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date: 20 March 2019

(p. 837) Subject Index

(p. 837) Subject Index

Abatement cost function, 300–305
Activity
analysis, 183, 189, 526
system, 361–62
Adverse selection, 500, 516
Age-efficiency function, 134–35
Aggregation
over sectors, 649–53
productivity indices, 109–15, 175–76
Allocative efficiency, 242, 501
American Time Use Survey (ATUS), 132
Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM), 130
Asian Development Bank Institute, 664
Asset inequality, 765
Asset service lives, 142
Axiom
identity, 160
production, 507
proportionality, 160
transitivity, 160
unit-invariance, 160
Behavioral assumptions, 466, 467–68
Behavioral robustness, 527–28
Benchmarking, 495, 501, 502, 535–41
BHP Billiton, 329–31, 333, 334–35, 337, 344–45, 346, 348, 350, 352, 354
Bimodality, 787, 796, 801–2
Boeing, 375, 377
Bootstrap, 796–97, 798, 801–2, 804–5, 810
Bottom-up decomposition, 111–15
Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), 129, 664, 670–71
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 121, 664, 670, 671
Business financial performance, 4–10, 331, 348–52
Business models, 339, 360–63
innovation, 363–65
replication, 365–68
Capacity utilization, 215–18
Capital
composition, 138
deepening, 9, 26, 36, 99, 803
expenditure, 504
intangible, 597, 709, 714
nonhuman, 212–13, 222
Car Industry, 708–10
Characteristics metrics, 213, 214
Circularity condition, 179
Cobb-Douglas function, 95–96
Compensation gap, 141
Competition, strength of, 475
Competitive advantage, 360–61, 364–65, 369, 382
Competitiveness, 468, 475, 478
Complementarity
of exports, imports, innovation for productivity growth, 444–46
of exports and innovation for productivity growth, 442–43
of imports and innovation for productivity growth, 443–44
of intermediate inputs, 445
Conditional market demand, 273–74
Constant quality asset inflation rate, 244–45
Convergence
Beta-convergence, 785–86, 787, 809
Efficiency convergence, 787, 805, 808
Regional convergence, 803–4
Sigma-convergence, 785, 786, 787
Twin-peak convergence, 796
Two club convergence, 796
(p. 838) Corporate Nonfinancial Sector, 625, 637–43
Cost
allocation, 494, 495
based output price, 256–60
of capital, 217, 245, 677, 681–84
constrained value added function, 626–28
efficiency, 494, 496, 500, 506, 513, 515
function, 495, 714–16
shares, 712, 714–17
Counterfactual simulation, 469–71
Credit market imperfections, 760, 764, 774
Cross-Country Analysis, 784–85, 794–95, 808
Current Employment Statistics (CES), 131
Current Population Survey (CPS), 131
Damage function, 292, 300–305
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), 183, 626, 627, 787–91, 804–5, 806
based yardstick model, 528, 533, 541–48
Debreu-Farrell efficiency index, 159
Decomposition
bottom-up, 111–15
top-down, 110–11
Demand
elasticity of, 469, 475, 479
shocks, 602, 615, 619
Desirable output, 288, 293–300
Developed countries, 782–83, 786, 804–5
Developing countries. See Developed countries
Differentiated goods, 467, 470, 471, 478
Directional distance function, 172–73, 316–17
Disposability property, 315
Distance (or proximity) to frontier, 741, 743, 744
Distance function
input, 213–14, 215
output, 214–15
Distributive services, 226–27
Divisia productivity index, 706–7
Dual productivity index, 174–75
Durable inputs, 244–47
Dynamic
capabilities, 362
efficiency, 194–96, 501
incentives, 533–34
productivity, 199–205, 359–60, 364, 366, 431, 639, 644
technical change, 153–56, 188–90, 298–99, 361, 365, 366, 367
technology, 187
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 666
Economic growth, 781–82, 783, 784–87
Economies of scale. See Returns to scale
Economies of scope, 367
Educational services, 264–66
Efficiency-measures of public firms and services
health care, 230, 567–70
ideal data and data availability, 559
railway transportation, 559–62
secondary education, 564–67
waste collection, 562–64
Elasticity of scale, 218, 234–35
Electricity, 501, 502–3, 507, 512
