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date: 25 April 2019

(p. 769) Index

(p. 769) Index

Page numbers followed by t and f indicate tables and figures, respectively. Numbers followed by n indicate notes.

Abeyance structure, 72
(dis)Ability, 291
Ableism, 135
Abolitionism, 31–34, 356–357, 710–711
Abortion
anti-abortion movement, 152–153, 216–218, 220–227, 594
definition of, 221, 324
funding for, 82
legal rights to, 79, 214–231, 255, 359, 527f, 534–536, 538n11
Medicaid benefits, 216–219, 535
as mobilizing issue, 152–153, 162, 221–227
partial-birth, 225–226
post-abortion syndrome (PAS), 324
Abortion clinics, 153, 218
About-Face, 465
Abuse
child abuse, 219
child sexual abuse, 359, 444
domestic abuse, 270–290
forced sterilization, 220–221, 628, 651
intimate partner violence, 270
wife beating or battering, 96, 271–278, 427
ACA (Affordable Care Act). See Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Academia, 319
Access to birth control, 358, 528, 538n4
Access to education, 584–585
Access to medical care, 255
Activism
African-American women’s, 63–65
anti-AIDS, 672–675, 679
anti-ERA, 320–323
anti-feminist women’s, 317–320
anti-lynching, 38–40
anti-nuclear, 715
anti-rape, 628
anti-war, 337
community, 699
conservative women’s movements, 150–171
consumer, 68
contemporary, 468
cultural, 670
direct action, 398–418
educational, 582–601
environmental, 247, 685–707
everyday, 469–470, 562
feminist, 120, 316, 419–439
gendered, 708–728
grassroots, 699
hashtag, 143, 470, 474–475, 637
health, 254–269
insider, 489–493, 500
institutional, 492, 494–499
intersectional, 36–38
in labor unions, 729–750
of Latinas, 659
in legislative and governmental agency forums, 487–506
lesbian, 679
linguistic, 419–439
local, 34–36
maternal, 298
menstrual, 114
by middle-class White women, 52–59
modern Black liberation movement, 623–642
online, 465–466, 469, 597
outsider collective action, 409
peace, 567, 708–709
personal impacts of, 697–699
political, 670
pro-life, 323–327
pro-natalist, 242
queer, 675
resource requirements, 715
right-wing women’s, 150–171
against sexual violence, 628
social media, 462–483
student, 591, 593–597
tactics of, 403
voting, 471
women’s health, 254–269
women’s movement, 1–25
Activist art, 384–385
Activist biography, 300
Activist mothering, 237
Activists
African-American women, 499
AIDS, 259
bridge actors, 42
definition of, 491
educator-activists, 585
government, 496–499
housewives, 61
insider, 532, 550
institutional, 489
interactions with non-activists, 696–697
media, 465
menstrual product, 347
ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power), 384–385, 673–674
Ada Initiative, 476
Adams, Abigail, 400
Adams, John, 400
Adams, Victoria Gray, 65
Addams, Jane, 40, 43–44, 174, 364, 585, 712–713, 722–723
Adios, Barbie website, 470
Advertising, 425–426, 464, 467, 538n6
Advocacy, 256–259, 406, 475
Black women’s, 38–39
on Capitol Hill, 56
sports, 612–613
women’s, 56, 604–613
Advocacy groups, 535
Advocacy networks, 729
The Advocate for Peace, 714–715
Advocates for Youth, 225
Aegis, 282
Affirmative action, 199
Affordable Care Act (ACA). See Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Affordable housing, 655
Afghanistan, 239, 550, 716, 724
Africa, 177–178
African-American feminism, 646–647
African American Policy Forum (AAPF), 475
African Americans, 62–64, 346, 411–412
gay and lesbian, 672
in labor movement, 732–733, 735
modern Black liberation movement, 623–642
protest and direct action by, 404
African-American women, 38–39, 69, 203, 293, 295, 340. See also Black women
activism by, 63–65, 695
in battle over abortion, 220–221
(p. 771) in Black church, 562
in civil rights movement, 575
direct action and protest by, 405
in government, 499
in higher education, 584–585
leadership roles, 562, 567
legislators, 494
lesbians, 103, 672
maternalist politics, 239, 241
in peace movement, 716
respectability of, 629–630
in suffrage movement, 410
support for ERA, 74–75
in women’s studies, 587–588
African-American Women in Defense of Ourselves, 204
Africans, 753
Afro-American Council (AAC), 38–39
Afro-American League (AAL), 39
Age differences, 89. See also Generational differences
Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 201, 304
Ageism, 135
Agency forums, 487–506
Agenda setting, 488
Aggrieved citizens, 700
Agricultural workers, 234, 649–650
Ahrens, Lois, 282
AIDS, 105, 256, 259, 263, 672–674
Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), 234
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 237, 293
Ain’t I a Woman (hooks), 102–103
Airlines, 199–200
Air Line Stewardesses and Stewards Association (ALSSA), 200
Akin, Todd, 223, 226
Alabama, 162
Albiston, Catherine, 207
All American Girls’ Baseball League (AAGBL), 607
Allen, Florence Ellinwood, 526
Alliance against Sexual Coercion, 202–203, 533
Alliance Defending Freedom, 155
Alliance for Women in Media, 465
Allies, 59–63
All of Us or None, 309n8
All the Women Are White, All the Men are Black, but Some of Us Are Brave (Hull, Scott, and Smith, eds.), 587, 634–637
Almanzar, Nelson Pichardo, 403
Alternative media, 468
Alternative mothering, 241–242
Alternative news, 465
Alt-labor, 729
Altruism, 512–513
Alvarado, Elvia, 657
Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), 606
American Airlines, 200
American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), 33–34, 361, 403–404, 711
American Association of University Women (AAUW), 64, 401
American Bar Association, 527
American Center for Law and Justice, 535
American Citizens Concerned for Life, 206
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 75, 81, 217, 524, 529, 676
Reproductive Rights Project, 535
Women’s Rights Project (WRP), 206, 531–532, 531t
American Dialect Society, 433
American Dream, 698
American Enterprise Institute (AEI), 319
American Equal Rights Association (AERA), 37
American Family Association, 155
American Federation for State, County, and Municipal Employees, 196–197
