- Copyright Page
- Neurolinguistics: A Brief Historical Perspective
- Neurolinguistic Studies of Patients with Acquired Aphasias
- Electrophysiological Methods in the Study of Language Processing
- Studying Language with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Neural Network Account of Language
- Magnetoencephalography and the Cortical Dynamics of Language Processing
- Shedding Light on Language Function and Its Development with Optical Brain Imaging
- What Has Direct Cortical and Subcortical Electrostimulation Taught Us about Neurolinguistics?
- Diffusion Imaging Methods in Language Sciences
- Neuroplasticity: Language and Emotional Development in Children with Perinatal Stroke
- The Neurolinguistics of Bilingualism: Plasticity and Control
- Language and Aging
- Language Plasticity in Epilepsy
- Language Development in Deaf Children: Sign Language and Cochlear Implants
- Neuromotor Organization of Speech Production
- The Neural Organization of Signed Language: Aphasia and Neuroscience Evidence
- Understanding How We Produce Written Words: Lessons from the Brain
- Motor Speech Disorders
- Investigating the Spatial and Temporal Components of Speech Production
- The Dorsal Stream Auditory-Motor Interface for Speech
- Neural Representations of Concept Knowledge
- Finding Concepts in Brain Patterns: From Feature Lists to Similarity Spaces
- The How and What of Object Knowledge in the Human Brain
- Neural Basis of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading
- Dyslexia and Its Neurobiological Basis
- Speech Perception: A Perspective from Lateralization, Motorization, and Oscillation
- Sentence Processing: Toward a Neurobiological Approach
- Comprehension of Metaphors and Idioms: An Updated Meta-analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
- Language Comprehension and Emotion: Where Are the Interfaces, and Who Cares?
- Grammatical Categories
- Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Agrammatism
- Verbal Working Memory
- Subcortical Contributions to Language
- Lateralization of Language
- Neural Mechanisms of Music and Language
Abstract and Keywords
Language can be described as a ubiquitous marvel: Nearly all humans acquire and process their native language(s) effortlessly. The neural bases of both acquisition and processing have long captured scientific attention. The study of the brain networks underlying language development, perception, and production was facilitated by the advent of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which has led to a remarkable expansion of language studies, particularly on developing populations. This chapter introduces the technique, discussing the advantages and disadvantages relative to other common methods. It is argued that fNIRS provides an interesting compromise for the case of language studies in particular, given that it has a moderate spatial resolution, it is inexpensive and silent, and it is moderately tolerant of a range of movement. The chapter then turns to experimental design, instrumentation, and data analyses. In addition to laying out a number of potential options for each, it provides readers with useful practical advice, ranging from how to decide on the placement of optodes on the participant’s head to how to avoid data contamination due to muscular and other diverse artefacts. Next, the chapter provides a brief summary of three key strands of research in the study of language acquisition. In particular, it discusses the evidence for and against the presence of specific biases leading to left-dominant speech processing, the emergence of multi-region brain networks for language processing, and the use of fNIRS among clinical populations. It concludes by discussing likely advances in the near future of the technique.
Yasuyo Minagawa is a Professor of the Department of Psychology at Keio University. She received her PhD in medicine from the University of Tokyo in 2000. Her research examines the development of perception and cognition, with a focus on speech perception, social cognition, and typical and atypical brain development.
Alejandrina Cristia received her PhD in Linguistics from Purdue University in 2009 and did postdoctoral work on neuroimaging at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics before joining the French CNRS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique) as a Researcher in 2013.
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