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date: 19 February 2019

(p. 659) Index

(p. 659) Index

Page numbers followed by t and f indicate tables and figures, respectively. Numbers followed by n indicate notes.

Aaron, Samuel, 597
Abandoned Lake in Maine (Helmuth), 535, 539, 547–550, 548t
ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 651
abelian groups, 508
aberrations, 276278, 284
Ableton Live, 311, 567, 574, 630, 642n8
absolute music, 557–558
absolutism, 28, 37n34
abstraction-free live coding, 312
abstraction hating, 304
abstractions, 301306
academic conferences, 574–576, 576t
academic institutions, 574–576, 576t
Academy of Music and Drama (University of Gothenburg), 45–46
access, 585–587, 639
accessibility, 460
Access Space, 576t
ACD (activity-centred design), 430
achromatopsia, 408
Acousmatic Anonymous (Nilson), 572–573
acousmatic art, 471
acousmatic compositions, 480–481
acousmatic music, 538, 540–541, 540f
Acousmographe, 483
Acousmonium, 474, 486
acoustic breakfasts, 119–122
acoustic ecosystems, 232–233, 473
acoustic logon, 28
acoustic music, 538, 540–541, 540f
acoustics, 583–584
acoustic uncertainty, 28–29
action, 41–65
collective, 560
action–perception circuits (APC), 54
action–perception coupling, 53
activity-centred design (ACD), 430
Activity Theory, 430
Actor-Network Theory (ANT), 559–567, 573–577, 577n2
AD8313 Logarithmic Detector chip, 616–617
adaptation, real-time, 195
adaptive audio feedback, 232
adaptive behaviour, 228
adaptive collaborators, 210, 227–231
adaptive technology, 382–383
adjacent possibility, 462
advanced ticketing, 576t
aeolian harp, 71
aesthetics, 557–558, 609
music-aesthetic preferences, 281282, 282f, 283t
ramai or ramé, 79
sonic, 155–180
system, 211
Aesthetics and Computation Group (MIT Media Lab), 589
affordances, 191, 466
agency, 54–56, 237, 561–562, 585
machine, 127
nonhuman, 562–563
in technologically mediated music making, 564–567
agent-based algorithms, 209–244
agents, 303
age of composition, 459
Agile development, 428
Agre, Philip, 128
AHRC, 576t
Air app, 632 (p. 660)
Albany State University, 517
Alberts, Gerard, 35n9
Alela, 648
algebra, 37n40, 508, 510–515
Algorave, 11, 13, 43, 96, 115–116, 572–573, 576t, 653
algorhythmic listening, 616–619
algorhythmics, 604, 607–608, 615–622
algorhythms, 615–616
algorithmic art, 359
algorithmic complementarity, 32, 309
algorithmic composition, 105–111, 538, 630
of gamelan music, 8892
‘Impacts,’ 484f, 487–489
pre-computer antecedents, 69–71
rule-based, 133
algorithmic culture, 531–658
algorithmic ensembles, 345–361
algorithmic imitation, 5
algorithmic music, 17–40, 598–599
audience reception of, 531–556
canonical, 8
challenges and solutions, 587–590
contemporary directions, 12
creativity in, 557–581
critical response to, 639–641
definition of, 5–6
distributed formats, 629–630
early, 8–10, 69–71
in education, 591–598
examples, 591–598
gamelan, 8892
guidelines for, 327–330
issues, 10–12
laptop-based, 321–322
mass consumption of, 627–644
mass distribution of, 628–629
networked, 346–347, 346f
vs nonalgorithmic music, 322–323
origins of, 67–78
outlook for, 656
politics of, 605–609
production difficulties, 636
social perspective on, 557–581
technology in, 557–581
as theory of time, 32–34
types of, 628–629
algorithmic practice, 517–528
algorithmic spatialization, 471–496
algorithmic synaesthesia, 387–388, 650
algorithmic trajectories, 647–658
algorithms, 48–50, 183–184
affordance of, 6–7
agent-based, 209–244
as augmented mind, 56–58
biologically inspired, 209–244
coevolutionary approaches, 220
as compensations, 107–108
definition of, 4–6, 262
description and notation, 586–587
design and development, 586–587
embodiment of, 41–65
Euclid’s algorithm, 250
evolutionary, 217
general-purpose, 194–195
genetic, 215–217, 216f, 218–220
history of, 4
interfaces for, 423–450
live, 6, 267292, 444
machine learning, 181–208, 321–324
materiality of, 44–46
in music education, 583–601
for music makers, 345–528
in musicology, 8890
origins of, 7
perfect, 507
performance on, with, and in, 58–61, 335–341
previewing, 298
purposes of, 345–528
selection, 603–604
sonification of, 19–22
spatial audio rendering, 477, 477f, 478
spatialization, 477–478, 477f, 481–486
swarm, 223–224
synaesthetic, 397–398
as thoughts, 568–569
and time, 17–18
as tools, 3–15
vowel-to-pitch, 69
algorithmy, 322–323
ALife, 211, 222, 224, 227, 234
Al-Jazari, 71
Allen, Geri, 129n5
Allosphere, 474
allusion, 108–109
alpha scale, 156
AM, 11
Amacher, Maryanne, 612
ambicontrol methods, 483
Ambisonics (ICST), 9697, 97f, 478, 486, 488f, 491n3
Analog HD1 (Gieskes), 615
Analog HD2 (Gieskes), 615
Analogias Paraboloides (Caryevschi), 411
analogue optical soundtracks, 397
analogy, 389
anarchism, 608
Ancient Greece, 4, 7, 68
Ancient India, 7
Anders, Torsten, 146–147, 146f
Andriessen, Louis, 249
Android phones, 637
Angliss, Sarah, 321–324
animated soundtracks, 397
animated visual music, 394
The Animation of Lists and the Archytan Transpositions (Burt), 517
Anna University, 116
annotations, 299300
ANS Synthesizer, 400, 409–410, 410f
ANT (Actor-Network Theory), 559–567, 573–577, 577n2
anticipatory systems, 61
antidisciplinary tactics, 610–611
Anti-EP (Autechre), 572, 578n12
antitotalitarianism, 623n4
Anti-University of London, 607, 623n3
AoE (Audio over Ethernet), 354–355
ap, 606
Apple App Store, 638
Apple iOS, 637–638
Apple iPad, 633
applications (apps)
critical response, 639–640
generative music apps, 632–633
interactive music apps, 633–635
platform apps, 531, 636–637
production difficulties, 636
reactive music apps, 634–636
remix apps, 633–634
Arab world, 7
Arboretum, 406
Arca Musarithma (Kircher), 605
arca musarythmica, 69
archaeology, 603–626, 623n10
architecture, subsumption, 230–231
Arduino, 574, 576t
Armstrong, Keith, 651, 656n1
Arnall, Timo, 444
Arouet, François-Marie, 388
arpeggiators, 642n2
arrows, 36n24
ars combinatoria, 69, 72
art, 245, 578n11
acousmatic, 471
algorithmic, 359
data, 237
network, 356
radio, 349