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), 206, 740–741
American Federation of Teachers, 530, 740–741
American Journal of Sociology, 260
American Legion Auxiliary, 66
American Life League, 323
American PAX Association, 716
American Psychiatric Association (APA), 552
(p. 772) American School Peace League, 722
Americans United for Life, 535
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 304
American United for Life, 323
American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), 29, 35, 37
American Women (PCSW), 196
American Women in Radio & Television, 465
Amicus briefs, 538n11
Anarchists, 161
Anchor baby moms, 657
Anderson, Mary, 62
Andrews, Fannie Fern, 722
And Still I Rise: Black Women Labor Leaders’ Voices, Power, Promise (Institute for Policy Studies), 305–306
Another Mother for Peace, 238
Ansari, Aziz, 477
Anthony, Susan B., 34–35, 37, 41, 326, 356, 403–404, 407, 710
Anti-abortion movement, 152–153, 216–218, 220–227, 594
Anti-AIDS activism, 672–675, 679
Anti–birth control movement, 220
Anti-Black racism, 135
Anti-busing movement, 363–364
Anti-Castro politics, 652
Anti-Defamation League, 67
Anti-discrimination imperative, 195–202
Anti-environmental racism, 691–692
Anti-feminist women, 315–320, 329n1
Anti-gay discrimination, 740–741
Anti-globalization protests, 471
Anti-internationalist populism, 67
Anti-lynching, 38–40
Anti–nuclear power movement, 359, 362, 715, 720
Anti-pornography movement, 491
Anti-racism, 120, 474–477, 762
Anti-rape movement, 270–290, 628
Anti-Semitism, 716
Anti-slavery movement, 173, 403–404, 407, 411
Anti-slavery petitions, 33–34
Anti-sterilization abuse movement, 651
Anti-Title IX movement, 609
Anti-toxics movement, 691–692
Anti-trans bias, 202
Anti-war activism, 112, 239, 337. See also Peace movement
Anzaldúa, Gloria, 103, 115, 131, 441, 644, 647–648, 659
Appalachia, 247, 466
Appendectomy, Mississippi, 628
Apps, 472
Apthekar, Bettina, 40
Argentina, 177–178
Arizona, 83, 219, 242
Arlington National Cemetery, 718
Arms race, 714, 720
Armstrong, Elizabeth, 669
Aronson, Pamela, 113
Arson attacks, 756
Art groups, 112
Asetoyer, Charon, 258
Asia, 178
Asian, 734
Asian-Americans, 279, 536, 646–647, 672, 734
Asian-American women, 525, 672, 734
Asian Immigrant Women Advocates (AIWA), 299, 301–303, 742
Asians, 279, 753
La Asociación Puertorriquena de Mujeres Sufragistas (The Puerto Rican Association of Woman Suffragists), 651
Assault weapons, 239
Assimilationism, 664
Association for Women’s Rights in Development, 475
Association of American Colleges and Universities, 588
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, 64
Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching (ASWPL), 38–40
Asthma, 655
Atencio, Dolores, 536
Athletes, 607, 615, 617–618
Athleticism, 605, 613–616
Athletics, 591–593, 602–620
(p. 773) Athletics Policy Interpretation, 609–610
Atkinson, Ti-Grace, 97
Atlanta Neighborhood Union, 688
The Atlantic, 602
AT&T, 199, 201, 426
At the Dark End of the Street (McGuire), 627–628
Attorneys. See Lawyers
Authentic feminism, 327
Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls, 207
Avery, Byllye, 258
Bachmann, Michele, 159–160
Backlash, 109
Bailey, Cathryn, 111
Baker, Carrie, 202
Baker, Ella, 65, 363–364, 566, 624–628
Balch, Emily Greene, 722–723
Baldwin, Tammy, 83, 493
Ballard v. U.S., 527
Bambara, Toni Cade, 635–636
Bamberger, Rose, 667
Banana plantations, 743
Banaszak, Lee Ann, 43, 195, 408
Bands, 110
Baptist Church, 575
Barakso, Maryann, 80–81
Barber, William II, 129
Barbie dolls, 476
Barbie Liberation Organization (BLO), 476
Barnard College, 117
Bartenders, 528
Barufaldi, Linda, 420–421
Baseball, 604–605, 607
Basketball, 607
Bates, Daisy, 404, 625–626, 628
Battered Wives (Del Martin), 427
Battered women’s movement, 271–278, 427
Battered women’s shelters, 96, 273
Battle of the Sexes, 609, 613–614
Baumgardner, Jennifer, 110, 120
Baxter, Sandra, 513
Bayh, Birch, 84–85, 590
Beal, Frances, 131
Beale, Frances, 292
Bearney, Belle, 35
“Becoming the Third Wave” (Walker), 110
Beechey, Suzanne, 114
Beijing-95 (World Conference on Women, 1995), 178–182, 469
Beijing Declaration and Platform, 180
Belmont, Alva, 410
Bem, Sandra, 427
Benecke, Michelle, 555
Benjamin, Medea, 715
Berkeley-Oakland Women’s Union, 93–94
Bernard, Michelle, 159
Bernstein, Mary, 299, 669, 677
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 64
Beyoncé, 477, 617
Beyond Welfare, 246
Bible, 423
Bikini Kill, 110
Bill of Rights for Women (NOW), 76
Biology, 95
Biomedical model, 266n2
Birth control, 215–216, 257
access to, 358, 528, 538n4
anti–birth control movement, 220
Griswold v. Connecticut, 528–529, 538n4
health insurance coverage for, 494
Birth control clinics, 215–216
Bitch (slur), 427–428
Bitch magazine, 406, 427, 469
Black Alliance for Just Immigration, 143
Black Americans for Life, 151
Black arts movement, 384
Black churches, 562, 566, 570, 575, 756
Black colleges, 607
Black culture, 632
Black drag kings, 452–453
Black family, 632
Black femininity, 470
Black feminism, 470, 474–475, 623, 634–637
(p. 774) “A Black Feminist Statement” (Combahee River Collective), 131, 381, 387–388, 441, 637
Black liberation movement, 75, 623–642
Black Lives Matter (BLM), 129, 143–144, 146n10, 248
#BlackLivesMatter, 475, 477, 595, 637
Black matriarchy, 632, 646
Blackmun, Harry, 206–207
Black Panther Party, 94, 630–633, 670
Black Power movement, 583, 623, 630–634
Blacks, 235, 279. See also African Americans; Black women
Black sexual politics, 736
Black studies, 583, 587
Black suffrage, 36–37
Black Twitter, 474–475
Blackwell, Henry, 37, 428
Blackwell, Maylei, 593
The Black Woman (Beal and co-authors), 131
Black women, 30, 37–40, 94, 115, 134–135, 173, 293, 346, 441, 638. See also African-American women
activists, 38–39, 235, 629, 633–634
in battle over abortion, 220–221
in Black Power movement, 631–634
bridge leaders, 68, 467, 566, 626–628
civil rights for, 62–63
