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date: 22 October 2018

(p. 965) Index

(p. 965) Index

Figures, tables, and notes are denoted by “f  ”, “t”, and “n” respectively.

Abortion referendums, 379
Absolute citizen congruence, 218, 219
Absolute median citizen congruence, 217–218
Act-contingent motivation in electoral system change, 120–121
Act on a Candidate’s Election Funding (Finland, 2000), 614–615
Additional member system (AMS), 643
Adjustment-seats, in two-tier seat allocation, 36
Administration and Cost of Elections (ACE) Project, 478
Afghanistan
election administration in, 485
electoral system design in, 86
experimental research about, 433
Africa. See also specific countries
citizen-elite ideological congruence and, 236n5
election administration in, 483–484
ethnic minority representation in, 163, 167
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 464–465
redistricting and, 517
African Americans, ethnic minority representation and, 162, 163–164
African National Congress (ANC, South Africa)
election (1994) and subsequent success of, 943, 946–947
single-party dominance of, 954–957
South Africa’s party system and, 949–954, 950–951t
Aggregation of data, 406–407, 413
Aggregators (political parties), 222
Åland Island (Finland), 603, 620n19, 621n24
Algeria, 389, 395, 673
Alliance Party (New Zealand), 809–813, 815, 816
Alliances. See Coalition building
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (India), 710, 713
Allocation formulas, 4–9, 5t, 7t
Alternative vote (AV)
in Australia, 764
AV Top-up, 631
in Canada, 741, 747–749, 751
constituency service and, 348, 350
defined, 164
in South Africa, 959n15
in United Kingdom, 630
in United States, 729
American Journal of Political Science, 426, 427
American National Election Studies (ANES), 357
American Political Science Association, 249
American Political Science Review, 426, 427
Amorim Neto, O., 56–57
Anti Austerity Alliance/People Before Profit Party (Ireland), 670n5
Apparentement systems
in Netherlands, 560, 578n18
surplus agreement in Israel, 598n1
Arab Spring, new democracies and, 86, 98–100, 101t, 102f, 107
Argentina
electoral system design in, 109n9
experimental research about, 435
presidential runoff system in, 287
women’s representation in, 180
Arter, David, 610, 621n34 (p. 966)
Asian Americans, ethnic minority representation and, 161–162, 164
Al-Assad, Bashir, 284
Assemblée Nationale (France), 677
Assembly of Representatives (Israel), 586
Assembly size
Colombia and, 881–882, 882t
cube root law of, 729, 737n27
defined, 4
illustrating impact of electoral systems on party systems, 45–46
social diversity and party systems, 142
Association of Consumers and Taxpayers (New Zealand), 813–814
Audits (elections), 484–485
Australia, 763–780
alternative vote in, 764
Canada’s electoral systems vs., 747–749
compulsory voting in, 764, 770–771, 771f
constituency service and, 350–352
direct democracy and referendums in, 373
history of electoral experimentation in, 763–764
House of Representatives electoral system, 764–766, 765t
multiple electoral systems of, 772–776, 773–775f
optional preferential voting in, 748, 769
preferential list system in, 764–769, 774, 776
redistricting and, 516–517, 518–519, 524, 527n14, 529n37
Senate electoral system in, 766–769, 766t, 768–769f, 774
single transferable vote in, 764, 776
Australian Election Study, 770, 775
Australian Sports Party, 778n10
Austria
constituency service and, 352
district magnitude in, 36
experimental research about, 431
Authoritarian states, 387–423
choice of rules by, 388, 390–393, 398
effect of rules in, 396–398
election administration in, 480
electoral rules in, 387–390
incumbents’ suboptimal choices and, 393–396
multiparty national elections in, 387–388
plebiscites and referendums in, 366, 374–376, 376f
presidential elections in, 283–285
Bahrain, 502
Bahujan Samaj Party (India), 705, 714
Baker v. Carr (1962), 736n5
Balanced list strategy, 610–611, 617
Balkenende II government (Netherlands), 573t, 574
Balladur, Edouard, 679
Ballot structure. See also Electoral integrity
ballot types and technology, 480–482. See also Election administration
in Canada, 745, 748, 757
categorical vs. ordinal, 29–30
in Colombia, 872f, 883, 884f, 886f, 888, 892, 896n3, 898n34
constituency service and, 349
election administration and, 480–482
in Finland, 609, 609f
in Indonesia, 928
in Ireland, 653, 654f
legislative organization and, 309f, 313
legislators’ roles and, 325, 326–327t, 328–330, 334
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 447
in Netherlands, 560–563, 562f, 568–572, 576
party system effects on electoral rules and, 71
secret ballots, 305, 763–764
spatial ballot access requirements, 167
in Ukraine, Soviet era, 907f
in United States, 723–724, 734
variation in electoral systems and, 27–28t
women’s representation and, 179–191
Barisan Nasional (Malaysia), 500–501
Băsescu (president, Romania), 374
Bavarian Christlich-Soziale Union (Germany), 784, 787–789, 793f
Belarus, 284
Ben-Ali, Zine el Abidine, 99
Ben-Gurion, David, 585, 594t
Bennett, William, 749
Benoit, Kenneth, 76–77, 123
Berlusconi, Silvio, 857, 860, 861
Bharatiya Janata Party (India), 699, 705–709, 706f, 714, 716
Bicameralism
Italian reform and, 865
legislative elections rules and consequences, 291–293
legislative organization in, 309
in Netherlands, 558
symmetric vs. asymmetric, 291
Bipolar multipartism, 680–686, 682–683t
Blair, Tony, 24, 249, 630
Block vote. See also Multiple nontransferable votes
as multiple nontransferable votes (MNTV), 14–15
in United Kingdom, 628, 629, 634–636, 637t
Bolger, Jim, 809
Boundary Commission for England, R. v. (1983), 517
Brash, Don, 811–812
Braunias, Karl, 76
Brazil, 47, 65–66n27
Britain. See United Kingdom
Bundestag (Germany), 782–785, 788, 791–793, 795
Bürger (Switzerland), 366
Buthelezi, Mangosutho, 952
Calderoli, Robero, 857
Calendar of elections. See Election administration
California
direct democracy and referendums in, 369, 383
election administration in Los Angeles, 479
presidential and legislative elections in, 298n8
two-round system of, 728
Cambodia, 389
Cambodian People’s Party, 389
Cameron, David, 249, 257n2, 370
Campaign finance, 533–553. See also Electoral integrity
in Finland, 603, 614
intraparty competition, candidate-level effects, 545–546
intraparty competition, system-level effects, 546–549
marginality, spending, and Jacobson effect, 534–544f, 539–545, 540–541t
M + 1 rule, 534–539, 537f, 539f
spending effects and, 533–534
Canada, 741–762
alternative vote in, 741, 751
campaign finance in, 536–537
constituency service and, 351–352, 354–355
cumulative vote in, 745
direct democracy and referendums in, 373
electoral districts and divisions, 742, 758n4
electoral integrity in, 498
electoral systems of other British Empire countries vs., 747–749
ethnic minority representation in, 153
experimental research about, 434
first past the post system in, 749–755
FPTP impact in, 749–755
historical background of, 741–742
impact of electoral system on party system in, 42, 58–62, 64n7
legislative organization in, 310
limited vote in, 745, 747
mixed-member proportional system in, 752, 756–757