sound, 415–416, 473
Artemiev, Edward, 411
artificial critics, 220
artificial intelligence (AI), 133
experiments, 211–212
Good Old Fashioned AI (GOFAI), 230
representationalist approach, 230
artificial intelligence (AI) systems, 164–165
artificial life (ALife), 211
artificial music, 223–224
artificial soundtracks, 394
‘Art in Cinema’ (Whitney Brothers), 397
artists, 574–576, 576t
artivism, 608
art music, 572
artomations, 70
art-pop, 570–573
ArtWonk, 518–520, 522–525, 523t
artworks, 211–212
‘Ascension’ (Coltrane), 459
ASCII art arrays, 338–339, 339f
Ascott, Roy, 61, 211
A-series, 32
Ashby model of homeostasis, 228–229
Ashby, Ross, 210
Ashley, Robert, 211 (p. 662)
Asquith, Lily, 368
Assayag’s Factor Oracle, 189
As SLow aS Possible (Cage), 603, 623n1
associativity, 508
Astounding Science Fiction, 69
Atak, 407–408
ATK, 488f
atonal program music, 539
Attali, Jacques, 459
attraction
basin of, 213–214
cyclic attractors, 213, 213f
Lorenz attractors, 210–211, 213, 214f
point attractors, 213, 213f
strange attractors, 213, 214f
Audible Eco-Systemic Interfaces (Di Scipio), 232–233, 232f
audible ecosystems, 231–233
audience engagement, 533
audience reception
of algorithmic music, 531–556, 536f
case studies, 536–537
critical response, 639–641
of dance, 533–534
future research, 554–555
Survey-1, 536–537
Survey-2, 538–541, 540f, 552–553, 553f, 554f
Survey-3, 541, 553, 554f
Survey-4, 541, 553, 554f
Audio Definition Model, 480
audio feedback, adaptive, 232
Audio over Ethernet (AoE), 354–355
audio patterns, 187
The Audio Programming Book (Boulanger and Lazzarini), 423
Audiosculpt, 405
audio signals, 367–368
audio synthesis models, 368
Audio Video Bridging (AVB), 355
audiovisual musics, 396
Audio Workshop (Taller de Audio) (CMM), 113–114
auditory system, 383
Audium, 474
augmentation, 248
Augmented Gamelan, 80, 9297, 93f
augmented mind, 56–58
Augur, 411–413
aural performativity, 56
Aura-phoenix (2015), 139
Aurora, 405
Aus den sieben Tagen (From the seven days) (Stockhausen), 8–9
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), 651
Australian Chamber Orchestra, 649
Australian Film Commission, 651
austraLYSIS, 648, 650–651, 656n1
Autechre, 13, 325–326, 572, 578n12, 603, 652
auteurs, 376–377
authenticity, 296
autoethnography, 577n3
Auto-Illustrator, 652
automata
cellular, 222–223
musical, 71, 390–392
automated paper sound, 400
automated processes, 49–50
automatic composition, 70
automatic variation, 71
automation, 71–74, 585
automatisms, 120–121
automatized perceptions and behaviors, 120
automorphisms, 509
autonomous robotics, 229
autonomy, 236
autopoiesis, 232–233
Avatar Orchestra Metaverse, 348
AVB (Audio Video Bridging), 355
Avid, 565–566
Avraamov, Arseny, 394, 606
Ayer, Lydia, 91
Baalman, Marije, 310
Babbitt, Milton, 526
Baboni Schilingi, Jacopo, 139
Babylon 19|30, 172–175
balanced components, 173–174, 174t
rhythmic levels, 172–173, 172t, 173t
rhythmic patterns, 174, 175f, 176f
Bach, J. S., 68, 166, 248
Badiou, Alan, 27, 36n26
balance, 157–159, 158f
Balinese gamelan theory, 99n3
balungan, 8283, 82f, 85, 87, 100n11
balungan-style notation, 8283, 99n5 (p. 663)
Bamberger, Jeanne, 591–592
bandwidth, 354–357
BANG (beat and note generator) algorithm (Dean), 649–650
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, 116
banyakan, 84
Barklow, William, 539
Barrass, Stephen, 369
Bartók, Bela, 164
baseball, 70
Bateson, Gregory, 578n7
Bayle, François, 474
BBC News, 576t
Beach, Amy, 387
Beam Festival, 576t
beauty, 499–502
Becker, Howard, 558, 560
BEER (Birmingham Ensemble for Electroacoustic Research), 356
Beer, Standford, 211
behaviour
adaptive, 228
musical, 47
population, 223
behavioural objects, 228–230
behavioural tendency, 211
Behrman, David, 211
Bell Laboratories, 69, 109
Bell, Renick, 298, 304
Bencina, Ross, 36n24
Benjamin, Walter, 604, 620
Benoît and the Mandlebrots, 572–573, 576t
Benson, Bruce, 459
Benson, David, 69
Beran, Jan, 507–515, 514f, 515f
Bernstein, Leonard, 531
beta scale, 156
Bey, Hakim, 608
B-format stream, 486
Bible, 43
big data, 381
BigEye software, 414–415
billiard words, 164
binaural rendering, 478
biological connections, 587
biologically inspired algorithms, 209–244
Biomorphs, 219
Biophilia (Björk), 633, 640, 643n20
bio-sensors, 310
Birmingham Ensemble for Electroacoustic Research (BEER), 356
Bischoff, John, 563
Bit.Trip games, 456
Björk, 633, 640
Black, Matt, 633
Blob, 349
Bloom app, 632, 642n13
Bluebrain, 635
Boden’s model of creativity, 271272, 272t, 274
Boids algorithm, 223, 483–484
Boids flocks, 484
Boldyrev, Igor, 401
Bol Processor, 74
bonang, 8485, 95, 99n8
bonang panerus, 85
Bonang Study (2011), 94
Bongers, Bert, 233
Bonus, Alexander, 73
Boom, Henk, 457
Born, Georgina, 558, 566, 577
Boss DR 55, 326
Bottrop Boy, 327
Boulanger, Richard, 577n4
Bowie, David, 640
Box Hill Institute, 525, 527
Braiiac, 7
brain, 383
branching, 170
breakbeat science, 653
breakfast, acoustic, 119–122
Brecht, George, 4, 8
Brindle, Reginald Smith, 70
Brinkmann, Peter, 636
Bristol University, 533
British Design Council, 425, 426f
Britton, Sam, 630
Broken (Yaxu), 657n1
A Broken Stern (Milne), 162
bronze ratio, 160
Brooks, Rodney, 230, 323–324
Brown, Andrew, 12
Brown, Chris, 563
Brown, Earle, 70, 211
Brownian motion, 170
brown noise, 170–171
Brown, Oliver, 630 (p. 664)
Brush Stroke Conversation (2011), 59, 60f
Brussels World’s Fair (1958), 474
B-series, 32
BT, 250
Bubble Harp (Snibbe), 633, 643n18
Bubble Sort, 335–336
Buchla synthesizers, 411
Buddhism, 74
Burnham, Jack, 211
Burton, John (Leafcutter John), 13, 576t
Burt, Warren, 517–528, 521t522t
C++, 303
Cabaret Voltaire, 325
Cage, John, 54, 69, 211, 267, 325, 517, 587
As SLow aS Possible, 603, 623n1
campur sari (mixture of styles), 90
Candela Vibrophase, 392–393, 392f
Canon for Three Equal Instruments: In Memoriam Igor Stravinsky (Carter), 535, 539, 545–547, 545t
canons, 165–168, 167f
Canute, 572–573, 576t
Canyon Cinema News (Spinello), 398
capitalism, 560, 577n1
Cárdenas, Alexandra, 576t
Cardew, Cornelius, 223, 606–607, 623n4