in civil rights movement, 624–626, 630
community organizing by, 247
consciousness-raising groups, 378–379
direct action and protest by, 410
early mobilization of, 356
in environmental justice movement, 700
feminist action by, 358, 533
feminist consciousness among, 633–634
feminists, 94, 131, 381–382
forced sterilization of, 628
in labor movement, 305–306, 732–733
lawyers and judges, 524
low-income, 294
marginalization of, 467
maternalist politics of, 233, 235, 237, 242
in movements to end violence against women, 279
oppression of, 631–634
physical educators, 606–607
police brutality against, 638
political rights, 357
sexual violence toward, 628
short-term charismatic leaders, 626–627
sports participation, 606–607
suffragists, 37–38
Black Women Organized for Action (BWOA), 410
Black women’s advocacy, 38–39
Black women’s associations, 74–75
Black women’s benevolent and secret societies, 731
Black Women’s Blueprint, 115
Black women’s clubs, 173, 235, 243–244, 687–689, 701
Black women’s movement organizations, 341
Black women’s studies, 587–588
Black Worker Initiative, 305–306
Black workers, 731, 734
Black Workers for Justice, 309n8
Bland, Sandra, 638
Blog rolls, 472
Blogs, 472
Blow, Charles, 129
B’nai B’rith, 67
Boat tours, 721
Bobel, Chris, 114
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ), 199–200, 533
Bond, Julian, 65
La Bone, 468
Bonn Peace Talks, 723
Books, 161
Book stores, 96
“Borderlands/la frontera” metaphor, 644, 647, 659
Boston, Massachusetts, 356, 363
Boston Review, 182
Boston Women’s Health Book Collective (BWHBC), 257
Boxer, Barbara, 492–493
Boycotts, 60, 62, 740
“Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work,” 64
grape, 364
heroic period, 624
(p. 775) Montgomery Bus Boycott, 364, 404, 623, 627–628
Boyer, Elizabeth, 531t
Boy Scouts, 604–605
Bradley, Joseph, 525
Bradwell, Myra, 524
Brake, Deborah, 603, 607–608
Brand, Myles, 610
Brandeis, Louis, 524
Bread and Roses, 93
Breast cancer, 256, 259, 263–264, 473
Breastfeeding, 161, 234, 236, 473
Bridge actors, 42–45
Bridge leaders, 65, 68, 164n5, 354–355, 404, 467, 626–628, 732
Bright, Josefina Fierro de, 66
Brinkley, Alan, 156
Brochure-ware websites or discussion forums, 469
Brogrammers, 465
Brooklyn Tenants Union, 60
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids (BSCPM), 732
Brothers to the Rescue, 652
Brown, Barbara, 531t
Brown, Elaine, 632–633
Brown, Helen Gurley, 673
Brown, Michael, 475
Brown, Nadia, 494
Brown, Rita Mae, 101
Browne, Stephen Howard, 32
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 529–530, 623–624
Buddhism, 564
Buechler, Steven, 34, 95
Buffalo, New York, 687
Bureaucracy, 89, 496–499, 501
Burke, Susan, 554–555
Burkholder, Nancy Jean, 449–450
Burks, Mary Fair, 364
Burton, Linda K., 561
Bush, George H.W., 514, 608–609, 718
Business women’s clubs, 523
Busing
anti-busing movement, 363–364
Montgomery Bus Boycott, 364, 404, 623, 627–628
Busties, 469–470
Bust magazine, 118, 406, 469–470
Butch women, 450–451
Cable Act, 54
Caldicott, Helen, 720–721
Caldwell, Kia, 115
California
battle over abortion, 222
maternalist politics, 239, 241
maternity entitlements, 206
Proposition 8, 677, 741
protective labor laws, 200–201
women’s club federations, 687
women’s studies courses, 586
California Federal Savings and Loan Assn. v. Guerra, 206–207
Call-out culture, 390
Campaign funding reform, 536
Campaigns, political, 73, 515
Campaign to End Discrimination Against Pregnant Workers, 206
Campesinas (women agricultural workers), 649–650
Camp Trans, 450, 671
Canada, 222–223
Capitalism, 300–301
Capitalist patriarchy, 92–93
Capitol Hill, 56
CARA, 281
Carasthasis, Anna, 383
Caregivers, 208
Carey, Mary Ann Shadd, 37
Caribbeans, 644–645
Carle, Susan, 39–40
Carry That Weight group, 386, 594–595
Carson, Rachel, 364, 689
Carter, Ashton B., 551
Carter, Jimmy, 79, 206, 498, 526
(p. 776) Carter, Rosalyn, 79
Carvey, Dana, 674
Cary, Mary Ann Shadd, 524
Casal, Lourdes, 652
Categories: (in)stability of, 135–137
Catholic Church, 66, 327, 563–564, 566, 571, 674
Catholicism, 78, 562–563, 575
Catholic men’s colleges, 584
Catholic peace movement, 716
Catholics, 235, 754
Catholics for Free Choice (CFFC), 571–573
Catholic Sisters of Loretto Academy, 575
Catholic Workers movement, 720
Catt, Carrie Chapman, 43, 363, 400, 410, 712–713
Cause lawyering, 523–524
Cautions, 297–301
Celebrity, 159, 477
Censorship, 473, 475
Center for Constitutional Rights, 531t
Center for Equal Opportunity (CEO), 328
Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies (CISPS), 475
Center for Reproductive Rights, 535
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), 263, 673
Central Americans, 644–645, 648, 652
Central High School (Little Rock, Arkansas), 404, 625
Cerrell Associates, 655
Chancer, Lynn, 110
Chao, Elaine, 319
Charismatic leaders, 626–627
Charity work, 57, 62, 762
Chastain, Brandi, 615
Chávez, Helen, 65
Chavez, Linda, 328
Chesler, Phyllis, 257
Chester Residents Concerned about Quality of Life, 691
Chicago, Illinois, 60, 297
Chicago Dyke March, 448
Chicago Legal Times, 524
Chicago Public School system, 611
Chicago Women’s Liberation Union, 93, 104, 362
Chicana feminism, 468, 646–647, 650
Chicana por Mi Raza Digital Memory Project, 472
Chicana Rights Project, 198, 410
Chicanas, 75, 94, 467, 646, 650. See also Mexican-American women
feminists, 94, 132, 464
students, 593–594
Chicano/Chicana studies, 587
Chicano movement, 132, 359, 361, 648, 650
Child abuse, 219
Child care, 62, 205, 232, 236, 243, 291, 304–306
Child care centers, 305
Children’s Bureau, 234
Child services, 248–249
Child sexual abuse, 359, 444
Child theft, 291
Chile, 177–178
Chisholm, Shirley, 131
Cho, Sumi, 133
Choice, 93–94
pro-choice movement, 225–226, 328–329, 443, 534–535
of professional name, 425
vote, 511–514
A Choice, Not an Echo (Schlafly), 161, 318
Choo, Hae Yeon, 141
Christian adoption agencies, 153
Christian Coalition, 155
Christian Identity, 758–759
