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date: 12 November 2018

(p. 699) Index

(p. 699) Index

Page references for figures are indicated by f and for tables by t.

Aarhus Against the Mosque, 374, 377t
Aberhart, William, 92
Achterberg, P., 215
Action Française, 434
action repertoire, 334–337
activism. See also specific types and organizations
male predominance, 9
media on, 271–272
Adams, James, 190n5
Adams, John, 632
adjusting positions, to voters and competitors, 186–187
Adorno, T. W., 62, 64, 70, 72, 218, 262
Akkerman, T., 24
Albanese, Matteo, 109
alignments
dealignment, 224–225
existing, strength, 225–226
Aliot, Louis, 440–441
Allardt, E., 214
Alleanza Nazionale (AN), 24, 507
Alliance Républicaine pour les Libertées et le Progrès (ARLP), 435
Almeida, D., 398
Alonso, S., 509–510, 511
Altemeyer, Bob, 147–148
Alternative für Deutschland (AfD), 225–226, 455–457
current situation, elections and seats, 455–456
framing, 340
ideology and programs, 457
impact, current, 322
Islamophobia, 43
organization, 458
popular support, 314f
Protestants, 380, 380t
religiosity, 380, 381t
American Enterprise Institute, 288
Americans for Legal Immigration PAC (ALIPAC), 641
Anders Langes Parti til Sterk Nedsettelse av Skatter, Avgifter og Offentlige Inngrep (ALP), 547, 554t
Anderson, B., 20, 368, 620
Andrushkiv, Yaroslav, 613–614, 615
Ang, I., 652–653
Angenot, Marc, 89
Angle, Sharron, 640
Annemans, Gerolf, 484
antebellum nativism, 91
Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 413
anti-democratic outlook, 413
anti-establishment populism, 2, 5
anti-immigration. See immigrant threat
Anti-Islamic English Defence League, 526
anti-modernity/globalization, 394
anti-partly outlook, 413
anti-postmaterialism, 150–151, 394
electoral support, 150–152
antisemitism, 4, 23, 61–82, 376, 395, 413
1930s Europe, vs. Islamophobia, 43–45
Australia First, 652
authoritarian syndrome, 62–63
definitions, 63–65
European right-wing populism, 66–70, 68t
examples, 73–80
caricatures, secondary-antisemitism, and FPÖ’s strategy, 74–79, 74f, 75f
Jobbik, identity construction and victim-perpetrator reversal, 79–80
overview, 73
(p. 700)
France, 434
ideology, coherent, 80–81
Israel and Zionism related, 64
Judeus ex Machina, defined, 64–65
Judeus ex Machina, rhetoric strategy
blaming and denying, 72–73
syncretic antisemitism, 70–71
language behavior, 70–71
Marine Le Pen’s opposition, 440–441
National Front, 524
populism, 92
prevalence, current, 61–62, 63
as racism sub-form, 61–62
secondary, 64, 72
Social Credit Party of Alberta, 92
stereotypes, common rhetorical, 65–66, 73
transformation, 61
Ukraine, post-Soviet, 621–622, 621t
violence and, 425–428, 426t427t, 427f
Arnold, R., 582, 588, 590
Art, D., 24, 152, 191n17, 240, 243, 246, 339, 479, 480, 485, 486, 488, 489, 695
Arter, D., 552
Aryan Warriors, 423
Arzheimer, K., 4, 7, 145–146, 147, 150–156, 159, 332
Association to Protect Japan, 683
Ataka, 568
Australia, 650–663. See also specific parties
antisemitism, 652
Australia First Movement, 652
Australia First Party, 659
Australian Defence League, 660–661
Australian Liberty Alliance, 660
Australian Nationalists Movement, 659
Crazy White Boys, 660
Hanson, Pauline, 251, 252, 255, 321, 650, 653–657, 659, 661–662
historical context, 651–653
League of Rights, 653
mainstreaming
fascist issues, 652
nativist populism, 650
racial politics and racism, 651–652, 653
right-wing populism, John Howard, 653–654, 657–658
National Action, 659
New Guard, 652
One Nation Party, 321, 653–657, 659–660
Q Society, 660–661
radical right and far right, 658–662
White Australia, 652–653
Australia First Movement, 652
Australia First Party (AFP), 659
Australian Defence League (ADL), 660–661
Australian Liberty Alliance (ALA), 660
Australian Nationalists Movement (ANM), 659
Austria, 452–453, 458–462. See also Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ)
1947 Prohibition Act, 467
context, 452
vs. Germany and Switzerland
actor capabilities, 470–472
cultural, political, economic, and social framework, 466–469
opportunity structures, 469–470
Nationaldemokratische Partei, 459
Österreichische Volkspartei, 315, 322, 458–462
Verband der Unabhängigen, 458
authoritarian and exclusionary positions, 184–185
authoritarianism, 147–148, 262, 668, 669t
definition, 674
gender differences, 201
Israel, 674–675
Putin’s regime, 583
Russia, post-Soviet, 583
sociocultural, 2
authoritarian syndrome, 62–63
Auto-Partei, 463
Azov, 617, 624
Baburin, Sergei, 585
Bachman, Lutz, 317
Bachner, H., 69
Backes, U., 453, 454, 456, 458, 467, 470
Baldoli, Claudia, 402
Bale, J., 109
Bale, T., 23, 227
banal nationalism, 23 (p. 701)
Bandera, Stepan, 575, 618
Bardèche, Maurice, 114, 115
Barkashov, Aleksandr, 591
Bar-On, T., 5, 17, 19–20, 22, 23, 27, 33, 113, 117, 406
Barreto, M., 631, 634, 636, 640, 641, 644–646
Bartolini, S., 214, 215, 221, 223, 225
Bay, A.-H., 351–352
Beam, Louis, 418
Bean, John, 399
Beck, Glenn, 273
Belgium, 478–497. See also Vlaams Belang (VB)
burqa ban, 51
contemporary radical right, 481–494
elections and electoral support, 492t, 494
ideological profile, 483–484
party organization and membership, 487t, 489–490
historical background, 480–481
the Netherlands and, 478
political and societal context, wider, 494–497
Vlaams Blok, 481, 483–485, 492t, 494
Vlaams Nationaal Verbond, 480–481
Volksunie, 480–481
Bell, D., 23–24
Benford, R. D., 338
Bengtsson, Å, 553–555
Ben-Moshe, D., 659
Berlet, C., 414
Berlusconi, Silvio, 259, 414
center-right coalition, 507, 509
charisma, 251, 254, 255, 261
Forza Italia, 254, 507, 517
image, 261
language, “like the people,” 255
media control, 273, 278
Besluit Ontbinding Landverraderlijke Organisaties, 479–480
Betz, H.-G., 8–9, 18, 25, 93, 94, 98–99, 108, 111, 155, 156, 201, 216, 300, 394
Bevara Sverige Svenskt (BSS), 549
Beyens, S., 245
Biletsky, Andriy, 616
Billiet, J, 147, 379
Billig, M., 23
Bjelke-Peterson, Johannes, 654
blaming, antisemitism, 72–73
Blank, T., 26
Bleksaune, M., 351–352
Blocher, Christoph, 463–464, 466
Blog Éléments, 289
blogging, 276–277
Boevaia Organizatsiia Russkikh Natsionalistov (BORN), 591
Bolin, N., 246
Bolleyer, N., 242, 244, 245
bonding vs. bridging, 292
Boomgaarden, Hajo G., 157, 158
Bornschier, S., 214, 216–220, 222–224, 228
Bos, Linda, 158
