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date: 22 October 2018

(p. 509) Index

(p. 509) Index

Aarão Reis, Daniel, 245
Abercrombie, Thomas, 67
Abreu Esteves, Martha de, 222
Abreu, Martha, 226
Acemoglu, Daron, 416, 417, 418
Adams, David, 32
Adams, Eleanor, 38
Adelman, Jeremy, xi, xvii, 320
Adorno, Rolena, 66, 68
Adorno, Sérgio, 213
Africa, 2, 22, 193–94, 262, 431. See also Africans; slavery
Arab colonialism in, 6, 7, 18
compared to Latin America, 6–8, 11–13, 17–18, 407
connections to Latin America, 106–7, 117, 204, 271, 457
slavery in, 188
Africans and Afro-descendants, 2–3, 4
African ethnic origins, 2, 107, 111, 186, 193–94
associations, 34, 107, 193, 263, 265
black movements, 196, 218, 235, 245, 265–70
Central America, 260, 266–67, 269
Colombia, 173, 264–65
colonial Mexico, 33–34
colonial Spanish South America, 78, 79
Dominican Republic, 259, 264, 267, 318
and European immigrants, 215, 218–19, 228
family, 106, 392–93
Haitian immigrants, 264, 277, 318
health and disease, 431, 432
independence movements, 164, 173–75, 259–61
and indigenous people, 52, 104, 141, 182, 266, 270
Islam, 186, 193
Peru, 260, 265, 269
post-abolition, 224–26, 257–71
Puerto Rico, 2, 260, 263, 268, 327
religion, 107, 242, 455–58, 463, 464, 473, 485
return to Africa, 194
sexuality, 136, 137, 141, 185
slave-owners as, 110, 186, 213–14
Venezuela, 260, 264
West Indian immigrants, 6, 266–67, 269, 392, 394
women, 34, 36, 82, 136, 185, 191, 194, 196, 263, 269
Agosto Cintrón, Nélida, 474
agriculture, 6, 284, 287, 310–29, 345, 414–15, 470
Argentina, 309, 319–22
Chile, 314, 316, 330
coffee, 218, 222, 312, 323–26
colonial, 32, 44, 75–78
Mexico, 32, 44, 309, 312–14
Peru, 314, 318, 323–24
plantations, 2, 3, 190, 265–66, 287, 324–28, 386, 416, 431
smallholders, 109, 190, 218, 228, 321, 323–24, 392, 416
sugar, 9, 33, 109, 311–12, 318, 324–28
tobacco, 109, 311, 323, 327
Águeda Méndez, Maria, 137
Aguirre Beltrán, Gonzalo, 33, 327, 463, 476
Alberro, Solange, 35, 36, 38, 39
Alchon, Suzanne Austin, 81
Alden, Dauril, 104, 111
Alencastro, Luiz Felipe, 106
Alexandre, Valentim, 115
Algranti, Leila, 105, 110
Almeida, Celestino, 104
Almeida, Rita Heloísa de, 104
(p. 510) Alsina Franch, José, 30
Altman, Ida, 34
Alvarez de Toledo, Cayetana, 35
Amaral, Samuel, 320
anarchism, 11, 156, 228, 346–48, 350, 354
Anders, Ferdinand, 27
Anderson, Arthur J. O., 31
Andrade Arruda, José Jobson de, 115
Andrews, Reid, 217, 218–19, 225, 228, 235, 261, 265, 270
Andrien, Kenneth, 66, 76
Angola, 7, 33, 106, 117, 193, 207
Anguiano, Arturo, 351
Anna, Timothy, 156, 160, 161, 179
Annino, Antonio, 166, 286
Appelbaum, Nancy, 265
Aranda de los Rios, Ramón, 265
Araucanians. See Mapuches
Arazola Corvera, María Jesús, 77
Archer, Christon, 168
Archetti, Eduardo, 373
architecture, 7, 39, 42, 43, 236, 241
Arcondo, Anibal, 81
Argentina, 80, 157, 222, 269
Afro-descendants, 4, 258, 265–66
agriculture, 78, 309, 319–22
economy, 3, 11, 15, 20, 77, 292, 411–15, 417
education, 13, 22
Europeans in, 1, 3, 68, 259, 292, 345, 346
family, 370, 373, 374, 390
gender, 13, 370–74
health and disease, 81, 440, 441, 442
independence, 74, 155, 161–62
indigenous population, 20, 283, 291–93
industrialization, 13, 343
labor movement, 343–44, 346–48, 351–53, 356, 362
politics, 12, 213, 234, 372
religion, 72, 74
Ariès, Philippe, 79, 382
Armus, Diego, xiii, xvii, 442
Arrom, José Juan, 477
Arrom, Silvia, 35, 36, 42, 386, 400, 403, 465
art and literature, 16, 223, 362. See also architecture; music and dance
Afro-descendants and, 268–70
colonial, 43–44, 113–14
Iberian influence, 7
modernist, 230–31, 237
religious, 38
Ashby, Joel, 351
Asia, 21
compared to Latin America, 6–8, 11–13, 17–18, 19
immigration from, 4, 225, 228, 260, 270
Atahualpa, 66
Atondo Rodríguez, Ana María, 36
Aymaras, 70, 288, 298
Azevedo, Elciene, 185
Azevedo Fernandes, João, 104
Azevedo Salomao, Eugenia María, 42
Aztecs. See Nahuas
Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella, 144
Badaró Mattos, Marcelo, 218
Bahia, 104–9, 185, 224, 242, 261
economy, 414–15
medicine, 225, 479
millenarianism, 220, 466–68, 482
religion, 456, 466
slave revolts, 107, 193, 194, 215
slavery, 184, 186, 188, 190
Bajío, 9, 32, 44–45, 284, 285
Bandeira, Moniz, 109
Bantus, 2, 6, 34, 193
Barbados, 2, 266, 267
Barham, Bradford, 323
Barickman, B. J., 109, 325
Barman, Roderick, 161, 216
Barnet, Miguel, 269
Barrett, Ward, 328
Barros de Castro, Antonio, 187
Barsky, Osvaldo, 320
Baskes, Jeremy, 317
Bastian, Jean-Pierre, 472, 473, 474, 476
Bastide, Roger, 193, 455, 456, 457
Baudot, Georges, 39
Bayer, Osvaldo, 348
Beattie, Peter, 226–27, 261
Behar, Ruth, 37, 141
Bender, Thomas, 154
Bennett, Herman, 33
Benson, Nettie Lee, 165–66
Berbel, Márcia Regina, 167
Berdan, Frances, 31
Bergad, Laird, 106, 195, 196, 327
(p. 511) Berger, Peter, 483
Bergquist, Charles, 343, 348, 360
Bernand, Carmen, 38, 266
Besse, Susan, 226, 232, 374
Besselaar, José van den, 113
Bethencourt, Francisco, 111, 112
Bicalho, Fernanda, 109, 116
Bieber, Judy, 220
Blackburn, Robin, 260
Blanchard, Peter, 173
Bliss, Katherine, 368
Bolívar, Simón, 153, 155, 259
Bolivia, 7, 8, 260, 390, 441
colonial, 67, 70
economy, 11, 76, 317
education, 22, 23
indigenous population, 259, 283, 284, 288, 293, 298
politics, 12, 297, 308
Bonfil Batalla, Guillermo, 460
Bonilla, Heraclio, 161, 163, 168
Borah, Woodrow, 28, 40
Bortz, Jeffrey, 357, 413
Boschi, Caio, 110
Bosi, Alfredo, 113, 215
Bourbon Reforms, 32, 45, 71, 74, 77, 83, 160, 284
Bourdieu, Pierre, 213, 236, 245, 361
Bourgois, Philippe, 267
Boxer, Charles, 106, 109, 114
