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date: 20 February 2019

(p. 553) Index

(p. 553) Index

!Kung, 374, 377
aboriginal, 223, 244, 302–303
academic language, 3–4, 530, 112, 322, 334–342, 550
Accra, 288
Afrikaans, 153, 284, 286, 365
Akan, 373–374
Alaska, 204, 329, 362, 364
Alsace region, 39
Amazonia, 303
American, 1–2, 462, 495, 498–499, 527
African American, 110, 328, 332–333, 350, 355–356, 384, 387, 389–391, 548–549
Asian American, 107, 110, 209, 391, 397
Native American, 362, 389
White American, 110, 492
Amharic, 147
Amsterdam, 491
Anzaldúa, Gloria, 96, 275–276, 537
Arabic, 38, 147, 181, 184, 192, 200, 238, 311, 363, 515
Aranese, 311
Arizona, 200
Armenian, 198
Augustine, 247
Austria-Hungary, 37
authenticity, 198, 203, 207–209, 212, 215, 313, 411, 463
Aziyo, 375
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 1, 23, 132, 190, 409
Bangladesh, 211, 428
Barthes, Roland, 424, 462
Baseldytsch, 68
Basque, 39–40, 204, 302, 311, 436
Beaver, 232–233
Belgium, 144, 273, 424–425, 427, 434, 436
Bengali, 211
Benjamin, Walter, 23–25
Bernstein, Basil, 26–27, 357
big data, 474, 480
bilingual education, 27–28, 271, 273, 303, 311–313, 341, 357–359, 525–541
bilingualism, 161–174, 200, 210, 214, 304–305, 307–308, 425, 431–432, 442, 532–533, 540, 546
additive forms of, 529–530
balanced, 164, 529–530
in deaf individuals, 255
elite forms of, 12, 237–238, 536
minoritized forms of, 12, 538
subtractive forms of, 214, 529–530
biopolitics, 249, 253–254, 533–534
Black English Trial, 357–360
Bloomfield, Leonard, 105, 164
Boas, Franz, 105, 309, 385
Bolivia, 311
borders, 3–4, 8, 12, 37, 111, 147, 214, 269, 276, 321–342, 397, 495, 531, 539–540, 546, 548
boundary work, 82, 327, 331–341, 493–495, 499
Bourdieu, Pierre, 29, 39, 56, 81, 323, 325, 334, 336, 341, 365
Brazil, 264, 497
Breton, 39–41, 198, 436, 442
Brussels, 28, 424–425, 428–435, 438
Burundi, 147
Butler, Judith, 106, 291, 409
California, 28, 109, 312, 358–361, 498, 508
call center, 62, 507, 515–516
(p. 554) Cameroon, 147, 284
Cameroon Pidgin English, 284
Camfranglais, 284, 286
Catalonia, 47
Chabacano, 303
Chile, 304–305
Chinyanja, 147
Chomsky, Noam, 30n3, 164, 167, 171, 226, 232, 248, 254, 307, 329, 353–354
chronotopes, 113, 116
Clinton, Bill, 404
Cochran, Johnnie, 351
code-switching, 8, 131, 133, 186, 210–211, 238–239, 281, 283, 308, 431–433, 496, 540, 546
coloniality, 6, 8, 12, 151, 275, 551
colonization, 2–3, 9, 79, 142, 182, 209, 275, 288, 301, 306–307, 373, 381–382, 387, 397, 525–531, 546–547
academic language, 188, 263–264, 272
Columbus, Christopher, 526–527, 538
communication, 243–244, 490–491, 549
intercultural, 273, 510–511
non-verbal, 246–250, 452–453
technologically mediated, 10–11, 212, 273, 454, 473–475, 477–478, 482–483, 512
communicative repertoire, 473 See also linguistic repertoire
community of practice, 388, 506–508
Comte, Auguste, 20
contact zone, 321–323
contextualization cues, 508–509
continua of biliteracy, 214
conversation analysis, 309, 453, 456, 493, 506–507
corpus linguistics, 3, 406, 453, 493
Corsican, 39, 109
Côte d'Ivoire, 284
Council of Europe, 535–536
Cree, 307–308, 312
creole languages, 10, 388, 391
critical language awareness, 115–116