Carillo, Julian, 524–525
Carlos, Wendy, 156
Carter, Elliott, 535, 539, 545–547, 545t, 649
Caryevschi, Pedro, 411
cascades, 377
Cascone, Kim, 609
case studies, 511
of audience reception, 536–537
of computer-aided composition, 9297
example musical realization, 172–175
historical, 563–567
of interface design, 435–444
of reversal, 251
transcoding visual to sonic, 387–422
Casserley, Laurence, 651
Castel, Louis Bertrand, 388–389
cathode ray tubes (CRTs), 403
Catren, Gabriel, 28
causality, 27, 33, 38n48, 453
causal listening, 453, 460
CCMIX (Center for the Composition of Music Iannis Xenakis), 404
CCRMA (Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics), 444, 481
CD-ROMs, 631
cellphones. See smartphones
cellular automata (CAs), 222–223
CELT (Constrained Energy Lapped Transform), 355
CEMAMu (Centre d’Études de Mathématique et Automatique Musicales), 404
cengkok, 8788, 88f, 100n9
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), 444, 481
centonization, 83
Centro Mexicano para la Música y las Artes Sonoras (CMMAS, Mexican Centre for Music and Sound Art), 115
Centro Multimedia (CMM, Multimedia Centre), 113–114
Centro Nacional de las Artes (CNA, National Centre for the Arts), 113–114
CERN, 368
Chadabe, Joel, 123, 517
Chagas, Paulo, 53
Changes (Parsons), 100n13
changing frequency, 28, 37n32
Changing Grammars, 568, 653
chaos, 499–502
Chaos in Wonderland (Pickover), 524–525
La Chasse Évitante (2008), 59–60, 60f
children, 504
Chilvers, Peter, 632–633, 642n12
Chion, Michel, 54, 454
CHORAL (Ebcioğlu), 248
choral music, 45
Chordpunch, 576t, 653, 656n1
chords, 330
Chowning, 481, 482f
Christoffel words, 159–162
chromatic scale, 157, 161
ChucK, 303306, 348, 438, 574, 576t, 629, 642n4, 653
Circle Suite (Dahlstedt), 43–44
CIX, 404
Clapping Music (Reich), 9, 249, 648
classical music, Indian, 74 (p. 665)
classification, 184–185, 185f
Clavia, 217
clock works, 18–19, 35n2, 35n4, 35n7, 71–72
the Cloud, 349
club culture, 13
Cluster Engine, 142, 150, 152n4
Cluster Rules, 142, 152n5
C major scale, 156
CMM (Centro Multimedia, Multimedia Centre), 113–114
CMMAS (Centro Mexicano para la Música y las Artes Sonoras, Mexican Centre for Music and Sound Art), 115
CNA (Centro Nacional de las Artes, National Centre for the Arts), 113–114
Cobra (Zorn), 459–460
Cocker, Emma, 655
code and coding. See also specific languages
creative movements, 589–590
dual, 49
live coding, 32–34, 113–117, 274275, 293317, 567–573, 655f
‘live in studio’ manipulation, 289n2
minimal, 307
with models and metaphors, 303304
theory of action and perception, 52–54
Code Club, 590
Coded Matters, 576t
code libraries, 643n31
coding community, 113–118
Coduys, Thierry, 404
coevolutionary approaches, 220
cognition
algorithms as thoughts, 568–569
computational thinking, 589
embodied, 52
situated, 52
Cognitive Dimensions of Notations, 304
cognitive science, 47–50
cognitive theory, 229
cognitivism, 48
Cohen, Adam Max, 72
Coldcut, 441, 631, 633
co-link analysis, 573
collaboration, 189–190, 297, 560–561, 654–655
adaptive collaborators, 210, 227–231
with instrumentalists, 310
collective action, 560
College of Charleston (South Carolina), 594–596
College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, 116
Collier, Graham, 648, 656n1
Collins, Karen, 454
Collins, Nick, 296297, 568, 572–573, 653
colotomy, 81
colour organs, 387
colour-sound synaesthesia, 387
Coltrane, John, 171, 459
commercial outlets, 574–575, 609
Common Music, 139, 247, 438
comparators, 372
compensations, 107–108
competence, musical, 48
complementary canons, regular, 166–167, 167f
complexity, 304
Componium, 72–73, 73f
composed freedom, 458–459
composition, 379, 455
acousmatic, 480–481
age of, 459
algorithmic, 69–71, 8892, 105–111, 484f, 487–489, 538, 630
with Augmented Gamelan, 9297
biologically inspired, 212–214
computational representation of, 584
computer-aided, 9297, 134. See also algorithmic composition
with constraint programming, 133–154
electroacoustic, 476
examples, 511–515, 514f, 515f
game, 453–457, 465
for gamelan, 9092
guidelines for, 327–330, 511
interactive, 123
interference, 262
multi-agent, 222–226
and pattern making, 262
with Pipilan, 9297
as political reworking, 606–607
serial, 649
soundscape, 538
spatial spectral (de-)composition, 485
storage of, 480–481
subdivisions of, 511
transmission of, 480–481 (p. 666)
computation
imaginative, 43
in music education, 583–601
computational abstractions, 302
computational creative discovery, 233–234
computational creativity, 267292
computational ecosystems, 220, 233–235
computationally creative ecosystems, 231–232
computational thinking, 589
computer-aided composition, 134. See also algorithmic composition
with Augmented Gamelan, 9297
with Pipilan, 9297, 93f, 94f, 97f
Computer Club, 657n1
Computer Clubhouse, 590
computer-driven works, 123
computer games
formalized, 463–464
musical approach to, 452
computer improvisation, 123–130
Computer Laboratory (University of Cambridge), 597
computer music, 27. See also algorithmic music
biologically inspired, 210–212
early, 69
extreme, 325
folk music, 592–593
pattern libraries, 252–258, 262
patterns in, 250–251
radical, 325
true, 567–568
computer musicians, 378
Computer Music Journal, 561, 576t
Computer Music on a Laptop: Composing, Performing, Interacting course (College of Charleston), 594–596
computers, 203
human-computer interaction (HCI), 190–191
human-computer interface (HCI), 221, 423–424, 533
smartphones, 631–638
computer science, 36n24
computing, seamless, 444
concepts, 271
conceptual metaphors, 363
conceptual spaces, 271
in music, 279280, 280f
personal, 280281, 281f
Wiggins’s formalization of, 271272, 272t, 274
conceptual uninspiration, 276, 284
concerts, 380
conditioning, technological, 561–562
Conductive, 298, 307
conferences, 380–381
Confessions of a Live Coder (Magnusson), 561–562
confidence, 89
connectionism, 48–49
Conrad, Tony, 249
Conservatives, 578n12
Constrained Energy Lapped Transform (CELT), 355
constraint-based orchestration, 147–149
