding hope), 135
Self-transcendence, 406
Self-verification
defined/described, 465–466
happiness and, 471–472
intrapersonal adaptiveness, 468–470
intrapsychic adaptiveness, 466–468
maladaptiveness of, 470
self-esteem and, 470–471
Seligman, Martin, 4, 8, 9, 10, 20, 26, 37–39, 108, 137, 315, 317, 439, 569, 576, 647–648, 658, 683
Selvin, S., 135
Semantics, 71
Semiotics, 71
Sensation-Seeking Scale, 297
Sergeant, Julie, 357–364
Serkerka, L. E., 379
Set-point theory, 653–654
Sexton, J. D., 629
Sexual Attitudes Scale, 451
Shaffer, L., 376
Shapiro, S. L., 601–608
Shatte, A., 576
Shaver, P. R., 407, 411, 412, 449, 450, 451, 458
Shaw, J. S., 496
Sheffi, E., 408
Sheldon, K. M., 20, 38, 189, 359, 372, 655, 671, 673, 690
Sheridan, S. M., 551–557, 692
Sherman, L. W., 431
Shimizu, M, 467
Shiota, M. N., 369
Shmidt, E., 507
Shorkey, C. T., 349
Short/long-term effects, of positive emotions, 15–19
Sibling Relational Problems, 64
Siebert, C., 534
Siegel, B. S., 638
Siegel, L. J., 134
Sigafoos, A. D., 361
Signature traits, 29
Silvia, P. J., 367–373
Simonson, I., 494
Simonton, Dean Keith, 261–267
Simpson, J. A., 410, 448
Singer, Irving, 447–448, 601
Sivanathan, N., 40
Skoner, D. P., 212
Slack, A. K., 212
Sledden, E. A., 142
Slivinske, L. R., 275
Small-c vs. big-C creativity, 265
Smith, Adam, 398, 418, 438
Smith, T. W., 628
Smyth, J. M., 626, 628, 629
Snider, R. R., 306
Snoweden, D. A., 459
SNS-adrenal-medullary system (SAM), 538, 539, 540, 542, 544
Snyder, C. Richard “Rick,” 7, 36–37, 272–273, 314, 349, 493, 497. See also Hope/hope theory
contributions of, 9
on hope, 134
hope research, 135, 136
Social acceptance, 91, 493, 494, 497, 564
Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) programs, 243
Social approach to love, 449
Social cognitive theory, 336–337, 582, 585
Social connections, 520–521
Social deconstruction of the DSM, 63–64
Social Development Program (New Haven), 243
Social Development Project (Seattle), 129
Social edicts (deviancy), 71
Social interactions (harmonious) and self-verification, 468
Social Problem Solving Inventory (SPSI), 347
Social psychology, 7
Social support
individual differences, reactivity and, 522–523
influence of oxytocin, endogenous opioids, 523–524
physiological reactivity and, 521–522
strengthening of, in FCPP, 554
toward a biology of, 519–520
Social-emotional programs (school based), 566
Society for the Study of Adolescence (SRA), 151
Socrates, 25
Sommers-Flanagan, J., 111
Sommers-Flanagan, R., 111
Sonne, J. L., 107
Souto, J., 629
Specific action tendency (link with emotions), 14
Speller, G., 495
Spirituality/spiritual experiences, 611–617. See also Meditation
characteristics of, 253f
connectedness quality, 254
conservation process, 613
definition, 611–612
destination problems, 615
discovery process, 612–614
meaningfulness quality, 254–255
mysticism and, 253–255
pathways problems, 616
relation to positive affectivity, 211
transformation process, 614–615
vitality quality, 254
well-being and, 54
Spiritualizing the passions, 249–256
Sprecher, S., 448, 450, 451
Stairs, M., 41
(p. 708) Stanford Time Perspective Inventory. 298, 300
Stanton, Annette L., 226–232, 306, 635
State Hope Scale, 135, 327, 583
Staub, E., 422, 431
Staudinger, U. M., 174, 175
Staw, B., 212
Steen, T. A., 20, 38–39, 441
Steger, M. F., 679–685, 692–693
Steinbeck, John, 465
Stein-Seroussi, A., 464
Stereotypes (beliefs), 71
Sternberg, R. J., 175, 238, 376, 449
Steward, J., 228
Strachman, A., 458
Stress-buffering hypothesis, 520
Stress-Related Growth Scale, 636–637
Stress-responsive systems, 520
Stroebe, M., 456
Stroebe, W., 456
Structured equation modeling (SEM), 157
Student's Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS), 562
Stutzer, A., 590