Da Vinci, Leonardo, 247
Darwin, Charles, 18–19, 386
deafness, 6, 8, 11, 243–245, 249–258
decolonization, 82, 91, 126, 182, 299, 302, 305, 310–311, 315, 529
Deleuze, Giles, 12, 188, 410, 416, 533, 536–537
Democratic Republic of Congo, 147, 431
de Montaigne, Michel, 247
Derrida, Jacques, 96, 188, 243–246, 263, 272
de Saussure, Ferdinand, 21, 26, 26n3, 244, 307, 461
deterritorialization, 9–12, 505
Detroit, 357–358
dialectology, 29, 56, 167, 353–356, 414
diaspora, 8, 134, 141–156
Diderot, Denis, 248–249
digital humanities, 474, 479–480, 482, 484
digital technology, 236–237, 255, 426, 441, 452–453, 460, 481, 490. See also technology
communication using, 10–11, 161, 473–474, 478, 483–484, 499
divide, 480
literacy practices of, 133
orthography of, 115
types of data, 8, 10, 222–223, 225–226, 229, 231, 484
types of texts, 452, 457, 463
discourse analysis, 77, 378, 405, 411, 418, 464
computer mediated forms of, 454
critical approaches to, 78, 82, 377–379, 466, 493
multimodal forms of, 455–456
discrimination, 6, 27, 45, 80, 94, 107, 137, 145–146, 146n1, 349–365, 382–384, 506, 509
e-mail, 476, 490
empire, 2, 22, 35–38, 43n6, 490–491, 526
Endangered Languages Project, 222–223, 225
Engels, Frederick, 19
English, 8, 18–19, 56, 127, 154, 168, 191, 425, 475, 528, 535
African American, 29, 110, 294, 332, 355, 358–362, 384, 387, 389–391
in Australia, 147, 149
business, 510–511, 513–515, 518
Chicano, 332, 355, 384
in Democratic Republic of Congo, 431
in East Africa, 135
in Ethiopia, 441
gay, 407
global, 149, 536
as lingua franca, 238
linguistic landscapes of, 431–433, 437–439
Native American, 332
Puerto Rican, 201
in Singapore, 134
in South Africa, 153
Standard American, 56, 110, 112, 167, 331–333, 336, 355–361, 386–387, 390, 406
in Tanzania, 184
unaccented, 96, 107
white, 361
World, 536, 538–539
English language learner, 112, 328–330, 336–337, 356
Engsh, 286–287
enregisterment, 6–7, 105, 185–186, 191–193, 284, 548, 550
Ephraimites, 349–350
erasure, 6, 105, 110–111, 435, 536
essentialism, 81, 82, 106, 144, 206–215, 290, 306, 404, 495, 510–511
Estonia, 437
ethics, 418, 480, 484
Ethiopia, 225, 441, 509
ethnicity, 27–28, 55, 78, 92, 109, 131, 134, 142, 162, 172–173, 206, 209, 288, 332, 360, 385, 389, 392, 395, 428, 436, 539
ethnography, 2, 11, 56, 83–84, 493, 500
of communication, 104, 166, 173, 508–509
and conversation analysis, 167–168
of the internet, 479, 481–482, 484
of language ideologies, 106
of language revitalization, 234–237, 308–310
of linguistic landscapes, 440–441
of literacy, 266
multimodal forms of, 456, 464
and superdiversity, 168–170, 173–174
Ethnologue, 226–228, 256
ethno-mining, 10–11, 479
Fanakalo, 285–287
Fanon, Frantz, 96, 382, 412
Ferguson, Charles, 1, 3, 6, 181–183, 189, 193, 529
Fermino, Jessie Little Doe, 204, 312
Finland, 198, 253
First Nations, 197, 302
Flaitaal, 283–284, 286–287
Florida, 301
Foucault, Michel, 4, 56, 60, 77–97, 188, 249, 327, 414–415, 525, 527, 533
fractal recursivity, 6, 110–111
France, 20, 25, 38–42, 144–145, 188, 250, 353, 362, 364, 365, 382, 442
Freire, Paulo, 264–265, 395
French, 238, 248, 382, 431–436, 442
in Africa, 284–286
in Belgium, 425, 428, 438
in business, 510, 518
in Canada, 114, 308