Boyer, Richard, 36, 37, 139
Boylan, Kristin, 466
Brading, David, 39, 43, 314
Brazil, xii, 2, 33, 78
1920s and 1930s, 231–33
Afro-descendants, 105–7, 215, 218–19, 221, 224–28, 261–63
agriculture, 109–10, 190, 218, 222, 309, 324–26
Catholic Church, 111–14, 220, 238, 244, 466, 468
colonial administration, 114–18
education, xiv, 13, 22, 212, 225, 226, 244
gender, 110, 143, 226–27, 372, 485
health and disease, 225, 429, 431, 441
immigration, 218–19, 225, 227–28, 259, 260, 266, 346
indigenous population, 4, 20, 102–5, 182, 217, 235, 297
Japanese in, viii–ix, 228, 270
millenarianism, 220, 466, 467, 468, 482
national formation, 214–17
politics, 11, 12, 213, 220–21, 233–37, 372
Portuguese in, 6, 7, 16, 18, 21, 109, 214–16
post-1945, 238–45
Protestantism, 193, 469, 470, 471, 473
race relations, 224–26, 261–63
urban history, 222–23, 240–42
Breña, Roberto, 168
Brennan, James, xiii, xvii, 12, 356, 365
Bricker, Victoria, 41
Broda, Johanna, 27
Brown, Jonathan, 320
Brown, Kendall, 81
Brusco, Elizabeth, 472
Buarque de Holanda, Sérgio, 158, 237
Buenos Aires, 11, 74, 77, 344, 346, 348, 441
Bulmer-Thomas, Victor, 409
Burdick, John, 471, 473, 485
Burke, Peter, 110
Burkett, Elinor, 79, 83
Burkhart, Louise, 31, 39, 136, 478
Bushnell, David, 156
Butler, Judith, 374
Butler, Kim, xii, xvii, 4, 218, 235, 261, 266
Cabral de Mello, Evaldo, 108
Caires Silva, Ricardo, 185
Calainho, Daniela, 107
Campbell, Leon, 70
Campos Machado, María, 472
Canada, viii, 3, 5, 11, 14, 20
Candido, Antonio, 237
candomblé, 186, 193, 456
and ethnic identity, 194, 218, 242, 279
Cañeque, Alejandro, 35
(p. 512) Cañizares-Esguerra, Jorge, 19, 23, 43
Cano, Gabriela, 369
Capelato, Maria Helena, 234
Caplan, Karen, 167
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, 182
Carmagnani, Marcelo, 38, 314
Carneiro da Cunha, Manuela, 102
Carnero, Tucci, 112
Carr, Barry, 267, 351
Carrasco, David, 27
Carrasco, Pedro, 27
Carrera Damas, German, 168
Carrier, Joseph, 373
Carrillo, Elizabeth, 474
Carroll, Michael, 465
Carroll, Patrick, 33, 327
Carvalho, Marcus, 187, 193
Carvalho Soares, Mariza de, 107, 118
Carvalho Souza, Lara Lis, 214
Caso, Alfonso, 42
Castañeda, Paulino, 141
Castelnau-LʼEstoile, Charlotte de, 104, 111
Castillo Palma, Norma Angelica, 32
Castro, Fidel, 267, 468
Castro Gomes, Angela de, 232, 234, 237
Castro Gutiérrez, Felipe, 41
Catao, Luis, 413
Catholic Church, 6, 14, 238, 326, 386, 389, 425, 465, 472
and African beliefs, 34, 107, 193, 455–56, 458
in colonial Brazil, 111–14
in colonial Mexico, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37–40, 458–62
in colonial Spanish South America, 71–74
convents, 36, 43–44, 73, 87, 151
Counter-Reformation, 113, 132, 137, 142
folk Catholicism, 470, 473, 474, 484
and indigenous beliefs, 31, 68, 73, 136, 458–62
left-wing Catholicism, 484, 485
and liberalism, 9, 285–86, 310, 465
liberation theology, 471, 473, 485
in post-colonial Brazil, 220, 222, 244, 466, 468
sexual morality, 132, 133, 136, 141, 142, 144, 369
and women, 36, 71, 73, 110, 370–71, 466
Caulfield, Sueann, 223, 226, 233
Cavalcanti, Nireu, 109
Cervantes, Fernando, 464
Chalhoub, Sidney, 185, 187, 218, 221
Challu, Amilcar, 417
Chambers, Sarah, 172
Chamosa, Oscar, 265
Chance, John, 42
Chartier, Roger, 110, 213
Chasteen, John, 156, 221
Chauí, Marilena, 235
Chaunu, Pierre, 77
Chestnut, Andrew, 471, 472, 484
Chiaramonte, José Carlos, 167
Chihuahua, 32, 287
Chile, 3, 11, 260, 287
agriculture, 314, 316, 330
Communist Party, 11, 347, 486
economy, 3, 15, 20, 411, 412
education, 13, 22
family, 383, 387, 389–90, 393, 396
gender, 79, 374, 375
health, 15, 441
independence, 10, 158, 160, 260
indigenous movements, 295–98
indigenous population, 71, 283–84, 287–93
industrialization, 13, 343, 414
labor movement, 343–45, 347, 348, 349, 357, 374
mining, 10, 319, 345
politics, viii, 12, 288
Protestantism, 469–71, 486
Chomsky, Aviva, 267
Chowning, Margaret, 465
Christian, William, 39
Christianity. See Catholic Church; Protestantism
Chuchiak, John, 38
cities. See urban society
citizenship, 5, 166–67, 170, 172–73
and Afro-descendants, 224, 259, 260
Brazil, 214, 215, 233, 254
and gender, 226–27
and indigenous people, 281–98
Clark, Marjorie, 351
Clastres, Hélène, 103
Clendinnen, Inga, 38, 459–61, 478
Cline, Sarah, 31, 39
(p. 513) Coates, Timothy, 113
Coatsworth, John, xiii, xviii, 409, 416
Cohen, Thomas, 113
Cold War, vii, 237, 242, 268, 351, 355, 358, 397
Collier, Simon, 160
Colombia, 2, 6, 8, 23, 349, 441
Afro-descendants, 173, 264–65
agriculture, 316, 318, 323
economy, 20, 323, 411, 415, 417
independence, 153, 155
indigenous population, 71, 295, 297
labor movement, 343, 344
politics, 213, 295, 319
religion, 465, 472
colonial administration
Brazil, 114–18
Spanish South America, 74–75
Comaroff, Jean, 468, 474
Comaroff, John, 468, 474
Communist Party, 11, 295. See also Marxism
Brazil, 237, 238
Chile, 295, 347, 486
and labor movement, 347–52, 354
Conniff, Michael, 267, 270
conquistadors, 43, 132, 163, 317, 458
Cook, Noble David, 67, 81
Cook, Sherbourne, 28
Coomes, Oliver, 323
Cooper, Frederic, 270
Cope, Douglas, 32, 42
Cornejo Bouroncle, Jorge, 174
Cortés Conde, Roberto, 408, 409, 413
Cortés Jacome, María Elena, 36
Costa Rica, 8, 13, 15, 260, 297
agriculture, 323–24
education, 13, 23
family, 392, 394
health, 15, 441
West Indians in, 266–67, 269, 394
Costeloe, Michael, 161
Couturier, Edith, 35
Crahan, Margaret, 473
Cruz Santos, Beatriz, 112
Cuba, 10, 269, 311
Afro-descendants, 263, 265–68, 462–63
economy, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, 327, 411, 414, 474
