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date: 22 January 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Developmental age and symptom variations influence treatment needs for trauma- and stressor-related disorders (TSRD). TSRD include disorders found in children age 6 and under (reactive attachment disorder, disinhibited social engagement disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD] < 6) and those described for individuals who are older than age 6 (PTSD, PTSD with dissociative symptoms, acute stress disorder, adjustment reactions, and other specific TSRD, e.g., complicated grief). Treatments for children under age 6 primarily focus on caregiver–child dyads. Post-trauma symptoms such as those described for PTSD with dissociative symptoms, complicated grief, and complicated trauma require alterations in proven trauma-focused methods. In addition to appropriately timed processing of the trauma, treatments for youths are best when they are multifaceted (also include, for example, focus on support systems and relationships; self-skills, e.g., regulation, coping; and other age, symptom, and trait-related factors). For children, treatment methods often include creative methods as well (e.g., drawings, storytelling).

Keywords: trauma, PTSD, TSRD, grief, assessment, treatment

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