Subjective well-being (SWB). See also Life satisfaction measures; Psychological well-being; Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)
civic participation and, 590–591
convergent/discriminant validity of, 99
cross-cultural investigations, 53
culture and, 191
curiosity and, 370–371
defined, 651–652
demographic correlates of, 190
EI and, 242
evidence of measurement variance, need for, 99–100
forgiveness and, 430–431
future research on, 191–192
genetic influences, 189
gratitude and, 441
hedonic adaptation and, 190
idiographic evidence, need for, 99
love and, 452
marital status and, 190
measures of, 90, 98–99, 188–189
mental aspects of, 190
negative affect and, 561–562
objective consequences of, 191
optimism and, 304–305
policy measures, 591–592
positive affect and, 561
research history and findings, 187–188, 191–192
self-efficacy and, 338
theoretical approach to, 189–190
time perspective and, 299
Successful Aging (Rowe & Kahn), 168
Sue, D. W., 44
Sugimori, S., 494
Suh, E. M., 53, 188
Suicidal behavior, 348–349
Sullivan, Sarah J., 226–232
Surprise events, 326
Surveys, development of, 187–188
Sustainable happiness model, 671–672
Swann, W. B., Jr., 465, 466
Sweeny, P., 377
Sweet, P.L.G., 605
Syme, L. S., 135, 455
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS), 520, 522, 538, 540
Symptom Checklist-90, 347–348
T
Tafarodi, R. W., 494
Tajfel, H., 72
Talking about emotional experience, 621–631
Taoism, 381
Tarabulsy, G. M., 409
Task focus, 79
Taylor, S. E., 533, 645, 657
Teasdale, J. D., 315
Tedeschi, R. G., 38, 635, 641–642
Tellegen, A., 189
Templeton, John, 26
Temporal balance (time concept), 297
Temporal continuity (time concept), 297
Temporal extension (time concept), 297
Temporal orientation (time concept), 297
Tendency to Forgive Scale, 428
Tennen, H., 229, 633–639, 647
Terenzini, P. T., 569
Terror management theory (TMT), 645–646, 683
Terry, D. J., 228
Thayer, R. E., 240, 457
Thematic Apperception Test, 629
Theokas, C., 158
Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 398
Theory Y (McGregor), 580
Thinking flexibility, benefits from positive affect, 505–509
Thomas, C., 273
Thompson, R., 136
Thompson, Suzanne C., 271–276
Tiedens, L. Z., 20
Time, 295–301
historical background, 295–296
perspectives of, 296–301
Time Attitude Scale, 298
Time Competence Scale, 298
Time Reference Inventory, 298
Time Structure Questionnaire, 298
Tjeltveit, A., 107, 109, 110
Tobacco use (by adolescents) and EI, 242
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 398
Tomaka, J., 544
Tomkins, Silvan, 368
Tong, E.M.W., 20
Tonsager, M. E., 471
Topolski, T. D., 138
Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), 252
Torrance, E. P., 604
Toughness/toughness theory, 537–546
benefits from, 544–546
definitions/physiological systems, 538
evidence (when/where) of, 541–542
extensions of toughness relationships, 543
historical background, 540–541
neuroendocrine mediators, 539–540
nontoughening training, 542–543
personality, performance, health, 540
toughening manipulations, 539
Tov, W., 299
Trade-offs of character strengths, 31–32, 32f
Trait curiosity models, 369
Trait envy, 442
Trait gratitude, 439
Trait Hope Scale, 135, 326–327, 476
Transaction models (of resilience), 125–126
Transcendental Meditation (TM), 601, 604–605, 607
Transformational leadership, 40
Triandis, H. C., 50
Trivette, C. M., 554
True, N., 629
Trust and self-verification, 469–470
Tseng, W. C., 575
Turken, U., 20
Turner, R. A., 20, 40, 212
Twigger-Ross, C., 495
Twin studies, 189, 670
Two-continua model (of mental health), 90–92
U
Uchino, B. N., 455
Ulven, J. C., 83
Umberson, D., 455
Uncertainty, 40, 66, 181, 280–283
Uncontrollability, 272, 314, 315
Undo effect (of positive emotions), 19, 20