Christianity, 33, 567–568
Christian radio, 160
Christian Right, 318
Christians, 66–67, 158, 242
feminists, 572, 574
fundamentalist, 150, 567–568
Churches, 152
(p. 777) Church Ladies for Choice, 674
Church of the Latter-day Saints (LDS), 561, 564
CIO Auxiliary, 62
Cisgender, 456n1
Cisgender women, 441, 449–450
Citizens’ Advisory Council on the Status of Women (CACSW), 205, 501n5
Citizens Against Ruining our Environment, 691
Citizens for Decency through Law, 155
Citizenship, 57–59
City of Sisterly and Brotherly Loves (Stein), 666
Civic action
egalitarian-feminist framework of, 57–58
good-citizen framework of, 58–59
maternal framework of, 56–57
Civil disobedience, 153, 473, 654
Civil rights, 151
Civil Rights Act, 72, 529
Title VI, 590
Title VII, 59, 76, 194, 198–203, 304, 358, 529, 533
U.S. Education Amendments, 589–590, 608
Civil Rights March, 404
Civil rights movement, 38–39, 62–63, 359, 361, 411–412, 715
heroic period, 624–630
lawyers in, 525
leadership of, 363, 562, 567, 575
protest and direct action, 404
women in, 408, 567, 575, 624–626
Civil War, 710
Cixous, Hélène, 419, 430
Clare Booth Luce Policy Institute (CBLPI), 319
Clark, Septima, 624, 626–627
Class consciousness, 102, 122
Class differences, 76, 97, 409–412, 465–466, 699–700
Classism, 135
Class oppression, 389–390
Clay, Cassius, 35
Clay, Henry, 35
Clay, Laura, 35
Cleary Act complaints, 594
Cleaver, June, 51
Cleaver, Kathleen, 633
Clemens, Elisabeth, 30
Clergy, 563–565, 570
Clergy Consultation Service, 216
Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur, 538n8
Cleveland Plain Dealer, 464
Cleveland Press, 464
Clinton, Bill, 259, 263, 673–674
Clinton, Hillary, 129, 144, 493
Clothesline Project, 384–385
Clubs
Black women’s clubs, 173, 235, 243–244, 687–689, 701
business women’s clubs, 523
conservation clubs, 687
mothers’ clubs, 235
suffrage clubs, 36
women’s clubs, 57, 67, 158, 523, 686–689
Coalitional consciousness-building, 379
Coalition for Reproductive Equality in the Workplace (CREW), 206
Coalition of Immokalee Workers, CATA, 309n8
Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW), 76, 93, 733
Cobble, Dorothy Sue, 59–60, 194
CodePink, 239, 708–709, 714–715, 717, 719, 724
Coffee, Linda, 534–535
Coffeehouses, 96
Cold War, 56–57, 68, 665
Cold Warriors, 67
Collective action, 409, 660, 751–752
Collective identity, 380–383, 391, 453–454
Collective orientation, 336
Collectivism, 89, 670
College students, 583–584
Collins, Patricia Hill, 97, 110, 115, 292
Colonialism, 177, 695
Colonize This! Young Women of Color on Today’s Feminism (Hernandez and Rehman, eds.), 115, 636
(p. 778) Color: women of, 293, 340, 346, 378–381, 388–389, 410. See also specific ethnicities
in battle over abortion and reproductive rights, 220–221, 227
early activism, 59, 63–66
environmental activism, 691, 698, 700
feminism, 102–103
marginalization of, 614
maternalist and community politics, 241–244
in movements to end violence against women, 279–280
in peace movement, 716
politicization of, 698
in sports, 614
state activism, 499
Colorado, 35, 44, 219
Colorblindness, 294
Color-blind racism, 754
Columbia Law School, 475
Columbia University, 594
Colvin, Claudette, 629
CO-MADRES (Committee of Mothers and Relatives of Political Prisoners, Disappeared, and Assassinated of El Salvador), 178
Combahee River Collective, 97, 110, 115, 131–132, 292, 634, 665, 670
“A Black Feminist Statement,” 131, 381, 387–388, 441, 637
“Combahee River Collective Statement,” 94, 670
consciousness-raising sessions, 379
Combat, military
direct conflict, 550
women in, 497, 549–551
Coming out, 383–386, 391
Commission for Racial Justice, 691
Commission on Opportunity in Athletics, 609
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), 358, 502n5
Commitment, 407–408
Committee on Minorities and Race Relations (WILPF), 174
Committee to End Sterilization Abuse, 651
Commodity chains, 743
Communism, 291
Communist Party, 60, 64, 71–72, 297, 631
Communist Worker’s Party, 123n3
Community groups, 651
Community Service Organization (CSO), 65, 649–650
Community Voices Heard, SF Living Wage Coalition, 309n8
Community work, 118–120, 302–303, 447
activism, 243, 699
housekeeping, 244
improvement projects, 57
organizing, 245–248
politics, 232–233, 243–249
safety, 655
volunteerism, 244–245, 248
Companionship exemptions, 197
Comparable worth, 197
Compassionate Care for Servicewomen Act, 553
Competitive sports, 605–607, 614
Complainant v. Anthony Foxx, 194
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), 255, 261
Comprehensive Child Development Bill, 208
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 272
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund law), 691
Compton’s Cafeteria, 668
Concerned Women for America (CWA), 150–164, 226, 321–325, 538n11
Confederate flag, 514
Conference of Governors, 687
Conflict, direct, 550
El Congreso de Pueblos de Hablan Española (National Congress of Spanish-Speaking People), 66, 649
Congressional Caucus on Women’s Issues (CCWI), 492, 494
Congressional LGBT Equality Caucus, 493
Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, 466
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 732
Connecticut, 525, 528–529, 538n4
Connell, Raywyn, 117
(p. 779) Consciousness, 336–338
class, 102, 122
gender, 324, 335–353
political, 589
Consciousness-raising, 95–98, 246, 339, 376–380, 386, 391, 468
Consciousness-raising groups, 202–203, 361, 377–379
Conservation, 686–687
Conservation clubs, 687
Conservatism, 156
Conservative chic, 319
Conservative Christian community, 158, 575
Conservative Judaism, 564
Conservatives, 164n2, 316, 318
secular, 161
sexual, 222
Conservative women, 59, 66–67, 76–78, 150–171, 316, 329n1, 337
battle over abortion, 226
“Great American Conservative Women” calendar, 319
Constitutional Equality Amendment (CEA), 82
Consumer activism, 68
Consumer protection laws, 234
Consumers’ League(s), 234
Contemporary activism, 468
Black liberation movement, 637–638