education, ix, 13, 22, 23, 263
Europeans in, 8, 11
gender, 13, 369, 374
health, 9, 15
labor movement, 12, 267, 357
politics, 12, 213, 354
race relations, 263, 265–68, 455
religion, 473–75, 486
slavery, 260, 263, 327, 414
urbanization, 11, 21
Cuban Revolution, vii, 159, 242, 319, 355, 369
Cuche, Dennis, 265
Cunha, Euclides da, 220, 223
Curtin, Philip, 457
Cushner, Nicholas, 72, 314–15
Cuzco, 66, 70, 72, 78, 174
Daher, Andrea, 103
Damasceno Fonseca, Claudia, 109
Davies, Keith, 314
Dávila, Jerry, 226
Davis, Darién, 262
Davis, Thomas, 270
De Shazo, Peter, 347
Dean, Warren, 105, 217, 229, 323
Decca, Edgar de, 229, 232
Decoster, Jean-Jacques, 73
Deeds, Susan, 32
Deere, Carmen, 387
del Campo, Hugo, 352
demography, 12, 360
colonial, 20–21, 42, 80–81, 137
family, 384, 386, 388
medical, 428, 430
slavery, 195, 325
Derby, Robin, 264, 468–69
Derrida, Jacques, 361, 463
Desmangles, Leslie, 458
Deusen, Nancy van, 73
Di Stefano, Roberto, 74
Diacon, Todd, 467
Díaz, Arlene, 371
Díaz Polanco, Héctor, 41
Dibble, Charles, 31, 39
Domingues, Angela, 104
(p. 514) Domínguez, Jorge, 160
Dominican Republic, vii, 259
education, 13, 23
gender, 20, 392, 393
race relations, 264, 267, 318
Dore, Elizabeth, 387
Ducey, Michael, 41
Dueñas Vargas, Guiomar, 83, 388
Duncan, Quince, 271
Dunn, Christopher, 240, 269
Durruty, Celia, 352
Dutch, 2, 7, 21
in Brazil, 103, 104, 108, 109, 192
Dutra, Eliana, 235
Duverger, Christian, 37
Earle, Rebecca, 293
Ebert, Christopher, 108
Echeverri-Gent, Elisavinda, 267
economy, 100, 407–19
colonial, 44–45, 75–78, 108, 115, 412
finance, 45, 72, 77, 318, 415
industrial, 9, 12, 13, 227–29, 238–39, 413–14
inequality, 325, 416–17
mining, 9, 45, 76, 77, 195, 313, 317, 321, 345, 412
prices, 44, 75, 76, 196, 318, 322, 412–13
slavery, 106, 187, 194, 324–26, 414
transportation, 9, 266, 315, 415
Ecuador, 12, 13, 297, 411
Afro-descendants, 2, 265
education, 13, 23
rural society, 76, 81, 314
Edgerton, Samuel, 39
education, 294, 348, 373, 418, 419, 438, 439
colonial period, 44, 160
gender, 13, 369
literacy, 13, 22, 288
public, 287, 358, 371
religious, 74, 465, 475
school enrollment, 13, 22–23, 348
social policy, and, 226, 368, 369, 387
university, vii, ix, xiv, 13, 212, 244, 269, 270
Ehrick, Christine, 372
Eisenberg, José, 111
Eisenberg, Peter, 325
El Salvador, 23, 297, 308
colonial, 41
Enciso Rojas, Dolores, 37
Engerman, Stanley, 416, 417, 418
English language, 6–7, 15
environmental history, xvii, 42, 105, 329, 337, 364
Estenssoro, Juan Carlos, 68
Estrada Urroz, Rosalina, 357
Europeans and Euro-descendants, 3–8
and Afro-descendants, 103–4, 190, 215, 218–19, 228, 264–65, 458
Argentina, 3, 68, 292, 321, 345, 346, 353
Chile, 3, 292, 346
colonial Mexico, 28–29, 32, 34–35, 39–40
colonial Spanish South America, 67–75
cultural syncretism, 103–4, 455
farmers, 2, 228, 265
and indigenous people, 28–29, 32, 39–40, 70, 76–77, 103–4, 283, 284
Italian immigrants, 8, 228
Jewish immigrants, 73, 112, 235, 379
labor movement in, 218–19, 227–28, 346–50
male sexuality, 135, 137, 138, 140, 185, 461–62
Portuguese immigrants, 8, 16, 109, 215
religion, 73, 107, 111, 112, 480
sexuality, 136–45
Spanish immigrants, 8, 52–53
women, 73, 349, 379, 462
working-class, 238, 259, 346–50, 438
family, 45, 78, 92, 101, 110, 382–97
adultery, 41, 68, 134, 138, 139, 371, 387
children, 45, 73, 137, 188, 371–74, 387, 393, 394
divorce, 2, 139, 370, 371, 392
dowry, 110, 387, 400
elite, 67, 385, 396, 397
female headship, 3, 92, 369, 386, 387, 392, 394
illegitimacy, 79, 137, 373, 385, 387, 389, 392–93, 395
marriage, 33, 36, 68, 139, 195, 371, 385–87, 389, 393
(p. 515) pre-Columbian, 68, 104
slavery, 33, 100, 106, 136, 188, 195
violence, 36, 135, 139, 149, 378
Fanon, Franz, 18, 487
Farage, Nadia, 104
Farberman, Judith, 80
Faria de Castro, Paulo, 106
Faria de Castro, Sheila, 106
Farnsworth-Alvear, Ann, 349
Farriss, Nancy, 30, 38, 57, 458–62
Fausto, Boris, 227, 348
Feitler, Bruno, 112
feminism, 226, 245, 369–74, 391, 472, 485
Ferlini, Vera, 109
Fernandes, Florestan, 182, 218, 219, 261
Ferreira, Jorge, 232, 235
Ferrer, Ada, 263
Ferrer, Aldo, 320
Ferry, Robert, 322
Few, Martha, 36, 37, 463
Fico, Carlos, 244
Fields, Barbara, 187
Figuereido, Luciano, 110, 191
Fischer, Brodwyn, 241
Fisher, John, 160, 168
Florentino, Manolo, 105, 106
Flores Galindo, Alberto, 173, 174, 460
Florescano, Enrique, 43, 412, 480
Font, Mauricio, 228
Fontes, Paulo, 238
Fortes, Alexandre, 238
Foucault, Michel, 36, 143, 213, 226, 361, 428, 462
Fradkin, Raúl, 322, 336
Fragoso, Joao, 115, 116
Franca Paiva, Eduardo, 191
France, 13, 15, 74, 103, 154
Annales school, 29, 158, 384
education, 13, 22
empire, 2, 18, 260, 327
French as colonial language, 6–7, 15
French Revolution, 9, 161, 171
medicine, 9, 425
and Mexico, occupation of, 5, 286, 287, 290
Frank, Zephyr, 191
Fredrickson, George, 262
Freire, Paulo, 368, 369
Freire Costa, Leonor, 108
Freitas Monteiro, Nuno, 116
French, John, 229, 232, 234, 237, 353–55, 358–60
French, William, 348, 368
Freyre, Gilberto, 101, 158, 182, 223, 311, 383, 386
Fuente, Alejandro de la, 263
Fuller, Linda, 357
Furtado, Júnia, 107, 108
Galindo, Marcos, 103
Gama, Lúcia Helena, 237
Ganson, Barbara, 72
Garavaglia, Juan Carlos, 77, 321, 322
García Garagarza, León, 46, 55
García Pantojas, Emilio, 473, 486
García-Barrio, Constance, 266
Garfield, Seth, 232, 235
Garibay, Ángel Maria, 29, 31
Garrido, Margarita, 172
Garza Carvajal, Federico, 36, 143
Gaspar, Jeffrey Casey, 267
Gauderman, Kimberly, 80
Gebara, Ademir, 189
Geertz, Clifford, 112, 191, 459, 461