distributor, 270
international transmission benchmarking, 535–41
Norwegian regulation, 541–48
Emission Trading System (ETS), 312–13
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), 428
Environmental
concern, 509, 513–14
constraint, 303–5
degradation, 292, 300
economics, 287–88, 290, 317
regulation, 306–13, 510, 514
variables, 509, 511
ETC approach, 511, 514, 515
Exchange rates, 344–45
Exploitation, 414, 420, 424, 430
Exploration, 414, 420, 424, 430
Exports-productivity link, 439
heterogeneity, 439–40
learning by exporting (see Learning by exporting)
self-selection into exporting, 439–41
sunk entry costs, 439
Externalities, 287
Family firm, 387–89
decision-making, 391–93
labor productivity, 393–404
productivity and, 389–90
(p. 839) Financial performance. See also Business financial performance
First law of thermodynamics, 288
Fisher productivity index, 163
Focal firm, 360, 379
Foreign direct investment (FDI), 742, 743–45
Free Disposal Hull (FDH), 626, 636, 638, 644, 653, 656
Frontier, best available technology. See also Frontier, best practices
Frontier, best practices, 39–40, 317–18, 413, 594, 598, 599, 626
Frontier, best practice technology. See also Frontier, best practices
Goodwill, 222, 235
Great Recession (and growth), 664–65, 668, 673, 674, 676, 678, 680
Green national product, 291
Gross human happiness, 290–92
Growth accounting, 93–94
Growth theory, 753, 755, 759–60
Health care, 267–69
Health services. See Health care
Hedonic
price function, 219
regression model, 264, 279
Hicksian imputed prices, 262–63
Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index, 163–66
Malmquist index compared, 177–78
Hyperbolic age efficiency function, 134
Hyperbolic efficiency measure, 314
Hyperbolic productivity index, 171–72
Implicit quantity indexes, 250, 254, 276
Imports-productivity link, 443
channels for productivity improvements, 443–44
learning by importing (see Learning by importing)
self-selection into imports, 443
Imputed market value, 244
Incentive regulation, 501, 504
with adverse selection, 532–33
with individual noise, 531–32
Inclusive growth, 10–11, 13, 753, 767–68, 769, 773
Income
distribution, 782, 784, 786, 795, 807
growth, 754, 755, 761, 765, 766–69, 768, 784
inequality, 757, 765–66, 769
per capita, 784, 786
Index numbers
chained, 82
direct, 82
price inflation, 334, 336
price recovery, 92, 334, 336, 342–43
productivity
defined, 160, 351, 598
gross-output based, 105–7
properties of, 160–61
value-added based, 105–9
quantity, 82, 342
two-stage, 88–90
Indicators
chained, 83
direct, 83
price, 82–83
price inflation, 334
price recovery, 104, 334, 336, 341
productivity, 333
gross-output based, 105–7
value-added based, 105–9
quantity, 82, 333, 344
Indirect productivity measurement, 345–46
Inequality, 10–11, 13–16
Information and communication technology (ICT), 422, 426–29
Information asymmetry, 494, 498, 499–500, 509, 514, 517
Infrastructure, 269, 494, 498, 499–504
Innovation, 360–61, 363–65, 368–74, 376–80, 381, 413–15, 438
complementarity between exports and innovation (see Complementarity)
exports-productivity link (see Exports-productivity link) (p. 840)
imports, 444–45
process innovation, 413, 414, 416–17, 422–23, 424–25, 426, 427, 428–29, 430–31, 440
learning by exporting (see Learning by exporting)
product innovation, 413, 416, 421–24, 425, 427, 429, 438, 441, 445
export entry, 442
learning by exporting (see Learning by exporting)
radical versus incremental innovation, 413, 419, 421, 423
Innovative activity, 594, 615
Input-output models, 291, 298–99, 700, 702, 703–4, 708, 711, 720, 722
Institutional drivers, 50–51
competition, 51–52
costs of doing business, 55–56
financial frictions, 53–55
home production, 56–57
regulation, 52–53
Integrated Macroeconomic Accounts, 637–38
Intellectual property, 222, 223–24, 225, 233
Intermediate input, 228, 700, 703, 704–6
International electricity transmission, 535–41
International production fragmentation, 699, 701–2, 707, 711, 721
International trade, 704, 721