constraint programming, 133–154
constraints, 134, 150
harmonic, 135
heuristic, 138
multiple-parameter, 141–147
on pitch, 140
on player movement, 465
on rhythm and pitch, 143–144
single-parameter, 137
contemporary directions, 12–14, 90
context(s), 377
for learning, 590
problem of, 525–527
continuous-time recurrent neural networks (CTRNNs), 229–230
Continuum (Ligeti), 9
controlled and automated processes, 49–50
controllers, physical, 427
control-synthesis mappings, 427
controversy mapping, 573–574
Cope, David, 4, 71, 182, 458, 587
CoPrimeGrid scales, 524–525
copyleft, 607
coroutines, 305, 313n4
corpporatism, 467–468
costs, 637
counterpoint, 248, 510–511
Cowell, Henry, 389
craftsmanship, 589
Cramer, Florian, 43
creative agents, 274278
Creative Code (Maeda), 589
creative coding movements, 589–590
Creative Commons, 574, 576t
creative ecosystems, 210, 231–235
creative machines, 123
creative responsibility, 268, 284286
creative systems, 269
formalization of, 270278
hybrid, 282284, 286288
proposed, 286288
Creative Systems Framework (CSF), 269, 271274
aberrations, 276278
live coding with, 274275, 279286
symbols, 271272, 272t
uninspirations, 275276
creative work, 199–200
creativity, 561–562
in algorithmic music, 557–581
Boden’s model, 271272, 272t, 274
computational, 267292
computational ecosystems for, 233–235
exploratory, 271
FACE model, 271
freedom to create complexity, 304
human, 288
IDEA model, 271
in live coding, 270
machine learning algorithms for, 181–208
real, 271
significant, 271
transformational, 271, 274
transformation of, 288289
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act1994, 572, 578n12
Critical Art Ensemble, 608
Critical Engineering Manifesto (Oliver), 620, 623n12
critical response, 639–641
crossover, 216
cross-validation, 202
CSF. See Creative Systems Framework
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 432
CSIRAC, 623n11
CSIRO, 525
Csound, 438, 577n4
C-Sound, 12
CTRNNs (continuous-time recurrent neural networks), 229–230
Cuboniks, Laboria, 36n23
cultural connections, 587
cultural musicology, 559
culture
algorithmic, 531–658
club, 13
mainstream, 609
mediators of, 57
Curtius, Ernst Robert, 604
Cybernetic Orchestra, 346f
cybernetics, 210–211
cyborgs, 408
cyclic attractors, 213, 213f
Cycling’ 74, 93, 435–438, 491n3, 574, 576t, 642n7, 642n9
Cyril, 655f
d0kt0r0 (David Ogborn), 576t
Dada, 608
Dagstuhl Seminar, 306
Dahlstedt, Palle, 43–47, 221–222
Damasio, Antonio, 378
dance, 227, 246, 416, 533–534
dance music, 250, 441, 572–573, 643n36, 652
d’Arezzo, Guido, 69
Dark Ecology, 622
Dark Interpreter (Howse), 620–622, 621f, 623nn13–14
Darwinism, 211
data
big data, 381
defining and shaping model behaviour through, 191–192
learning from, 183–186
new representations of, 188–189
preprocessing, 370
sonification of, 364–383, 366f
visualization of, 371–372
data art, 237
data conferences, 381
data-driven music, 376–380 (p. 668)
data sets, 373–375
Davidson, Arnold I, 128
Dawkins, Richard, 219
DAW (digital audio workstation) software, 480
Days of the Waxing Moon, 74
DBAP (Distance Based Amplitude Panning), 478, 486
Dean, Roger T., 387–388, 647–651, 650f, 652, 656n1
Death of Rave label, 13
deautomatization, 119–122
debugging, 196, 311
de Campo, Alberto, 568, 592–593
de Certeau, Michel, 608
de Crécy, Étienne, 441
deep algorhythmic listening, 616–617
defamiliarization (ostranenie), 120
De Forest, Lee, 393
DeLanda, Manuel, 462
Delaunay meshes, 489
Deleuze, Gilles, 29, 36n22, 314n5, 604
De Montfort University, 653
Denmark, 13
DeNora, Tia, 559
Depeche Mode, 325
de Quincey, Thomas, 620
Derrida, Jacques, 27, 36n21, 37n45
Descartes, René, 18, 43
descriptive transparency, 307
design, 424–426
activity-centred, 430
algorithmic music system, 586–587
case studies, 435–444
double-diamond process model, 425, 426f
game, 456
interface, 13, 374–375, 423–450
live video and design, 413–417
music-centred, 430–434
by natural selection, 215
sound, 455, 457
soundtrack, 453–457
tools foor, 199–200
user-centred, 428–429, 429f
wicked problems, 200
design conversations, 424–425, 425f
design heuristics, 427, 432–433
Designing Audio Effect Plug-Ins in C++ (Pirkle), 423
Désordre (Ligeti), 9
des Prez, Josquin, 166
Detektors, 616–617, 617f
developmental approach, 307
deviation, 262
diastics, 8
diatonic scales, 157, 157f, 160–161, 161f
Didkovsky, 225
digital audio, 366–367, 366f
digital audio workstation (DAW) software, 480
digital media, live, 415–416
digital musical instruments (DMIs), 427, 433
digital signal processing (DSP), 327, 367, 423, 456, 651
Dimensions (Kids On DSP), 635
diminished scale, 157, 157f
diminution, 248
direct parameter mapping, 484
Di Scipio, Agostino, 565
disclosure, progressive, 433
Discreet Music (Eno), 630
discrete Fourier transform (DFT), 157–158, 171
Disklavier (Yamaha), 45–46, 45f
Disobedient Objects (2015-2015), 623n2
Dissonant Etudes (Burt), 517
Distance Based Amplitude Panning (DBAP), 478, 486
distribution, 460
of interactive genetic algorithms, 220
mass, 628–629
software, 630–631
distribution formats, 629–630
distributive law, 508
diversity, 113–118
djembé, 506
DJs and DJing, 298, 441
DMIs (digital musical instruments), 427, 433
dogfooding, 313n2
Dolby Atmos, 475
Doornbusch, Paul, 14
Doppelganger (Kids on DSP), 634–635
dorkbot, 576t
double-diamond design process model, 425, 426f
drawing sound, 401–406
Drew, David, 539
Drip Music (Brecht), 8
Drott, Eric, 572
drum circles, 190
drum machines, 326, 389–390
drums, 506
DSP (digital signal processing), 327, 367, 423, 456, 651
dual coding theory, 49
dualolo pattern, 87
Duchamp, Marcel, 36n26, 69
Duckworth, William, 9, 649
Duel (Xenakis), 459–460, 464–465
Dupois, Alexander, 399
Dussek, Jan, 72
DX7 Yamaha FM Synthesizer, 648
Dynamic Triads (2008), 59, 59f
Eames, Charles, 424
early algorithmic music, 8–10, 69–71
early computer music, 69
early visual music, 400
Earth Coding (Howse), 623n14
eartone music, 612
ease of use, 434
Ebcioğlu, Kemal, 4, 133, 248
EBU, 480
ECLiPSe, 137