Gelman, Jorge, 322
gender. See also masculinity; sexuality; women
Brazil, 110, 226–27
colonial Mexico, xx, 35–37, 54, 135–45
colonial Spanish America, 71–74, 79, 136–45
family, 36, 73, 79, 82, 92, 370, 371, 382–97
feminism, 226, 245, 369–74, 391, 472, 485
and honor, 36, 79, 139–40, 150, 226, 233, 380
migration, 20, 392
patriarchalism, 14, 36, 226, 369–75, 384, 387, 392
post-colonial Latin America, 13–14, 367–75
pre-Columbian, 133–35
and religion, 74, 454–55, 466, 472, 473, 485
and slavery, 136, 185, 191
Gerhard, Peter, 28
Germany, viii, 11, 13, 15, 26, 234
Gibson, Charles, 27, 28, 37, 318, 412
(p. 516) Gill, Anthony, 471
Ginzburg, Carlo, 110, 113
Góes, José Roberto, 106
Gomes, Flavio, 188
Gomes da Cunha, Olivia, 225, 261
Gomez, Michael, 271, 457
Gómez-Galvarriato, Aurora, 413
Gonzalbo Aizpuru, Pilar, 37
Gonzales, Michael, 318
González Marmolejo, Jorge, 37, 141
Gootenberg, Paul, 419
Gordillo, Mónica, 356
Gordon, Edmund, 266
Gorender, Jacob, 187, 325
Gorenstein Ferreira da Silva, Lina, 112
Gosner, Kevin, 41
Goulart, Silvana, 235
Goulart Reis, Nestor, 109
Gouvêa, Maria da Fátima, 109
Graham, Richard, 159, 216, 219
Graham, Sandra Lauderdale, 389, 395
Grahn, Lance, 77
Grajales, Agustín, 35
Grandin, Greg, 466
Great Britain, viii, 21, 185, 260, 388
economy, 9, 10, 45, 159, 292, 407, 414
education, 9, 13, 22
empire, 2, 18, 163, 260, 425
Green, James, 227
Green, Richard, 38
Grieco, Viviana, 77
Grinberg, Keila, 185, 215, 218, 224
Gruzinski, Serge, 29, 36, 37, 142, 459, 461
Guadalajara, 25, 39, 44, 45, 285, 315, 327
Guarani, 72, 103
Guardino, Peter, 162, 174
Guatemala, 1, 7, 8, 297, 342
agriculture, 316, 323–24
colonial, 25, 41, 42
education, 22, 23
family, 389, 393
indigenous population, 288–89, 293, 298, 417
religion, 463, 469, 471, 486
Gudmundson, Lowell, 323
Guedea, Virginia, 167
Guerra, François-Xavier, 170, 171
Guimarães Sá, Isabel dos, 109
Gutiérrez, Ramón, 36, 464
Guttman, Matthew, 374
Guy, Donna, xiii, xviii
Hahner, June, 226
Haiti, 5, 6, 7, 17, 264, 267, 319, 327, 458
Haitian Revolution, 2, 173, 193, 258, 259, 458
Halperín Donghi, Tulio, 162
Hamill, Hugh, 163, 164
Hamilton, Earl, 412
Hamnett, Brian, 160, 161, 174, 179
Hanchard, Michael, 262
Hansen, João Adolfo, 105, 113
Hardt, Michael, 468
Hart, Paul, 328
Hartman, Mary, 393
Hasenbalg, Carlos, 262
Haskett, Robert, 31, 36
Haslip-Viera, Gabriel, 41
Hassig, Ross, 315
health and disease, 424–42
Brazil, 221, 222, 225, 479
colonial period, 20–21, 37, 42, 53, 80–81, 317
life expectancy, 12, 15
popular medicine, 37, 80, 142, 221, 463
and sexuality, 133, 227, 438, 440
state interventions, 221, 371, 388, 417, 427–28, 434, 438
Helg, Aline, xii, xviii, 4, 173, 263, 264, 266
Hemming, John, 102
Hernández, Alicia, 351
Herschmann, Micael, 269
Hespanha, António Manuel, 115
Hidalgo, Miguel, 163, 164, 175, 285
Higgins, Kathleen, 105
Higgs, David, 113
Himmerich y Valencia, Robert, 35
historiography, ix, x, 83, 133, 213, 382. See also specific countries and topics
Latin American, ix, 1, 4, 7, 10, 16, 21, 82, 212–13, 309
Hoberman, Louisa, 35
Hobsbawm, Eric, 67
Hoffman, Kelly, 396
Holloway, Thomas, 228
Holt, Thomas, 270
Holy Office. See Inquisition
(p. 517) homosexuality, 245, 370, 373, 440
Brazil, 110, 143, 226–27
and Catholic Church, 74, 141
colonial Spanish America, 36, 138, 141–44
among indigenous people, 133, 142
lesbianism, 110, 227, 373, 375
medicalization of, 227, 438
Honduras, 12, 81, 266, 393
education, 13, 22, 23
honor
in public life, 171, 172, 214
and sexuality, 140, 150, 226, 380
Horowitz, Joel, 352
Howard, Philip, 263
Huerta, María Teresa, 41
Hughes, Jennifer, 476
Hunefeldt, Christine, 173, 260, 387
Hunt, Shane, 408
Hutchison, Elizabeth, 349
Ianni, Octavio, 182, 242, 261
Iberian colonialism, 5–8, 17, 18, 389, 433
Illades, Lilián, 35
immigration. See migration
Incas, 66, 72
independence movements, 5, 9–10, 82, 153–76
Afro-descendants in, 33, 173–75, 259–61
Argentina, 74, 155, 161–62
Chile, 158, 160
and indigenous people, 163, 283–85
Peru, 161–62, 168, 174
structuralist interpretations of, 157–59
Venezuela, 168, 173
indigenism, 157, 293–94, 304–5
indigenous people. See also specific groups and places
and Afro-descendants, 52, 104, 141, 182, 266, 270
in Americas, geographic distribution of, 2, 20, 181, 259
Argentina, 20, 283, 291–93
Bolivia, 259, 283, 284, 288, 293, 298
Brazil, 4, 20, 102–5, 182, 217, 235, 297
and Catholicism, 31, 34, 37–40, 68, 71–74, 136, 458–62
colonial Mexico, 25–32, 37–44, 80, 134–36, 140–44, 458–64
colonial Spanish South America, 66–74, 76, 80–81
demography, 20–21, 28, 81, 293, 297, 318, 428, 430
family, 68, 70, 104, 386, 387, 388, 389, 393
gender, 27, 35–37, 136–45
Guatemala, 1, 288–89, 293, 297, 298, 417
health and disease, 29, 37, 42, 428, 432, 439
and independence movements, 82, 163, 174, 283–85
indigenous movements, 245, 281, 295–98
during nineteenth century, 285–93
nobility, 28, 62, 66, 68, 72, 136
pre-Columbian, 2, 17, 27, 68, 104, 133–35, 140, 144
rebellions, 40–41, 67–71, 163, 284–85
romantization of, 217, 293
slavery, 211, 287, 316
during twentieth century, 293–98
Inquisition, 73, 388, 457, 463
Brazil, 112–13, 193, 464
Mexico, 35, 38, 40, 44, 55, 141, 466
and sexuality, 133, 136–37, 139, 141
Ireland, Rowan, 472, 476
Islam, 186, 193, 316, 372
Italy, 9, 13, 15, 22, 112, 228, 234
Jacobsen, Nils, 323
Jaguaribe, Hélio, 237
Jamaica, 266–67
James, Daniel, 352–55, 358–60
Jancsó, István, 112, 117
Jansen, Maaten, 27
Japan, viii, 11, 12, 19, 228, 270
Jesuits, 32, 72, 75, 82
Brazil, 111, 113
land ownership, 310, 314, 315
Portuguese empire, 103, 104