multiple nontransferable votes in, 745–746
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 253–254
preferential list system in, 748, 757
ranked choice voting in, 757
redistricting and, 515–519, 521, 527n20, 746–747
reform attempts in, 756–758
single-seat districts in, 742–746, 743t
single transferable vote in, 745, 747
social diversity and party system in, 139, 143t, 144–146
women’s representation in, 182
Career builders (candidate category), 617
Carter Center, 482, 493, 495
Categorical ballot structure, 29–30
Caucuses, 737n30, 731
CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979), 495 (p. 968)
Centre Party (Finland), 603, 606, 616
Centrifugal tendency
defined, 220
legislative ideological congruency and, 223, 229–230
legislative organization and, 304, 309
Centripetal tendency
defined, 220
legislative ideological congruency and, 221, 223, 224, 227, 229
legislative organization and, 304, 308, 314
Centroidal Voronoi tesselation (CVT), 221–222
Challengers (candidate category), 617
Chamber of Deputies (Italy), 855, 857, 858, 867n12
Chamber of Representatives (Colombia), 874f, 876, 881
Chapel Hill Expert Survey, 252, 256
Cheibub, José Antonio, 284
Chhibber, Pradeep, 413–415
Chile, 395–396, 542
D’Hondt divisors in, 542
China
as authoritarian state, 389
Hong Kong electoral system and, 102–103, 104f
Chirac, Jacques, 678–679
Chrétien, Jean, 750, 759n12
Christian Coalition (New Zealand), 808, 815
Christian Democratic Appeal Party (Netherlands), 249
Christian Democrat Party (Finland), 603
Christian Democrats (Italy), 852–855, 859
Christian Democrats Party (Netherlands), 575
Christlich Demokratische Union (Germany), 249, 784, 787–789, 793f
Citizen-elite ideological congruence, 213–245
citizen preferences stage of, 219
conceptualizing, 217–218
government congruence stage of, 225–228
legislative congruence stage of, 223–225
party system stage of, 219–222
policy congruence stage of, 228–229
political representation and, 213–215
responsiveness and, 215–217, 216f, 229–231, 230f
stages of, overview, 218
women’s representation and, 231–233
Citizens Assembly (Canada), 756
Clark, Andrew Inglis, 765, 777n4
Clark, Helen, 810, 812, 815
CLEA (Constituency-Level Election Archive), 415–417
Cleavage, 150, 154n5
Clientelism, 665
Closed list proportional representation systems (CLPR), 25, 25t
campaign finance and, 533, 543–545
in Colombia, 882, 887, 891, 896
constituency service and, 350
defined, 13
in Germany, 786
in Hong Kong, 102–103, 104f
in Indonesia, 930, 937
in Israel, 17, 581–582, 586, 588–589, 597
in Italy, 856–858, 863
in Japan, 829, 841n2
legislative elections and, 292
in New Zealand, 807
preferential (PR) list systems, 30–31
in South Africa, 946–948
in Tunisia, 99–100, 101t, 102f
in United Kingdom, 637, 639
voter turnout and, 199
women’s representation and, 178, 181, 185–186
Coalition building
alliances in India, 699, 705, 707–710
citizen-elite ideological congruence and, 219, 225. See also Citizen-elite ideological congruence
in Israel, 583, 587–588, 590, 593, 595–596t
list proportional representation (PR) and, 164, 558
presidential and legislative elections, 296
strategic coalition voting. See Portfolio-maximizing strategic voting
Code of Good Practice in Electoral Matters (Venice Commission, 2002), 495
Cohabitation, 676, 678
Collective representation, 217–218
Colombia, 871–900 (p. 969)
ballot structure in, 872f
characteristics of, 871–873
closed or open list option in, 871
congressional elections in, 298n5, 874f, 876–881, 878–879t, 880f
constituency service and, 349
D’Hondt divisors in, 871, 875, 881–891, 882–883t, 884f, 885t, 886f, 889–890t, 896
district magnitude in, 881–882, 882t
electoral system reforms in, 117, 874f, 876–881, 878–879t, 880f
Hare quota (quasi-SNTV system) in, 871, 873, 875, 881, 882, 885
minority representation, 892–893, 892t
open list PR system in, 882, 887, 888, 891, 896n2
political history and institutional context of, 873–876
political violence in, 871–873
presidential elections in, 298n5, 893–895, 894–895t
presidential runoff system in, 286
single nontransferable votes in, 871, 873, 875, 881, 887
two-round system in, 875
voter turnout in, 875, 876t
Colomer, Josep M., 116–117, 332
Committee system, 304–313, 309f, 313f
Commonwealth Electoral Act (1918, Australia), 527n14
Communist Party (China), 389
Communist Party (France), 685, 686, 694
Communist Party (Germany), 788
Communist Party (Hungary), 393–395
Communist Party (India), 708, 710
Communist Party (Italy), 855
Communist Party (Poland), 108n3, 393–394
Communist Party (Ukraine), 910–911
Comparative Manifesto Project, 252
Comparative Political Studies, 426, 427
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES), 197, 227
Compensatory (corrective) tier (MMP systems)
defined, 32–33
district magnitude and, 34–35
Competitiveness between parties. See Electoral system design in new democracies
Compulsory preferential voting, 748
Compulsory voting, 432, 438n13
Congress (US)
House of Representatives, 723–726, 728–730
Congress for the Republic (Tunisia), 99–100, 101t, 102f
Congress of People’s Deputies (Ukraine), 907
Congress of the People (South Africa), 952–953, 955
Conservative Party (Colombia), 875, 877, 879f, 880, 882–885, 883t, 888, 894
Conservative Party (UK), 24, 78–79, 249
direct democracy and referendums in, 370
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 257n2
United Kingdom electoral systems in context, 629, 630
Consociational and consensus democracy, 496
Constituency, defined, 37n3
Constituency-level data. See Election data and levels of analysis
Constituency-Level Election Archive (CLEA), 415–417
Constituency service, 345–363
consequences of, 356–358
constituency surgeries, 751–752
electoral concerns as determinants of, 353–356
electoral system type and, 346–349
forms of, 349–353
future research about, 358–360
going home and, 345
home style and, 345, 349–350
Indonesia and legislator-constituent ties, 935–936
personal vote and, 346
pork barrel spending and, 305, 345–346
Constitution (Finland), 602
Constitution (India), 700–701, 703–704
Constitution (Ireland), 665, 666, 670n4
Constitution (Netherlands), 576
Constitution (South Africa), 946, 956
Constitution Act (Canada), 741–742
Constitutional Court (Italy), 119, 858, 865 (p. 970)
Constitution Review Group (Ireland), 665
Constitutions, experimental research about, 435
Contagion
in mixed-member electoral systems, 446, 448–455, 449f, 453t. See also Research approaches of mixed-member electoral systems
presidential and legislative elections, 293–294
women’s representation and, 181–182
Contingent vote, 636
Contraction effect, 200
Convention against Corruption (2003), 495
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, 1979), 495
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD, 2006), 495
Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (Canada), 749
Copenhagen Document of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), 495
Costa Rica
constituency service and, 349
electoral system design in, 109n9
presidential runoff system in, 286
Country fixed effects, 438n5
Courts
judicial elections in United States, 734
redistricting and, 516–518. See also individual cases
Cox, Gary W.