École Polytechnique Fédérale (EPFL), 373
ecological economics, 467
ecological games, 464–466
economic games, 464–466
ecooperatic music game theory, 451–469
ecosystems, 210, 212, 220, 231–235
Eden (McCormack), 212, 234
EDM (electronic dance music), 250, 572–573
education, 591–598. See also music education
Edwards, Michael, 9
Edwards, Simon, 525
EEG (electroencephalography), 620–621, 651
The Effect (Prebble), 321–322
efficiency, 427
The Egg The Cart The Horse The Chicken (Dean), 649
88 cents equal tuning, 156
Eimert, Herbert, 507–508
Eine Kleine Gamelan Computer Music (Goode and Polansky), 100n13
Eleatic School, 29
Electric Sheep Project (Draves), 220
electroacoustic composition, 476
electroacoustic music, 473, 478, 533
electroencephalography (EEG), 620–621, 651
electronic dance music (EDM), 250, 572–573
Electronic Disturbance Theater, 608
electronic music, 249–250, 525–527, 609
post-club, 13
electronic music festivals, 13
electronic musicians, 376–377
electronic tones, 524–525
Electroplankton, 456–457
elektronische Musik, 249
Elma (robot), 227
Elsie (robot), 227
embodied cognition, 52
embodiment, 41–65, 227
emergent mapping, 368–369
EMI (Experiments in Musical Intelligence), 458, 534
empathy, 89
Engine (Lindberg), 140–141
Eno, Briano, 534, 630–633
ENSEMBLE (Harrald), 225
Ensemble LivecodeNet, 115
ensemble performances, 53, 298
ensembles, algorithmic, 345–361
‘Enter, Evening’ (Taylor), 459
entropy, 108, 458
EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale), 373
episodic memory, 370
EPS, 648
Erdmann, B., 35n5
Erickson, Kristin Grace, 335–338, 337f
Ernst, Wolfgang, 604, 609–612, 614
Erratum Musical (Duchamp), 69
errors, 22–24, 427
Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas (ESFM, Superior School of Physics and Mathematics), 115
esolang (esoteric programming language), 413
Essl, Georg, 301
ethnography, 577n3 (p. 670)
ethnomusiconomy, 74–75
Euclidean rhythms, 68
Euclid’s algorithm, 250
Eurorack modules, 250
evenness, 157–159
events, 574–576, 576t
EVOLOVE (Erickson), 338
evolution, 215, 220–222
evolutionarily stable states, 214
evolutionary algorithms, 217
evolutionary search, 214–222
execution, 183, 309
existence, 26–29
The Expanding Universe (Spiegel), 108–109
experimentalism, 559
experimental process music, 4
Experimentalstudio, 474
Experimental TV Center, 413
experiments, 211–212
Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI), 458, 534
exploratory creativity, 271
expression
frantic, 308
succinct, 306307
expressive interfaces, 434
exPressure pad, 47
Extempore, 12, 300, 305307, 348
extended garap, 92
extended mind, 41–65
extended presents, 310311
extensional representation of knowledge, 279282
extensional specifications, 289n1
external space, 471
extramuros, 356f
extreme computer music, 325
Exvis, 371
Eyeborg, 408
eye music, 70
eye tracking, 414–415
Facebook, 531, 604
FACE model, 271
failure, 295296, 609
Fake Fish Distribution (Icarus), 630
Fals.ch, 656n1
Fantasound, 398
Farmers Manual (FM), 13, 325–326
Farnell, Andy, 457
fast Fourier transform (FFT), 356, 406, 460, 623n6
fault correction, 491
fear of the unknown, 588
feedback, audio, 232
feedback.pl, 299300, 308309, 653–654
Feld, Steven, 75
Fell, Mark, 13, 37n39, 325–333, 654
Festival FUTURA, 116
festivals, 574–576, 576t
Fibonacci sequences, 164, 651
Fibonacci Suite (Canright), 164
film, 393–401
Filterscape, 234
Finer, Jem, 603, 623n1
Fischinger, Oskar, 393–394, 395f
Fisher, Mark, 37n45
fitness, 220
fitness bottlenecks, 219
fitness functions, 216, 219
fitness landscapes, 213–214, 216–217
Five Abstract Film Exercises (Whitney Brothers), 395–396
Flanagan, Richard, 457
Floo, 405
flow, 306308, 432–433
flower.pl, 654
Flowspace, 484f, 487–489
Fluxus, 114, 117, 406, 590, 652
FM (frequency modulation), 218
FM 8, 217
FMOD, 457, 631, 642n11
FMOL, 405
Foldings instrument, 47
folk music, 592–593
forensic materiality, 615
fork bombs, 654
form, 499–502
formalism, 532, 605
formalized games, 461–468
Formalized Music (Xenakis), 557
formal materiality, 615
Formations (I’Anson), 501
Forth code, 125f (p. 671)
Fortran, 91
Foucault, Michel, 604, 609–610, 618–619
4X, 436
Fourier analysis, 612
Fourier scratching, 171–172
Fox network, 393
Fox, Robin, 388, 415–418, 650
fractals, 168–171, 340
Latoocarfian fractals, 524–525
rendered with monospace ASCII characters, 338–339, 339f
FRACT OSC, 457
fragmentation, 637
Framework (Hughes and Jacobs), 100n14
France, 404, 618
Franke, Chris, 289n2
frantic expression, 308
Fredkin, Edward, 612
freedom, 70, 304, 458–459, 462
freeloading, 225
Freeman, Jason, 294, 297, 300301, 308, 311
Freesound, 359
frequency, 28, 37n32
frequency axis, 28
frequency modulation (FM), 218
Fry, Roger, 387
Frysinger, Steven, 380–381
fugue, 248
Fujinaga, Ichiro, 407
funding, 574–576, 576t
future directions, 656
for audience reception research, 554–555
for biologically inspired computational creativity, 235–237
for data sonification, 380–383
for network music, 358–359
FutureRetro, 612
Gabor, Dennis, 28
Gabriel, Peter, 640
Gadjah Mada University, 91
Galapagos archipelago, 504–505, 505f
gambang, 87
Gambang 101, 100n10
gamelan music, 79102
Augmented Gamelan, 80
Balinese theory, 99n3
Eine Kleine Gamelan Computer Music (Goode and Polansky), 100n13
melodic patterning, 8588, 86f88f
pokok (essence) sequence, 99n3, 99n5
Virtual Gamelan Graz, 74–75
games, 461–468
adapting music for, 458–461
composing, 453–457
musical, 452, 456
rhythmic violence, 456
videogames, 631
game theory, 225, 451–469
Gape (Polli), 414–415
Garacotche, Alex, 654
garap, 8385, 92
garapan, 90
Garcia, David, 608
gatra, 82
Gecode, 137, 145
Gell, Alfred, 34
gender, 87
gendhing, 79, 81, 99n2
Gendhing Gambirsawit, 82, 82f
Gendhing Jawi collection, 83
general systems theory (GST), 210
generative grammar, 169
‘The Generative Manifesto’ (Ward and McLean), 652–653
generative music, 105, 534, 585, 628
Generative Music 1 (Eno), 631
generative music apps, 632–633
generative uninspiration, 276
Generator software (Native Instruments), 326–327
