- Copyright Page
- Neurolinguistics: A Brief Historical Perspective
- Neurolinguistic Studies of Patients with Acquired Aphasias
- Electrophysiological Methods in the Study of Language Processing
- Studying Language with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Neural Network Account of Language
- Magnetoencephalography and the Cortical Dynamics of Language Processing
- Shedding Light on Language Function and Its Development with Optical Brain Imaging
- What Has Direct Cortical and Subcortical Electrostimulation Taught Us about Neurolinguistics?
- Diffusion Imaging Methods in Language Sciences
- Neuroplasticity: Language and Emotional Development in Children with Perinatal Stroke
- The Neurolinguistics of Bilingualism: Plasticity and Control
- Language and Aging
- Language Plasticity in Epilepsy
- Language Development in Deaf Children: Sign Language and Cochlear Implants
- Neuromotor Organization of Speech Production
- The Neural Organization of Signed Language: Aphasia and Neuroscience Evidence
- Understanding How We Produce Written Words: Lessons from the Brain
- Motor Speech Disorders
- Investigating the Spatial and Temporal Components of Speech Production
- The Dorsal Stream Auditory-Motor Interface for Speech
- Neural Representations of Concept Knowledge
- Finding Concepts in Brain Patterns: From Feature Lists to Similarity Spaces
- The How and What of Object Knowledge in the Human Brain
- Neural Basis of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading
- Dyslexia and Its Neurobiological Basis
- Speech Perception: A Perspective from Lateralization, Motorization, and Oscillation
- Sentence Processing: Toward a Neurobiological Approach
- Comprehension of Metaphors and Idioms: An Updated Meta-analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
- Language Comprehension and Emotion: Where Are the Interfaces, and Who Cares?
- Grammatical Categories
- Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Agrammatism
- Verbal Working Memory
- Subcortical Contributions to Language
- Lateralization of Language
- Neural Mechanisms of Music and Language
Abstract and Keywords
In the last two decades, the development of new methods for imaging and tracking the neural basis of language processing has revealed remarkable evidence for plasticity. Perhaps no other topic on language has exploited these developments as fully as bilingualism. Until recently, the acquisition and use of a second language, especially for adults, had been taken to be a model of how language processes might be constrained beyond early childhood. The new research has exposed a system that is more open to new language learning and more tightly coupled to the brain networks that engage cognitive control mechanisms than previously understood. This chapter reviews the most exciting new findings on how second-language learners and bilinguals adapt to the openness of the system to enable proficient language use. In this way, bilingualism becomes a model for the development of neuroplasticity across the life span.
David W. Green is an Emeritus Professor in the Faculty of Brain Sciences at University College London. Theoretical work and neuroimaging research with neurologically normal participants from young adults to the elderly have been combined with applied research into the neural predictors of speech recovery post-stroke in monolingual and multilingual individuals with aphasia.
Judith F. Kroll is Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Riverside, and former Director of the Center for Language Science at Pennsylvania State University. Her research takes a cognitive neuroscience approach to second-language learning and bilingualism.
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