campaign finance issues, 535, 540, 545–547
complex systems and ethnic factors, 56–57
Duverger’s law, 412–413
electoral coordination, 413
linkage, 147, 413
M + 1 rule, 54
strategic threshold insurance, 268
subcontracting, 195
Croatia, 166
Cronberg, Tarja, 621n25
CRPD (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006), 495
CSCE (Copenhagen Document of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe), 495
Cuba, 502
Cube root law of assembly size, 729, 737n27
Cumulative vote. See also Canada
in Canada, 745
defined, 199
minority representation and, 236
in United States, 734
Cycling, 306
Czechia, 184
D66 Party (Netherlands), 576
Dáil (Ireland)
campaign finance and, 538–541, 539f, 540–541t
constituency service and, 351
Ireland, overview, 652–653, 654f, 662, 665–668
Davis v. Bandemer (1986), 528n25
DCR (double complement rule formula) for presidential runoff systems, 286–287, 288t, 295
De Gaulle, Charles, 370, 677, 678, 679, 684, 694, 695n7
Delegates
legislators vs. trustees as, 323, 328
in United States primary system, 732
Delimitation. See Redistricting
Democracies (Lijphart), 284
Democracies, transitional. See Electoral system design in new democracies
Democracy
mixed-member electoral systems and age of, 463
presidential elections and, 283–285. See also Presidential and legislative elections
Democratic Center (Colombia), 881
Democratic Modernist Pole (Tunisia), 99–100, 101t, 102f
Democratic Party (Italy), 858–859
Democratic Party (South Africa), 951–952, 954 (p. 971)
Democratic Party (US)
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 249
party system and, 724–726
primary system and, 730–733, 733t
Democratic Party of Struggle (Indonesia), 933
Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), 640
Denmark
citizen-elite ideological congruence and, 231
direct democracy and referendums in, 365–366
district magnitude in, 36
legislative organization, 310
Descriptive representation. See also Citizen-elite ideological congruence
defined, 214–215
women’s representation and, 231–233
Devolution, 627
D’Hondt divisors
in Chile, 542
in Colombia, 871, 875, 881–891, 882–883t, 884f, 885t, 886f, 889–890t, 896
defined, 5–9, 5t
in Finland, 602–604, 606, 618
HQLR vs., in new democracies, 99–100, 101t, 102f, 105–108, 106f
in Israel, 582, 584–585
in Italy, 867n11
in Japan, 829
in Netherlands, 560, 561, 563, 577, 578n18
in new democracies, overview, 92–98, 93–94t, 94–95f
in Peru, 99–100, 101t, 102f
in Spain, 105–106, 106f
Dickson, Eric, 148, 153–154n4
Dictatorship. See Authoritarian states
Direct democracy and referendums, 365–386
history and theory of, 366–367
in Italy, 855–856, 867n11
in New Zealand, 817, 818–819t
occurrence of referendums in democracies, 368–374, 371–373t, 383
outcome of referendums, 377–378, 378f
plebiscites in democracies, 374–376, 376f
policy effect of referendums, 379–382, 380t, 381t
provisions for direct democracy and, 367–368
reasoning voter paradigm, 365–366
referendum, defined, 366
Distributive theory of legislative organization, 305, 307–308, 310, 312
District, defined, 37n3
District-level data for research. See Voter turnout
District magnitude (M)
in Austria, 36
citizen-elite ideological congruence and, 217, 223–224, 232, 236n4
in Colombia, 881–882, 882t
constituency service and, 349
defined, 4, 25
in Denmark, 36
districts of Indonesia, 926–927
Duverger’s law on, 411. See also Duverger, Maurice
in Finland, 606–607, 607f, 608t
in Germany, 35, 36
illustrating impact of electoral systems on party systems, 45–46
in Ireland, 26
in Israel, 585
in Italy, 36
in Japan, 36–37
legislative elections and, 291
legislators’ roles and, 325, 326–327t, 328–330, 336–337n3
limitations on proportionality in, 33–34
in multiple-tier seat allocation systems, 34–37
in New Zealand, 36
number of votes cast and, 26
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 253
party system effects on electoral rules and, 71
single-seat districts, 10
in single-tier seat allocation systems, 25–26
social diversity and party systems, 142
variation in electoral systems and, 27–28t
women’s representation and, 178, 179–180
Divide-the-dollar game, 306
Dividual, defined, 29–30
Divisor rules, 8 (p. 972)
Dixon v. Attorney General of British Columbia (1986), 517
Double complement rule formula (DCR) for presidential runoff systems, 286–287, 288t, 295
Double seats, 622n47
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (India), 710, 713
Drift, institutional, 118
Droop quota
defined, 8, 13–14
in Israel, 584
in South Africa, 948–949
Druery, Glenn, 768
Dual candidacy
constituency and regional representatives, 644–645
dually nominated list winners (DNLWs), 829, 841n4
Dunderdale, Kathy, 759n12
Dunne, Peter, 814
Duverger, Maurice, and Duverger’s law
authoritarian parties and theories of, 396
on bipolar multipartism of French system, 680–686
campaign finance and, 535, 540, 545–547
citizen-elite ideological congruence and party size, 220, 225
defined, 410–411
Duvergian spending (DS) ratio, 536–538, 537f, 550n3
election data and levels of analysis, 411–415
electoral systems’ psychological and mechanical consequences, 61, 496, 792–793, 813
in Japan, 831–832
laboratory experiments for theories of, 429
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 448, 450, 960n24
party system effects on electoral rules and, 69, 72
Political Parties, 410, 427
on political parties as “spiritual families,” 136, 137, 139. See also Social diversity, election rules, and party system
presidential runoff systems and, 287
quantifying party systems vs., 41, 46, 53, 58, 63. See also Party systems and institutional effects
United States party system and, 725
Dyadic representation, 217–218
Eckstein, Harry, 24
Ecological fallacy problem, 417
Economic Freedom Fighters (South Africa), 953
Educational level, social diversity and, 155n19
Eduskunta (Finland), 603, 617
Effective number of parties. See also Party systems and institutional effects
counting parties with, 42–44
defined, 3–4
ENPP and ENEP, 43
of vote-earning parties, 52–56, 56f. See also Seat Product Model
Egypt, 86, 503
Election Act (Finland, 1906), 602, 610, 612
Election administration, 475–489. See also Campaign finance; Electoral integrity; Redistricting; Voting
election cycle overview, 475–476
election management bodies (EMBs), 477
fraud and malpractice issues of, 476–477
parties’ programmatic incentives and. See Parties’ programmatic incentives
postelection period, 484–485
pre-electoral administration, 478–480
timing, 295–297, 680, 723
voting period, 480–484
Election Commission of India, 700, 703, 704, 708–709, 718n12
Election data and levels of analysis, 405–423
aggregation of data, 406–407
data availability for, 408
Duverger’s law and, 410–415
future of, 418–419
geocoded unit boundaries for, 417–418
horizontal and vertical levels of analysis, 408
level of analysis, defined, 405–406
levels of analysis and limitations, 409–410
subnational election data for, 415–417
(p. 973)
triangulating of data, 407
voter participation rates and, 408–409
Elections Obligations and Standards (EOS), 495
Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act (Canada), 746–747
Electoral College (US), 19n16, 286, 721, 730–733, 733t
Electoral coordination, 413
Electoral District Committee (Finland), 611
Electoral integrity, 491–512
concept of, 492–495
institutional theories of, 495–501
Perceptions of Electoral Integrity survey on, 502–508, 504t, 506–507f
positive and negative aspects of, 491–492
Electoral Integrity Project, 502–508, 504t, 506–507f
Electoral laws, defined, 2
Electoral quota, 652
Electoral reform. See also Colombia; Italy; Japan; New Zealand