Unhappy people, 102, 190, 396, 668–672
Updegraff, J. A., 457
Upton, P., 138
Urada, M., 508
Uswatte, G., 651–660
V
Vaillant, George, 7, 533–534
Valentine, E. R., 605
Values and motives (of psychologists), 107
Values in Action (VIA) project
campus application, 572
classifications of, 27–28, 28t, 55
correlates/consequences, 30
courage and, 377, 379
deliberate cultivation, 31
distribution/demographics (findings), 29–30
historical background, 26–27
measures of, 28–29
(p. 709) origins and development, 30–41
“strengths” classification, 28t, 29, 55, 67
structure and trade-offs, 31–32
Van Dulmen, M., 5
Van Lange, P. A., 428
VandeCreek, L. D., 107, 109
Vanden Belt, A., 317
Variable-focused models of resilience, 120, 121–123
Varieties of Religious Experience (James), 250
Variety seeking behavior, and positive affect, 510–511
Veenhoven, R., 42
Vehige, S., 83
Velasco, C., 628
Verberg, N., 643
Veterans Administration (U.S.), 61–62
Vicarious helplessness, 314
Vignoles, V. L., 491–498, 492, 494, 495, 496
Vipassana meditation, 601, 602, 606
Virtue catalogs, 26
Virtue ethics, 26, 105, 108, 109
Visualization of best self (happiness intervention), 673
Vocational issues (PSI), 351
Vrungos, S., 273
W
Wachs, T. D., 80
Wade, N. G., 431
Wagnild, G., 583
Wallach, M. A., 76
Wallerstein, J., 391
Walster, E., 447, 448
Walster, G. W., 448
Ward, T., 40
Watson, David, 207–214, 209, 212
Watts, Alan, 65
Ways of Coping Questionnaire, 226
Wealth and subjective well-being, 53
Weaver, K. E., 228
Wehmeyer, Michael L., 357–364, 359–360, 363
Weiner, B., 574
Weiss, B. J., 380
Weisz, J. R., 272–273, 314
Welch, Johnny, 291
Well-being therapy, 37, 576
Wells, K. J., 576
Werner, Emmy, 117
Wessman, A. E., 297
White, Judith, 291
Whitehead, Alfred North, 395
Whitesell, N. R., 467
Whitlock, T., 449
Whitt, E. J., 563
The Widening World of Childhood (Murphy), 118
Widiger, T. A., 64
Wierson, M., 272
Wiese, D., 212
Wilder, D. A., 72
Wilkes, A., 72
Williams, J., 138
Williamson, Gail M., 165–169
Wilson, N., 135
Wilson, T. D., 654, 655
Wink, P., 616
Wisdom
activating related knowledge, 175
Berlin Wisdom Model, 173–175
costs of striving for, 172
development of during ontogenesis, 173, 174–175, 178
as goal of moral traditions, 109
Greek tradition on, 175
happy people and, 102
as identified virtue, 108
methods for study of, 173
psychologist's experiences of, 108
vs. hedonic life orientation, 173
vs. successful development indicators, 175–176
With God in Hell (Berkovits), 614
Within-group differentiation, 72
Witvliet, C.v.O., 430
Wohl, M.J.A., 643
Wong, P.T.P., 683
Wood, Alex M., 35–45, 467
Wood, J. V., 574
Woodard-Pury Courage Scale (WPCS-23), 379
Workplaces. See Positive workplaces
World Values Survey, 591
Worline, M. C., 378
Worrell, F. C., 135, 299
Worthington, E. L., 431
Wortman, C. B., 656
Wright, B. A., 75, 142, 657, 659
Wright, Beatrice, 4, 71–86
Writing about emotional experience, 621–631
cognitive processes, role of, 624, 626–627
historical background, 623
importance of social dynamics, 624–625
individual differences, 628–629
inhibition, role of/research about, 623–624, 625–626
linguistic markers (research), 629–630
paradigm overview, 622–623
search for process, 625
social processes, 627–628
Y
Yamaguchi, S., 494
YMCA, 149, 156
Yoo, Seung Hee, 237–245
Young, H., 583
Young, Louisa, 534
Young Children's Hope Scale (YCHS) Story Form, 135
Youssef, C. M., 579–586
Z
Zajonc, R. B., 220
Zarrett, N., 160
Zaura, A. J., 97–103, 275
Zeidner, M., 564
Zeigarnik, Bluma, 624
Zen meditation, 601, 602, 604
Zillig, L.M.P, 537–546
Zimbardo, P. G., 297
Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), 298
Zimmerman, S., 158, 159
Zoccola, Peggy M., 519–524
Zoellner, T., 635
Zuckerman, M., 230 (p. 710)