Bosma, Martin, 488–489
Bossi, Umberto, 18, 46, 93–94, 251, 508
centripetal charisma, 266
as charismatic leader, 252
coteria charisma, 264
foundation myth, 254
image and associations, 261
Manichean demonization, 256
symbiotic hierarchy, 255
Boulanger, General Georges, 434
Boulangism, 92–93, 434
Bourdieu, P., 357
Bowyer, Benjamin, 158
breakdown theory, 327, 328, 334–335
Breivik, Anders, 3, 117, 418–419
Brett, Judith, 657
Brewster, C., 357
Brewster, K., 357
Brexit, 323
Britain First, 526
British National Party (BNP), 31, 522–526, 527t
cross-national links, 399
Euroskepticism, 124
football hooliganism, 292–293
gender and leadership, 208
local mobilization, 260
media coverage, 276
nationalism, 31
small area studies, electoral support, 158
(p. 702)
Bruce, S., 371
B’tselem, 675
Bubolz, F., 359
Budge, Ian, 180
Bulgaria, 34, 565–578. See also Eastern Europe
Ataka, 568
Bulgarian Attack Party, 34
Bull, A. C., 116
Bündnis Zukunft Österreich (BZÖ), 311, 315
Bunzl, Matti, 45
Burger, Norbert, 459
Bürgerbewegung pro NRW, 457
Bürgerlich-Demokratische Partei (BDP), 464
burkini ban, 52
burqa (burka) bans, 51–52
Burris, V., 405
Buštíková, L., 10, 21, 566, 568–570, 575, 576t577t, 622
Butler, Eric D., 653
Bytzek, E., 244
Caldiron, G., 333
Calvinism, democracy and, 370, 371, 372t
Camelots du Roi, 434
Campbell, A., 144, 652
Campbell, Kalgoorlie Graeme, 659
candidates, electoral support, 146
Canetti, D., 331
Canovan, M., 657
Carter, E., 24, 145–146, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 172, 227, 240, 332, 522
Carvalho, J., 309
CasaPound, 400
Castles, S., 651
Catholic countries, 385–386
Catholicism, democracy and, 370–372, 372t
causality, complex vs. linear, 310
centripetal charisma, 265–266
Centrum Democraten (CD), 242, 377t, 480, 487t, 492t
Centrumstroming, 490
charismatic leaders, 251–266. See also specific individuals
centripetal charisma, 265–266
conceptualizing, 253–256
Manichean demonization, 256
personal presence, 254–255
radical mission, 253–254
symbiotic hierarchy, 255–256
coteria charisma, 264–265
debased, popular usage, 263
definition, 252–253
discursive opportunity structures, 261
foundation myth, 254
methodological problems, 252
vs. personalization of politics, 251
vs. pseudo-charisma, 255
relevance, doubts/lack, 146, 243, 248, 252
rise, claims, 251
significance and examples, 251–252
theorizing support, 256–263
cultural legitimation, 260–262
few followers, 256–257
few supporters followed by breakthrough, 257
political opportunity structures, 259–260
psychological affinities, 262–263
socioeconomic change and crisis, 257–259
thesis formulation problems, 263–264
voting and, empirical link, 252
Charlie Hebdo attacks, 53–54
Chesterton, Arthur, 522–523
Chiang, C., 405, 407
Chistensen, George, 661
Christian Democratic parties, 382
Christians
churches, democracy and, 370–373, 372t
Judeo-Christian identity, 4
religiosity, on attitudes toward immigrants, 202–203
Chzhen, K., 537–538
Ciudadanos, 510, 515
civic nationalism, 21–22
Clarke, H., 534–535
cleavages, 212–230
approach explained, 213–214
future research, 212–213
mainstream parties’ strategies on, 212
new, 214–224
economic and cultural modernization, 216–220
(p. 703)
education cleavage, 214–216
globalization, 220–224
party strategy, 224–228
baseline, strength of existing alignments, 225–226
challengers and mainstream parties, 227–228
critical elections, 225
dealignment, 224–225
dynamic cleavage theory, 224
political conflict between parties, 225–226
religious, 379–386, 380t381t, 384t386t (see also religion)
social divisions, 214
social transformations from, 212
top-down processes, 225–226
Codreanu, Corneliu, 575
Coffé, Hilde, 154, 156, 157, 201–206, 209
cognitive mechanisms, 337–338
Cohen-Bendit, Daniel (Danny the Red), 418–419
collective identities. See also specific types
frames, 396
collective phenomenon, 327
collectivist-authoritarian positions, 185
Colombia, Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, 88, 90
Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF), 584
Comparative Manifesto Project dataset, 170–171, 183
comradeship
NDP, Germany, 334
youth, 356–358
conflict
group conflict theories, 148–149
political, between parties, 225–226
sociocultural, 7–8
socioeconomics, 7–8
conservatism
establishment, 631
pseudo-conservative, 632–633
reactionary, 631–632, 635–636, 645, 646
ultraconservatism, 631
conservative think tanks, 288
conspiracism, 414
constitutional system, U.S., 421
contact hypothesis, 150
contextual characteristics, 327
co-optation, 312, 315
Copsey, N., 5, 116
cordon sanitaire, 154, 187, 470, 482, 495, 496, 573, 656
coteria charisma, 264–265
counter-jihadist movement, 3
countermovements, 330, 337. See also specific types
counterrevolution
to Front National, France, 433–435
silent, 150–151, 373, 436, 468
Crazy White Boys, 660
crime, 151
electoral support, 156–157
media on, 270–271
Vlaams Belang on, 156
critical elections, 225
Croix de Feu, 434
cross-national links, 333. See also internationalization
European parliament, right-wing group, 395
Internet role, 404–407
Cruz, Ted, 248
cultural factors. See also specific types, countries, and organizations
globalization, 223
hegemony, 3
identity, protecting, 2
legitimation, 260–262
modernization, 217–220
polarization, 227–228
sociocultural conflict, 7–8
youth, 355–356
with structural conditions, 359–360
cultural relativism, Ukraine, 620–622, 621t
culture, Americanization of, 223
Czech Republic, 565–578. See also Eastern Europe
Dahl, Kristian Thulesen, 207, 254
Dahlström, Carl, 154
Dansk Folkeparti (DF), 26
electoral support, 553–557, 554t556t
female leadership, 207
on gender equality, 203
(p. 704)
ideology, 550–553
impact, 557–558
leadership changes, 560
nongovernmental participation, 560–561
origins, 547t, 548, 550
popular support, 313, 314f
Protestants, 380, 380t
religiosity, 380, 381t
Davis, James H. “Cyclone,” 88
dealignment, 224–225
de Benoist, Alain, 17, 26–27, 28, 114, 261, 289–290, 374, 514. See also nouvelle droite
Dechezelles, S., 356
dédiabolisation (de-demonization) strategy, Front National, 86, 252, 433, 440–441, 449n29
Deegan-Krause, K., 214
de Graaf, N. D., 225–226
de Koster, W., 222
De Lange, S. L., 17
de la Rocque, François, 434
del Hierro, Pablo, 109
della Porta, D., 328, 329, 331–339