barriers to reform, 123
electoral system change vs., 114–115
in Israel, 586–589
in Netherlands, 574–576
in United Kingdom, 629–631
women’s representation and, 182–183
Electoral Reform Society (UK), 630, 637
Electoral rules
in authoritarian states, 387–390
changes in party systems and. See Party system effects on electoral rules
citizen-elite ideological congruence and effect from. See Citizen-elite ideological congruence
defined, 2, 23
electoral reform, 114–115. See also Electoral system change
voter turnout and. See Voter turnout
Electoral Studies, 426, 427
Electoral system change, 113–132
concept of, 114–116
determinants of, 118–124
effects of, 124–126
patterns of, 115–118
study of, 113–114
Electoral system design in new democracies, 85–111. See also Indonesia; South Africa; Ukraine
after swing to democracy, cross-national patterns, 88–98, 93–94t, 94–95f
after swing to democracy, Poland example, 87–88, 89–91f
alternative PR formulas, 96–98
design principles for future, 107–108
in Hong Kong, 98, 102–103, 104f, 107–108
party fragmentation and, 94–95, 109n8
in Peru, 98, 104–105, 105f
political party size and, 85, 97–98
in Spain, 98, 105–106, 106f, 107–108
in Tunisia, 86, 98–100, 101t, 102f, 107
uncertainty and choice sets of, 85–87
Electoral systems
allocation formulas, 4–9, 5t, 7t
in authoritarian states. See Authoritarian states
defined, 1–2, 23
effect on party system polarization. See Parties’ programmatic incentives
electoral efficiency of, 334
integrity of. See Electoral integrity
in legislative arena. See Legislators’ roles
legislative organization shaped by. See Legislative organization
organization of book and, 15–18
plurality vs. proportional rules, 3–4
political science field and importance of elections, 1–2
racial and ethnic minorities, 163–167. See also Ethnic minority representation
terminology overview, 9–15
as topic of study, 2–3
women’s representation and. See Women’s representation
Electronic voting, 481–482
El Salvador, 117
ENEP (effective number of electoral parties), 43
Ennahda (Tunisia), 99–100, 101t, 102f
ENPP (effective number of parliamentary parties), 43 (p. 974)
Environmental issue referendums, 380
EOS (Elections Obligations and Standards), 495
Estonia, 478
Ethnic minority representation, 159–174. See also Social diversity, election rules, and party system
boundary delimitation and, 163–164
defining minorities for, 161–163
district-level data of, 142–149, 143t, 145t, 146–147f, 155n16
impact of electoral system on party systems and, 56–62, 59–61t
justice of inclusion and, 160
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 463
opinion minorities vs. demographic minorities, 159–160
presidential runoff systems and, 286–287
proportionality and, 164–166
rebellion by minority groups and, 160–161, 167–170
seat allocation and, 166–167
women’s representation and tandem quotas, 185–186
Ettakatol (Tunisia), 99–100, 101t, 102f
European Communities, 369
European Union (EU)
direct democracy and referendums in, 370, 377, 378f
election administration in, 478
European Parliament, legislative organization, 310
European Parliament and constituency service, 348
experimental research about, 434
legislators’ roles in, 323, 324t
Executive power, electoral integrity and, 496–497. See also Authoritarian states; Presidential systems
Experimental research design, 425–444
causality and statistical methods, 435–436
challenges of, 425–426
experimental research in study of electoral systems, 428–434
research design in study of electoral systems, 426–428
Fair Representation Act (2011, Canada), 536
Fair Votes Act (Canada), 498
“Faithless” electors, 733
FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), 875, 881, 893
Federalism
party system effects on electoral rules and, 80–82
in United States, 722–724
Fianna Fáil (Ireland), 656–660, 663, 667
Fifth Republic. See France
Fiji, 523
Fine Gael (Ireland), 657–661, 663
Finland, 601–626
campaign finance and, 542
D’Hondt divisors in, 602–604, 606, 618
district magnitude in, 606–607, 607f, 608t
electoral system peculiarities, 603–609, 605t, 607f, 608t
Finns Party, 603, 606, 612
general election rules in, 612–613
interparty competition in, 604–605
intraparty competition in, 609–612. 609f
open list PR system in, 601, 603–612, 615–619, 618t
OPLR effects on individual-level electoral success, 616–618, 618t
party system effects on electoral rules in, 79
political campaigning in, 613–615
preferential list system in, 601–603, 609, 613, 618
proportional formula and multiseat districts of, 601–603, 604t
single nontransferable votes in, 611
single-seat districts in, 603, 616, 620n19, 621n24
two-round system in, 603
voters’ and candidates’ perspectives, 615–616, 616t
women’s representation in, 184
First Nations (Canada), ethnic minority representation of, 153
First past the post (FPTP) system
in authoritarian states, 392–393
in Canada, 749–755
constituency service and, 354–355, 357, 358
defined, 9–12, 24
(p. 975)
district magnitude and, 35–36
electoral system change and, 115
impact of electoral systems on party systems, 48, 48f
in India, 699, 710–716, 711f, 713f, 715t
in Italy, 852–855
in New Zealand, 805
PR and FPTP impact of electoral systems on party systems, 46, 48, 48f, 57
social diversity and party systems under, 137, 139, 141, 148, 153–154n4
in United Kingdom, 632–634, 633–634t
in United States, 725, 725t
women’s representation and, 182
First Republic (Italy), 852–855
Five Star Movement (Italy), 860, 861, 863
Flexible list proportional representation (FLPR) systems
defined, 30, 180
in Indonesia, 929
in Netherlands, 17, 560
Flinders deal, 765
Florida, butterfly ballots of, 493
Formalistic representation, 214–215
Formateur
formateur optimization, 266–268, 267t. See also Portfolio-maximizing strategic voting
government formation stages and, 266
in Israel, 588
in Netherlands, 558
Forza Italia, 857, 859, 861
France, 673–698
cohabitation and, 676, 678
direct democracy and referendums in, 370
electoral rules of, 674–678, 675–676t
electoral system change in, 114, 123
ethnic minority representation in, 162
experimental research about, 434, 436
Fifth Republic and changes to electoral system, 678–686, 682–684t
Fifth Republic established by, 673
first order processes with 2012 elections, 686–689, 687–688t
legislators’ roles in, 323
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 253–254
redistricting and, 517
second-order elections in, 689–694, 691t, 693t
single-seat districts in, 674, 677, 694
two-round system in, 674, 677, 680–686, 682–683t, 690, 692, 695n3
voter turnout in, 199
Francis I (King of France), 367
Franklin Thesis, 378f
Fraud. See also Electoral integrity
in authoritarian states’ elections, 396–397
campaign finance and, 548–549, 551n14
of election administration, 476–477
interpretation of, 493
in Italy, 852–857
Freedom House, 284, 370, 505, 873
Freie Demokratische Partei (Germany), 787
Fujimori, Alberto, 104
Fujimori, Keiko, 104–105, 105f, 296
Fused ballots, 294, 466n24
Gaines, Brian, 412–413
Gallagher index, defined, 752
Gandhi, Jennifer, 284
Gender quotas
electoral system change and, 115
women’s representation and tandem quotas, 185–186
women’s representation in countries with, 176–178, 177t, 180–184, 930
Gentiloni, Paolo, 864
Geocoded unit boundaries, 417–418
Germany, 781–801
closed list proportional representation system in, 786
constituency and regional representatives in, 644
district magnitude in, 35, 36
experimental research about, 432
legislative organization, 310
levels of seat allocation in, 32
limitations on proportionality in, 33
(p. 976) Germany (cont.)