and colonialism, 96, 528–529
in Gascon, 188
Parisian dialect of, 250
relationship to Corsican, 109
standard, 180–181, 200
in Switzerland, 61–64
French Revolution, 2, 18, 38–39
Galician, 198
(p. 556) Gallaudet, 245, 251
GaPlashele, 284, 288
gender, 78–79, 82, 88, 97, 459–460, 467, 480, 545, 548
language ideologies associated with, 107–110, 116
and race, 388, 393
and sexuality, 404, 407, 409–412, 414–415, 417–418
and social class, 27
and urban languages, 283, 286, 290
in the workplace, 511–512
genre, 133, 165, 171, 173, 405–406, 433, 459, 463–464, 466–467, 473, 500, 510, 519
multimodal analysis of, 457
of news satire, 498
and systemic functional linguistics, 493
geographic mapping, 441
German, 200, 238, 252, 285, 311, 385, 431, 436, 490–492, 510, 527–528
Standard, 68, 188
Swiss, 62, 67, 200
German Sign Language, 253
Germany, 20, 23, 29, 144, 353, 364, 385
gerontolinguistics, 369–379
globalization, 5, 261, 322, 491, 547
impact on African urban centers, 287
impact on indigenous communities, 205–206, 209–210, 213–214, 235–236, 310
impact on linguistic landscapes, 426, 431, 434–435, 437–439
impact on workplace, 505, 511, 513–517
and muliteracies, 267
relationship to coloniality, 151–152
sociolinguistic responses to, 531–534, 537–538
and superdiversity, 161–174
and transculturality, 269
Google, 480, 534
Gore, Al, 106
governmentality, 4, 93–96, 143, 146, 525–541, 546–547, 551
Gramsci, Antonio, 25
graphocentrism, 6, 263
Great Britain, 27, 167, 211, 213, 270, 528. See also United Kingdom
Greece, 37, 180–181, 514
Greek, 200, 514, 526
Griffith, Melanie, 463
Gumperz, John, 1, 5–7, 83, 165–166, 173, 508–509
Habermas, Jürgen, 29
Haiti, 181, 200, 208–209
Haitian Creole, 181, 208–209, 303
Halliday, Michael, 281, 289, 454–456, 458
Haugen, Einar, 1, 3, 28, 151, 164
Hawaii, 207–208
Hawaiian, 202, 207, 312, 332
Hawaiian Sign Language, 256
Herder, Johann Gottfried, 434, 527
heritage languages, 127, 129, 153, 204–205, 207, 211–212, 313–314, 360
heteroglossia, 10, 130–132, 174, 190, 198, 206, 210–215, 304, 434, 532, 534–540
heterosexuality, 5, 403–404, 409–410, 417–418
historical linguistics, 232, 285, 309
homonationalism, 418
homonormativity, 418
homosexuality, 403–404, 409, 418
Hong Kong, 440, 528
Hopi, 204, 211
humor, 211, 497–498
Hungary, 253, 311
hybridity, 91, 131, 207, 213, 323, 424, 432
Hymes, Dell, 1, 55, 165–167, 173, 309, 357, 506, 508
iconization, 6, 110–111, 497–498. See also rhematization
identity, 27, 46, 187–188, 459–460, 463–464, 467, 479–480, 492–493, 548–549
cosmopolitan forms of, 12
in deaf culture, 253–255
diasporic forms of, 142–148, 155–156
essentialist view of, 81–82
ethnics forms of, 82, 168, 211, 288, 300, 304–305, 377, 526, 535
gendered forms of, 290, 512
heteroglossic view of, 210–213
impact of colonialism on, 284
(p. 557) indigenous, 7, 300–303
national, 79, 82, 109, 114, 142–143, 146, 162–164, 210, 250, 385, 409, 536
post-Fishmanian view of, 128–129, 137, 168–170
professional, 506–507, 512, 516
racialized forms of, 6, 213, 388, 391–394, 397–398
relationship to language ideologies, 97, 106–117
sexual, 5, 409–413, 418
and social class, 518
transnational forms of, 300–303, 327, 547
imperialism, 35–49