demand-side factors
definition, 505
Southern Europe, 505
UK Independence Party, 534–536
demand-side theories, 144–145, 166
political demand for right-wing radicalism, media and, 270–272
demarcation, 394
Democracia Nacional, 509
democracy, 2
churches and, 369–373
Calvinism, 370, 371, 372t
Catholicism, 370–372, 372t
Christian, 370–373, 372t
Lutheranism, 370, 371
Protestants, 370, 371, 372t
ethnic, Israel, 669
Jeffersonian, 88
right-wing extremism on, 2
transitions to, Southern Europe, 514
Western vs. Eastern Europe, 571
democratization
minority rights, 569–574
nation-building, 570, 571
demographics. See also specific countries and parties
electoral politics, 7
youth, 352–354
demonizing, 414
Demushkin, Dmitrii, 592–594
denial
antisemitism, 72–73
Holocaust, 66
racism, 72
Denmark, 545. See also Dansk Folkeparti (DF); Fremskridtspartiet (FP)
Aarhus Against the Mosque, 374, 377t
electoral support, 553–557, 554t556t
ideology, 550–553
impact, 557–558
origins, 547–548, 547t, 550
refugee assets, seizing, 305
Dennison, J., 536–540
deprivation
relative deprivation thesis, 352
school, 330–331
theories, 148
Déroulède, Paul, 434
Deschouwer, K., 245
De Sio, Lorenzo, 173, 181, 191n10
Deutsche Volksunion (DVU), 453
de Waardt, Van, 192n24
Dewinter, Filip, 30, 46, 313, 484
Diani, M., 332–333
Dichter, Avi, 674
Die III. Weg, 458
Die Rechte, 458
Dinas, E., 157, 246
directional theory, 190n3
discounting models, 190n3
discursive opportunity structures, 261, 271, 329
dogmatism, 148
Dontsov, Dmytro, 618
Downs, Anthony, 169–170
Dreyfus, Alfred, 434
Drumont, Edouard, 434
Dugin, Aleksandr, 582, 587–588
Duncan, F., 307
Dunn, K., 26, 309
Durso, R. M., 353 (p. 705)
Duverger, Maurice, 177
Dvizhenie Protiv Nelegal’noi Immigratsii (DPNI), 591–594
dynamic cleavage theory, 224
Eastern Europe, 565–578. See also specific parties
anti-establishment, 571–572
corruption, 571–572
economics, left-leaning, 567–569
electoral support, 566, 567f
ethnic nationalism, 29–30, 566, 568
Euroskepticism and Eurorealism, 572–573
historical legacies, 565–566
mainstream parties, radicalized, 574–576, 576t577t
minorities
democratization and rights, 569–574
immigrants and refugees, 319–320, 566
mobilization against, 567, 573
refugees, Bosnia and Herzegovina Muslims, 578n2
sexual, 566
nationalism, 566
origins and causes, 565
permissive environment, 10
Poland
Greater Romanian Party, 566–567
Liga Polskich Rodzin, 566, 568
Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, 380, 380t, 381t, 574
Radio Maryja, 366, 372
racism and xenophobia, 319
Slovakia, 574
People’s Party–Our Slovakia, 572
Slovenská Národná Strana, 32–33, 566, 568
Smer, 574
strategies tackling radical right, 573–574
studies, 577–578n1
unique characteristics, 567
Easton, D., 306, 307
Eatwell, R., 24, 251–253, 257
Eco, U., 106, 109
economics
distribution, 175
as dominant, 178
established parties converge on, 175
expansion, cross-national links, 395
globalization, 219–222
modernization, 216–217
protectionism, 222
socioeconomics
charismatic leaders, 257–259
conflict, 7–8
strain, on youth, 351–352
education
cleavage, 214–216
collective identities, 215
cultural value preferences, 215
higher, 214–216
European institutions, 289–290
egalitarian vs. non-egalitarian, 3
Egan, Patrick J., 181, 182
Ekman, M., 661
electoral politics, 7. See also specific countries and parties
electoral support, 143–159
funnel of causality metaphor, 144
macro-level factors, 155–158
crime, 156–157
immigration and unemployment, 155–156
institutional, 155
media, 157–158
meso-level factors, 152–155
party ideology, 152–153
party strength, 152
party system factors, 153–154
social capital, 154–155
micro-level factors, 145–152
anti-immigrant and unemployment, 147–150
anti-postmaterialism, etc., 150–152, 394
candidates and charismatic leaders, 146
party identification, 145–146
pure protest voting, 146–147
motives for analyzing, 143–144
multilevel explanation, 145
small area studies, 158–159
supply-side vs. demand-side factors, 144–145, 166 (see also party systems, radical right-wing parties and)
(p. 706)
electoral systems
as enablers, 176–177
France, gender parity, 448n15
single-member-district plurality, 177, 179
electorate. See also specific groups
New Left, 218–219
Eley, G., 117–118
Ellinas, A. A., 8, 27, 228, 241, 246, 247, 274–276, 278, 510–511
emancipatory politics, 8
embeddedness, transnational, 399
Enyedi, Z., 214
Erlingsson, Gissur, 152
Esping-Anderson, G., 216
Estonia, 565–578. See also Eastern Europe
Eternal Fascism (Eco), 106
ethics, traditional, 413
ethnic competition theories, 148–149
ethnic democracy, Israel, 669
ethnic exclusion, 3–4
ethnic ghettos, 22
ethnic nationalism, 5, 17–18, 21–22, 25, 26–30
Central Europe, 29–30
vs. civic nationalism, 21–22, 26
definition, 26
Eastern Europe, 29–30, 566
immigrants and Muslims, 28–29
multiculturalism fears, 29
vs. nativist nationalism, 27
organic, 28
vs. regionalism and pan-Europeanism, 26–27
religious group, politically dominant, 28
“right to difference,” 28
ethnic nativism, Israel, 671–673, 673t
ethnocentrism, 413
ethnocracy, 2
Israel, 669
Southern Europe, 514
ethnocratic liberalism, 112
ethnonationalism, 1, 2
Italy, 516, 518n1
Southern Europe, 514–515, 516
Spain, 516–517
ethnopluralism, 3–4
nouvelle droite, 374, 532
radical, 17
Ettridge, David, 656
EU referendum, 540–542
Europe. See also specific countries, regions, and parties
integration, cross-national links, 394–395, 404
radical right parties, 421–424, 422t
European Alliance for Freedom, 572–573
European Freedom Alliance, 30
European New Right (ENR), 113–116, 288–289
European Parliament
cross-national right-wing group, 395, 572
East–West bloc, first, 572
European Alliance for Freedom, 572–573
Front National, 1984 election, 436–438
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, 422t
political opportunities, 397
radical right parties, 421–424, 422t
European Union, 2
cross-national links, 394–395 (see also internationalization)
party groups as meeting place, 10
politicizing, 122
Europe of a hundred flag, 26–27
Eurorealism, Eastern Europe, 572
Eurorejects, 124
Euroskepticism, 122–137, 151–152, 396–397
argumentation, 124
between-group differences, 124–125
cross-national links, 394–397, 403
cultural views, of Europe, 124
definition and use, 123