Investment, 227, 495
Jobless recovery, 676, 678
Joint production, 288, 294, 300, 315
Kemeny, Morgenstern, Thompson conditions, 188–89
Kernel, 795–96, 798, 800
KLEMS, 125, 290, 653–92, 700, 707, 710, 717, 721
Asia KLEMS, 667, 691
EU KLEMS, 666–68
India KLEMS, 668
LA KLEMS, 666–67, 691
Mexico KLEMS, 667
Russia KLEMS, 668, 691
World KLEMS Conferences, 666–68
Labor
compensation, 139–40, 141
composition, 133–34
high-skilled, 702, 708, 709, 712, 716, 717, 718, 719
low-skilled, 702, 709, 711, 712, 716, 717, 718, 719
productivity, 125, 351–52, 393–404
share, 140–41
unit cost, 140
Labor productivity index, 781
gross-output based, 105–7
value-added based, 105–9
Leadership
transactional leadership, 397–98, 403
transformational leadership, 391, 398–99
Learning by exporting
heterogeneity of learning effects, 442
innovation output, 441
knowledge spillovers, 441
moderating impact of absorptive capacity, 442
moderating impact of destination markets, 442
moderating impact of industry heterogeneity, 442
moderating impact of prior innovation strategies, 442
patent applications, 441
patent citations, 442
product innovation, 440, 441
productivity, 439
R&D activity, 440, 441–42
Learning by importing
innovation, 443–44
patent citations, 444–45
productivity, 444
R&D activities and export entry, 444
technology diffusion, 444
Learning effect, 543, 546
Legacy carriers, 374, 377–80
Level
value-added based labor productivity, 105–9
value-added based total factor productivity (TFP), 91
Levels decomposition for TFP, 635, 643, 785, 806–7, 809
Liberalization, 496
(p. 841) Limits to substitution, 296
Linearly homogeneous function, 636–37, 655
Luenberger productivity indicator, 173–74
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, 417, 421
Malmquist-Luenberger index, 316–17
Malmquist productivity index, 783, 789–91, 794–95
Hicks-Moorsteen compared, 177–78
input-based, 155, 161–62
output-based, 155, 161–62
Management practices, 417–22, 429
Margin
profit-cost, 80–81
profit-revenue, 80–81
Market
definition, 465–66
integration, 479
markup, 479, 483–86
power, 463, 465, 466, 480–82
prices, 244–45
segmentation, 465–66
share, 478
size, 474–76
Materials balance, 287–88
Misspecification bias, 507–8
Moral hazard, 500, 515, 516
Multi-equation model, 317–18
Multifactor productivity (MFP), 121, 126–28, 290
Multinational, 701, 703, 720, 721
National accounts, 290–91, 292, 709
National Compensation Survey (NCS), 131
National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), 121, 669, 670–71
New growth theory, 755, 757, 759, 772
See also Growth theory
Noncorporate Nonfinancial Sector, 625, 643–49
Nonmarket prices, 246
Nonparametric approach, 498, 505–6, 507–8, 514, 636–37, 787–91, 794–95, 804, 808
Norwegian network regulation, 541–48
Null jointness, 315
OECD, 664, 669–70, 692
Office of National Statistics, 247
Opportunity cost, 246, 359, 364–65, 366–67
Optimization, 497, 506, 508, 509–12, 515
Organizational drivers
adoption of new technology, 45–47
downsizing, 47–48
global supply chains, 703
global value chains, 48–49, 699
human resource management, 43–45
management practices, 41–43
offshore, 48–49, 700, 701, 710, 711–12
outsourcing, 48–49, 700, 711, 722
vertical integration, 702–3, 709, 721
vertical specialization, 704
Output
desirable, 288, 292–94
gross output, 700, 703, 705, 707, 720, 721, 722
hard to measure, 213–15
new and disappearing, 225
nonmarket, 241–44
normalized, 256
undesirable, 288, 292
Penn World Tables, 793–94, 809
Performance approach
absolute weight restrictions, 578–79
benefit of the doubt DEA, 569
measuring efficiency with and without inputs, 585–86
Pigou tax, 309
Plant-level TFP shocks, 605
Pontryagin's maximum principle, 290
Porter hypothesis, 305–6, 313–14
Price cap, 494, 495, 501–3, 511
Prices distorted or missing, 344
Primary pollutants, 300
Principal Federal Economic Indicator (PFEI), 126
Product
cycle hypothesis, 440
export entry, 440 (p. 842)
differentiation, 475
separation, 294
substitution, 465, 467