linguistic forms of, 150, 536, 53, 201
India, 184, 497
indigeneity, 66, 235, 284, 301–303, 311
indigenous languages, 197–198, 299–315, 392
displacement of, 364–365
and intercultural education, 271–272
language shift, 202, 205–207, 212, 222
in Mexico, 80, 276
modernist views of, 3, 48, 528–530
non-alphabetic forms of literacy of, 263, 274
Indonesian, 109
Internet, 11, 162, 169, 229, 255, 363, 473–484, 495, 498, 534
intersectionality, 256–257
intraculturalism, 272
Ireland, 210, 235, 436, 441
Irish, 204, 210–211, 437, 441
Iscamtho, 283–284, 286
isiNdebele, 153
Israel, 198, 408–409, 415, 418, 461
isTsotsi sabafazi, 287
Italian, 25, 39, 40, 435–436, 462, 526–527
Italy, 25, 441, 513
Jackson, Michael, 498
Japanese, 115, 434
Javanese, 109
Johannesburg, 288, 412, 416
Jordan, 198
journalism, 489–500
Kenya, 147, 283–285, 375, 377
Kerry, John, 106
Khubchandani, L., 273, 303
Korean, 198, 393
Kriol, 169
Kwaito, 294
Labov, William, 27, 55, 105, 332, 353–354, 358–362, 382, 390, 395
Lakoff, Robin, 28
language attitudes, 104–108, 208, 211, 234, 304–305, 311, 332, 354
language contact, 25, 164, 197–198, 205, 214–215, 223, 282, 285–286, 386, 388, 390, 395
language death, 106, 201, 232–236, 304–305
language decline, 41, 109, 114, 191, 249, 253, 475
language diversity, 150–154, 222–226, 254–257, 545
in Africa, 374–375
in Australia, 146–148, 301
crisis of, 223–225
in France, 39–41
homogenization of, 80, 112–113, 151–154
interactional sociolinguistic perspectives on, 166
new ways of conceptualizing, 126–128, 131–132, 135–136, 156
in Ottoman Empire, 37–38
relationship to biodiversity, 150, 203, 226
relationship to globalization, 36, 47, 97, 223, 236–237, 256–257, 300–301, 424
relationship to multiliteracies, 266–272, 276
relationship to social stratification, 362–364
in Switzerland, 61–62
language documentation, 236–237, 256, 305–310, 312, 314
language endangerment, 6–8, 27, 81, 106, 162, 197, 202–205, 208, 212, 221–238, 306, 389
language ideologies, 6–8, 91–93, 103–117, 148, 323–325, 339–341, 408, 546–547, 550–551
and authenticity, 212
heteroglossic perspective, 112, 190–191, 210–214, 531–532, 534–540
of language revitalization, 304–305
monoglossic perspective, 112, 190–191, 194, 525–528, 535, 538–540
relationship to nation-state, 3, 35–49, 79, 179, 206, 209, 250, 271, 323–325, 530
(p. 558) relationship to race, 385, 387–388, 393
standard, 208, 287, 331–333
language maintenance, 6–7, 10, 27, 40–41, 197–202, 205–209, 212, 214, 304, 364, 425, 530, 546
language mixing, 90, 130, 186, 371, 430–433, 476. See also code-switching
language revitalization, 6–7, 10, 41, 81, 91, 109, 114, 126, 197–199, 202–208, 213, 215, 300, 304–305, 307, 308–310, 312–313, 436
language shift, 8, 42, 109, 173, 185, 188, 197–215, 232–236
critical approaches to the study of, 201
modernist approaches to the study of, 199–200
poststructuralist approaches to the study of, 203–204
language variation, 25–27, 90–91, 167, 250, 256–257, 290, 294, 389–394, 414, 441–442, 458, 467, 493, 511
langue, 21, 461
Latin, 37, 39, 248, 495–496, 526
Latin America, 90–91, 222, 271, 274–275, 311, 371, 530
Latino/a, 107, 110, 276, 350–352, 383, 389–391, 397, 530