environmental movement, 689–690
feminist litigation, 531–536
mobilization for economic justice, 301–306
Contingency: politics of, 78
Contraception, 215–216, 257
access to, 358, 528, 538n4
anti–birth control movement, 220
Griswold v. Connecticut, 528–529, 538n4
health insurance coverage for, 494
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 180, 497
Conway, Jill K., 584
Cookbooks, 238
Cooper, Anna Julia, 183n4, 584–585, 634–635
Cooperative motherhood, 236
Cooperative nursery movement, 236
Coors, 740
Copelon, Rhonda, 531t
Corbett, Kelly, 555
Cornell University, 202
Cosmopolitan, 144, 673
Costanza, Midge, 498
Cott, Nancy, 53, 55
Coulter, Ann, 319, 364–365
Council of the United Civil Rights Leadership, 630
Council on the Economic Status of Women (Minnesota), 495
Counterculture, 222, 441
Countermovement, 76–80
Counter-recruitment tactics, 724
Couples, Inc., 675
Courts, 522–543
Coverture, 537n1
Cowan, Belita, 257
Cox, Harvey, 421
Crafting, 112
Craft unions, 234
Craig v. Boren, 532
Cranford, Cynthia J., 303
Crawford, Lisa, 697
Crenshaw, Kimberlé, 110, 130–134, 179, 292, 475, 635, 647–648, 659
Crisis pregnancy centers (CPCs), 153, 219, 325–326
Crocker, Betty, 51
Crossley, Alison, 118–119
Crossley, Nick, 593
Crow, Jane, 530
Crunk Feminist Collective, 637–638
Cuban-American women organizers, 652
Cubans, 644–645, 648, 652
Cullors, Patrisse, 143–144, 637
Culpepper, Emily, 420–421
Cult of domesticity, 467
Cult of masculinity, 556
(p. 780) Cult of True Womanhood, 606
Cultural activism, 670
Cultural barriers, 465
Cultural exchange projects, 57
Cultural feminism, 96, 101, 388, 403
Cultural iconography, 613–616
Cultural Support Teams (CSTs), 550
Cultural traditionalism, 222
Culture(s)
Black, 632
call-out, 390
military, 545, 555–556
rape, 444
of resistance, 653
women-only, 447
women’s, 96
Cyberfeminism, 118–119, 121, 477
Cyrus, Miley, 473
Daily resistance, 119–120
Daly, Mary, 97, 430, 565
Dancing vaginas, 709
Daniels, Jesse, 118–119
Dannenfelser, Marjorie, 327
Daring to Be Bad (Echols), 671
Daughters of Bilitis (DOB), 99, 665, 667, 679
Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), 66
Davidow, Anne, 528–529
Davis, Angela, 122, 630–631, 633
Davis, Caroline, 76, 196
Davis, Kathy, 133
Davis, Nancy, 531t
Davis, Wendy, 219
Day, Dorothy, 720
Day care, 62. See also Child care
Day laborers, 309n8
DDT, 689
Deafness, 80
“Dear Colleague” letter (Office of Civil Rights), 590–591, 609–610
“Dear Injurious Physician” (Seaman), 260
De Beauvoir, Simone, 92, 419, 635
Decade for Women (1975 to 1985), 175–182
Decker, Susan P., 687
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (UN), 180
Decolonial feminism, 643–644, 645–648
Deer-in-Water, Jessie, 697
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), 493, 676–677
DeGraffenreid v. General Motors Assembly Div., 201
De Laat, Kim, 589
Delta Sigma Theta, 499
D’Emilio, John, 666
Democracy Now, 465
Democratic National Convention (2012), 708
Democratic Party, 84, 161, 412
platform, 58, 72, 514–515
support for, 328, 511, 513
support for women’s issues, 496, 514
women delegates, 55
Demographics, 111
Demonstrations, 406, 674. See also Protest(s)
Denial of service (DNOS) attacks, 476
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 263, 265
Deportations, 66, 649
Depression, post-partum, 258
Depression era, 60–61, 64, 68, 234
Desert Shield, 549–550
Desert Storm, 549–550
Detroit, Michigan, 60, 237
De Varona, Donna, 609
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), 179–180
Dewson, Molly, 526
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA), 552
The Dialectic of Sex (Firestone), 95
Didrikson, Babe, 614
Die-ins, 674
Different Daughters (Gallo), 667
Digital divide, 465–466
Digital immigrants, 154
Digital natives, 154
Digital networks, 153
Dilling, Elizabeth, 67
Dinner, Deborah, 198–199
Dioxin, 693–694
(p. 781) Direct action, 398–418, 668, 709
Direct Care Alliance, 304, 309n8
Direct conflict, 550
Direct media, 162–163
(dis)ability, 291
Disability benefits, 205–206, 553–554
Disability rights, 275
Dis-Abled Women’s Network, 257
Disarmament, 714, 720
Discontent, 336
Discrimination
against African-American women, 62, 65
against caregivers, 208
family responsibility, 208
gender or sex-based, 85, 97, 198, 200–207, 358, 514, 527f, 529, 533
Guidelines on Discrimination against Caregivers (EEOC), 208
Guidelines on Discrimination on the Basis of Sex (EEOC), 203, 205–206
laws against, 514
legal cases, 201–202, 527f, 529, 536, 538n6
Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), 201, 206–208, 534
racial, 62, 97, 198, 201, 203, 410 (see also Racism)
against women, 62, 65, 85
workplace, 193–213, 536, 538n6
Discussion forums, 469–470
Disidentification, 113
Disposable Boy Toys, 452
Disruptive protest, 408
District of Columbia, 502n5
Diversality, 139
Diversification, 34–36
Dobratz, Betty, 755–756
Dobson, James, 423
Doctor-patient relations, 255
Doctors, 255
The Doctors’ Case against the Pill (Seaman), 257
Doctrine of military necessity, 77
Dodge, Josephine, 317, 364
Dodson, Debra, 494
Doe v. Bolton, 528–529, 534–535
Dog fights, 35
Dole, Elizabeth, 159
Domestic abuse
intimate partner violence, 270
movements to end, 270–290
wife beating or battering, 96, 271–278, 427
Domestic intersectionality, 135
Domesticity: cult of, 467
Domestic violence, 270, 282–284, 427. See also Domestic abuse
Domestic work, 304–306
Domestic workers, 63, 197, 234, 291, 304, 309n8, 404
Domination: matrix of, 97, 635, 647–648
“Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy, 449–450, 550–551, 555–556, 675
“Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work” boycotts, 64
Dotulski, Davina, 676
Douglass, Frederick, 411, 710, 719
Drag kings, 452–453
Drag performance, 451–452
Drag queens, faux, 452
Drain, Steve, 158
DREAM Act, 658–659
DREAMers, 391
Dred, 452–453
Dred Scott, 407
Drug safety, 255
Drunk driving, 239
Duke, David, 754
Duncan, Barbara, 118–119