mixed-member proportional system in, 782, 790, 794
mixed-member system origins and politics of, 785–789
mixed-member system performance of, 789–796, 791f, 793f
mixed-member system structure of, 445, 460, 782–785, 784t
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 249
party system effects on electoral rules in, 79
as portfolio-maximizing strategic voting example, 267–268, 275–276, 279n3
significance of electoral system, 781–782
single-seat districts in, 783, 787–790
two-round system in, 786
voter turnout in, 194, 202
Gerry, Elbridge, 527n13
Gerrymandering. See also Redistricting
defined, 38n12, 515
multiseat districts and, 500–501
racial issues of, 518
term for, 527n13
in United States, 723, 729
Ghana, 355
Going home, 345
Golkar (Indonesia), 925–927, 934, 935
Gonsalves, Ralph, 374
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 906–907
Government formation
citizen-elite ideological congruence, 221, 225–228
in Israel, 583, 593, 594–596t
stages of, 266
Government of National Unity (South Africa), 949, 960n27
Gray v. Sanders (1963), 736n5
Greece, 38n10
Green League (Finland), 603, 607–609
Green parties, age groups and, 150–151
Green Party (Germany), 793
Green Party (Ireland), 660, 670n5
Green Party (New Zealand), 809–813, 815
Greens (France), 685, 686, 689, 690, 695n9
Gregory method, 666–667
Grofman, Bernard, 154n5
Group voting tickets (Australia), 768f
Grundgesetz (German electoral law), 785
Guyana, 161
Habibie, Jusuf, 925
Hansard Society, 643
Hanson, Pauline, 775
Hare, Thomas, 629, 765
Hare-Clark representation, 765
Hare quota with largest remainders (HQLR), 5–9, 7t
in Colombia, 871, 873, 875, 881, 882, 885
D’Hondt vs., in new democracies, 104–108, 105f, 106f
in Hong Kong, 102–103, 104f
in Israel, 584–585
in Netherlands, 560, 561
in new democracies, overview, 92–98, 93–94t, 94–95f
single nontransferable votes and, 14
in Tunisia, 99–100, 101t, 102f
Harper, Stephen, 742, 750, 751, 755
Hazan, Reuven Y., 130
Henry II (king of France), 367
Hitler, Adolf, 375–376, 375f
Holomisa, Bantu, 952
Home Rule (Northern Ireland), 160
Home style, 345, 349–350
Honeymoon period for presidents, 298
Hong Kong, 98, 102–103, 104f, 107–108
closed list proportional representation system in, 102–103, 104f
Hare quota in, 102–103, 104f
Horizontal level of analysis, 408, 417
House of Assemblies (Canadian provinces), 742–746, 743t
House of Commons (Canada), 742–746, 743t
House of Commons (Northern Ireland), 636–637
House of Commons (UK)
ethnic minority representation in, 153
United Kingdom electoral systems in context, 632–634, 633t
House of Councillors (Japan), 457, 825, 839
House of Lords (UK), 639 (p. 977)
House of Representatives (Australia), 764–766, 765t
House of Representatives (Japan), 456–457, 825, 836
House of Representatives (US)
elections to, 728–730
party system and, 724–726
single-seat districts of, 723
How to vote (HTV) cards, 775
Huber, John, 155n16
Huijsen, Coos, 570
Hungary
as authoritarian state, 393–395
levels of seat allocation in, 32–33
Hun Sen, 389
Hunters (political parties), 221–222
ICERD (International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1966), 495
IDEA (International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance), 495
Ideological congruence. See Citizen-elite ideological congruence
Ideology scores, 224
Impeachment, 730
Incumbent candidates. See also Authoritarian states
Finland’s OPLR and, 616–618, 618t
hyperpersonalistic system in Japan and, 828
incumbent candidates (category), 617
in Ireland, 662
in legislature. See Legislative organization
Incumbent ruling parties, 73–74, 79
Independence Party (UK), 632
Independent Electoral Commission (South Africa), 945, 946, 956
Index of disproportionality, 631, 638, 640, 655, 655f
India, 699–720
direct democracy and referendums in, 367
electoral rules of, 700–701
electoral system characteristics, 699
ethnic minority representation in, 162, 166
experimental research about, 431–432
first past the post system in, 699, 710–716, 711f, 713f, 715t
impact of electoral system on party system in, 62, 66n36
malapportionment in, 703–707, 704f, 706f
minority groups represented in, 701–703
party system effects on electoral rules in, 80, 82
pre-election alliances of, 707–717, 711f, 713f, 715t
redistricting and, 516, 523
single-seat districts in, 700, 702
single transferable vote in, 700
social diversity and party system in, 139, 154n13
Indian National Congress, 699, 703, 705–708, 706f, 710, 712–716
Individualizers, 616
Indonesia, 921–941
characteristics of, 921
closed list proportional representation system in, 930, 937
electoral system design of, 923–930
flexible list proportional representation in, 929
legislator-constituent ties of, 935–936
mixed-member proportional system in, 926, 929
as multilevel electoral system, 922–923, 922t
number of parties in, 932–934
open list PR system in, 924, 929–930, 935–938
party system nationalization and, 934–935, 935t
proportionality in, 931–932
proportional representation system in, 921, 931–932
single nontransferable votes in, 923
women’s representation in, 936–937
Inflation effect, 201
Informal voting, 772–774, 774f
Informational theory of legislative organization, 307–308, 310
Inkatha Freedom Party (South Africa), 949, 951, 952
Instant runoff elections (IRV), 14, 729, 734
Institutional effects on party systems. See Party systems and institutional effects
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Mexico), 389, 390–391, 395
Interest groups
electoral system change and, 119–120
redistricting and, 522
International Convention for Civil and Political Rights (1966), 495
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD, 1966), 495
International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES)/Democracy International, 484, 493
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), 495
Internet voting, 481
Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), 176
Interparty competition
defined, 2
electoral system change patterns in, 116–117, 332
in Finland, 601, 604–605
in Indonesia, 924
in Netherlands, 565–567, 568t
Intraparty competition
campaign finance, candidate-level effects, 545–546
defined, 2–3
electoral system change patterns in, 116, 117
in Finland, 601, 602, 604, 609–612, 609f
in Indonesia, 924
in Netherlands, 568–570
Iran, 503
Iraq, 117, 166
Ireland, 651–672. See also Northern Ireland
campaign finance in, 538–541, 539f, 540–541t
candidates in, 661–663
constituency service and, 348, 351–352, 354–355, 357
criticism and suggestions for reform, 665–667
district magnitude in, 26
ethnic minority representation and, 165
Irish Free State, 636, 655
legislative organization in, 310, 314
nomination strategies in, 663–665, 664f
party fragmentation and proportionality, 655–657f, 655–658
preferential list system in, 665, 669
single transferable vote system of, 515, 520, 651–653, 654f, 669n1, 670n9
social diversity and party system in, 143t, 144–149, 145t, 146f, 150–152
two-round system in, 652
voters’ preferences in, 658–661, 660t, 667–668
Irish National Election Study (INES), 658–661
IRV (instant runoff elections), 14, 729, 734
Ishiba, Shigeru, 837
Islamic Salvation Front (Algeria), 395
Israel, 581–600
2015 election results in, 582–583, 583t
closed list proportional representation system in, 17, 581–582, 586, 588–589, 597
D’Hondt divisors in, 582, 584–585
direct democracy and referendums in, 367
district magnitude in, 585
Droop quota in, 584
electoral reform attempts by, 586–589
electoral system design in, 109n9
ethnic minority representation in, 169
experimental research about, 430–431
extreme PR system of, 581–582, 584–585
government formation and durability in, 583, 593, 594–596t
Hare quota in, 584–585
impact of electoral system on party system in, 62
legislature and legislative behavior in, 596–597
parties and fragmentation of party system, 590–591, 591f, 592t
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 253–254