(p. 518) Jiménez Pelayo, Agueda, 32
Johnson, John J., 163
Johnson, Lyman, xi, xviii, 4, 21, 41, 412–13
Johnson, Simon, 416, 417
Jones, Grant, 41
Juiz de Fora, Teresina, 190
Kantor, Iris, 112, 114, 117
Karasch, Mary, 103, 105
Karttunen, Frances, 135
Keith, Robert, 314
Kicza, John, 35
Kiddy, Elizabeth, 107
Kinsbruner, Jay, 159
Klarén, Peter, 318
Klein, Cecilia, 62
Klein, Herbert, xii, xviii, 77, 106, 122, 208, 246, 326, 339, 412
Klubock, Thomas, 349, 374
Knaster, Meri, 367
Knight, Franklin, 327
Konder, Leandro, 237
Konrad, Herman, 314–15
Kourí, Emilio, 19
Kraay, Hendrik, 188, 215, 261
Kraut, Andrew, 41
Kubler, George, 39
Kuznesof, Elizabeth, 106, 385, 386
labor history, 232–34, 238–39, 342–62
labor movement
1880–1930, 11, 346–50
1930–1960, 350–55
1960–2000, 355–58
Afro-descendants in, 218–19, 266–67
European immigrants in, 218–19, 227–28, 346–50
Mexico, 345–46, 347, 348, 351
Ladd, Doris, 35, 160
Lalive dʼEpinay, Christian, 469, 470–71, 473–74, 484
Lancaster, Roger, 373, 484
Landázuri Benítez, Gisela, 327
Lane, Kris, 78
Langfur, Hal, 118
Lara, Jaime, 39
Lara, Silvia, 105, 107, 184
Larkin Nascimento, Elisa, 261
Lasso, Marixa, 173, 265
Latin America. See also specific places and topics
distinguishing traits, 4–19, 257, 309
ethno-racial geography, 2–3, 181
historiography, ix, 1, 4, 7, 10, 16, 21, 82, 212–13, 309
limitations of term, 1–3
and the West, discoursive exclusion from, 14–19
and the West, similarities to, 9, 11, 12
and Western Hemisphere, 4–5
Latin American studies, ix, vii–x, 1, 26, 408
Latinos, viii, 396
racialization in the U.S., 15–16
Lavrin, Asunción, xi, xix, 35–36, 374
Lear, John, 347
legal history, 108–9, 115, 117, 226, 359
Leite da Silva Dias, Maria Odilia, 226
Lempérière, Annick, 171
León, Magdalena, 387
León-Portilla, Miguel, 29, 31, 37
Lesser, Jeffrey, 225, 228, 235, 270
Lestringant, Frank, 103
Levine, Daniel, 471
Levine, Robert, 219, 220
Lewis, Lancelot, 267
Lewis, Laura, 37, 142, 461–63
Libby, Douglas, 105
liberalism, 9, 157, 260, 282, 311, 387
and Catholic Church, 9, 285–86, 310, 465
and the family, 370, 386, 387
and indigenous people, 285–93, 294
Mexico, 157, 168, 175, 213, 285, 345, 387
popular, 175, 213, 215, 286, 345
Lima, 71, 72, 73, 80, 160, 168, 173, 287, 387, 412
Lindo Fuentes, Hector, 412
Linebaugh, Peter, 106
Lipsett-Rivera, Sonya, 41, 42, 140
Little, Walter, 352
Lobato, Mirta, 353
(p. 519) Lockhart, James, 30, 39, 66, 76, 460–61
Lombardi, Peter, 260
Lomnitz, Claudio, 19
Lomnitz, Larissa, 385, 395
Londoño Vega, Patricia, 465
López, Celia, 72
López, Mario Luis, 266
López Austin, Alfredo, 31, 36, 37, 461
López Beltrán, Clara, 390
López Caballero, Paula, 31
López Denis, Adrián, xiii, xix
López Luján, Leonardo, 27
Lorandi, Ana María, 68
Loreto Mariz, Cecilia, 472
Love, Joseph, 219, 227
Lovejoy, Paul, 457
Lovell, George, 81
Lozano Armendares, Teresa, 41
Luca, Tania de, 230
Lynch, John, 156
Macaulay, Neill, 156
MacCormack, Sabine, 464
Machado, Maria Helena, 182, 218, 228
Maia, José, 188
Mallon, Florencia, xii, xix, 92
Mangan, Jane, 80
Mannarelli, Emma, 80
Mapuches, 71, 283–84, 289–96
Marcilio, Maria Luiza, 110
Mariátegui, José Carlos, 157, 158
Marquardt, Marie Friedmann, 487
Marquese, Rafael, 106
Martin, Cheryl, 327
Martin, David, 471, 473, 474, 476
Martínez, María Elena, 35, 42, 480
Martínez Peláez, Severo, 41
Martínez-Fernández, Luis, 474
Martínez-Vergne, Teresita, 263
Martins, Amílcar, 218
Martins, Roberto, 218
Martins Rodrigues, Leônicio, 353
Marx, Anthony, 262
Marxism, 8, 17, 231, 282. See also Communist Party
in economic history, 114, 313, 410, 475
on independence movements, 157–59, 162–63
and labor movement, 239, 345, 349
on slavery, 100, 182, 187, 316, 325
masculinity, xiii, 143, 369–76
and fatherhood, 140, 374, 396
and homosexuality, 36, 74, 143, 226–27, 373
and labor movement, 349
and legislation, 370–71
and the military, 226–27
pre-Columbian, 133, 142, 144
Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo, 27
Matos Rodríguez, Félix, 263
Mattos, Hebe, 185, 215, 218, 224
Maurer, Noel, 415
Mauss, Marcel, 115
Maxwell, Kenneth, 114, 117, 161
Maya, 27, 29, 41, 52, 289, 298
language, 30, 38
religion, 38, 458–62
sexuality, 134, 143
Mayo, Carlos, 72, 322
Mazzeo, Cristina Ana, 77
McAndrew, Richard, 39
McCaa, Robert, 388
McCann, Bryan, 223, 240
McCrea, Heather, 466
McCreery, David, 323, 324
McFarlane, Anthony, 77
Meade, Teresa, 221
medicine. See health and disease
Mello e Souza, Laura de, 98, 109–11, 117, 193, 463–64
Mello e Souza, Marina de, 107
Melo Sampaio, Patricia, 104
Melville, Eleanor, 42
Mendonça, Joseli de, 218
Mendoza, Antonio de, 35
Merkerk, Nederveen, 109
mestizaje, 32, 132, 294, 297
as national ideology, 33, 264, 281, 293, 298
as a sexual issue, 137–38
Metcalf, Alida, 103–4, 110, 325, 482
Mexica. See Nahuas
Mexican Revolution, 293, 311, 315, 347, 374
Mexico, vii, ix, 5, 11, 46, 469
Afro-descendants, 2, 4, 33–34, 52, 258, 270
agriculture, 32, 44, 309, 312–14
(p. 520) Catholic Church, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37–40, 72, 458–62
colonial, 25–46, 135–45
economy, 9, 11, 20, 44–45, 408, 411–15, 417
education, 13, 22, 23
family, 385–88, 392, 393, 395
gender, 35–37, 135–45, 369, 370, 374, 376
health and disease, 37, 42, 53, 428, 432, 440, 441
independence, 39–41, 160–61, 167, 168, 174, 284–85
Inquisition, 35, 38, 40, 44, 55, 141, 466
labor movement, 345–46, 347, 348, 351
liberalism, 9, 157, 168, 175, 213, 285–86, 345, 387
mining, 9, 10, 45, 63, 285, 319, 412
politics, 12, 157, 167, 168, 285–87, 351
rebellions, 40–41, 174–75, 327