lesbian, 290, 404, 407–408, 410, 415, 417–418. See also homosexuality
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 245–246
Liberia, 147
linguistic anthropology, 56–57, 78, 105, 135, 168, 221, 234, 246, 304, 309, 393, 414
linguistic insecurity, 10, 105, 107, 305, 382, 387
linguistic landscapes, 9, 145, 209, 414, 418, 423–443, 453, 465–466, 549
linguistic profiling, 145, 349–365
linguistic purism, 198, 206–208, 210, 215, 325–326
linguistic regimentation, 12, 62, 67, 110, 506, 512, 515, 518, 548
literacy, 38, 48, 80, 149, 261–277, 457, 475, 477, 497, 512
autonomous view of, 265
epistemologies of, 272–274
ideological view of, 265
as local knowledge, 264–266
logocentric views of, 262–264, 272
relations of power of, 6, 274–275
relationship to sign language, 244–245
as a social practice, 265–266
transnational forms of, 214
logocentrism, 69, 244–246, 262–264, 272, 405
Longoria, Eva, 463
Lumbee, 308
Malaya, 294, 528
Marr, Nikolay Yakovlevich, 23–24
Marx, Karl, 19
Maya, 306–307
media linguistics, 489, 492–497, 499
media studies, 481, 493
mediatization, 116, 489–492, 500
memes, 490, 498
Meruans, 375
Métis, 302, 308
metrolingualism, 8, 131, 433, 549–550
Miami (language), 204, 207
Michif, 308
Mignolo, Walter, 3, 12, 155, 263–264, 268, 272, 275, 528
missionary linguistics, 306–307
mobility, 8, 161–162, 170, 214, 273, 287–288, 303, 443, 476, 483, 513–514, 531, 547
scaled, 427, 437–439
modernity, 109, 116, 128, 203, 207, 212, 226, 236, 284–285, 288, 294, 437–439, 441
Mohawk, 312
monolingualism, 82–84, 112, 129–134, 143–144, 148–156, 163, 191–192, 209, 214, 255, 331, 362, 482–483, 532, 539, 546
in antiquity, 37
and colonization, 262–264, 266–268, 275
Herderian approach to, 434
in indigenous communities, 302–303
in modernity, 2–3, 78–80, 90–92
structuralist approach to, 307–308
Montreal, 425
multilingualism, 28, 48, 126, 189, 201, 285, 308, 436, 475–476, 508, 514, 517
in antiquity, 36–38
commodification of, 12, 58, 61–63, 69, 93, 97, 209–210, 237–238, 536–540
as compared to translingualism, 130–131, 261–262, 430–434
in diasporic communities, 141–142, 147–156
dynamic model of, 532
language ideologies of, 6, 8–9, 128, 134, 314, 339–341, 530, 532, 546–547, 550
in postcolonial societies, 3, 274
in postmedevial Europe, 18
relationship to globalization, 212–214, 287, 424, 426–427, 438, 510–511
multiliteracies, 266–267, 272, 276
multimodal analysis, 454–459, 461–462, 464–467, 493, 499, 507–508
Muscogee Nation, 301
Nambikwara, 246
nationalism, 22, 25, 36, 38–42, 38n3, 90, 92, 109, 144, 203, 250, 324–325, 482, 511, 551
native speaker, 6–7, 92, 95–97, 112, 262, 308, 526–527, 529–530, 532, 536
Navajo, 200, 202
Netherlands, 144, 418, 436, 497, 513
new literacy studies, 172, 266, 267–268, 272. See also multiliteracies
New Zealand, 47, 312, 373, 511, 540–541
newspaper, 312, 405, 496–497
Nigeria, 147, 291–292
Nigerian Pidgin, 291–292
normalization, 4, 24, 79, 82, 90–93, 97, 150, 153, 214, 249–250, 304, 325, 388, 404, 409, 417–418, 482–483
North Carolina, 308, 388
Norway, 186, 224, 253, 311
Nouchi, 284, 286–287
Nuer, 153
Obama, Barack, 110, 383, 391
Ojibwe, 197–198, 215, 312
ontological turn, 114–115
ontologies of language, 5, 228–231, 408, 410–411, 414
Ottoman Empire, 37