Dunham, Lena, 477
Dunlap, Mary, 531t
Durazo, Maria Elena, 650
Dyke-baiting, 740
Dyke March, 448, 672, 674
Eagle Forum, 151–164, 320, 323–324, 364
Earl, Jennifer, 407
Earth First!, 690
East Coast Homophile Organizations, 666
Eastwood, Mary, 498, 530
Echols, Alice, 96, 388, 671
(p. 782) Economic Commission for Africa, 177
Economic justice, 297–306, 309n1
Economic & Political Weekly, 138–139
Écriture féminine, 430
Ederle, Gertrude, 604
Editors, 467
Education, 256–259, 291
access to, 584–585
Black studies, 583, 587
Black women’s studies, 587–588
Chicano/Chicana studies, 587
costs of, 60
feminist studies, 307
gender studies, 132, 307
higher education, 583–590, 592
intersectionality studies, 132–133
movement studies, 141–144
patriarchy studies, 307
peace studies, 722
secondary, 57, 596–597, 608
sex education, 95–97, 220, 222, 446
sports studies, 617–618
U.S. history studies, 57
women’s colleges, 584–585
women’s rights studies, 536–537
women’s studies, 96, 132, 402–403, 585–589, 596–597
Educational institutions, 582–601. See also specific institutions
Education Amendments, 589–590, 608
Educator-activists, 585
Edwards, Donna, 487
Egalitarian-feminist framework, 57–58
Egalitarianism, 343, 670, 717, 719, 756
Egan, Eileen, 716
Ehrenreich, Barbara, 116
Eisenhower administration, 72
Electoral politics, 507–521
El Grito del Norte, 467
Elite women, 55–59
Ella Baker Center for Human Rights, 143
Ellison, Sylvia, 531t
Ellison v. Brady, 204
El Salvador, 177–178, 659
Embodiment, 406, 440–461
Embser-Herbert, Melissa, 555–556
EMILY’s List, 500–501
Emma Lazarus Federation of Jewish Clubs, 64
Employees, 304–305, 309n8
Employment
low-wage, 291–314
unemployment, 64
Empowerment, 259, 698–699
girl, 615
Encuentro Femenil, 467
Encuentros (regional meetings), 178
End Rape on Campus, 594–595
English language, 421–424
gender-inclusive third-person singular pronouns, 433
gender-neutral terms, 431
gender-neutral/third-gender pronouns, 432–433
Ensler, Eve, 403
Environmental activism, 120, 247, 685–707
Environmentalism, 382, 654–655, 690
Environmental justice, 291, 654–655
Environmental justice movement (EJM), 653–656, 685, 690–699
professional movement, 689–690, 701
Progressive era, 700–701
Epicene terms, 431
Episcopalians, 568
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 197–202, 358
Guidelines on Discrimination against Caregivers, 208
Guidelines on Discrimination on the Basis of Sex, 203, 205–206
insider activism, 493, 497, 499
Equal in Faith, 576
Equality. See also Equal pay
class inequality, 465–466
gender equality cases, 528
income inequality, 660
legal, 195–202
marriage, 675–678
Equality California, 676
Equality/difference controversy, 81–82
“Equality Is Not the Finish Line” (Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders), 678
Equal Opportunity Commission, 76
Equal Pay Act, 59, 62, 72, 196, 529
Equal Rights Advocates, 531t
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 53–54, 57–58, 71, 82, 194
opposition to, 76–80, 156, 196, 315, 320–323, 442, 567–569
STOP-ERA campaign, 77, 158, 317, 320
support for, 78–80, 322, 328, 467, 497, 546
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) movement, 71–88, 105, 401, 528
Era Club (Louisiana), 36
ERA Illinois, 81
ERA Summit, 83
Erotica, 473
Essay contests, 722
Essence magazine, 470
Essentialism, 389–390, 440–441, 719
gender, 155–156, 611
strategic, 389
Estrada, Carmen A., 198
Ethnic identity, 653. See also Race/ethnicity
Ethnic succession model, 645–646
Eurocentricism, 97
European Trade Union Commission (ETUC), 738
Evangelicals, 158, 160, 316, 322–323, 564
Evans, Jodie, 715
Events, protest, 398–418. See also Protest(s)
Everett, Anna, 119
Everyday activism, 469–470, 562
Examining Board v. Flores de Otero, 525
Executive Order 10925, 196
Executive Order 11246, 203
Executive Order 11375, 196, 203
Executive Women in Government, 496–497
Facebook, 161, 164, 465, 470, 472–473, 475, 478
Facilitator roles, 246
Factory workers, 730–731
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 196–197
Faith and Freedom Coalition, 155
False feminist death syndrome, 112
La Familia Latinos Unida (LFLU), 657
Family and Home Network, 241–242
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 207–208, 304, 491–492
Family child care workers, 304
Family networks, 152–154
Family Research Council, 155
Family responsibility discrimination (FRD), 208
Family values, 156, 159, 242, 515, 653
Family wages, 234
Farley, Lin, 202
Farmworkers, 309n8
Farm Workers Association, 363–364
FAR Out, 281
Far right, 161
Fast food workers, 291
Fatigue and Efficiency (Goldmark), 524
Fauset, Jessie, 716
Faux queens, 452
Fear, 342–344
Federación Libre de Trabajadores (FLT), 651
Federal Ban on Assault Weapons, 239
Federally Employed Women, 493, 496–497
Federal Women’s Programs, 493
Federation of Feminist Women’s Health Centers, 261
Federation of Women Lawyers’ Judicial Screening Panel, 527
Female Engagement Teams (FETs), 550
Female Labor Reform Association, 731
Female values, 670
Femi-nazis, 109
The Feminine Mystique (Friedan), 56, 92, 178, 183n6, 467–468
Feminine sexual autonomy, 443–444
Femininity, 406, 470
Feminism, 284, 316, 341. See also Second wave; Third wave
anti-feminist women, 315–332
athletic, 604
authentic, 327
Chicana, 468
as collective identity, 381–382
critiques of, 340–341
cultural, 96, 101, 388, 403
cyberfeminism, 118–119, 477
decolonial, 645–648
definition of, 345–346
egalitarian-feminist framework of civic action, 57–58
first wave, 51, 110–111, 172, 355–357, 604
as “F word,” 342–344
girlie, 120
global, 172–190, 475, 478
in hard times, 247
hashtag, 390
international, 172–175
interracial, 638n3
intersectionality method, 138
Jewish, 572–573
labor, 62
Latina, 563–564
Lean-In, 465
legitimization of, 79
liberal, 71–90, 131
living, 343
mainstream, 115
Marxist, 92
Mormon, 561, 564
myths about, 636–637
online, 390, 471–474, 595
popular, 406, 617
pro-life, 326–327, 594
radical, 89–108
radical Black, 623