slavery, 260, 327, 328
Spaniards in, 8, 28–29, 32, 34–35, 39–40, 135
women, 34, 35–37, 42, 80, 135–45
Mexico City, 41–42, 174
economy, 44–45, 412
gender, 36, 371, 374, 393
labor, 347, 357, 361
population, 9, 32
Miceli, Sérgio, 236
Michoacan, 29, 42, 327
middle class, 359, 360, 428
attitudes, 241, 487
Brazil, 228, 230, 237, 244, 256
and politics, 229, 230, 232
and Protestantism, 475, 487
and race, 228, 241, 264
Mignolo, Walter, 17
migration and migrants, ix, 18, 260
to Argentina, 259, 292, 321, 345
from Asia, 4, 225, 228, 260, 270
to Brazil, 218–19, 227–28, 259, 266, 270
to Costa Rica, 266–67, 277, 394
to Cuba, 8, 266–67, 277
from Europe, 4, 8, 218, 227–28, 259, 309, 346–50
and gender, 13, 20, 392
from Haiti, 264, 277, 318
and health, 434, 438, 441
indigenous, 81, 97
policy, 260, 467
from Portugal, 8, 16, 21, 109, 193
from Spain, 7–8, 52, 53
from West Indies, 6, 266–67, 277, 394
Mijares, María Marta, 264
Milanich, Nara, xiii, xix, 19, 405
military, 12, 165, 181, 242–45
Afro-descendants in, 33, 69, 173–75, 191, 259–61
colonial, 33, 67, 70, 74, 75, 78, 116
during independence, 156, 163, 174
and indigenous people, 70, 285–93, 295
and masculinity, 226–27
and religion, 467, 471, 472, 486
Millar, René, 141
Miller, Joseph, 106
Miller, Shawn, 105
Miller, Simon, 315
Mills, Kenneth, 73
Minas Gerais, 103, 105–13, 117, 220, 238, 415
slavery, 184, 186, 195, 218
Mintz, Sidney, 315, 324, 456, 457, 469, 470, 486
Mixtecs, 27, 29, 30, 38, 40, 41
modernization theory, 14, 158, 418, 475
Molina, Lucía Dominga, 266
Monteiro, John, 102
Montoya, Gustavo, 173
Moore, Robin, 268
Moreira Leite, Miriam, 226
Morelos, 31, 285, 286, 328
Moreno, José Luis, 80
Moreno Fraginals, Manuel, 327
Moreton, Bethany, 472, 476
Moritz Schwarcz, Lilia, 114, 217, 225
Mota, Carlos Guilherme, 160, 161, 164
Mota, José Flávio, 106
Mott, Luiz, 107, 110–13, 143, 184, 191, 193, 227
Moutoukias, Zacarias, 77
Moya, José, xix, 350
Mundy, Barbara, 44
Muniz de Albuquerque, Durval, 220
Murilo de Carvalho, Jose, 172, 216, 217, 219, 221
(p. 521) Murmis, Miguel, 352
Murray, Stephen, 373
Musacchio, Aldo, 413, 415
music and dance, 23, 223, 240, 242, 269
and Afro-descendants, 190, 262, 264, 269
erotic, 137, 145
and indigenous people, 29, 30, 459
samba, 223, 240, 241
tango, 268, 346, 353
Muslims. See Islam
Nahuas, 26–31, 39, 43, 134
language, 29, 388
religion, 37, 38, 136, 460–61
sexuality, 140–42, 143
Nardi, Jean-Baptiste, 109
Naro, Nancy, 326
Navarro de Toledo, Caio, 239
Nazzari, Muriel, 110, 387
Needell, Jeffrey, 217, 221, 222
Negri, Antonio, 468
Negritude, 266, 267
Nero da Costa, Iraci del, 110, 195
Nesvig, Martin, 36, 40, 44
New Granada, 71, 73, 77, 78, 160, 260
Newson, Linda, 81
Newton, Velma, 267
Ngou-Mvé, Nicolas, 34
Nicaragua, 23, 266, 297, 319, 397, 486
gender, 376, 380, 387, 392
Niemeyer, Oscar, 236, 241
Nina Rodrigues, Raimundo, 455
Nizza da Silva, Maria Beatriz, 110, 116, 117
Noguez, Xavier, 39
Novais, Fernando, 101, 114, 161, 162
Novinsky, Anita, 112
Oaxaca, 32, 41, 42, 45, 167, 317, 388
indigenous people, 30, 38, 40, 286, 370
pre-Columbian, 27, 29
OʼDogherty Madrazo, Laura, 466
OʼDonnell, Guillermo, 242
OʼGorman, Edmundo, 39, 41
Olcott, Jocelyn, 369
Olival, Fernanda, 116
OʼPhelan Godoy, Scarlett, 69, 72, 81, 168
orientalism, 14, 23
Ortega, Sergio, 36
Ortiz, Fernando, xiv, 311, 330, 455
Ortner, Sherry, 368, 369
Oudijk, Michel, 30
Owensby, Brian, 40, 59, 237, 238
Padden, Robert R., 135
Pádua, José Augusto, 105
Pagden, Anthony, 43
Paiva, Clotilde, 106, 195
Paiva, José Pedro, 111
Paiva França, Eduardo, 105
Palacios, Patricia, 41
Palafox, Juan de, 35
Palmer, Colin, 33, 327, 457
Palmié, Stephan, 456, 463, 464, 476
Panama, 2, 18, 71
education, 13, 23
West Indians in, 266–67
Paraguay, 7, 11, 12, 260, 411
colonial, 70, 72
education, ix, 13, 23
Paraguayan War, 191, 192, 292
rural society, 316, 322, 323
Pardo, Osvaldo, 39
Parker, Cristián, 479
Patch, Robert, 41
Paz, Octavio, 163, 169, 172
Peard, Julyan, 225
Pease, Frank, 66
Pécora, Alcir, 113–14
Pedreira, Jorge, 115
Peire, Jaime, 74
Penyak, Lee, 36, 41
Peralta, Victor, 168
Pereira de Queiroz, Maria Isaura, 467, 476
Pérez-Lizaur, Marisol, 385, 395
Perlman, Janice, 241
Pernambuco, 103, 108, 113, 164
slavery, 187, 192, 195
Peronism, 234, 352–53, 359, 370, 372
Perrone Moisés, Leyla, 103
Peru, ix, 7, 15, 288, 294, 313, 441
Afro-descendants, 2, 260, 265, 269
agriculture, 314, 318, 319, 323, 324
colonial, 66–81
economy, 11, 20, 23, 309, 319
gender, 133, 141, 387
(p. 522) independence, 77, 155, 157, 161–62, 163, 168, 174
indigenous population, 259, 283–85, 287–89, 293–94, 297
religion, 72–74
Pessar, Patricia, 467–68, 476
Petersen, Jeannette, 43
Peterson, Ana L., 485
Petiz, Silmei, 188
Petras, Elizabeth, 267
Phelan, John Leddy, 69
Piel, Jean, 314
Pieroni, Gerardo, 113
Pijning, Ernst, 115
Pino, Julio, 241
Pinto Furtado, J., 117
Pinto Vallejos, Julio, 348
Pollak-Eltz, Angelina, 264
Pompa, Christina, 104
Pompa, Claudia, 105
Poole, Stafford, 35, 39, 40
populism, 234, 238, 242, 350–55
Portantiero, Juan Carlos, 352
Portes, Alejandro, 396
Portugal, 14, 99, 115, 171, 326
Braganza ruling house, 161, 164, 172
and Brazilian identity, 18, 192, 214, 215, 216
colonial administration, 108–9, 114–18, 167, 214
education, 13, 22, 425
empire, 104, 106, 108, 109, 111, 162, 166, 192
immigration from, 8, 16, 21, 109
Portuguese as colonial language, 6–7
religion, 103, 110–13
postcolonial theory, x, 18, 213
Potosí, 8, 70, 412
mining, 76, 77, 317, 321
Powers, Karen, 66
Prado, Maria Lígia, 229
Prado Júnior, Caio, 158
