- Oxford Library of Psychology
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- Introduction: Why Science Communication?
- The Need for a Science of Science Communication: Communicating Science’s Values and Norms
- Overview of the Science of Science Communication
- On the Sources of Ordinary Science Knowledge and Extraordinary Science Ignorance
- How Changing Media Structures Are Affecting Science News Coverage
- What the Public Thinks and Knows About Science—and Why It Matters
- Science Controversies: Can the Science of Science Communication Provide Management Guidance or Only Analysis?
- A Recap: The Science of Communicating Science
- Science as “Broken” Versus Science as “Self-Correcting”: How Retractions and Peer-Review Problems Are Exploited to Attack Science
- Publication Bias in Science: What Is It, Why Is It Problematic, and How Can It Be Addressed?
- Statistical Biases in Science Communication: What We Know About Them and How They Can Be Addressed
- Is There a Hype Problem in Science? If So, How Is It Addressed?
- Is There a Retraction Problem? And, If So, What Can We Do About It?
- A Recap: Identifying and Overcoming Challenges to Science Featured in Attacks on Science
- A Comparative Study of Communication About Food Safety Before, During, and After the “Mad Cow” Crisis
- Cross-National Comparative Communication and Deliberation About the Risks of Nanotechnologies
- Communications About Biotechnologies and GMOs Across Europe
- A Tale of Two Vaccines—and Their Science Communication Environments
- A Recap: Science Communication in Action
- Science Communication at Scientific Institutions
- The Role of Scholarly Presses and Journals
- The Role of Governmental Organizations in Communicating About Regulating Science
- Science Communication and Museums’ Changing Roles
- The Role of Funding Organizations: Foundations
- Promoting Popular Understanding of Science and Health Through Social Networks
- Designing Public Deliberation at the Intersection of Science and Public Policy
- Translating Science into Policy and Legislation: Evidence-Informed Policymaking
- A Recap—The Role of Intermediaries in Communicating Science: A Synthesis
- The (Changing) Nature of Scientist–Media Interactions: A Cross-National Analysis
- New Models of Knowledge-Based Journalism
- Citizens Making Sense of Science Issues: Supply and Demand Factors for Science News and Information in the Digital Age
- The Changing Popular Images of Science
- What Do We Know About the Entertainment Industry’s Portrayal of Science? How Does It Affect Public Attitudes Toward Science?
- How Narrative Functions in Entertainment to Communicate Science
- Assumptions About Science in Satirical News and Late-Night Comedy
- A Recap: The Role, Power, and Peril of Media for the Communication of Science
- Countering False Beliefs: An Analysis of the Evidence and Recommendations of Best Practices for the Retraction and Correction of Scientific Misinformation
- Using Frames to Make Scientific Communication More Effective
- Philosophical Impediments to Citizens’ Use of Science
- Overcoming Confirmation and Blind Spot Biases When Communicating Science
- Understanding and Overcoming Selective Exposure and Judgment When Communicating About Science
- Overcoming Innumeracy and the Use of Heuristics When Communicating Science
- Overcoming Biases in Processing of Time Series Data About Climate
- Understanding and Overcoming Fear of the Unnatural in Discussion of GMOs
- Protecting or Polluting the Science Communication Environment?: The Case of Childhood Vaccines
- Overcoming False Causal Attribution: Debunking the MMR–Autism Association
- Overcoming the Challenges of Communicating Uncertainties Across National Contexts
- A Recap: Heuristics, Biases, Values, and Other Challenges to Communicating Science
- Conclusion—On the Horizon: The Changing Science Communication Environment
Abstract and Keywords
When we rely on science to inform decisions about matters such as the environment, teaching strategies, economics, government, and medicine, evidence-based decision-making can only be as reliable as the totality of the science itself. We must avoid distortions of the scientific literature such as publication bias, which is an expected systematic difference between estimates of associations, causal effects, or other quantities of interest compared to the actual values of those quantities, caused by differences between research that is published and the totality of research conducted. Publication bias occurs when the probability of publishing a result of a study is influenced by the result obtained. It appears to be common and can produce misleading conclusions about interventions, make effects appear greater than they are, lead to irreproducible research, and ultimately undermine the credibility of science in general. Methods to detect publication bias and steps to reduce it are discussed.
Andrew W. Brown, PhD, is a scientist with the Office of Energetics and Nutrition Obesity Research Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Formally trained in nutrition, biochemistry, and statistics, he brings practical, basic science experience to evaluating how nutrition research is conducted and communicated. His recent work involves investigating myths and presumptions in nutrition and obesity literature, meta-analyzing studies about nutritional influences on obesity, characterizing reporting practices that may perpetuate nutrition misinformation, and crowdsourcing the synthesis of published research.
Tapan S. Mehta, PhD, MS, is an assistant professor in the Department of Health Services Administration and an associate scientist with the University of Alabama at Birmingham Nutrition Obesity Research Center. He is a data scientist with formal training in biostatistics and computer engineering. Among other research interests, one of his ongoing contributions has been to rigorously evaluate the methods, communication of analysis results, and reproducibility of research especially in the obesity and genomics literature.
David B. Allison, PhD, is Distinguished Professor and associate dean for research and science at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dr. Allison founded the Science Unbound Foundation to further “scientific knowledge in the service of health, happiness, and quality of life of humankind through scientific research and education,” has been honored at the White House for his scientific mentoring, has been elected to the National Academy of Medicine of the National Academies, and is a fellow of the American Statistical Association, the New York Academy of Medicine, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, the American Psychological Association, and other scientific societies.
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