- Copyright Page
- Neurolinguistics: A Brief Historical Perspective
- Neurolinguistic Studies of Patients with Acquired Aphasias
- Electrophysiological Methods in the Study of Language Processing
- Studying Language with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Neural Network Account of Language
- Magnetoencephalography and the Cortical Dynamics of Language Processing
- Shedding Light on Language Function and Its Development with Optical Brain Imaging
- What Has Direct Cortical and Subcortical Electrostimulation Taught Us about Neurolinguistics?
- Diffusion Imaging Methods in Language Sciences
- Neuroplasticity: Language and Emotional Development in Children with Perinatal Stroke
- The Neurolinguistics of Bilingualism: Plasticity and Control
- Language and Aging
- Language Plasticity in Epilepsy
- Language Development in Deaf Children: Sign Language and Cochlear Implants
- Neuromotor Organization of Speech Production
- The Neural Organization of Signed Language: Aphasia and Neuroscience Evidence
- Understanding How We Produce Written Words: Lessons from the Brain
- Motor Speech Disorders
- Investigating the Spatial and Temporal Components of Speech Production
- The Dorsal Stream Auditory-Motor Interface for Speech
- Neural Representations of Concept Knowledge
- Finding Concepts in Brain Patterns: From Feature Lists to Similarity Spaces
- The How and What of Object Knowledge in the Human Brain
- Neural Basis of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading
- Dyslexia and Its Neurobiological Basis
- Speech Perception: A Perspective from Lateralization, Motorization, and Oscillation
- Sentence Processing: Toward a Neurobiological Approach
- Comprehension of Metaphors and Idioms: An Updated Meta-analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
- Language Comprehension and Emotion: Where Are the Interfaces, and Who Cares?
- Grammatical Categories
- Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Agrammatism
- Verbal Working Memory
- Subcortical Contributions to Language
- Lateralization of Language
- Neural Mechanisms of Music and Language
Abstract and Keywords
Epilepsy is a neurological condition that enables systematic study of language organization and reorganization. Although the vast majority of healthy individuals are left-hemisphere dominant for language, people with epilepsy are more likely to have atypical language organization. This chapter reviews two general mechanisms of language plasticity, including reorganization due to chronic functional disruption giving rise to slowly progressive structural disturbances from ongoing epileptic activity, as well as acute changes that occur after epilepsy surgery. Evidence is presented from classic “disruption” techniques, such as Wada testing and electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM), and alternative “activation” techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Additional findings are is also reviewed from more advanced imaging, specifically diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reflecting changes in the structure of language circuits pre- and postoperatively. These methods have been used to investigate clinical factors that influence the lateralization and localization of language regions in epilepsy—including but not limited to the location of seizure foci, age of seizure onset, presence of lesions, and extent of abnormal EEG activity between seizures—all of which may be associated with both inter- and intra-hemispheric changes in language networks. The process of language organization and reorganization is complex and heterogeneous, and there are multiple patient variables that can affect results from these different, yet complementary, techniques. For this reason, it is important to understand these issues to optimize clinical care, especially when definitive identification of language cortex is required for surgical planning among patients with refractory epilepsy.
Jeffrey R. Cole is an Assistant Professor of Clinical Neuropsychology in the Department of Neurology at Columbia University Medical Center, and Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology and Education at Columbia University – Teachers College. His clinical practice and research interests focus on patients with complex and medically refractory epilepsies, Wada testing, and cortical language mapping.
Marla J. Hamberger is a Professor of Neuropsychology in the Department of Neurology at Columbia University Medical Center, and Director of Neuropsychology at the Columbia Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. Her research focuses on brain organization of cognitive mechanisms supporting word production using electrocortical stimulation mapping and behavioral techniques in patients who require brain surgery involving eloquent cortex.
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