Prados de la Escosura, Leandro, 419
Premo, Bianca, 83, 387, 396
Presta, Ana Maria, 67
Price, Richard, 456, 457
Priore, Mary del, 110–11, 112
Prosperi, Adriano, 110
Protestantism, 14, 193, 425, 469–75
colonial Spanish America, 73, 141
Pentecostalism, 454, 469–75, 484
Puebla, 35, 37, 42, 44–45, 52, 141, 357
Puerto Rico, 10, 13
demography, 12, 15
gender, 263–64, 371
race relations, 263–64
racial geography, 2, 8
religion, 468–69, 474, 485–86
slavery, 260, 263, 327
Puntoni, Pedro, 103
Purcell, Trevor, 267
Putnam, Lara, 394
Quechua, xi, 297
Queirós de Mattoso, Katia, 105, 184, 326
Quezada, Noemi, 37, 141, 463
Quito, 69, 78, 80, 314
Rabell, Cecilia, 388
race relations
Afro-Latin America, 257–71
Indo-America, 281–98
Spanish Caribbean, 263–65
Racine, Karen, 156
Radding, Cynthia, 32
Rago, Margareth, 226
Ramada Curto, Diogo, 113
Raminelli, Ronald, 117
Ramirez, Susan, 66
Ramos, Donald, 106
rebellions, 168, 174–75, 192
colonial Mexico, 40–41
colonial Spanish South America, 67–71
indigenous, 163, 284–85, 295, 297
religion and, 220, 248, 467, 466–68, 482
slave, 187, 192–93, 215
Rediker, Marcus, 106
Reis, Isabel, 188
Reis, Joao, xii, xx, 107, 122, 173, 197, 215, 218, 224, 339, 466
religion, 454–76. See also specific faiths
colonial Brazil, 103–5, 107, 111–14
colonial Mexico, 37–40
(p. 523) colonial Spanish South America, 71–74
and gender, 136–45
idolatry, 38, 56, 57, 136, 142
messianism, 103, 111, 192
millenarianism, 103, 113, 220, 466–68, 479, 482
witchcraft, 37, 74, 80, 111, 136–38, 141–42, 458, 464, 476
Restall, Matthew, xx, 30, 34, 52
Reyes García, Luis, 27, 30, 31
Ribeiro, Gladys, 215
Ridenti, Marcelo, 244
Rio de Janeiro, 104, 112, 221, 226, 227, 346
governance, 114–18, 160, 164, 166, 167, 169
slavery, 105–7, 184–94
Rio Grande do Sul, 186, 188, 194, 221
Robinson, James, 416, 417, 418
Rodrigues, Jaime, 106
Rodríguez, Daniel R., 473
Rodríguez, Minerva, 474
Rodríguez, Pablo, 140, 385, 389, 390
Rodríguez, Romero, 265
Rodríguez O, Jaime, 169
Rohloff de Mattos, Ilmar, 216
Rojas, Rafael, 171
Rojas Rabiela, Teresa, 29
Roldán, Mary, 265
Román, Reinaldo, xiv, xx, 468, 469
Roman Catholic Church. See Catholic Church
Romano, Ruggiero, 412
Romeiro, Adriana, 113
Romero, Luis Alberto, 344–45
Romero Magalhães, Joaquim, 116
Roselló Soberón, Estela, 476
Rosemblatt, Karin, 375
Rout, Leslie, 270
Roys, Ralph, 30
Rubenstein, Anne, 476
Rubiera Castillo, Daisy, 269
Rudé, George, 67
Ruiz Medrano, Ethelia, 35
rural society, 104–9, 310–29. See also agriculture
Rushing, Fannie, 263
Russell-Wood, A. J. R., 109, 114
Rutledge, Ian, 320
Ruz, Mario Humberto, 29
Sabato, Hilda, 320–21, 344–45
Sacristán, María Cristina, 464
Saeger, James, 72
Sagás, Ernesto, 264
Salazar, Gabriel, 345
Salinas Mesa, René, 79
Salvatore, Ricardo, 322, 417
Salvucci, Richard, 44–45
San Luis Potosí, 25, 51
Sánchez, Ana, 142
Sánchez de Tagle, Esteban, 42
Sánchez Santiró, Ernest, 327
Sandinista Revolution, viii, 297, 397
Sandoval, Salvador, 239
Sandroni, Carlos, 223
Sansone, Livio, 262
Santamaría, Daniel, 74
São Paulo, 3, 109, 223, 227–31, 235, 237, 415
Afro-descendants, 218–19, 225, 261, 262
European immigrants, 218–19, 225
gender, 110, 226, 349, 386
labor, 218–19, 238, 346, 356
slavery, 106, 183, 184, 325
Scarano, Franciso, 327
Scharrer Tamm, Beatriz, 327
Schell, Patience, 466
Schmidt-Nowara, Christopher, 263
Scholes, France, 30, 38
Schroeder, Susan, 31, 36, 40, 41, 46
Schultz, Kirsten, 169, 214
Schwaller, Frederick, 72
Schwartz, Stuart, xi, xx, 4, 21, 103, 114, 184, 325, 326
Schwarz, Roberto, 214
Scott, James, 68, 191, 467
Scott, Joan, 369
Scott, Rebecca, 263, 270
Seed, Patricia, 464, 468
Seigel, Micol, 262
Sell, Barry, 31
Sempat Assadourian, Carlos, 321
Serbin, Kenneth, 244
Serrano, Sol, 465
Serulnikov, Sergio, 70
Sevcenko, Nicolau, 221, 222–23
sexuality. See also gender; homosexuality; masculinity
African, 136–37, 141, 185
colonial period, 35–37, 68, 74, 79, 136–45
Iberian, 132–38, 140, 185
indigenous, 133–35, 140–44
and mestizaje, 137–38
prostitution, 68, 80, 140, 142, 223, 226, 371–72, 438
rape, 135, 138, 139–40, 371
Shumway, Jeffrey, 370
Sigal, Pete, 143
Silva, Diniz, 117
Silva, Eduardo, 189, 191, 218
Silva, Renán, 160
Silva Gotay, Samuel, 474
Silverblatt, Irene, 37, 462
Skidmore, Thomas, 225, 243
slavery
abolition, 22, 185, 187, 191, 192, 217–19, 260, 324
African ethnic origins, 2, 186, 193–94
children, 185, 188, 189
Cuba, 260, 263, 327, 414
demography, 194, 195
economy, 100, 106, 116, 187, 194, 218, 324–26, 327, 414
family, 33, 106, 136, 188, 195, 387
and free persons of color, 109, 110, 113, 175, 193
Independence Wars, and, 173, 180
Indian, 211, 287, 316
manumission, 100, 105, 106, 173, 184, 185–86, 196, 198
Mexico, 33–34, 136
Puerto Rico, 260, 263, 327
resistance to, 100, 173, 184, 187, 189, 191–92, 218, 455
women, 82, 136, 185, 191
Slenes, Robert, 105, 106, 193
Sloane, Katherinie, 370
Soares da Cunha, Mafalda, 116
socialism, 345–49, 354, 484
Socolow, Susan, xi, xx, 4, 21, 79, 388
Sokoloff, Kenneth, 416, 417, 418
Sommer, Barbara, 104
Sousa, Lisa, xi, xx, 4, 21, 30
Sowell, David, 344
Spain, 14, 21, 108, 171, 412
anarchism in, 348
colonial administration, 77, 117, 161, 165, 166, 316, 327
education, 13, 22, 425
empire, 2, 6, 192, 311
immigration from, 7–8, 52, 53
Latin Americans in, viii
religion, 112, 141, 480
sexuality, 140, 143, 461–62
Spanish as colonial language, 6–7
Spanish culture in Latin America, 5–8
Spalding, Hobart, 343
Spalding, Karen, 161, 163, 168
Spaniards, 2, 18, 169
in colonial South America, 67–75
and indigenous people, 28–29, 39–40, 70, 76–77, 461–62