Eastern Europe, 572–573
Eurorejects, 124
hard, 123
hard-soft, 123–124
history, 123
intention, of analysis, 136
issue ownership, 126–135
Chapel Hill Expert Survey, 126–127
issue entrepreneur exploitation, 126
issue salience, GAL-Tan dimension, 134–135, 135t
mainstream party politicization, lack, 126
niche parties, 126
radical right positions over time, 127–131, 128f, 130t
(p. 707)
nationalism vs., 124
nation-state sovereignty, 124
politicizing European Union, 122–123
polity-policy distinction, 136–137
soft, 123
sovereignty, 125, 136
UK Independence Party, 531 (see also UK Independence Party (UKIP))
Evans, G., 225–226, 228, 537–538
Evans, R., 652
Evraziiskii soiuz molodezhi (ESM), 593
exclusionary rhetoric, 4
exclusionism, 413
exclusive nationalism. See ethnic exclusion
extreme right vs. radical right, 2–3
extremism, political, 2. See also right-wing extremism; specific countries and groups
Ezrow, Lawrence, 186
families, 297–298
family values, 2
Farlie, Dennis J., 180
far right, defined, 349–351
fascism, 6, 105–119
activist cultures and organizational histories, 116–118
Australia, 652
European New Right, 113–116
“fascism lite,” 106, 118
“fighting new and different battles,” 107–109
history, 105–107
interwar, 108
Le Pen, Marine, 105–106, 115, 118
multi-fascism, 107–108
mono-fascism vs., 106–107
neofascism, contemporary post-1945, 110–113, 118–119
Putin’s regime, 583
radical right
then and now, 109–110
rebirth myth, 5
Ur-Fascism or Eternal Fascism, 106
“fascism lite,” 106, 118
Faye, Guillaume, 32, 46
Fazzi, L., 508
Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), 641
Fedorenko, K., 623
Félix, A., 208
Fella, S., 507, 513, 516, 518
Fenneman, M., 18, 29, 398, 499n7
Ferraresi, Franco, 117
Fico, Robert, 574
Fidesz, 566, 574
anti-immigrant, 23, 54
Catholics, 380, 380t
Christians, 376, 377t, 380
religiosity, 380, 381t
Fini, Gianfranco, 507
Finland, 545. See also Perussuomalaiset (PS); True Finns
electoral support, 553–557, 554t556t
ideology, 550–553
impact, 559
origins, 546–547, 547t, 550
Suomen Maaseudun Puolus, 546–547, 547t, 554t, 559
Fitna (Wilders), 48
Fitzgerald, Jennifer, 154–155
Fleischer, R., 106–107
Fleming, A., 661
Flemish Movement, 481
fluidity, party vs. social movement, 310–312, 311f
Fontana, M.-C., 205
football hooliganism, 292–293
Ford, R., 526, 528, 530–532, 536, 537
Fortuyn, Pim
early history, 480, 489
elections and electoral support, 491–493, 492t
ideological profile, 219, 229n3, 482–483
image and appeal, 261
Islamophobia, 43
Manichean demonization, 256
nationalism, 23
Forza Italia (FI), 254, 507, 517
foundation myth, 254 (p. 708)
Fox News, 269
Tea Party movement, 273, 275
frames and framing
analyses, 338–339
concept, 338
cross-national links, 402–404
definition, 396
by media, 8, 270–271
social movement organizations, 337–341
France, 433–449. See also Front National (FN)
counterrevolution (1789–1981), 433–435
Action Française and Camelots du Roi, 434
Alliance Républicaine pour les Libertées et le Progrès, 435
antisemitism, 434
Boulangism, 92–93, 434
Croix de Feu, 434
Front National pour l’Unité Française, 435
Ligue des Patriotes, 434
Ligue National Antisémitique, 434
nationalism, 434
Ordre Nouveau, 435
Parti des Forces Nouvelles, 435
Poujadists, 434
ultras, 434
Front National, Jean-Marie Le Pen, 435–440
1971–1984, 435–440
1984 European Parliament election, rebirth (1984–1998), 436–438
founding and early days, 433, 434–435
history, early, 435–436
post-1998 decline, 438–439
succession, 439–440 (see also Le Pen, Marine)
Front National, Marine Le Pen, 440–446
2017 French presidential election, 446–447
dédiabolisation reinvention, 86, 252, 433, 440–441, 449n29
glass ceiling?, 443–446
rising tide (2007–2015), 441–443
turning point, current, 447
hijab ban, 51–52
Islamophobia, 53–54
Franzmann, S. T., 175, 228
Fratelli d’Italia (FdI), 507–508
Free Congress Foundation, 288
Freedom Party of Austria. See Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ)
Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ), 192n32, 458–462
antisemitism, 67, 74–79, 74f, 75f
Catholics, 380, 380t
centripetal charisma, 265
cryptofascism, 113
current situation, elections and seats, 459–460
government participation, 192n32
historical overview, 458–459
ideology and program, 460–461
impact
current, 322
goal attainment, 314f, 315
legislative seats and support, 311–312
media exposure, 274
nationalism, 18, 31
organization, 461–462
popular support, 313, 314f
populism, 93
demonstrations, resumption of, 316
pro-Israel stance, 44
religiosity, 380, 381t
Fremskridtspartiet (FP, Denmark), 545, 547–548, 547t
electoral support, 553–557, 554t, 556t
ideology, 550
impact, 557–559
nationalism, 24
populism and success, 94
welfare chauvinism, 550
Fremskrittspartiet (FrP, Norway)
anti-immigrant, 24
electoral support, 553–557, 554t556t
gender gap, 206
government offices, 315
ideology, 550–552
impact, 558–559
leadership changes, 560
origins, 547–548, 547t
political responsibility, burdens, 560
populism and success, 94
racists and neo-Nazis, 117
(p. 709)
on women’s and gay and lesbian rights, 203
women’s role, 207
Freud, Anna, 72
Front d’Opposition Nationale pour l-Europe des Patries, 436
Front National (FN), 4
anti-immigrant, 18, 19, 317
antisemitic hate crimes, 67
breakthrough, 114–115, 313
Catholics, 380, 380t
centripetal charisma, 265
cross-national influences, 402
cultural matrix, 433–434
Euroskepticism, 124, 127
founding and early days, 433, 434–435
Front d’Opposition Nationale pour l-Europe des Patries, 436
Front National-Mouvement National, 439
Gollnisch, Bruno, 439–440
historical periods, early, 433–435
historical periods, Jean-Marie Le Pen, 435–440
1971–1984, 435–440
1984 European Parliament election, rebirth (1984–1998), 436–438
founding and early days, 433, 434–435
history, early, 435–436
post-1998 decline, 438–439
succession, 439–440 (see also Le Pen, Marine)
historical periods, Marine Le Pen, 440–446
2017 French presidential election, 446–447
current challenges, 443–446
dédiabolisation reinvention, 86, 252, 433, 440–441, 449n29
political credibility, 446
rising tide, 441–443
turning point, current, 447
impact, current, 322
intellectuals, 290
Islamophobia, 42, 50–51
Islamic women’s dress bans, 52
“Le Projet du Front National,” 33
master frame, 114–115