rejection or fear of, 342–344
socialist, 89–108
stealth, 617
Third World, 468, 647
traditional, 109
transnational, 179–181
women-of-color, 647
Feminism (term), 342–344
Feminist activism, 120, 316
legal activism, 528–531
linguistic activism, 419–439
Feminist arts movement, 384
Feminist book stores, 96
Feminist coalitions, 274
Feminist.com, 476
Feminist consciousness, 335–353, 356–357, 633–634
Feminist Frequency, 476
Feminist identity, 335–353, 381–382
Feminist litigation, 531–536
Feminist litigation groups, 530, 531t
Feminist Magazine, 467
Feminist magazines, 469–470
Feminist Majority Foundation, 469, 492–493, 594, 723
Feminist methodology, 721–722
Feminist Mormon Housewives, 576
Feminist movement(s), 276–278. See also Women’s movement(s)
ERA movement, 76–81
Feminist neologisms, 431
Feminist organizations, 316
Feminist organizing, 246
Feminist retreat, 563
Feminists
Black, 94, 131, 381–382
Chicana, 94, 464
contemporary, 112–120
decolonial, 643–644
evangelicals, 564
gender, 319
generational differences, 113–114
global focus of, 172–190
labor, 194, 196, 733
litigators, 536–537
multiracial, 381–383
pro-choice, 443
second wave, 176
self-identified, 724–725
transgender, 441
veteran, 114
women of color, 102–103
The Feminists, 97
Feminist sex wars, 446
Feminists for Life (FFL), 151, 323, 327, 538n11, 594
Feminist spirituality, 565
Feminist studies, 307
(p. 785) Feminist translation, 430
Feminist websites, 118–119
Femocrats, 489
The Fence Dwellers (McDonald), 161
Ferraro, Geraldine, 425, 428
Ferree, Myra Marx, 141
Fetal homicide statutes, 219
Fiber arts, 120
FIFA (International Federation of Football Associations), 602
File transfer protocol (FTP), 469
Firestone, Shulamith, 95
First Congress to Unite Women, 99
First wave, 51, 110–111, 172, 355–357, 604
Fixed energy theory, 605
Flash mobs, 741
Flexner, Eleanor, 41
Flight attendants, 199–200
Florida, 83, 226, 527, 687
Fluidity, 440–461
Fluke, Sandra, 220
Focus on Family, 155
Fonda, Jane, 465
Fonow, Mary Margaret, 199
Food and Drug Act, 255
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 263, 500
Food costs, 60
Football (soccer), 602, 608, 614–616
Ford, Betty, 79
Ford, Gerald, 79
Ford, Henry, 721
Ford Peace Ship Expedition, 721
Foreign-born women, 734
The ForeRunner, 466
Forestry Association (Pennsylvania), 687
Formerly incarcerated workers, 309n8
Form replacement strategy, 431–432
Forsberg, Randall, 720–721
Forums, 487–620
Forward Support Companies (FSCs), 550
Foster, Henry W., Jr., 492
Foster, Johanna, 114
Foudy, Julie, 609, 614–615
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth, 319, 326
FOX News, 160
Frames and framing, 427, 566–570
for economic justice, 297–301
egalitarian-feminist, 57–58
good-citizen, 58–59
maternal, 56–57, 155–156
for moral high ground, 154–157
pro-choice, 225–226
religious, 155
women’s health, 325
France, 419, 430
Frank, Gillian, 161–162
Fraser, Nancy, 388
Frazier, Lynn, 721
Free-access good(s), 80
Freedman, Ann, 531t
Freedom Democratic Party, 412
Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act, 218
Freedom rides, 624
Freedom Summer, 567
Freeman, Frankie Muse, 525
Freeman, Jo, 97–98
Free-rider problems, 80
Free spaces, 95, 633, 699
Free Speech TV, 465
#FreeTheNipple campaign, 473
Friedan, Betty, 99, 116–117, 150, 340, 363, 446, 493
criticism of, 635
The Feminine Mystique, 56, 92, 178, 183n6, 467–468
Friendship networks, 152–154
Friends of Welfare Rights, 237
From Black Power to Black Studies (Rojas), 583
Fudge, Marcia, 489
Fugitive Slave Act, 407
A Full Quiver: Family Planning and the Lordship of Christ (Hess and Hess), 161
Fundamentalist Christians, 150, 567–568
Furies, 101, 665, 670
The Furies, 102, 670
(p. 786) Future directions, 163–164
for Black liberation movement, 637–638
for feminist activism in religious institutions, 574–576
for labor movement, 742–744
for peace activism, 725
The Future of Social Movement Research, 299
F-Word, 433
Gallo, Marcia, 667
Gang rape, 628
Garment workers, 66
Garrison, Ednie, 113
Garrison, William Lloyd, 32–33, 403–404, 710
Garza, Alicia, 143–144, 637
Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders, 678
Gay identity politics, 669–670
Gay liberation, 99, 666, 668–671, 679
Gay Liberation Front in New York (GLF-NY), 668–669
Gay liberation organizations, 665
Gay Pride, 448, 668
Gay Pride parades, 385, 672
Gay rights, 120
Gay Shame, 677
Geduldig v. Aiello, 205, 534
Geekfeminism.org, 476
Gender bending, 443
Gender bias, 421–424, 434–435. See also Discrimination
Gender boundaries, 548
Gender consciousness, 324, 335–353
Gender differences, 244–245, 507–508
future directions for research, 517–518
in issues, 513
in law, 531–532
in leadership, 157–160
in the media, 463–466
in opportunity structures, 45–46
in partisan identification, 511–514
in peace movement, 717–719, 723
in performance, 451–453
in professional soccer, 602
in sports, 609–611, 617
Supreme Court cases, 527
in vote choice, 511–514
in war, 714–715, 724
in workplace, 533
Gendered activism, 708–728
Gendered institutions, 548
Gendered opportunity structures, 45–46
Gender equality cases, 527
Gender essentialism, 155–156, 611
Gender feminists, 319
Gender fluidity, 121–122
Gender identity, 337, 440–461, 653
Gender ideology, 754–756
Gender-inclusive third-person singular pronouns, 433
Gender issues, 514
Gender language(s), 432
Gender-neutralization strategy, 431
Gender-neutral pronouns, 432–434
Gender-neutral terms, 431, 434–435
Gender norms, 116
Gender performance, 451–453
Genderqueer, 453–454
Gender reclamation, 406
Gender respectability, 629–630
Gender roles, 222, 243–244, 317, 629
traditional, 692–693
Gender stereotypes, 178, 201–202, 442, 538n6
Gender studies, 132, 307
General Electric (GE), 205–206
General Electric Company v. Martha Gilbert, 205–206, 534
General Federation of Women’s Clubs (GFWC), 29, 55–57, 234–235, 687
General Motors, 201
(p. 787) Generational differences, 113–114, 154, 345, 411, 448. See also Age differences
