- Food, Water and Society: An Analytical Framework
- <i>Green Water</i> Used By Plants And Managed By Farmers: Measurement, Accounting, Policy
- Green Water and Food Security
- Natural Capital Accounting for Water Resources
- Will Irrigation Technology, Pricing, or Quotas Ensure Sustainable Water Use?
- Global food Trade and Local Water Resources: Can We Bridge the Regulatory Gap?
- Water Service Requirements for Agriculture: Nature, Nurture, and Negotiation
- Valuing Water in Supply Chains
- Valuing Water in Food Systems and Beyond
- Subsidies and the Environment: Impacts of WTO Agricultural Support Disciplines
- Dietary Patterns that Value People and the Planet
- Incentive Programs to Address the Challenges of Hunger, Undernutrition, and Obesity in the United States
- Farmer-led Water User Associations in Agricultural Water Management
- Gender, Poverty and Politics Along the Real-Virtual Water Spectrum
- Societal Drivers of Food and Water Systems 1: The Approach by Way of Material Flows, Household Consumption Styles, and Contending Schools of Engineering Thought
- Societal Drivers of Food and Water Systems 2: Applying Plural Rationality to Some Wicked Problems
- Water and Food in the American West: Lessons from Recent Droughts in California
- Food and Water Security in North America’s Transboundary Sonoran Desert: A Water-Exporting Dryland
- Water Issues and the Brazilian Agricultural Agenda
- Water in Australian Agriculture
- Food and Water Management in Northwest Africa
- Food and Water Security in the Mediterranean Basin
- Food and Water Management in Southern Africa
- Food and Water Security in West Asia
- Understanding Pesticides in England and Wales: Pathways, Policies, and Pollution Prevention
- Water and Society: The Hierarchy of Demand for Drinking Water and Water-based Sanitation Over Agriculture in a Rain Fed Economy: The Cape Town Experience 2017-8
- Global Wheat Value Chains
- Water & Coffee
- The Future of Rice
- Oil Palm Value Chain Management
- Successes and Problems with Measuring Water Consumption in Beef Systems
- The Potential Impact of Improved Water Management to Alleviate Water Scarcity and Hunger: A Global Perspective
- The Global Uptake of Conservation Agriculture and the Impact on Water-Related Ecosystem Services
- A Farmer’s Perspective on Sustainable Agriculture, Soil, and Water Health
- The Variable Rate Irrigation Management Challenge
- The Water Infrastructure Crisis
- Integrating Multi-Capital Thinking into Business Decisions
- Modelling Agricultural Controls for Flooding and Soil Erosion
- Water Management by Farmers
- The Role of New and Green Water Resources in Localizing Water and Food Security Under Arid and Semiarid Conditions
- Disruptive Food Supply Chains: Bringing it all Back Home
- Lab-Grown Meat Production: Can It Change the World?
- Food, Water and the Consequences of Society Not Valuing the Environment
Abstract and Keywords
Oil palm is a key global crop, providing food and nonfood resources for billions of people. Two distinct types of oil, derived respectively from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit and from the kernel (seed), are distributed via separate supply chains to markets in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Oil palm is a tropical crop typically grown in high rainfall regions but yields have recently been reduced by water limitation due to changing climate patterns. In addition, over recent decades, indirect land use changes due to the expansion of oil palm into new regions have affected local hydrology and biotic components of these ecosystems. As the expansion of oil palm cultivation continues in order to meet growing consumer demand, especially in Asia, new research is beginning to address potential solutions to critical issues such as the environmental impact and biological performance of oil palm crops.
South Wales University
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