personalization of candidates in, 582, 589, 596–598
(p. 979)
portfolio-maximizing strategic voting and, 277
proportional representation system in, 581–582, 584–585
single nationwide district for seat allocation, 585
single-seat districts in, 584–585
Italy, 851–870
2015 reform and Italicum, 858–859
closed list proportional representation system in, 856–858, 863
D’Hondt divisors in, 867n11
direct democracy and referendums, 374, 384n1
district magnitude in, 36
electoral nationalization in, 862t, 863
electoral system change in, 114, 119
experimental research about, 430–431
government stability, 860
levels of seat allocation in, 38n10
mixed-member majoritarian system in, 856, 860, 861
multiple reforms of, overview, 851, 853–854t
ongoing reform in, 864–866
open list PR system in, 852, 856, 859, 863
party system, 860–861
PR electoral system of First Republic (1948–1992), 852–855
PR to MMM (1993), 855–857
return to PR with majority (2005), 857–858
single-seat districts in, 866n4
voters of, 863
Jackson, Andrew, 724
Jacobson effect, 534, 539–545, 540–541t
Jamaica, 42
Japan, 825–849
campaign finance and, 540, 542
closed list proportional representation system in, 829, 841n2
D’Hondt divisors in, 829
direct democracy and referendums in, 367
district magnitude in, 36–37
electoral competition of, 829, 830–835, 831f
electoral system change in, 114, 117, 125
experimental research about, 430–431
intraparty choice of candidates in, 37n7
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 456–457, 460, 462, 465n11, 465n12
mixed-member majoritarian system in, 825–830, 827f, 833, 835
multiple electoral systems of, 825–826
open list PR system in, 825, 841n2
party and legislative organization of, 835–840, 838f
redistricting and, 517
regional proportional representation blocs of, 842n12
single nontransferable votes in, 826–830, 827f
SNTV to MMM reform by, 826–830, 827f
voter turnout in, 201–205, 201f, 203–204f
Japanese Communist Party, 831
Jarvis, Howard, 369
Jatis (Indian social groups), 701, 702
Jefferson, Thomas, 724
Jenkins, Roy, 630–631
Jones, M. P., 940
Jospin, Lionel, 679, 681
Judicial elections in United States, 734
Kadima (Israel), 277
Karcher v. Daggett (1983), 521
Katz, Richard S., 125–126
Kenya, 287, 389
Kenya African National Union, 389
Kerala (Indian state), 704f, 705, 708, 710, 715–716, 715t
Key, John, 812
Kiesraad (Netherlands), 560
Kiribati, 166
Knesset (Israel), 582, 596–597
Koenkai (apolitical networks, Japan), 828, 834–836
Koizumi, Jun’ichiro, 839
Kok I and Kok II governments (Netherlands), 573t, 574
Kollman, Ken, 413–415
Komeito (Japan), 204, 830, 832, 835
Kravchuk, Leonid, 904
Kriging method, 408, 417–418 (p. 980)
Kuchel, Thomas Henry, 369
Kuchma, Leonid, 904–905, 908–909
Kuczynski, Pedro Pablo, 105
Kuomintang (Taiwan), 389
Laboratory experiments, 429–430
Labor Party (Israel), 589
Labour Party (Ireland), 670n5
Labour Party (Netherlands), 249
Labour Party (New Zealand), 148–149, 809–815, 816
Labour Party (UK)
direct democracy and referendums, 367, 369
election data on, 415
majorities achieved by, 24
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 249, 257n2
party system effects on electoral rules, 78–79
social diversity and party system and, 148–149
United Kingdom electoral systems in context, 630, 636, 640. See also United Kingdom
Lapland (Finland), 605t, 606
Largest-remainder rules, 7
Latin American countries. See also specific countries
authoritarian states in, 392
citizen-elite ideological congruence in, 227–228
defined, 289
party system effects on electoral rules in, 73–74
presidential and legislative elections in, 289
social diversity and party system in, 141
Latino Americans, ethnic minority representation in United States, 164
Lead candidate strategy, 611
Lebanon, 165, 522–523
Left Alliance (Finland), 603
Left Democratic Front (India), 716, 718n17
Left Party (Germany), 793
Left-right positions of parties
left-wing political parties and ideological congruence, 223
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 250–255
Legge truffa (swindle law, Italy), 852–855
Legislative Assemblies (Canadian provinces), 742–746, 743t
Legislative Council (Hong Kong), 102–103, 104f
Legislative elections. See also Presidential and legislative elections; specific countries
in Canada, 742–746, 743t
in France, 686–689, 688t
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 451, 453t, 456–457
pure presidential systems and legislative contingent, 294–297
rules and consequences of, 291–293
two-round system in France, 677
United States congressional elections, 728–730
Legislative ideological congruence, 223–225
Legislative organization, 303–319
comparative perspectives of, 308–311, 309f
electoral basis of, 305–308
electoral systems and shaping of, 303–304
mechanisms to cultivate a personal vote, 311–315, 313–314f
Legislators’ roles, 321–343. See also Constituency service
constituency service and, 356
electoral systems and impact on, 321–322, 322f
future research on electoral systems and, 335–336
institutions and, 322–324, 324t
lack of data about electoral systems and, 330–331
nature of electoral systems and, 332–333
public expectations and electoral systems, 333–334
representatives’ perspective and, 325–330, 325f, 326–327t
role concept and, 331–332
Le Pen, Marine, 689–694, 695n11
Lesotho, 32
Level-playing-field strategy, 621n34
Levels of analysis. See also Election data and levels of analysis (p. 981)
defined, 405–406
horizontal levels, 408, 417
limitations of, 409–410
vertical levels, 408
Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), 37, 827–839
Liberal Democrat Party (UK), 257n2, 630
Liberal Party (Canada), 749, 752–755, 757
Liberal Party (Colombia), 875, 877, 879f, 880, 882–885, 883t, 888–891, 894
Liberal Party (Italy), 855
Liberal Party (Netherlands), 560
Liberal Party (UK)
direct democracy and referendums, 367
party system effects on electoral systems, 78–79
United Kingdom electoral systems in context, 629, 630. See also United Kingdom
Libya, 86
Lijphart, Arend
on consociational and consensus democracy, 496
Democracies, 284
on direct democracy and referendums, 381–382, 381t
Electoral Systems and Party Systems, 427
Lipjhart Elections Archive, 412
on proportional rules for racial healing, 947
Likud (Israel), 277, 583, 589
Limited vote. See also Canada
in Canada, 745, 747
defined, 71
in United Kingdom, 629
in United States, 734
Lincoln, Abraham, 724
Linkage, 147, 413
Linz, Juan, 297
Lipset, Seymour, 150
List proportional representation (PR). See also Closed list proportional representation systems; Open list proportional representation systems
coalition building and, 164, 558. See also Coalition building
electoral integrity and, 501. See also Electoral integrity
List-pullers (Netherlands), 569
Local elections (US), 733–734
Logrolling, 306
Lok Sabha (House of the People, India), 700, 702, 704–705, 712
Louisiana, two-round system of, 728
Loyalty, Irish voters and, 658–661, 660t, 667–668
Lukashenko, Alexander, 284
Mackinnon v. Prince Edward Island (1993), 518
Macron, Emmanuel, 690–694, 696n16
Maduro, Nicolás, 284
“Magical number” of voting options, 86–87
Mainwaring, S., 940
Majoritarian systems
in autocracies vs. democracies, 388–389
direct democracy and referendums, 381–382, 381t
electoral integrity and, 497, 498
in France, 678
ideological congruence in proportional systems vs., 217. See also Citizen-elite ideological congruence
in Italy, 857
for legislative elections, 291
majority principle, 72–78
redistricting and, 514–515
responsiveness of, 229–231, 230f
in South Africa, 943
switched to PR systems, 113–114, 116. See also Electoral system change
valence incentives, 221
voter turnout and, 203–204
women’s representation in, 176
Majority formula (for presidential runoff systems), 286–287, 288t, 295
Malapportionment. See also Redistricting
defined, 34
gerrymandering, 38n12
in India, 703–707, 704f, 706f
redistricting and, 525–526n4
Malema, Julius, 953