media exposure, 247, 271, 273–274, 278
Mégret, Bruno, 51–52, 437–439, 443
Mouvement National Républicain, 439
Movimento Sociale Italiano and, 290–291
nationalism, 23, 32, 33
political opportunity structures, 259
popular support, 313, 314f
populism, 93, 94
positions over time, 127
pro-Israel attitude, 44
radical right-wing plus populist idealists, 25
religiosity, 380, 381t
social change, loss of identity after, 258
women’s leadership, 207
Front National-Mouvement National (FN-MN), 439
Front National pour l’Unité Française (FNUF), 435
fundamentalism, religious, 382–383
funnel of causality, 144
Furrow, Buford, Jr., 418
Gabriel, T., 354
Gaitán, Jorge Eliécer, 88, 90
Gameson, W. A., 273
Garland, J., 293
Gauchon, Pascal, 435
Gellar, Pamela, 661
Gellner, E., 20
gender. See also women entries
gender, radical right voting, 200–210
cross-national differences, 205–206
gender-specific explanations, 204–205
Männerparteien, 200, 207
underrepresentation, 208
gender attitudes
on authoritarianism, 201
on class, 204–205
on immigrant threat, 201, 203–204
on law and order, 204
political interest and activity, 202
religiosity, 201–202
gender equality
Dansk Folkeparti on, 203
French electoral systems, 448n15
Vlaams Belang on, 203
(p. 710)
gender gap, 200–204
Le Pen on, on Marine, 443–444
party organizations and women’s role, 207–208
radical right, 443
gender membership
British National Party, 208
Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, 9, 208
Generation Le Pen, 439
Georgiadou, V., 246
Germany, 453–458. See also Alternative für Deutschland (AfD); Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD)
vs. Austria and Switzerland
actor capabilities, 470–472
cultural, political, economic, and social framework, 466–469
opportunity structures, 469–470
Bürgerbewegung pro NRW, 457
context, 452
current situation, elections and seats, 454–456
Deutsche Volksunion, 453
Die III. Weg, 458
Die Rechte, 458
historical overview, 453–454
ideology and programs, 456–457
nationalism, 35
Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund, 454
organization, 457–458
popular support, 313, 314f
Republikaner, 453, 458
Gerstenfeld, P. B., 405, 407
ghettos, ethnic, 22
Gidengil, E., 201, 354, 357
Gijsberts, M., 154, 156, 240
Gilligan, C., 201
Giordano, Ralph, 49–50
Givens, T., 29, 201, 205, 533
Glaz’ev, Sergei, 585
Glistrup, Mogens, 254, 547–548
globalization. See also internationalization; specific topics
cleavages, 220–224 (see also cleavages)
cross-national links, 395
cultural, 223
economic, 7, 219–222
losers of, 341, 493, 505, 512, 515, 518, 540
mobilization legacy hypothesis, 223–224
political, 222–223
global white identity, 395
goal attainment, party impact, 306, 314f, 315
case against, 309
case for, 307–308
Golden Dawn, 510–511
antisemitic hate crimes, 67
EU position distance, 129, 130t
Euroskepticism and radical right positions over time, 127
Internet, 276
Islamophobia, 43
local mobilization, 246–247, 260, 275
media assistance, 275
media coverage, 276
reemergence, 72
salience, vs. EU, 130t, 131, 135t
women’s sub-organizations, 208
Golder, Matt, 153, 155, 156
Goldsmith, Sir James, 528
Goldthorpe, J. H., 221
Goldwater, Barry, 634–636
Gollnisch, Bruno, 439–440
Goodwin, M. J., 208, 518, 524–526, 530–532, 536–540
Gorbach, D., 617
governance, political, radical right parties on, 175
government participation, 187–188
Graham, M., 395
Gramsci, Antonio, 285
Grande, E., 223
Grant, D. R., 405, 407
Greater British Movement (GBM), 523, 524
“Greater Israel” ideology, 668
Greater Romanian Party, 566–567
Green parties, female electorate, 209
Gregor, A. J., 108, 111
Griffin, Nick, 261, 276, 279, 399, 525–526
Griffin, R., 6, 20, 21, 26, 110, 111–114, 341, 356, 360, 402 (p. 711)
Grittersová, J., 226
Grizzard, N., 523–524
group conflict theories, 148–149
group dominance approach, 640
Groupement de Recherche et D’études pour la Civilisation Européenne (GRECE), 289–290, 373–374
group-oriented voting, 192n30
groupuscules, extreme-right, 294–295
Gumilev, Lev, 587
Gush Emunim, 670
Habait Hayeudi, 673, 676, 677–678
Hagen, Carl I., 548
Hagendoorn, L., 219
Hague, William, 529
Haider, Jörg, 24, 46–49, 93, 251, 459
Bündnis Zukunft Österreich, 311
media coverage, 276
media exposure, 274
media support, 260
personal presence, 254
Halikiopoulou, D., 28
Hallo-Aho, Jussi, 560
halo effect, 158
Hamilton, R. F., 291
Han, Kyung Joon, 186
Hanson, Pauline, 251, 252, 255, 321, 650, 653–657, 659, 661–662
Happy Realization Party, 686, 687t
Happy Science, 686, 687t
Hardman, A., 359
Hardmeier, S., 205
Harmel, R., 242
Harteveld, E., 204
Hashimoto, Tôru, 688–689
hate crimes. See also Islamophobia
antisemitic (see also antisemitism)
Front National, 67
Golden Dawn, 67
Jobbik, 67
Ukraine, post-Soviet, 621–622, 621t
hate groups, U.S., 413, 421
Hayworth, J. D., 640–641
Hebdige, D. D., 360
hegemony, 3, 285
Heitmeyer, W., 394
Hellwig, T., 221
Heritage Foundation, 288
Herzog, Itzhak, 672
Heyndels, Bruno, 154, 156, 157
higher education, 214–216
European institutions, 289–290
Higuchi, N., 681, 684, 688, 691, 692, 695
hijab bans, 51–52
Hirst, J. B., 651
Hobsbawn, E., 368
Hofstadter, R., 632
Holbrook, D., 415
Holocaust denial, 66
Holsteyn, J. J. M. van, 480, 483, 486, 490–493, 495
Holz, K., 34
homogeneity, idea of, 368
Hooghe, L., 397
hooliganism, 337
Horowitz, D., 417
Hosokawa, Morihiro, 692
Hossay, P., 327
hostility, policy, 570
Houtman, D., 215
Hövermann, B., 63, 66–67, 69–70
Howard, John, 653–654, 657–658
Hug, Simon, 190n2
Hungary, 565–578. See also Eastern Europe; Jobbik
anti-immigrant, 578n4
antisemitism, 69
Fidesz, 566, 574
anti-immigrant, 23, 54
Catholics, 380, 380t
Christians, 376, 377t, 380
religiosity, 380, 381t
Islamophobia, 54
Magyar Igazság és Élet Pártj, 35
nationalism, 35
Huntington, Samuel, 47
Husbands, C., 522
Hussein, S., 661
hyper-masculine subculture, 293
(p. 712) identity
collective
education, 215
frames, 396
global white, 395
Judeo-Christian, 4
loss of, after social change, 258
national
radical right parties on, 175
voter attraction, new, 173–174
party, 145–146
social identity theory, 149
youth, 356–358
ideology. See also specific parties
political, 340–341
political program and, 1–3
social basis and, 682–684, 683f
Ignazi, P., 150, 173, 218, 421, 468
Immerzeel, Tim, 151, 201, 202, 205–206