genetic algorithms, 215–217, 216f, 218–220
genetic operators, 219
Geniac, 7
genotype, 216
Georgia Tech, 294
Gerritan Personal Orchestra, 520
gesture recognition, 187
Giant Theremin, 415–417
Gibber, 12, 297, 300, 304, 308309, 359, 573, 590
Gibson, James, 466
Giedion, Siegfried, 604
Gieskes, Gijs, 615
Giot, Rudi, 369 (p. 672)
Glass Bead Game (White), 651
Glass, Philip, 4, 9, 249, 267
Glinka State Central Museum of Musical Culture, 409–410
glitches, 406–408
glitch music, 559, 572, 609, 654
global definition, 511
GlobalNoise, 606
Gödel, Kurt, 68
Goffey, Andrew, 603
Goguen, Joseph, 364, 374, 377
golden ratio, 160
Gold, Gwilym, 633, 640
Gold, Rich, 129n1
Goldsmiths College, 402, 576t
Goncalves, Tanya, 295, 311
gong cycles, 81
Goode, Daniel, 100n13
Goodiepal, 13
Good News about Space, 327
Good Old Fashioned AI (GOFAI), 230
Google, 604
Google Play Store, 638
Górecki, Henryk, 249
Graham Collier Music, 648
grammar, generative, 169
grantangan, 99n5
Graphic Converter, 411
Gravilux (Snibbe), 633, 643n19
The Great Learning (Cardew), 223
Greenberg, Clement, 572
Greenlee, Shawn, 411–413, 412f
Greher, Gena, 594
Gresham-Lancaster, Scot, 563–564, 578n7
Grierson, Mick, 401–403
Griffiths, Dave, 294, 300, 652, 655
Grisey, Gérard, 25
Grobet, Damien, 369
Groupe de Recherche Musicale (GRM), 474
group-isomorphisms, 509
groups, 508
GST (general systems theory), 210
Guattari, Félix, 604
Hackoustic Festival, 93f
HackPackt.mx, 114
hacktivism, 608
Hacque, Usman, 233
Halaphon, 474
Hall, Stuart, 531–532
halting problem, 22, 286
hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini), 504–505, 505f
Hammond organ, 390–392, 417–418
hand-drawn ornamental sound, 400
hand-made paper sound, 400
happy factor, 193
Harbisson, Neil, 408
Harddisko (Vuksic), 615, 616f
hardware, 574–576, 576t
Harlizius-Klück, Ellen, 655
Harman, Graham, 623n15
A Harmonic Algorithm (Spiegel), 109
harmonic analysis, 510–511
harmonic constraints, 135
Harmonices Mundi (Kepler), 109
harmonic minor scale, 157, 157f
Harper, adam, 459
Harp, Hilary, 390–392, 391f
Harrington, Laura, 504
Harrison, Lou, 91
Hartono, Patrick, 91
Harvestworks, 407
Harvey, Jonathan, 148–149, 533
Haskell, 258, 298, 303, 576t
Haswell, Russell, 325–327
hauntology, 37n45
Hayward, Chris, 364–365
HCI (human-computer interaction), 190–191
HCI (human-computer interface), 221, 423–424, 533
headphones, 478
hearing, 122
Hearing Red (LoVid), 414–415, 415f
Hecker, Florian, 325–326, 605, 612
Heines, Jesse, 594
Heisenberg picture, 38n48
Heisenberg principle, 28
Helmuth, Mara, 535, 539, 547–550, 548t
Hennion, Antoine, 558–559
h Ep (Fell), 327
Hermann, Thomas, 371
Hession, Paul, 654
Hett, Dan, 655f (p. 673)
Het Trio, 533
heuristics, 138, 427, 432–433
Hex, 162
hidden Markov models (HMMs), 189–190, 194
hierarchical Markov models, 189
hierarchies, 159–162, 162f, 194
Higher Order Ambisonics, 478
Hilbert, David, 507
Hiller, Lejaren, 4, 8–9, 47, 70, 133, 151
Hinduism, 466–467
Hindustani (North Indian) music, 74
Hinkis, Tali, 413–414
histograms, sonic, 372
historical perspectives, 4, 29, 35n9, 610, 653
case study, 563–567
early algorithmic music, 8–10, 69–71
early computer music, 69
early visual music, 400
intellectual precursors, 210–212
on live coding, 293294
milestones of spatialization, 474–475
on network music, 348–349
origins of algorithmic music, 67–78
origins of algorithms, 7
on pattern synthesis, 325–333
pre-computer algorithmic precedents, 69–71
History Goes Everywhere (austraLYSIS), 656n1
HMMs (hidden Markov models), 189, 194
HMSL, 247
Hobby Industries, 327
hobnails, 69
Ho, Echo, 592–593
Hofstadter, Douglas, 364
Hölzl, Hannes, 592–593
homeostasis, 228–229
homomorphism, 509
Robin Hood Minor Asset Management project, 609
hopeless uninspiration, 275, 284
Horos (Xenakis), 223
Howse, Martin, 604, 606, 615–617, 624n16
Dark Interpreter, 620–622, 621f, 623nn13–14
Detektors, 616–617, 617f
Earth Coding project, 623n14
Hoxton Foundry, 653
Huhtamo, Erkki, 609–610
human-centered perspectives, 198–199
human-computer interaction (HCI), 190–191
human-computer interface (HCI), 221, 423–424, 533
human creativity, 288
Human League, 325
human-machine interaction, 203
hybrid creative systems, 282284, 286288
hyperobjects, 622
hyperreality, 250
Hyperscore, 405
IanniX, 404
I’Anson, Mileece, 499–502
Icarus, 630
ICASSP conference, 287
ICMA, 651
ICMC (International Computer Music Conference), 356f, 404, 576t
ICST, 483, 491n3
IDE (Interactive Development Environment), 597
IDEA model, 271
idiomatic improvisation, 84
idioms, instrumental, 84
Idle Chatter Manchester, 655f
IDM (intelligent dance music), 643n36
IEM-Cube, 475
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 355
Ihnatowicz, Edward, 211
Illiac Suite (Hiller), 47, 133, 151
imagery, 50–51, 378, 411–413
ImageSynth, 405
imaginative computation, 43
imaging, phantom, 475
imbal patterns, 84
imitation, algorithmic, 5
Immaculate Concept (Beran and Mazzola), 511–512
immediacy, 298300
‘Impacts’ (Flowspace 2009–2010), 484f, 487–489
Impellent (Greenlee), 411–413, 412f
imperative processes, 24
improvisation, 10, 61, 310, 460
computer, 123–130
perspectives on, 654
idiomatic, 84
live, 295, 527
systemic, 58
In C (Riley), 226, 248, 267
Inception (2011), 635
Inception: The App (Reality Jockey and Remote Control Productions), 635, 637
inclusive design, 442
indexes, 364
India, 116–117
Indian classical music, 74
individuality, 70
industrial music, 325–326
Industrial Revolution, 124
influence, 55–56
informational entropy, 108
information technology, 121
information theory, 69
Ingold, Timothy, 655
inner rhythm, 166–167, 167f, 167f
innovation, 90
inspiration. See uninspiration
Instabilities 2 (Smith and Dean), 650–651
Institute for Contemporary Arts, 652–653
Institute of Ethnomusicology, 89
Institute of Network Cultures, 623n5
Institute of Time-Based Media, 592–593
Institut für Elektronische Musik, 475
institutions, 574–576, 576t
instrumental idioms, 84
instrumentalists, 310
instruments, 26–27, 303. See also specific instruments and tools
for automatic variation, 71