Malpractice issues. See also Electoral integrity
checks and balances, 497
of election administration, 476–477
electoral standards and, 494
Malta, 651
Mana Maōri Party (New Zealand), 813
Mana Motuhake (New Zealand), 813, 815–816
Mandate rule, 451
Mandela, Nelson, 947, 954
Mangope, Lucas, 952
Mani pulite (clean hands), 855–857
Maōri (New Zealand)
Mana Motuhake party, 813, 815–816
Maōri Party, 815–816
minority representation and, 165, 806–807, 811, 813, 898n31
redistricting and, 523
Mapai (Israel), 599n3
Mass-elite linkage. See Parties’ programmatic incentives
Mauritius, 165–166
McGovern-Fraser Commission, 727, 731
Mechanisms to cultivate a personal vote (MCPV), 311–315, 313–314f
Mega-seats legislative organization and, 313
Mexico, 389, 390, 395
Michels, Robert, 374–375
“Micromega rule,” 73
Micro parties, 769, 952
Mill, John Stuart, 629
Miller, George A., 86
Minority representation
citizen-elite ideological congruence and, 231–233
cumulative vote and, 236
electoral integrity and, 499
experimental research about, 431–432
in India, 701–703
legislators’ roles and, 323
in New Zealand, 806–807, 811, 813, 815
redistricting and, 522–523
Mitterrand, François, 674, 678–679
Mixed-member electoral systems, 445–471. See also Germany; Mixed-member proportional (MMP) systems; Research approaches of mixed-member electoral systems
defined, 25, 25t
for legislative elections, 291
mixed-member majoritarian (MMM) system, 201–202, 201f
number of votes cast in, 26
party system effects on electoral rules in, 74
women’s representation in, 176
Mixed-member majoritarian (MMM) systems
in Italy, 856, 860, 861
in Japan, 825–830, 827f, 833, 835
legislative elections and, 292–293
levels of seat allocation in, 32–33
redistricting in, 515
research of, 447, 457–458, 465n10
in United Kingdom, 640–643
voter turnout and, 201–202, 201f
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) systems
in Canada, 752, 756–757. See also Canada
compensatory (corrective) tier, 32–35
constituency service and, 354–355
defined, 10–11
district magnitude in, 36–37
electoral rules of, 196, 198, 201–202, 201f
in Germany, 782, 790, 794
in Indonesia, 926, 929
legislative elections and, 292–293
levels of seat allocation in, 31–32
in Netherlands, 574, 576
in New Zealand, 10–11, 643, 805–809, 811–813, 815–820, 818t, 819t, 821n2
redistricting in, 514–515
research of, 447, 457–458, 465n10
in South Africa, 948
in United Kingdom, 628, 630–631, 640–645, 641–642t, 647n2
Mobilization of voters. See Voter turnout
MoDem (France), 686
Modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), 417 (p. 983)
Montana, experimental research about, 434
M + 1 rule
campaign finance and, 534–539, 537f, 539f
defined, 53
in France, 681
in Japan, 827
Multiseat districts (MSDs)
campaign finance and, 540–541
in Canada, 742–746, 743t
in Finland, 601
gerrymandering and, 500–501. See also Electoral integrity
legislators’ roles and, 328–330
voter turnout and, 194, 199, 201–205, 201f, 203–204f
Multiple nontransferable votes (MNTV)
in Canada, 745–746
defined, 14–15
redistricting and, 515
United Kingdom and, 628, 629, 634–636, 637t
voter turnout and, 199
Multiple-tier seat allocation systems
adjustment-seats in two-tier seat allocation, 36
district magnitude and variation in electoral systems, 34–37
impact of electoral system on party systems in, 56–62, 59–61t
single-seat constituency systems vs., 31–33
Municipal Structures Act (South Africa, 1998), 948
Mussolini, Benito, 374
Namibia, 164
Nanson, Edward, 777n4
National Action Party (Mexico), 395
National Alliance (Italy), 857, 861
National Assembly (South Africa), 953, 956
National Assembly (Wales), 643–645
National Coalition (Finland), 603, 616
National Council of the Provinces (South Africa), 945
National Democratic Alliance (India), 699, 707–710
National Diet (Japan), 825, 828, 832, 836, 838
National Election Studies (Finland), 615
National Election Survey (US), 357
National Electoral Office (Peru), 104
National Front (Colombia), 873, 875
National Front (France), 685, 686, 689–692, 696n15
Nationalist Congress Party (India), 708
Nationalist Party (Northern Ireland), 160
Nationalization of party systems, 413–414
National Party (New Zealand), 808–815
National Party (South Africa), 946–947, 951
Negative compulsory voting, 432, 438n13
Negative vote transfers, 856, 861
Netanyahu, Benjamin, 583, 596t
Netherlands, 557–580
ballot structure of, 557, 560–563, 562f, 568–572, 576
D’Hondt divisors in, 560, 561, 563, 577
electoral reform in, 574–576
electoral system origins of, 559–561
electoral system process of, 561–565
flexible list proportional representation in, 17, 560
government formation characteristics of, 572, 573t
Hare quota in, 560, 561
interparty dimension of, 565–567, 568t
intraparty dimension of, 568–570
mixed-member proportional system in, 574, 576
open list PR system in, 560, 568
Parliament of, 570–572, 571t
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 249, 253–254
plurality rules and, 11
political system features of, 558–559
proportional electoral formula of, 557–560, 566–567, 568t, 570–572
proportional representation system in, 557–560, 566–567, 568t, 570–572
seat allocation to parties in, 563–565, 564–565t
two-round system in, 560, 575
New Democrat Party (Canada), 754, 757
New National Party (South Africa), 951–952, 956 (p. 984)
New York (state), election administration in, 479
New Zealand, 805–824
Canada’s electoral systems vs., 747–749
closed list proportional representation system in, 807
constituency service and, 351–352, 354–355
direct democracy and referendums in, 373, 374
district magnitude in, 36
dual candidacy in, 644
efficacy and electoral system opinion, 816–819, 817f, 818–819t
electoral system change in, 114, 117, 121, 125
ethnic minority representation in, 165, 166
experimental research about, 430–431
first past the post system in, 805
FPTP transition to MMP system, 805
levels of seat allocation in, 32
minority representation, 806–807, 811, 813, 815–816, 898n31
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 457, 460
mixed-member proportional (MMP) system in, 10–11, 643, 805–809, 811–813, 815–820, 818t, 819t, 821n2
MMP system expectations, 805–812, 808f, 810t
party system of, 812–816
redistricting and, 523, 524, 526n10
social diversity and party system in, 139, 148–149
voter turnout in, 196, 198, 201–202, 201f, 203f
New Zealand Election Survey (NZES), 816
New Zealand First Party, 808–813, 815
Nicaragua, 284
Nida Tunis (Tunisia), 100
Niger, 166
Nigeria, 529n46
Nominal vote (Germany), 794–796
Nominations
in Finland, 601, 610–611
in Ireland, 663–665, 664f
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 460
in United States, 726–728, 730–733, 733t
Nontransferable votes (NTV), 14
Northern Ireland
ethnic minority representation and, 160
redistricting and, 519, 528–529n32, 528n29
United Kingdom electoral systems and, 627–630, 632, 634, 636–640, 638–639t, 644. See also United Kingdom
Northern League (Italy), 857, 860
Norway
party system effects on electoral rules in, 79
voter turnout in, 194, 200–201, 201f
women’s representation in, 182
Obama, Barack
on compulsory voting, 764
presidential and legislative elections, 284
Oireachtas Committee on the Constitution (Ireland), 666
Open list proportional representation systems (OLPR)
campaign finance and, 533, 546
in Colombia, 882, 887, 888, 891, 896n2
defined, 13
in Finland, 601, 603–612, 615–619, 618t
flexible list proportional representation systems and, 17, 30, 180, 560, 929
in Indonesia, 924, 929–930, 935–938
in Italy, 852, 856, 859, 863
in Japan, 825, 841n2
legislative elections and, 292
in Netherlands, 560, 568
open-list, plurality-at-large system, 206n7
ordered lists, 184
preferential (PR) list systems, 13, 25, 25t, 30–31
in Ukraine, 909–910
voter turnout and, 201–205, 201f
women’s representation and, 180–181, 184
Operation Wasp, 109n11 (p. 985)
Optional preferential voting, 748
Ordinal ballot structure, 29–30