immigrant threat, 2
Eastern Europe, 319–320
electoral base, expanding, 173
electoral support, 147–150
ethnic nationalism, 28–29
Fidesz, 23, 54
framing, 4
Fremskrittspartiet, 24
Front National, 18, 19, 317
gender differences, 201, 203–204
Hungary, 23, 54, 578n4
Lega Nord, 516–517
Lijst Pim Fortuyn, 271
media, 270–271
Muslims, 2
Nordic countries, 550
Pegida, 468
populism, 94, 95–97
radical right support, 7
Tea Party, 640–641
UK Independence Party, 317, 532–533, 537–538, 538f
unemployment, 155–156
voting by poor, 190n4
youth, 353
impact, party, 10–11, 305–323. See also party impact
Independent American Party, 413
infotainment, 277–278
Inglehart, R., 382
institutional factors. See also specific institutions
competitiveness, 176–180
electoral laws as enablers, 176–177
salience, convergence, and polarization, 177–180
electoral support, 155
institutional party impact, 306
case against, 309
case for, 307
Western Europe, 312–315, 313t
integration-demarcation divide, 223
intellectualism, stereotypes and prejudices, 65
intellectual schools, 288–290
International Eurasian Movement, 582
internationalization, 333, 394–404. See also globalization
common positions/visions, 403
European integration, 394–395, 404
frames, 402–404
globalization and economic expansion, 395
global white identity, 395
political opportunities, 396–402, 401f
development over time, 401, 401f
European Parliament elections, 397
Euroskepticism, 396–397
historical trans-European institutions, 397–398
mobilization and transnational events, 400–401
non-party, 399
political parties, 399
transnational embeddedness, 399
youth structures, 399–400, 402
processes, 394
Internet, 276–277
alternative online-based news, 8–9
cross-national links, 404–407
Golden Dawn, 276
importance, 9–10, 299
interwar fascism, 108
Ishihara, Shintaro, 688
Islam, in Western societies, 383–385 (p. 713)
Islamophobia, 2, 4, 42–55. See also Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes (Pegida)
9/11 and, 43, 46–49
1930s Europe, 43–45
Alternative für Deutschland, 43
anti-Muslim and anti-Islam discourse (1980s and 1990s), 42
vs. antisemitism, 1930s Europe, 43–45
burqas and burkinis, 51–52
definition, 43
Europe, 124
Fortuyn, Pim, 43
France, 53–54
Front National, 42, 50–51, 52
Golden Dawn, 43
history, modern, 42
Hungary, 54
labor market equilibrium (1970s), 42
Lega Nord, 51
Le Pen
Jean-Marie, 46–48
Marine, 50–51, 54
mainstreaming, 52–55
mosques and minarets, 49–51
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, 375
nouvelle droite, 46
othering, 42, 44
Partij voor de Vrijheid, 28, 48, 51
Pegida, 43, 374
Pim Fortuyn, 43
populism and, 98
pre-9/11, 44–46
Schweizerische Volkspartei, 50
September 11, 4
Switzerland, Schweizerische Volkspartei, 50
terminology, origins, 43
Trump, Donald, 375
Vlaams Belang, 42
Wilders, Geert, 31–32, 34, 43, 48, 51, 53–54
youth, 353
Israel, 667–678
2015 election, Netanyahu’s plea, 667–668
authoritarianism, 674–675
Boycott Bill, 674
B’tselem, 675
as ethnic democracy (ethnocracy), 669
ethnic nativism, 671–673, 673t
“Greater Israel” ideology, 668
Gush Emunim, 670
Habait Hayeudi, 673, 676, 677–678
historical background, 669–670
Israel Beiteinu, 673, 676, 677–678
Kach Party, 670
Nation Bill, 674
nativism, 670–673, 672f, 673t
populism, 675–677
Religious Zionists, 670, 674, 677–678, 678n3
Shovrim Shtika, 675
study, challenges, 668–669, 669t
Ultra-Orthodox parties, 673–676
Yesh Atid, 672, 675, 676
Israel Beiteinu, 673, 676, 677–678
issue appeals. See also specific issues
salience and domain, 183–186
issue ownership, 180–182
charismatic leaders, 253–254
Euroskepticism, 126–135 (see also Euroskepticism)
valence and, 180–182, 192n21
Italy, 506–509, 516–517. See also Lega Nord (LN); Southern Europe; specific parties
Alleanza Nazionale, 24, 507
ethnonationalism, 516, 518n1
Forza Italia, 254, 507, 517
Fratelli d’Italia, 507–508
La Destra, 507
Movimento 5 Stelle, 508, 509, 515
Movimento Sociale Italiano, 24, 290–291, 435, 506–507, 514
Nuovo Centrodestra, 509
Popolo della Libertà, 507
Ivarsflaten, E, 219, 549
Ivchenko, Oleksiy, 615
Izborskii Klub, 583
Izokukai, 683
Jackman, Robert W., 155, 156, 177
Jacobs, D., 353
James, Diane, 542
Janmaat, Hans, 48, 480
Jansen, Robert, 87 (p. 714)
Japan, 681–695
anti-Korean sentiment, 681
Association to Protect Japan, 683
Happy Science and Happy Realization Party, 686
ideologies and social basis, 682–684, 683f
Izokukai, 683
Japan Conference (Nippon Kaigi), 683–694, 683f
Japan Innovation Party, 321–322
Japan Restoration Party, 321, 683f, 686, 687t, 688–690, 689f
Koreans as model minority, 681
MP Council of the Japan Conference, 685, 686
MP Group to Help Japanese Allegedly Abducted by North Korea (Rachi Giren), 685–686
National Association for the Rescue of Japanese Kidnapped by North Korea (Sukuukai), 683f, 686
National Conference to Protect Japan, 683
nativism as historical revisionism, 682
nativist movements, 690–694
discursive opportunities, 690–692, 691f
rise and fall, 692–694, 694f
Party for Japanese Kokoro, 683f, 686
radical right in party politics, 684–690
within LDP, 684–686
successful parties, 21st c., 686–690, 687t, 689f
Seirankai, 685, 688
Sunrise Party of Japan, 683f, 686, 687t, 688, 689f, 690
Tsukurukai, 683f, 684
Your Party, 686, 687t, 689, 689f
Zaitokukai, 681, 683f, 684, 693–694, 694f
Japan Conference (Nippon Kaigi), 683–694, 683f
Japan Innovation Party (JIP), 321–322
Japan Restoration Party (JRP), 321, 683f, 686, 687t, 688–690, 689f
Jaspers, Eva, 151
Jeffersonian democracy, 88
Jensen, Siv, 207, 548, 551, 558
Jewish Bolshevik, 65–66
Jewish collective, 64. See also antisemitism
Jews. See antisemitism
Jobbik, 566, 572, 575
antisemitism, 79–80
hate crimes, 67
Catholics, 380, 380t
Euroskepticism, 125
Gábor Vona, 22
identity construction, 79–80
media coverage, 276
nationalism, 22, 31, 35
paramilitary uniforms, 29
religiosity, 380, 381t
victim-perpetrator reversal, 79–80
women’s sub-organizations, 208
Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom. See Jobbik
John Birch Society (JBS), 630–631, 633–634, 635
Jones, Alan, 660
Jordan, Colin, 399
Judeo-Christian identity, 4
Judeus ex Machina
definition, 64
rhetoric strategy
blaming and denying, 72–73
syncretic antisemitism, 70–71
stereotypes, 65–66, 73
Judt, Tony, 64
Jungar, A.-C., 553