composition instruments, 70, 123
digital, 427, 433
as ecological games, 465
loud style, 84
performance instruments, 412–413
self-playing, 71
semi-automatic, 71
soft style, 84
integral serialism, 166
intellectual effort, 61–62
intelligence, musical, 458
intelligent dance music (IDM), 643n36
intensional specifications, 289n1
intentional representation of knowledge, 279282
‘The Intention, Reception and Understanding of Musical Composition’ symposium (Bristol University), 533
interaction, 55–56
human-computer (HCI), 190–191
human-machine, 203
live performer interactions, 651
musical, 228
reflexive, 199
sensor-based, 444
touch-based, 484f, 489
two-way, 560–561
interactionism, 48
interaction machine model, 309
interactive composition, 123
Interactive Development Environment (IDE), 597
interactive genetic algorithms, 219–220
interactive machine learning, 195–198, 196f
interactive music, 629
interactive music apps, 633–635
interactive music systems, 585–586
interactive programming, 89
Interactive Trio (Lewis), 126f, 129n5
interactive works, 123
interactivity, 107–108
‘Interface as Mimesis’ (Laurel), 428
interface design, 638
guidelines for, 374–375
10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design’ (Nielsen), 427
interfaces, 13, 373–375, 423–450
case studies, 435–444
human-computer, 221, 423–424
for live visualization, 439–441
machine learning algorithm as, 190–199
musical, 424–434
node-based, 441–442
no UI approach, 443–444
patchers, 435–438
physics-based, 442–443
interference, 262
intermedia work, 656n1
Intermorphic, 631, 636, 643nn26–28
internal space, 471
International Computer Music Conference (ICMC), 356f, 404, 576t
International Conference on Live Coding, 570–572, 576t
International Society for Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR), 182, 287
International Standards Organization, 428
International Techno Management Fest, 116
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 355
intimacy, 56
Introduction to Computer Music and Aesthetics; Programming Music, Performing Computers and Computer Music on a Laptop course (College of Charleston), 595–596
inverse analysis, 109
inversion, 248
Invitation to Mahākāla, 74
iOS (Apple), 637–638
iPad (Apple), 633
irama, 85
IRCAM, 405, 436, 643n34
Espace de Projection, 474
Music Representations Team, 444
Open Music, 629–630, 642n6
Web Audio Conference, 638
irrational cuts, 314n5
Ising model spin configurations, 68
Islamic engineering, 71
Islamic science, 71
ISMIR (International Society for Music Information Retrieval), 182, 287
isomorphisms, 509, 563
Issuecrawler, 573–574, 578–579n14
iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma, 225
It’s Gonna Rain (Reich), 249
iTunes, 603
Ives, Charles, 70, 473
ixi lang, 256–258, 262–263, 299300, 303304, 307309
Izhar, Siraj, 653
iZotope Breaktweaker software, 250
JackTrip software, 354
Jacobs, John, 92
Jacquard loom, 71
Jakobsen, Jakob, 623n3
Jam2jam, 585, 586f
Jarvis, Ian, 356f
Jauss, Hans-Robert, 531
Java, 637
JavaScript, 639, 651
Al-Jazari, 71
jazz factor, 193
JazzOrg preset, 330
JEM (Jython Environment for Music), 595, 596f
Jeux vénitiens (Lutosławski), 267
JITLib, 264n2
jitter, 352–354
Jitter, 650
jMusic, 596
Jnana, 444
John, 43
Johnson, Mark, 363–364
Jones, Kevin, 170
Jordan, Ryan, 576t
Jump: The David Bowie Interactive CD-ROM, 640
just-in-time programming, 593
Jython Environment for Music (JEM), 595, 596f
JythonMusic, 595–597
Kalejdoskop (Sandred), 143, 143f
Kanaga, David, 631
Kandinsky, Wassily, 387–388
Kant, Immanuel, 19–20, 35n5
karawitan, 79
Karlsruhe, 474
Kauffman, Stuart, 462
Kepler, Johannes, 18, 109
ketawang, 81
Kids on DSP, 634–635
Kircher, Athanasius, 69, 605
Kirkby, Emma, 501
Kirschenbaum, Mathew, 615
Kitchen, La, 404
kite flying, 503–504
Kittler, Friedrich, 37n40, 604, 610, 617–618
Klee, Paul, 655 (p. 676)
KLF, 653
knitting, 303
Knotts, Shelly, 295, 299, 304, 311312, 576t
knowledge representation, 279282
Knowlton-Spiegel algorithm, 109
Koan, 636, 643n26
Koan Pro, 631
Koch curves, 169
Koetsier, Teun, 71
Kogawa, Tetsuo, 349
komponis, 90
Kontakte (Stockhausen), 473
kotekan, 99n3
Kreichi, Stanislav, 411
Kretz, Johannes, 147–148
Krygier, John, 374
Kuivila, Ron, 296
Kurukshetra ‘the Battle of the Brains’ Festival, 116
Kurzweil, 648
Kyma, 373
labels, 574–576, 576t
Lacan, Jacques, 36n12
Lacey, Jordan, 416
ladrang, 81
Laffineur, Ludovic, 369
Lagu Socieseknum (Harrison), 91
Lake, Stephanie, 416
Lakoff, George, 364
Lamb, Alan, 503
Landé, Albert, 28, 37n31
landscapes, 213–214
Landy, Leigh, 4–5
language. See programming languages; specific languages
Lapidus, Kyle, 413–414
Laplacean sound design, 457
Lapowsky, Ben, 211
laptop cool, 557, 577n1
laptop ensembles, 532, 593–594
laptop performance, 440–441, 592–593
laptops, 321–322
LARAS (Research Laboratory in the field of Arts and Sciences), 369
Large Hadron Collider, 368
Laske, Otto E., 44
LatelyBass preset, 330
latency, 350–354
latent structures, 155–164
Lateral Listening, 526
Latham, William, 211
Latin American Symposium on Music and Code (/*vivo*/), 114–115
Latoocarfian fractals, 524–525
Latour, Bruno, 373, 377, 559
layered affordance, 433
Leafcutter John, 13, 576t
League of Automatic Music Composers, 123, 226, 348–349, 565
learnability, 427
learning
contexts for, 590
from data, 183–186
reinforcement, 186
supervised, 184–185, 184f, 185f, 188
unsupervised, 185–186, 186f
learning algorithms, 183–184, 191–195. See also algorithms
learning rules, 183
Lefkowitz, Haim, 371
Legacies of Tactical Media: The Tactics of Occupation (Institute of Network Cultures), 623n5
legibility, 298301
Leibniz, Gottfreid Wilhelm, 507
Leibowitz, René, 397
Leman, Marc, 464
Leslie speaker, 417–418
Let Us Play! (Coldcut), 631
Levtov, Yuli, 635–636
Lewis, George, 123–130, 452, 460
Interactive Trio, 126f, 129n5
Rainbow Family, 124f, 129n5
Voyager, 9–10, 125f, 129n5, 460
LFOs (low frequency oscillators), 642n2
LHCSound, 368
libertarianism, 467–468
libpd, 636, 643n29
Lich.js, 359
Liebestraum No. 3 (Liszt), 512, 513f