Production linkages, 703, 711, 720
Productivity
bonus, 337
convergence
determinants, 741–44
industry sources, 732–37
dispersion, 609–16
determinants, 26–28, 732–36
industry sources, 28–31, 737–38
gap transatlantic, 727–32
growth, 782, 784–87, 793, 795–803, 804
determinants, 741–44
industry sources, 737–38
worldwide productivity distribution, 781, 783, 795–96
Productivity change, drivers of
activity effect, 338–39
growth effect, 340–41, 343–44
output, mix, 167–70
size effect, 337–38
technical change, 337–39, 510, 700–701, 702, 707, 717, 784, 790, 795, 796, 801–2, 806, 807–8
bias, 701, 702, 717
technical efficiency, 337–39, 599, 787–89, 796, 807–8
technological change (see Technical change)
technology change (see Technical change)
Profit
decomposing profit change, 332–37
as financial performance measure, 337
function, 510
led growth, 769–70
Profitability
gross-output based, 79–80
value-added based, 105–9
Public education sector, 231, 264–66
Public sector, 258–59
Public services, 493, 495
Public transportation, 269–70
Purchasing power parities, 663, 665, 679, 680–82, 683, 691, 692
Quality, adjustment, 215–20, 258–59
Quality of data, 497, 500, 504, 513, 514
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), 140
Quasi fixed input, 215, 218
Railways, 507, 516
Rate of return, 494, 501
on assets (ROA), 346
decomposing ROA change, 346–48
as financial performance measure, 331
internal, 137–38
Rate of time preference, 193–94
Real estate, 226
Reform, 494, 496
Regulated firm, 270, 272
Regulated industries, 507, 508–14
Regulated prices, 270, 272
Rental price of capital, 134, 135–38
Repeatability, 526–27
Replication, 365–68, 374–81
Representative firm, 593, 604
Research and development (R&D), 741
Resource depletion, 287, 290
Resource reallocation, 35–38, 99, 471–72, 594, 616–17
Restructuring, 499
Returns to scale, 242, 278, 371, 625, 628, 631, 633–35, 636–37, 643, 650, 653, 654
constant, 168, 242, 278, 782, 788
increasing, 168–69, 242
Revenue productivity, 474, 507, 510–11, 594, 601–2, 614, 617
Risk aversion, 495, 501, 524
Routinization, 701
Scale effects. See Returns to scale
Secondary pollutants, 300, 301–2, 303–5
Selection effect, 422, 425–26
Shadow price, 304–5
Shareholders, 373
Social economic progress, 11
Social planning problem, 301
Social total factor productivity, 292–93
(p. 843) Socioemotional wealth (SEW), 387, 388
Solow productivity index, 153–54, 782, 788, 793
Southwest Airlines, 368–71
Spatial econometrics, 22
Static technical change, 188–90
Static technology, 187–88
Stochastic frontier, 605, 608–9, 806–7
Structural efficiency, 542
Structural robustness, 527
Super efficiency, 531
Superlative index, 263, 276
System of National Accounts, 256, 272
Technology life cycles, 413, 423
Telecom, 494, 495, 497, 499, 501–2, 515
Time substitution, 197–99
Törnqvist productivity index, 138, 183, 217, 219, 223, 290, 706–7
Total expenditure, 538–40
Total Quality Management, 417
Trade liberalization, 464, 472–73, 474, 477, 479, 480, 482, 485, 486
Transition countries, 793, 797
Unit cost
based methodology, 256–58
decomposing unit cost change, 348–52
as financial performance measure, 348
function, 781, 785
of labor (see Labor)
Unobserved prices, 505, 506, 507–8
U.S. Census Bureau, 129
User cost, 244–46
Utility based measure of output, 261–62
Valuation weights, 259–64
Value added
efficiency, 627, 629, 634, 643, 644–49, 650, 654
function, 215, 217–18, 700, 722
nominal, 111–12
output, 128–29
real, 112
Value appropriation, 339–42, 363, 367, 371, 372
Value chain, 361
Value creation, 339–42, 359–60, 363, 364, 365, 367, 372, 373, 378–79, 381–82
Value distribution. See Value appropriation
VCA model, 367, 371–74
Wage-led growth, 769–70
Weak disposability, 315–16
Wealth stock, 136–37
Welfare
dynamics and convergence, 579–85
mean reversion hypothesis, 558
measure, 290
Open Method of Coordination, 570
scaling indicators, 573–75
state performance in the EU, 570–86
World Input-Output Database, 667, 693, 699, 708–9, 720, 737