Palestine, 456, 461
Palin, Sarah, 497
Panjabi, 213
panopticon, 378, 527, 534, 536
Papua New Guinea, 221, 303
parole, 21, 461
patois, 25, 39
Persia, 37
Peru, 198, 311
Philippines, 303, 428, 514–515
phonocentrism, 6, 244–246, 237
Pierre Desloges, 248
Plato, 246–247
plurilingualism, 129, 132, 149, 237, 535–538
political economy, 12, 18, 55–70, 93, 101, 113, 125, 132, 167, 369
polylanguaging, 8, 133, 168, 433, 549–550
postcolonialism, 3, 201, 210, 245, 299–307, 370–371, 529
post-Fordism, 12, 93, 132, 533–534
power, 3–5, 35, 103, 106–107, 109, 111, 150–151, 188–189, 378, 411–412, 417–418, 426–428, 451–452, 458–461, 463, 465–467, 551
Bourdieu perspective on, 325
and colonialism, 284–286, 310, 364
(p. 560) and the construction of borders, 336, 339
Foucauldian perspective on, 60, 77–97, 527–530, 531, 533–534, 536–540, 546–547
and globalization, 205
and imperialism, 201
on the Internet, 497–498
and literacy, 262–275
Marxist perspective on, 19
and race, 363, 382, 389, 391, 393, 399
resistance to, 12–13
and self-determination, 314–315
and social class, 26–27, 113–114, 127, 134
and space, 414–415, 431, 434–435, 437
in the workplace, 507, 511–512, 518–519
pragmatics, 167, 310, 338, 493, 508
prescriptivism, 3, 90, 207, 331, 480, 510–511, 535
Princess Diana, 494–495
privatization, 12, 210, 418, 505
Provencal, 311
psychoanalysis, 410–412
Puerto Rican, 393. See also Latino/a
Pulaar, 153
Pygmalion, 353
Québec, 47, 425, 433–434, 518
queer linguistics, 417
queer theory, 409–410
Quichua, 202, 206
racialization, 6, 109–110, 381–399, 413, 539, 548, 551
racism, 67, 145, 146n1, 274–275, 350–353, 413
epistemic, 275
institutional, 383
internalized, 382
linguistic, 324
personally mediated, 382
Rapa Nui, 10, 304–305
recontextualization, 113, 438–439, 465, 492
Renaissance, 247, 526–527
Reverse Language Shift (RLS), 8, 203–204, 221–223, 229, 304
rhematization, 6, 110–111. See also iconization
Roma, 91, 198
Roman Empire, 37
Romania, 428
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 244, 247–249
Russia, 198
Sámi, 213, 311–312
Samia, 377
Sapir, Edward, 309
Sardinia, 208
Sarkozy, Nicolas, 145
Scotland, 201
Scottish Gaelic, 201
second language acquisition, 340, 531–532
secondary rationalizations, 104–108
selfie, 463
Sepedi, 153
Sepitoli Tsotsitaal, 287
Setswana, 153
sexuality, 5, 286–290, 403–419, 491, 496, 545, 548
Shona, 147
Sierra Leone, 147
sign language, 13, 243–258
American, 245, 252, 255–257
Australian, 253
Hawaiian, 256
Inuit, 256
Mexican, 256
Quebecois, 256
Silicon Valley, 508
Simpson, OJ, 351
Sinhalese, 210
Smitherman, Geneva, 332, 357–359, 383, 391
social capital, 210, 389
social media, 169, 286, 363, 478–482, 490, 494–497, 499
sociolinguistics, 23, 25, 27, 30, 47, 57, 77, 84, 91, 105, 110, 126, 129, 133–134, 142, 149–150, 153, 163, 166, 199, 210–211
compared to sociology of language, 28–29
critical approaches to the study of, 56, 58–59, 78–79, 81
(p. 561) embodied approaches to the study of, 418
Fishmanian approach to the study of, 5–6, 128, 131–132, 137, 162, 165
of globalization, 483, 531
interactional approach to the study of, 83, 104, 166, 506, 508–510
modernist approach to the study of, 4, 10–11, 425, 427–430, 437, 545–551
