- Copyright Page
- Tables, Charts, and Music Examples
- The Art of Listening and Its Histories: An Introduction
- Researching Audience Behaviors in Nineteenth-Century Paris: Who Cares if You Listen?
- The Well-Mannered Auditor: Zones of Attention and the Imposition of Silence in the Salon of the Nineteenth Century
- The Problem of Eclectic Listening in French and German Concerts, 1860–1910
- The Crisis of Listening in Interwar Germany
- Listening as a Practice of Everyday Life: The Munich Philharmonic Orchestra and Its Audiences in the Second World War
- Turning <i>Liebhaber</i> into <i>Kenner</i>: Forkel’s Lectures on the Art of Listening, ca. 1780–1785
- Designated Attention: The Transformation of Music Announcements in Leipzig’s Concert Life, 1781–1850
- Concert Listening the British Way?: Program Notes and Victorian Culture
- “What Ought to be Heard”: Touristic Listening and the Guided Ear
- Architectural Acoustics and the Trained Ear in the Arts: A Journey from 1780 to 1830
- Amateurs and Auditors: Listening to the British Musical Festival, 1810–1835
- The Intimate Art of Listening: Music in the Private Sphere During the Nineteenth Century
- Symmetries in Spaces, Symmetries in Listening: Musical Theater Buildings in Europe ca. 1900
- Music in the Air—Listening in the Streets: Popular Music and Urban Listening Habits in Berlin ca. 1900
- The Opera-Telephone in Munich: A Short History
- First Re-Creations: Psychology, Phonographs, and New Cultures of Listening at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century
- Experiencing High Fidelity: Sound Reproduction and the Politics of Music Listening in the Twentieth Century
- Capturing the Landscape Within: On Writing the History of Experience
- Listening and Possessing
- Is Listening to Music an Art in Itself—or Not?
- “Everybody in the Concert Hall should be Devoted Entirely to the Music”: On the Actuality of Not Listening to Music in Symphonic Concerts
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explores how the goals of cognitive and behavioral psychologists contributed to a new kind of listening at the beginning of the twentieth century. This chapter focuses on two interrelated efforts to cultivate a new type of listening. First, it examines the efforts by the Edison Company to transform the listener into a consumer. Second, it looks at studies carried out by psychologists to understand the functional effects of music and apply their understanding. The Edison-Carnegie Research Program and the subsequent Mood Music marketing campaign show how new sounds and new ideas about listening to them were both actively created. This historical episode provides new insight into the processes by which new listening cultures develop. The understanding of music as functional—it could cause certain mood and bodily effects—co-developed with an understanding that listening could and should be altered.
Alexandra Hui, Mississippi State University
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