Junge Nationaldemokraten (JN), 337
Jupskås, A. R., 552, 553
Kach Party, 670
Kaczyński, Jarosław, 574
Kahane, Rabbi Meir, 671
Kaida, Oleksiy, 615
Kallis, A., 10–11, 42, 50
Kaltwasser, C., 203, 509–510, 511
Kandyba, Ivan, 611, 612
Karlsson, Bert, 547t, 548–549
Katsourides, Y., 352
Katz, R. S., 241
Keating, Paul, 657
Kelly, Paul, 651, 656, 658
Kestilä-Kekkonen, E., 552
Key, V. O., Jr., 247
Kilroy-Silk, Robert, 529, 542n1 (p. 715)
Kimmel, M. S., 359–360
Kinder, D. R., 640
Kingston, M., 662
Kitschelt, H., 19, 24, 107, 150, 153, 169, 172, 177, 179, 185, 192n25, 28, 33, 215–217, 219, 223, 227, 228, 300, 414, 521, 540–541, 549, 568, 688, 689, 690
Kjærsgaard, Pia, 207, 251, 252, 254, 256, 548
Klandermans, B., 11, 208
Knapman, Roger, 529
Knigge, Pia, 156
Know-Nothing Party, 631
Koch brothers, 642
Köhler, D., 356
Kohn, H., 20, 21, 26
Koizumi, Junichiro, 688
Kondopoga technology, 592
Kongress Russkikh Obshchin (KRO), 585, 586t
Konhres Ukrayinskykh Natsionalistiv (KUN), 612–613, 615
Konovalets, Yevhen, 618
Konvička, Martin, 578n5
Koopmans, R., 8, 157, 331–332, 334, 335
Kopecky, P., 123–124
Koreans
Japan sentiment against, 681
as model minority, 681
MP Group to Help Japanese Allegedly Abducted by North Korea (Rachi Giren), 685–686
National Association for the Rescue of Japanese Kidnapped by North Korea (Sukuukai), 683f, 686
Koroļeva, I., 353
Koshar, R. J., 291
Kosmin, B., 523–524
Kotleba, Marian, 572, 575
Kovács, A., 69, 79, 80
Koval, Roman, 612
Krejčí, Jaroslav, 111
Kriesi, H., 216, 218, 222, 223, 224
Kröll, P., 400–401, 405–406
Krylov, Konstantin, 593
Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 630–631, 633
Kulturkampf, 3, 530
Küpper, B., 61, 63, 66–67, 69–70
Kurer, T., 217
Kurz, Sebastian, 322
Kuzio, T., 620–621
La Destra, 507
Lang, Jack, 652
Lange, Anders, 547–548
Lange, S. de, 479, 480, 483, 485, 488, 489, 491
Lapid, Yair, 672, 675
Laquer, Walter, 110–111
Latvia, 565–578. See also Eastern Europe
law and order, 2, 204. See also crime
Lawrence, Duncan, 154–155
leaderless resistance, 405, 418
League of Empire Loyalists (LEL), 522–523
League of Rights, 653
Lease, Mary, 87–89
“left-behinds,” 258
left vs. right, 3
Lega Nord (LN), 506–508
anti-immigrant, 23, 516–517
centripetal charisma, 265
Euroskepticism, 517
goal attainment impact, 314f, 315
intellectuals, 290
Islamophobia, 51
nationalism, 18, 32
regionalist, 27
popular support, 314f
populism, 93–94
success, 516
Le Pen, Jean-Marie. See also Front National (FN)
apolitical, appeal to, 263
charisma, 251, 437
coteria charisma, 264
cross-national links, 399
dédiabolisation strategy, 86, 252, 433, 440–441, 449n29
ethnopluralist neo-fascist doctrine, 115–116
Frenchness, manipulating conceptions of, 261
Front National, 93, 433 (see also Front National (FN))
Front National pour l’Unité Française, 435
image and associations, 261
Islamophobia, 46–48
(p. 716)
media exposure, 273–274, 278
mission and foundation myth, 253–254
personal presence, 254, 255
political opportunity structures, 259
socioeconomic change and crisis, 257
symbiotic hierarchy, 255
voter view, 263
Le Pen, Marine, 25. See also Front National (FN)
charisma, 251–252
coteria charisma, 264–265
fascism, 105–106, 115, 118
vs. father, 107
as female leader, 207–208
Generation Le Pen, 439
Islamophobia, 50–51, 54
issue co-optation, 315
on media, 269
mission, 254
normalization strategy, 207–208
political opportunity structures, 259
popular support, 316
Rassemblement Bleu Marine, 442
as successor to Jean-Marie, 439–440
women’s economic independence, 203
Levitsky, S., 241
Liberal-Democratic Party (LDPSU/LDPR), 582–585, 586t
libertarian-authoritarian values, 183–184, 215
occupation and, 217–218
Lieberman, Avigdor, 678
life cycle approach, 242
Liga Polskich Rodzin (LPR), 566, 568
Ligue des Patriotes, 434
Ligue National Antisémitique, 434
Lijst Pim Fortuyn (LPF)
anti-immigration, 271
elections and electoral support, 491–493, 492t
gay libertine founder, 150
goal attainment impact, 315
government coalition, 479
historical background, 479
ideological profile, 482–483
party organization and membership, 485–488, 487t
political and societal context, wider, 495
populist support, 560
religious agenda, 375, 377t
Lipset, S. M., 2, 208, 213–214, 631
Livni, Zipi, 676–677
local mobilization
British National Party, 260
Golden Dawn, 246–247, 260, 275
party organization strategy, 246–247
lone wolves, 412, 416–419
losers of globalization, 341, 493, 505, 512, 515, 518, 540
losers of modernization, 201, 212, 218, 258, 352, 557, 695
Low Countries, 478–497. See also Belgium; the Netherlands; specific parties
contemporary radical right, 481–485
elections and electoral support, 490–494, 492t
ideological profile, 481–484
party organization and membership, 485–490, 487t
definition, 478
Dutch Partij voor de Vrijheid, 478
history
contemporary radical right, 479–481
shared, 478
political and societal context, wider, 494–497
Vlaams Belang, 478–479 (see also Vlaams Belang (VB))
Loxbo, Karl, 152, 246
Lubbers, M., 151, 154, 156, 201, 202, 240, 361
Lucardie, P., 245
Lucassen, G., 361
Lucke, Bernd, 458
Lutheranism, democracy and, 370, 371
Lynch, P., 531
Lyons, M., 414
Madison, James, 421
Madsen, D., 262
Magyar Igazság és Élet Pártj (MIÉP), 35
mainstreaming
Australia, 650–654, 657–658
of Islamophobia, as security threat, 52–55
of niche parties, 183
(p. 717)
mainstream left, reaction to, 227
mainstream parties. See also specific countries and parties
challengers, 227–228
on cleavages, 212
Eastern Europe, radicalized, 574–576, 576t577t
politicization, lack, 126
on radical right success, 227
Mair, P., 214, 215, 241
male activists, predominance, 9
Mammone, A., 109, 115, 402
Manichean demonization, charismatic leaders, 256
Mann, M., 105
Männerparteien, 200, 207
Mareš, M., 399–400
Margalit, Y., 222
Marin, B., 62
Markowtiz, L., 587
Marks, G., 397
Markus, Andrew, 655
mass protest dynamics, 624
mass society theories, 154, 291
master concept, 17–18
master frame, 17, 24, 114–115
Mauroy, Pierre, 437
Maurras, Charles, 434
Mayer, N., 11, 202, 206, 208, 379, 438, 444–445
McVeigh, R., 630
McVeigh, Timothy, 417–418
media, 269–280
on activist behavior, 271–272
as agenda-setting, 8, 270–271
alternative online-based news, 8–9
audience size and commercial drive, 277–278