masculinity, 135, 137, 138, 140, 185, 461–62
in Mexico, 8, 28–29, 32, 34–35, 39–40
sexuality, 136–45
Stabili, María Rosaria, 396
Stavig, Ward, 68, 70
Stein, Stanley, 182, 325, 408
Stepan, Nancy, 225
Stern, Steve, 36, 68
Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony, 474
Stoll, David, 471
Stolze Lima, Ivana, 215
Stone, Lawrence, 23, 382
Stoner, Lynn, 367, 374
Street, John, 164
Stresser-Péan, Guy, 37
Studnicki-Gizbert, Daviken, 108
Suárez Findlay, Eileen, 263
Sullivan-González, Douglass, 466
Summerhill, William, xiii, xxi
Suriano, Juan, 348
Swann, Michael, 32
Sweet, James, 107, 193, 457, 458
Tandeter, Enrique, 76, 412
Taussig, Michael, 323, 463, 476
Tavárez, David, 30, 46
Taylor, William, 39, 40, 41, 71, 466
Teixeira da Silva, Fernando, 232
Telles, Edward, 262
Tena, Rafael, 31
Tenorio Trillo, Mauricio, 19
(p. 525) TePaske, John, 412
Terraciano, Kevin, xi, xxi, 4, 21, 30, 38, 41, 54, 57
Therborn, Göran, 389, 392
Thomas, Keith, 464
Thompson, E. P., 67, 185, 221, 228, 346, 353
Thomson, Sinclair, 70
Thornton, John, 106, 111, 457
Tilly, Louise, 391
Tinsman, Heidi, 394
Torre, Juan Carlos, 352
Torre Revello, José, 79
Tortorici, Zeb, 36, 46, 55
Townsend, Camilla, 135, 173
Trelles, Efraín, 317
Trevisan, Maria José, 239
Trexler, Richard, 143
Trujillo Bolio, Mario, 345
Tupac Amaru, 68, 70, 71, 163, 174, 284
Turits, Richard, 264
Tutino, John, 41
Twinam, Ann, 36, 37, 79, 83, 140
Umbanda, 471, 473
United States, 9, 22, 154, 234, 258, 260, 338
America, appropriation of term by, 5
economy, 3, 17, 19, 20, 407, 414, 416, 419
gender, 13, 14, 367, 372, 392
imperialism, 264, 266, 267, 468, 473, 474, 475
indigenous population, 20, 32
influence, 266, 358, 436, 469, 486, 487
labor, 344, 346, 363
Latinamericanists, vii–viii, ix, 1, 14, 16, 21, 34, 75, 76, 212–13, 361, 474
and Puerto Rico, 263–64
race, 2, 3, 262, 267, 270
religion, 465, 470, 472, 475, 483, 486, 487
slavery, 190, 195–96, 270, 316, 326, 414
views of Latin America, 5, 14–16, 23
urban history, 31–32, 34, 45, 78, 109, 137, 222–23, 240–42
urban society, 7, 8–9
Afro-descendants in, 33–34, 69, 78, 190, 227–28, 456
arts and literature, 230–31
colonial Mexico, 35, 41–42, 44–45
economy, 109, 229, 238–39
European immigrants in, 218–19, 238, 344–45, 346–50
family in, 80, 383, 384–88, 395–96
indigenous people in, 31–32, 69, 80, 297
political culture, 71, 109, 164, 169, 174, 221, 240
popular culture, 137, 222, 223, 240–42, 262, 346–47
public health, 429, 433, 434–35, 439
religion, 112, 222, 471, 479
riots, 41, 69, 222, 466
rural economy, and, 314–15
slavery in, 78, 105–7, 184–94, 218
urban planning, 6, 109, 221, 240–41
urbanization, xii, 3, 8–9, 11, 13, 15, 21, 112, 309, 384
Uribe, Victor, 172
Urquiola, Jose, 45
Urrutia, Miguel, 419
Uruguay, 11, 20, 78, 441
Afro-descendants, 265, 269
economy, 3, 11, 13, 15, 20, 309, 322
education, 13, 22
gender, 13, 372, 390
politics, 12, 164, 221, 265
welfare state in, 11, 372
Vainfas, Ronaldo, 104, 110, 111
Valle Silva, Nelso do, 262
Vallier, Ivan, 486
van Doesburg, Sebastian, 30, 49
Van Young, Eric, xii, xxi, 26, 41, 44, 175, 301, 314, 331, 333, 465
Vanderwood, Paul, 476
Vargas, Getúlio, 231, 234–37, 239, 350, 351, 354, 372
Varón Gabai, Rafael, 67
Vaughn, Mary Kay, 369
Vázquez Mantecón, Verónica, 327
Velasco e Cruz, Maria Cecilia, 218
Velasco Murillo, Dana, 46
Velázquez, Maria Elisa, 34
Venezuela, 12, 23, 343, 371, 411
agriculture, 322, 323
economy, 15, 20, 412
(p. 526) independence, 168, 173
race relations, 260, 264
Verger, Pierre, 106
Viana Lyra, María de Lourdes, 168
Vidal Luna, Francisco, 106, 195, 326
Vilas, Carlos, 397
Vilela Santos, Maria Januária, 192
Villa, Marco Antonio, 220
Villella, Peter, 46
Vinson, Ben, 33, 270
Viotti da Costa, Emilia, 182, 215, 227
Viqueira, Carmen, 45
Viqueira Albán, Juan Pedro, 41, 461, 476
Virgin of Guadalupe, 38, 39
Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo, 103
Voekel, Pamela, xiv, xxi, 44, 465, 466, 476, 487
Voelz, Peter, 259
von Germeten, Nicole, 34
Walker, Charles, 70, 83, 162, 174
War of the Pacific (1879–83), 265, 287, 288
Warren, Adam, 466
Watkins-Owens, Irma, 267
Weber, Max, 158
Weffort, Francisco, 242, 353
Weinstein, Barbara, xii, xiv, xxi, 4, 323, 366
Weismantel, Mary, 134
Welch, Cliff, 232, 238
Wells, Allen, 323
West Indians, 6, 266–67, 269, 392, 394
Will de Chaparro, Martina, 466
Willems, Emilio, 469, 470–71, 473–74, 484
Williams, Daryle, 236
Williams, Eric, 326, 487
Williams, Raymond, 353
Williamson, Jeffrey, 413, 416
Winn, Peter, 357
Wirth, John, 219
Wobeser, Gisela Von, 327
Wolf, Eric, 315
Wolfe, Joel, 349
women. See also gender; sexuality
Afro-descendants, 34, 36, 82, 136, 185, 191, 194, 196, 263, 269
and Catholic Church, 36, 71, 73, 110, 370–71, 466
colonial Mexico, 35–37, 42, 45, 54, 134–35
colonial Spanish South America, 66–68, 71, 73, 78, 79–80
domestic service, 13, 395
Euro-descendants, 36, 73, 349, 462
family, 73, 382–97
indigenous, 36, 54, 79–80, 104, 132, 134–35, 140, 143, 387, 462
political empowerment, 13–14
Protestantism, 470, 472–73
slavery, 82, 185, 191
suffrage, 13, 226, 231, 370, 372
and witchcraft, 74, 80, 141
women's history, 36, 79–80, 110, 226, 372
and family history, 78, 382, 386, 391
versus gender studies, xiii, 349, 368
Wood, Stephanie, 31, 36
Woodard, James, 229
Wright, Robert, 102
Wright, Winthrop, 264
Yannakakis, Yanna, 40
Yaremko, Jason, 475
Yorubas, 107, 186, 191, 193, 242
Young, Elliot, 476
Yucatan, 25, 29, 30, 38, 56, 319
Zacatecas, 32, 42
Zapata, Emiliano, 327
Zapotecs, 27, 29, 30, 38
Zavala, Silvio, 33, 316
Zulawski, Ann, 76