origin of the term, 28
post-Fishmanian approach to the study of, 125–126, 162, 170
post-structuralist approach to the study of, 1–16, 126, 162, 174, 188, 203–204, 545–551
of superdiversity, 168–172
variationist approach to the study of, 27–28, 162, 167, 228, 232, 291, 381, 384, 389, 392–393, 493
sociology, 2, 20, 23, 29, 381, 383, 386, 389, 492, 551
sociology of language, 2, 22–29, 125, 162, 165, 199, 425
Socrates, 246
Solomon Island Pijin, 303
Solomon Islands, 303
Sotho, 153
South Asia, 303
South Sudan, 147
space, 9, 214–215, 238, 372–373, 384, 388, 393–394, 414–418, 434, 437–439, 480–481
cultural, 287, 536
cyber, 9
hybrid, 497
linguistic, 443
semiotic, 456, 465
smooth, 416
social, 475, 478
striated, 416
subaltern, 537
third, 207, 213, 540
Spain, 2, 90–91, 94–96, 198, 432, 513
Spanglish, 91, 107
Spanish, 94–96, 107, 238, 304–306, 389, 393, 526, 540
and colonization, 263–264, 326, 382, 528
in the United States, 200, 530
in the workplace, 508, 510, 513
speech event, 164, 187, 432, 506–507
Spencer, Herbert, 18–19
Sri Lanka, 209–210
Stammbaum theory, 231–232, 235, 238
Street, Brian, 265–268
subject position, 4–5, 7–8, 11, 13, 107, 531, 537–540
sub-Saharan Africa, 306, 371–373, 379
supervernacular, 132
Swahili, 147, 284, 286
Swati, 153
Sweden, 197–198, 225, 253
Swedish, 198
Switzerland, 57–64, 181, 273
Sylheti, 211
systemic functional grammar, 455–456, 493
Tamil, 153, 209–210
Tanzania, 147, 184, 375
Tasmanian, 234
technology, 10–12, 229, 267, 465, 473–478, 481–484, 495, 512, 518, 531, 533, 549. See also digital technology
in Deaf community, 245, 255–257
domestication of, 473
and linguistic profiling, 362–363
relationship to globalization, 134, 212–214, 505, 531, 533, 547
text messaging, 161, 474–475
textspeak, 212–213
Tok Pisin, 239, 303
Tokyo, 426, 434
tourism, 60–63, 491
Town Bemba, 285–287
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 142, 384–385, 387
transculturality, 269–272
transgender, 407
transglossia, 184, 190–191
translanguaging, 8, 13, 92, 129–132, 214, 262, 432, 532, 540, 549–550
translation, 81, 209, 307, 431, 435, 456–457, 532, 535
translingual turn, 129–131
Trobriand Island, 308–309
Tsonga, 153
Tsotsitaal, 283–284, 286–287, 290
Twitter, 481, 490, 495–498
Uganda, 147, 253
United Kingdom, 26, 144, 151–152, 198, 378. See also Great Britain
United Nations, 7, 42, 44–45, 44n8, 198, 223, 104
urban language, 8, 281–294
verbal hygiene, 3, 331
vernacular, 3, 24, 83, 11, 182, 184, 192, 268, 287, 293, 378–379, 390, 396, 475, 528
European, 495
gay and lesbian, 417
Vhenda, 153
Vietnamese, 153, 498, 508
Voloshinov, Valentin, 1, 23, 272–273, 275
Wales, 47
Wampanoag, 204, 307, 312
Weber, Max, 1, 21–23
Webster, Noah, 527
Weinreich, Uriel, 164
Wellentheorie, 231–232
workplace, 12, 114, 128, 398, 473, 505–519, 533–536
World War I, 43
World War II, 44, 389, 492, 528–529
writing, 9–11, 21, 165, 227, 245–246, 263–265, 306, 451–457, 460, 462, 463–464, 467, 477, 499
and American Sign Language, 255–256
online forms of, 484
private forms of, 434, 510
professional, 510, 513–514
public forms of, 442, 510
Xhosa, 153, 375, 432
Yiddish, 285, 360
Zambia, 147, 287
zero-point hubris, 275–276
Zulu, 153, 284, 286, 289, 408