autonomy from political system, 278–279
behavior, factors, 277–279
cynicism and distrust, 271
discursive opportunities, 271
effects, 269, 274–277
Internet, blogging, and online, 276–277, 299
political challenges to systemic actors, 274–275
stronger and newer actors, 275
type of coverage, 275–276
on voters, 270
electoral support, 157–158
framing, 8
future research, 279–280
immigration and crime, 270–271
impact, 247
personalizing, 8
political demand for right-wing radicalism, 270–272
on political parties and social movements
established, 272
legitimacy, 273
outsiders, 272–273
validation effect, 273
political supply of radicalism, 272–274
“populism,” 271
refugee crisis, Europe, 271
right-wing radicals and critics on, 269
role, debate on, 269
Mégret, Bruno, 51–52, 437–439, 443
Meguid, B. M., 174, 175, 226, 308
Meinecke, F., 368
Melnyk, Andriy, 618
Meloni, Girogia, 507
Melzer, R., 66–67
Menard, G., 10, 292
Mendelberg, T., 640
Mense Sliv, 614
meso-level factors
analysis, limited, 327–328
electoral support, 152–155
metamorphosis, party vs. social movement, 310–312, 311f
Meyer, Thomas M., 183
Michael, G., 357
middle class, new, 219
Mieriņa, I., 353
migrants. See immigrant threat
Milibrand, Ed, 530
militia, American, 295–296
Miller-Idriss, C., 292, 297, 356–357, 358
minarets, bans, 49–51. See also Islamophobia
minorities. See also specific types
Eastern Europe, 566
immigrants and refugees, 319–320, 566
mobilization against, 567, 573
refugees, Bosnia and Herzegovina Muslims, 578n2
rights, democratization and, 569–574
sexual, 566
Japan, Koreans, 681
rights on, New Left, 218
Mitropoulous, A., 660
Mizh-Partiyna Assambleya (MPA), 611
mobilization
cross-national links, 400–401
populism, history, 87–88
resource mobilization approaches, 328
theories, 327
mobilization, local
British National Party, 260
Golden Dawn, 246–247, 260, 275
party organization strategy, 246–247
mobilization legacy hypothesis, 223
modernization
cultural, 217–220
New Left, 218–219
economic, 216–217
losers of, 201, 212, 218, 258, 352, 557, 695
theory, 367
modularity, 295
Monday Club, 522
Mondin, A., 650, 653, 658
monism, political, 2, 19, 413
mono-fascism, 107–108
Moore, A., 652
Moreau, P., 30–31
mosques, bans, 49–51
Mouvement National Républicain (MNR), 439
Movimento 5 Stelle (M5S), 508, 509, 515
Movimento Sociale Italiano (MSI), 24, 435, 506–507
Front National and, 290–291
survival, 514
MP Council of the Japan Conference, 685, 686
MP Group to Help Japanese Allegedly Abducted by North Korea (Rachi Giren), 685–686
Mughan, Anthony, 146
Muis, Jasper, 157
Müller, W., 218
multiculturalism
to divide opponents’ electorate, 174
ethnic ghettos, 22
ethnic nationalist fears, 29
fears, 29
New Left, 218
multi-fascism, 107–108
Murayama, Tomiichi, 692
Muslims. See also immigrant threat; Islamophobia
ethnic nationalism, 28–29
September 11, 4
Nagel, J., 359
Nanou, K., 28
nation
definitions, 368
state vs. cultural, 368
Nationaal Europese Sociale Beweging (NESB), 480
Nationaal Socialistische Beweging (NSB), 480
National Action (NA), 659
National Association for the Rescue of Japanese Kidnapped by North Korea (Sukuukai), 683f, 686
National Conference to Protect Japan, 683
Nationaldemokratische Partei (NPD, Austria), 459
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD, Germany), 453–457
actor capabilities, 470, 471
antisemitism, 375
cross-national links, 397, 398, 399, 400, 402–403
current situation, 454–455, 467
elections and seats, 455
Eastern Germany, 454
(p. 719)
on European integration, 128f, 130t, 132t, 133t
in European Parliament, 397, 422t
ideology and programs, 456–457
Islamophobia, 375
master frame, 402
opportunity structures, 469–470
organization, 457–458
parliamentary decline, 333
popular support, 313, 314f
religious agenda, 377t
violence, 415
vote percent, 453
youth organization, 337
Nationale Aktion gegen die Überfremdung von Volk und Heimat (NA), 463
National Front (NF), 522–524, 527t
national identity
radical right parties, 175
voter attraction, new, 173–174
nationalism, 3–4, 17–37, 124, 413
banal, 23
characteristics, 21
civic, 21–22
contemporary, 368
defining, 20–23
ethnic, 5, 18, 21–22, 25, 26–30
Europe
Eastern, 33–36, 566
Southern, 515
Western and Central, 33–36
France, 434, 437 (see also Front National (FN))
future research, 36–37
history, recent, 17
integral, 434
Lega Nord, 32
master concept, 17–18, 26–30 (see also ethnic nationalism)
nativist, 27
principal arguments, 18–20
radical right, defining, 23–26
radical right discourses, 30–33
British National Party, 31
Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, 31
Front National, 32, 33
Jobbik, 31
Partij voor de Vrijheid, 31–32
Slovenská Národná Strana, 32–33
UK independence Party, 33
radical right vs. mainstream right, 18
religion and, 368, 373–377, 377t379t
as surrogate religion, 368
Ukraine, post-Soviet, 617–620
nationalist myth, 368
National Party, 524
national populism, 115
National Socialist Movement (NSM), 523
Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund (NSU), 454
nativism, 26–30, 95–99, 668, 669t. See also ethnic nationalism
antebellum, 91
definition, 531
ethnic, Israel, 671–673, 673t
exclusion and justification, 95
Israel, 670–673, 672f, 673t
Japan, 690–694, 691f, 694f
radical right, 95–98
territorial, 671
nativist nationalism, 27
Natsional-Bol’shevistskaia Partiia (National-Bolshevik Party), 591
Natsional-demokraticheskaia partiia (NDP), 594
Natsionalny Front (National Front), 613
Naval’nyi, Aleksei, 593
Nazism, 587
Nederlandse Volks-Unie (NVU), 480
neo-Eurasianism, 587
neofascism, 110–113, 118–119
neo-Nazism
definition, 522
National Front, 523–524
the Netherlands, 478–497. See also Lijst Pim Fortuyn (LPF); Partij voor de Vrijheid (PVV)
Belgium and, 478
Besluit Ontbinding Landverraderlijke Organisaties, 479–480
contemporary radical right, 481–494 (p. 720)
elections and electoral support, 490–494, 492t
ideological profile, 482–483
party organization and membership, 485–489, 487t
Pim Fortuyn, 23, 43
political and societal context, wider, 494–497
historical background, contemporary radical right, 479–480
Nationaal Europese Sociale Beweging, 480
Nationaal Socialistische Beweging, 480
Nederlandse Volks-Unie, 480
Volkspartij voor Vrijdheid en Democratie, 483–484
networks and networking, 332–334,