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date: 22 January 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Specific learning disability is a common neurodevelopmental disorder affecting about 5–8% of the school-aged population. A key concept in specific learning disabilities is unexpected low achievement. An individual whose achievement in reading, math, or writing is both low and less than what would be expected based on developmental capacity and opportunity to learn and whose low achievement cannot be explained by a sensory impairment, limited language proficiency, or other impairing medical condition is considered to have a specific learning disability. This chapter provides an overview of issues and challenges involved in the identification and diagnosis of a specific learning disability, and it provides information on prevalence, epidemiology, and interventions for specific learning disabilities. Response-to-instruction models of identification hold promise for the identification of individuals with a specific learning disability, and they provide a means for the identification of false positives while enhancing the instructional context for children at risk.

Keywords: Specific learning disability, neurodevelopment, academic, achievement, intervention

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