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 482, 493, 495
Organization of American States (OAS), 493, 495
Ortega, Daniel, 284
OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe), 482, 493, 495
Our Ukraine, 917
Outcome-contingent motivation in electoral system change, 120–121
Pakatan Rakyat (Malaysia), 500–501
Pakistan, 166, 516
Panachage, 199, 292
Pan African Congress, 955
Papua New Guinea, 523
Parliament (France), 677
Parliament (Scotland), 644, 645
Parliamentary Act (Finland, 1906), 602, 610, 612
Parliamentary systems. See also Portfolio-maximizing strategic voting
in Finland, 603, 604t, 607–609
impact of electoral systems on party systems, 47, 48f
pure parliamentary systems, defined, 285
Participation and Representation (2014 study), 323
Partido Popular (Spain), 105–106, 106f
Parties’ programmatic incentives, 247–261. See also Political parties
empirical results, 252–255
party system polarization and, 247–248, 602
theoretical arguments about, 248–252
Parti Québécois (Canada), 754
PARTIREP study, 351
Party aggregation, 413
Party magnitude, women’s representation and, 180
Party Nationalization Score, 934–935
Party of National Social Unity (Colombia), 880
Party of Regions (Ukraine), 916–917
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Mexico), 395
Party system effects on electoral rules, 69–84
changes in party systems, 69–70
electoral behavior and institutional choice, 74–76
institutional tradeoffs, 78–82
origins of parties and electoral systems, 70–71
parties’ strategic choices of electoral systems, 72–74
party system configurations, 76–78
Party system fragmentation
in Canada, 750
in Finland, 603
in India, 711–713, 711f, 713f
in Ireland, 655–657f, 655–658
in Israel, 590–591, 591f, 592t
legislative elections and, 291
in Netherlands, 575
social diversity, election rules, and, 136–137, 139–142, 140–141f
Party system ideological congruence, 219–222
Party systems and institutional effects, 41–68
checks and balances for electoral integrity, 497
complex systems and ethnic factors, 56–62, 59–61t
effective number, 42–44
electoral system change and, 117–118, 125–126
institutional effects, illustrating, 45–46
measuring deviation from proportionality, 44–45
nationalization of party systems, 413–414
quantifying party systems, importance of, 41
Seat Product Model (SPM), 46–56, 48f, 50–52f, 56f
Pastrana, Andrés, 877–880, 885
Patriotic Union (Colombia), 881
Peasant Party (Poland), 108n3
People of Freedom (Italy), 861
People’s Action Party (Singapore), 389, 500
People’s Consultative Assembly (Indonesia), 922 (p. 986)
People’s Representative Council (Indonesia), 922–923, 926–927, 929, 933–934
People’s Rukh (Ukraine), 911, 916
Perceptions of Electoral Integrity (Electoral Integrity Project), 502–508, 504t, 506–507f
Permissive electoral systems, 411–412
Personalization of candidates
in intraparty systems, 116–117, 125
in Israel, 582, 589, 596–598
Personal lists (Colombia), 882–883
Personal vote-earning attributes (PVEAs), 616
Peru
D’Hondt divisors in, 99–100, 101t, 102f
electoral system design in, 98, 104–105, 105f
presidential and legislative elections in, 296, 298n5
Peters, Winston, 809
Philippines, 37n7
Pivotal voter theories, 193
Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales), 630
Plant Report (Labour Party, UK), 636
Plebiscites
defined, 366
referendums and, 374–376, 376f
Plumping, 199
Plurality formula (presidential runoff systems), 286–287, 288t, 295
Plurality (majoritarian) rules. See also Majoritarian systems
first past the post (FPTP) system, 9–12
proportional rules vs., 3–4
seat allocation and, 12–15
Poland
as authoritarian state, 393–394
electoral system design in, 87–88, 89–91f, 108n3, 109n4
women’s representation in, 184
Policy Affairs Research Council (PARC), 828, 836, 838–839
Policy ideological congruence, 228–229
Policy positions of parties. See Parties’ programmatic incentives
Political parties. See also Party system fragmentation; individual party names
effective number of parties, 3–4
impact of electoral systems on party systems. See Party systems and institutional effects
incumbent ruling parties, 73–74
micro parties, 769, 952
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 462
number of parties. See Party system fragmentation
policy positions of. See Parties’ programmatic incentives
predicting number of, 79–80
size of, in new democracies, 85, 97–98
Politicians. See also Campaign finance; Nominations
candidate issues in Ireland, 661–663
in electoral system change, 118–124
in intraparty competition, 609–612, 609f
Polity IV, 92, 505, 873
Polling places. See also Voting
polling machine data availability, 419
poll workers at, 477
Pooling vote (open list system, Finland), 604–609, 612
Popular Force (Peru), 104–105, 105f
Pork barrel spending, 305, 345–346
Poroshenko, Petro, 906
Portfolio-maximizing strategic voting, 265–282
defined, 265
empirical findings, 275–278
equilibrium in, 270–274, 271t, 274t
government formation stages and, 266
seat-maximizing strategic voting and, 265, 280n14
typology of, 266–270, 267t, 269f
Positive compulsory voting, 438n13
Power-sharing arrangements. See Electoral integrity
Preference falsification, 394–396
Preferential (PR) list systems
in Australia, 764–769, 774, 776
(p. 987)
in Canada, 748, 757
defined, 13, 25, 25t
in Finland, 601–603, 609, 613, 618
in Ireland, 665, 669
in United Kingdom, 629–630, 636–637
Preferential (PR) single transferable vote (PR-STV) systems
choice of candidates within parties, 31
defined, 25, 25t
Presidential and legislative elections, 283–301. See also Presidential systems
democracy definitions, 283–285
direct and indirect contagion effects, 293–294
legislative elections, categories, 291–293
legislative organization and, 315–316
presidential term lengths, 286–287
pure presidential systems, elections and democratic governance, 294–297
regime types and presidential elections, 285
rules for popular election of presidents, 286–291, 288t, 290t, 295
Presidentialization of party systems, 692, 725
Presidential systems. See also Semi-presidential systems
citizen-elite ideological congruence and, 227–228
in Finland, 602
in France, 680–686, 682–683t, 688t
impact on party systems, 47, 48f, 65n16, 66n28
interparty electoral systems, 2
mixed-member electoral systems, research approaches, 461
portfolio-maximizing strategic voting in, 280n19
social diversity and party system, 138–139, 141, 154n6, 154n14
in United States, 725, 730–733, 733t
Prime minister elections (Israel), 587–588
Progressive Democrats Party (Ireland), 670n5
Progressive Party (South Africa), 954
Proportionality. See also Seat allocation levels
ethnic minority representation and, 164–166
index of disproportionality, 655, 655f
variation in electoral systems and, 27–28t
Proportional representation (PR) systems. See also Electoral integrity
in authoritarian states, 392–393
defined, 24
Duverger’s law on, 410–411. See also Duverger, Maurice
election administration in, 479
FPTP and PR impact of electoral systems on party systems, 46, 48, 48f, 57
ideological congruence in majoritarian systems vs., 217. See also Citizen-elite ideological congruence
in Indonesia, 921, 931–932
in Israel, 581–582, 584–585
for legislative elections, 291
legislators’ roles and focus of representation, 326–327t, 328–330
levels of seat allocation and, 31–33
limitations on proportionality, 33–34
majoritarian systems switched to, 113–114, 116. See also Electoral system change
measuring deviation from proportionality, 44–45
in mixed-member systems, 446
in Netherlands, 557–560, 566–567, 568t, 570–572
parties’ programmatic incentives and, 250–252
party system effects on electoral rules in, 71–73, 75–78
party systems shaped by electoral systems and, 41. See also Party systems and institutional effects
portfolio-maximizing strategic voting and, 277–278
redistricting and, 514–515
responsiveness of, 229–231, 230f
in South Africa, 944, 948–949, 953, 959n15
in United Kingdom,