lifelike dance, 227
Ligating the Rhizome (Dean), 649 (p. 677)
Light Patterns, 413, 414f
lila (divine-play), 466–467
Lincoln, Sick, 572–573
Lindberg, Magnus, 140–141
Lindenmayer systems (L-systems), 169–170
line-drawing agents, 235
Line label, 327
Lingo, 407
Lisp, 12, 338–339, 438
listener(s), 54–56
listening, 453, 473, 504
algorhythmic, 616–619
causal, 453, 460
machine, 444
Liszt, Franz, 512, 513f
literate programming, 89
literature, 574–576, 576t
live algorithms, 6, 267292, 444
Live Algorithms in Music grouping, 10
live.code.festival, 346f, 576t
live coding, 32–34, 113–117, 274275, 567–573, 655f
actors, 574–576, 576t
conceptual spaces in, 279281, 280f, 281f
creativity in, 270
in CSF framework, 279286
educational, 590
IssueCrawler map of, 573–576, 575f
knowledge required to refer to music in, 282, 283t
music-aesthetic preferences in, 281282, 282f, 283t
music at live coding events, 323
in performance, 293317
perspectives on, 321–324, 653–654, 655f
proposed hybrid creative system for, 286288
sharing creative responsibility in, 284286
tensions and techniques, 293317
Live Coding field, 10
live digital media, 415–416
‘live in studio’ manipulation, 289n2
live music, 30
live performer interactions, 651
live practice, 527
live spatialization, 486–487
live video and design, 413–417
live visualization, 299300, 439–441
Living Symphonies (Jones and Bulley), 233
local definition, 511
local optima, 217
location, 635–636
The Lock Shift Songs (Matthews), 505–506
logic, musical, 507
logistic maps, 168–169
logon, acoustic, 28
LOLC, 294, 297, 300301
Longplayer (Finer), 603, 623n1
Long Time No See (Armstrong), 651
Loom, 405
loop-back paths, 365
Lorenz attractors, 210–211, 213, 214f
Lorenz system, 213, 213f
Lorway, Norah, 572–573
Lottery (Didkovsky), 225
The Loud Objects, 312
loud-style instruments, 84
Lovelace, Ada, 69, 75–76
Love Letters (Strachey), 47
LoVid, 413–415, 415f, 418
Lovink, Geert, 608
low frequency oscillators (LFOs), 642n2
Loy, Gareth, 68–69, 74
L-systems (Lindenmayer systems), 169–170
LuaAV, 305
Lucas Triangle, 520
Lucier, Alvin, 211
Luers, Will, 656n1
motions (Smith, Luers, and Dean), 650–651, 650f
Luque, Sergio, 113, 115
Lydian mode, 160, 161f
Lyotard, Jean-François, 27
LYSIS, 648
M (program), 648
Machina Speculatrix, 227
machine agency, 127
machine learning, 182–190, 198–202
interactive, 195–198, 196f
machine learning algorithms, 181–208, 321–324
machine listening, 10, 444
Mac Low, Jackson, 8, 9
MacroMedia Director, 407–408 (p. 678)
Maeda, John, 589
Magazine Interpolation, 331–333, 332f
Magnet TV (Paik), 614
Magnusson, Thor, 11, 299300, 311312, 561–562, 571–572, 654
mainstream culture, 609
Major, John, 578n12
Makesend Cassette, 327
MaKey MaKey board, 594
Mälzel, Johann Nepomuk, 72
Mälzel’s Automatic Trumpet Player, 72
Manaris, Bill, 595
Manchester Code, 619
Mandelbrot MIDI, 338–341, 340f
Mandelbrot music, 338–341
Mandelbrot set fractals, 338–339, 339f
Mandelbrot Sets, 210–211
Manoury, Philippe, 437
Manovich, Lev, 237
Man’yōshū (Tone), 406–407, 407f
Man’yo Wounded (Tone), 408
MAP/MSG, 653
maps and mapping, 187–188, 373–374
control-synthesis, 427
controversy, 573–574
direct parameter, 484
emergent, 368–369
first-order, 368
oth-order, 367–368
points, 368
to process or structure, 369–370
variables, 371
markers, 372
Mark II (RCA), 249
Markov chains, 69, 91
Markov models, 164–165, 194
first-order, 194
hidden, 189–190, 194
hierarchical, 189, 194
variable-length, 189
Markov processes, 189
Marxism, 607
Mass (Bernstein), 531
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 612
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media Lab, 589, 594
mass consumption, 627–644
mass distribution, 628–629
Matarisma (Miwa), 44–45
materiality
of algorithms, 44–46
forensic, 615
formal, 615
mathematical studies, 507, 510–515
mathematics, 67–69, 155–180
Mathews, Max, 9, 69
Matthews, Kaffe, 503–506
Maturana, Humberto, 232–233
Max (Cycling ’74), 13, 435–438, 574
Presentation Mode, 440–441
Max/MSP, 93, 9596, 126f, 630–631, 648
Max Runtime, 631
McCartney, James, 36n24
McCormack, Jon, 211–212, 233, 441–442
McDonald, Kyle, 388
McLaren, Norman, 394–395
MCLD (Dan Stowell), 576t
McLean, Alex (Yaxu), 299300, 306308, 311, 356f, 568, 572–573, 576t, 647
Broken, 657n1
‘The Generative Manifesto’ (Ward and McLean), 652–653
Peak Cut, 631, 657n1
perspectives on practice, 652–655, 655f
sources of music, 656–657n1
McLuhan, Marshall, 604
McTaggart, John, 32
meaningful sounds or signals, 363–364, 377, 533
MeanTimes (Milne and Dean), 649
media, 37n40, 349, 608
media archaeology, 604, 609–614, 620–622, 623n10
mediation, 560–561
Medienwissenschaft, 610
Mego, 13, 325
Melbourne, Australia, 415–416
Meléndez, Eduardo, 113
Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs), 219
melodic patterning
balungan, 82, 82f (p. 679)
gamelan, 8588, 86f88f
memorability, 427
memory, episodic, 370
mental imagery, 50–51
mentality, 466
mental models, 51
Merapi (1996), 91
Merzbow, 609
Messiaen, Olivier, 166, 387, 537
metalevels, 584
metallic ratios, 160
META Meta ≠ Hodos (Tenney), 458
metaphors, 303304, 363
meta-software, 435
Metastasis (Xenakis), 403
MetaSynth, 405–406
Metasynthy (Moon), 406
meter, 304
metres, 156
metronome, 73–74, 304
Mexican Centre for Music and Sound Art (Centro Mexicano para la Música y las Artes Sonoras CMMAS), 115
Mexico, 113–117
Meyerson, Émile, 35n12
MFCCs (Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients), 219
mickey-mousing, 455
Mico Rex, 115–116
microphones
input from, 634–635
virtual microphone techniques (ViMiC), 478, 486
micropolitical tactics, 608–609
microtemporality, 614–619
microtemporal rhythms, 607–608
microtonal music, 162
Tempziner Modulationen (Anders), 146–147, 146f
Three Movements in Memoriam Paul Panhuysen (Burt), 518–520, 521t522t
middleware, 457
MIDI, 326, 355, 563
Mandelbrot, 338–341, 340f
Studio 5 interface, 564–565
MidiSpace, 151
Mille Plateaux, 327
Mill, John Stuart, 127–128
Milne, Andy, 162, 649
mimesis, 454–455
mimicry, 109
mind
augmen