Gerber, Henry, 665
G.I. Joe dolls, 476
Gibbs, Lois, 364, 690–691, 698
Gibson, Althea, 614
Gilbert, Martha, 205–206, 534
Gillibrand, Kirsten, 550, 552
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 466
Gilmore, Stephanie, 114, 123n3
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 193–194, 197, 528–529, 531–532, 531t, 534
Girl empowerment, 615
Girlie feminism, 120
Girl-only sport programs, 612–613
Girl power, 614–615
Girls, 608, 612–613
Girls, Inc., 612–613
Girls on the Run, 612–613
Gittings, Barbara, 667
Glass ceiling, 199, 208
“The Grass Ceiling” (Dellinger), 602
judicial, 526
stained, 563
Glenn, Evelyn Nakano, 116
Global feminism, 172–190, 475, 478
Globalization, 740
Global justice, 120
Goals, 119–120
Goddess spirituality, 565
Goesaert v. Cleary, 528
GoGirlGo! program, 612–613
Goldman, Emma, 215–216, 524
Goldmark, Josephine, 524, 529
Gold Star Families for Peace, 718
Gold Star Families Speak Out, 239
Goldwater, Barry, 318
Golf, 608
Gonzales, Gloria, 654
Gonzales, Regla, 652
Gonzales v. Carhart, 325
Gonzalez, Sophie, 66
Good-citizen framework, 58–59
Good government, 43
Goodman, Amy, 465
Goodman, Janice, 531t
Goodman, Lori, 691
Good Morning America, 203
Good mothering, 237
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, 197
Gopher, 469
Gordon, Linda, 215
Gordon sisters, 35
Gore, Al, 514
Government Accounting Office (GAO), 263
Governmental agency forums, 487–506
Government bureaucracies, 496–499
Gracie Awards, 465
Grammar, 422
Grand Canyon, 687
Grape boycott, 364
“The Grass Ceiling” (Dellinger), 602
Grassroots movements, 255, 363, 653–654, 656, 699
Grassroots women’s organizations, 178
“Great American Conservative Women” calendar, 319
Great Depression. See Depression
Greece, 57
Green, Edith, 590
Greenberger, Marcia, 531t
Las Grenudas, 379
Griffiths, Martha, 85, 198, 537n3
Grimké, Angelina Weld, 31–33, 183n4, 403–404
Grimké, Sarah, 31, 403–404
Griswold v. Connecticut, 528–529, 538n4
El Grito del Norte, 467
Groot, Murray, 507–508
Group-centered intersectionality, 141–142
Guatemala, 177–178, 644–645, 652
Guenter-Schlesinger, Sue, 555–556
Guerrero, Pia, 470
Guest workers, 309n8
Guidebooks, 469
“Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language” (NCTE), 432
Guidelines on Discrimination against Caregivers (EEOC), 208
Guidelines on Discrimination on the Basis of Sex (EEOC), 203, 205–206
gURL.com, 470
Gyn/Ecology (Daly), 97, 430
(p. 788) Hactivism, 119, 476
Hall, Elaine, 112–113
Hall, Mary, 525
“Halt the Assault” campaign, 239
Hamer, Fannie Lou, 65, 411–412, 567, 624–626, 628
Hames, Margie Pitts, 534–535
Hamilton, Jean, 261
Hamm, Mia, 614
Hanna, Kathleen, 110
Harassment, sexual, 202–205, 490
online, 465
same-sex, 538n7
street harassment, 472
workplace, 533
“Hard Times Cotton Mill Girls,” 467
Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins, 37, 407
Harper’s Weekly, 466
Harris Community Action Ass’n, 201
Hartmann, Heidi, 93
Harvard Crimson, 421
Harvard Divinity School, 420–422
Harvard Medical School, 261
Harvard University, 199, 384
Hasbians, 446, 450
Hashtag activism, 143, 470, 474–475, 637–638
Hashtag feminism, 390
Hassert, Dennis, 609
Hate groups, 756
Hate movements, 468
Hawaii, 81, 676
Hawkesworth, Mary, 112
Hay, Harry, 666
Hayes, Cressida, 387
He (pronoun), 422–424
Health activism, 255
Health care services, 259–262, 553
Health insurance, 62
abortion benefits, 216–219, 535
contraceptive benefits, 494
Medicaid, 216–219, 535
reproductive health benefits, 220, 553
Health movements, 215–221, 254–269
Hearst, William Randolph, 44, 66
“HeforShe” (Watson), 617
Height, Dorothy, 62–64, 630
Help wanted ads, 464, 538n6
Henry, Astrid, 111
Heritage Foundation, 328
Hernández, Aileen C., 131, 194–195, 499
Hernandez, Daisy, 115
Heroic period, 624–630
Her-Self, 257
Herstory (term), 430–431
Hess, Jan, 161
Hess, Rick, 161
Heteroflexibility, 454
Heteronormativity, 446–448, 456n2
Heteropatriarchy, 300–301
Heterosexism, 132, 340
Heywood, Leslie, 615
Higher education, 583–584
Catholic men’s colleges, 584
Ivy League institutions, 584
NCAA schools, 592
Title IX coordinators, 590
women’s colleges, 584–585
women’s studies, 585–589
High schools, 596–597, 608
U.S. history requirements, 57
“What America Means to Me” essay contests, 57
Hijab (Islamic headscarf), 568
Las Hijas de Cuauhtemoc, 467
Hill, Anita, 204
Hill, Julia Butterfly, 690
Hip-hop, 112, 470
Hispanics, 734, 753. See also Latinas
History, 1–25, 29–190, 649–652
1920–1965, 51–70
1950s, 235–236
1966–1974, 630–634
early barriers, 522–524
first wave, 110–111
heroic period, 624–630
second wave, 51, 59–60, 89, 110–111, 175, 636
study requirements, 57
third wave, 109–111, 116–118, 179
(p. 789) Womyn’s Herstory Month (Wesleyan College), 430
History (word), 431
HIV/AIDS, 674
Hobby Lobby, 220
Hockenbury, Sharon, 161
Hollaback!, 472
Holmes Norton, Eleanor, 131
Home Girls (Smith), 131
Homemakers, 55–59, 59–63, 247, 468
Homemakers’ movement, 60
Homonormativity, 456n3, 664
Homophile movement, 665–668, 679
Homophile organizations, 665
Homophobia, 135, 260–261, 340, 445, 555–556, 607
in labor movement, 740
microaggressions, 384
Homosexuality, 132, 575. See also Gay; Lesbian
Honduras, 644–645
Honorifics, 425–429
Hooker Chemical Company, 468
hooks, bell, 102–103, 110, 179, 635
Hopkins, Ann, 202
Horizontalidad (horizontalism), 140
Horizontalism, 140–141
Horizontalism: Voices of Popular Power in Argentina (Sitrin), 140
Horowitz, David, 163
Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees (HERE), 650, 741
Hotel workers, 291
Household Technicians of America, 197
Housekeeping
community, 244
municipal, 686
social, 233
Housewives, 60–61, 468
Housing, 60, 291
affordable, 655
public, 297
tenement, 654
Howard Law School, 524
Howard University, 409, 584
Howe, Julia Ward, 407, 710–711
Howell, Mary, 261
Hoyt v. Florida, 527
Huerta, Dolores, 65, 363–364, 649–650
Huffington Post, 159
Hull, Gloria T., 588, 634–637
Human Events, 160