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date: 24 July 2017

(p. 981) Index

abortion, right to12, 659–61
Afghanistan
Communism201
crisis (1980)397n130
Edicts of Asoka171
grave human rights situations597
sanctions and human rights778
Taliban regime:
cultural artifacts778
women’s rights778
UN member state199n20
UN missions779
war in93, 98, 102
African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP countries)409, 906
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfChHPR)
compared to inter-American and African Systems682
democratic principles485
development of679–82
development, right to690
dignity352, 353
duties, catalogue of86
equality437
freedom of association495
implied rights763
interpretation765
legality, requirement of479
natural resources, right to387
non-discrimination437
obligations492, 576
preamble755–6
ratification of682
rule of law472
safe and healthy environment690
self-determination392, 472
social and economic rights757
women, rights of691
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR)
‘chilling effect’ doctrine459
compliance with recommendations of685, 944
democratic principles485
establishment of753
implied rights753
interpretive methods462, 765
interim relief, power to issue684
interstate communications680
jurisprudence of479, 492
first session of681
freedom of association, right to495
funding686
legality491
legal reform, recommendations for940
local remedies, exhaustion of260
measures of satisfaction938
meetings:
frequency of487
location of686
natural resources, right to387
NGO accreditation system687–8
obligations576
oversight role962
proportionality450–1
public interest, matters of496
remedies936
reports to684
self-determination392
scope757
supervisory role of682
website688
(p. 982) African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM)681
African Union (AU)
aims of902
democratic principles485
development of675, 681, 753
dispute with ICC398
funding686
national borders388
preamble755
prevention of conflict and violence, regional mechanisms for523
regional criminal court, establishment of674
state vs. human security838
undemocratic governments, stance on472–85
Agreement on Agriculture (AoA)846, 852–3, 855
Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS)849–52
exceptions to851
flexibilities851
health, right to849–50
IP protection851
‘TRIPS-plus’851
Algeria
African Court686n78
civil war in805
Council of Europe member471n7
Minister of Defense for war crimes805
America’s Watch,see Human Rights Watch
American Anthropological Association (AAA)146–58
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)248
American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)
acceptable public interest grounds451
adoption677
armed conflicts963
basic rights, prohibition on derogation of701
democracy, principle of484–5, 654
denouncement of682
Trinidad and Tobago679, 918
Venezuela679
dignity352
duty to ‘ensure’ rights574, 579
entry into force678
equality436
establishment752
exercise of rights668
expropriation866
fair trial262
freedom of expression868
international minimum standard262
interpretation of661–3, 765, 758, 760, 766–7
interstate complaints, primary261
jurisprudence575, 666–7
legislative incorporation708
limitations clause479
limitation to protection of civil and political rights678
as living instrument664
name, right to a545
nationality, right to545
non-derogable rights545
non-discrimination clause464
obligations573, 575, 866
participation in government, right to655
preamble257, 654, 755, 770, 932
precautionary measures684
pro homine approach765–6
property rights664, 860, 867
proportionality, principle of450, 455, 462
Protocol of San Salvador678
recognition of rights756–7
relationship to other international instruments755
remedies708, 915, 971
reparations372, 663, 977
rule of law472
special characteristics of759
United Nations Covenants678
universality655
American Federation of Labor (AFL)202, 301–2, 303
American historical particularism154
American ‘Indians’46
Plains Indians93
Amnesty International (AI)223n3, 500, 724, 939n83, 967
(p. 983) Angola
civil war in791
UN sanctions778, 790
UNITA rebel movement790–1
Anthropology144–59
history145–59
ecumenical anthropology158–9
Herskovits, Melville150–2
‘prodigal son returns’154–7
social justice and other universalist projects153–4
wilderness years152–3
Anti-Slavery International223n3, 247, 724
anti-slavery movement222–49
abolitionism, rise of226–36
international action236–48
civil society networks236–7
state-to-state action237–8
transnational non-governmental organizations245–7
connection with present day247–8
Argentina
abstentions486n98
American Convention on Human Rights902
amnesty laws964
civil society967
complaints914
constitution of704
Council of Europe member471n7
crimes against humanity966
democratic elections966
dictatorship, brutality of934, 966
disappearances924, 939n82, 958, 967
economic crisis (1990s)865
expression, forms of916
human rights obligations865
human rights treaties704n9
Junta, the (1976–1983)958, 973
military964
military coup967
political repression923n5
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251592n34
pulp mills dispute208
punishment, approaches to973n75
reparations, administrative schemes for977
slavery227, 238
UN member state199n20
women968
Armenia
abstentions486n98
genocide committed against96
arms, right to keep and bear95
ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR)692
assembly, right of30, 453–4, 459n80, 484n82, 531, 607n86, 654, 900
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)523, 674. 692, 696
Australia
civil immunity807
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples483n74
East Timorese continental shelf556
Foreign States Immunities Act798
Human Rights Committee646, 656
press Statement on draft resolution60/251 592
UN member state199n20
Austria
bilateral agreement560n95
Constitution336, 704n9
monarchy325–6
treaties328, 336
Bahrain
grave human rights situations597
protests and uprisings in831
Third Committee Reports485n91
Bangladesh
Edicts of Asoka171
NHRC Reports605n78
military dictatorship819
water and sanitation610n95
Barbados
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
Belarus
Council of Europe471n7
grave human rights crises596
human rights situation608n86
UDHR membership criteria470
UN member state199n20
Belgium
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples483n74
Peace Conference304n27
torture Convention557, 802–4
UN member state199n20
Benin
US subsidies845n18
Bhutan
Third Committee Report485n91
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)12–13
Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs)
Argentina865
decline (2000s)849
ECHR law, distinction with860
emergence of843
enforcement via arbitration849
enforcement systems868–9
expropriation860, 866
interpretation862
proliferation of843
purpose843–4
ratification866
regulatory costs849
‘stabilization clauses’848
substantive rights844, 864
‘umbrella’ clauses848
biology54–81
altruism:
adaptations in humans and other animals75–9
group benefits73
true66
collective action:
problems68–73
competition68–79
cooperation68–79
group augmentation60
human rights, need for57–8
kin selection58–60
mutualism60
reciprocity60–6
direct60–6
indirect63–6
violence and altruism57–8
Bolivia
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
Revolutionary Movement Tupaj Katari968
rights of indigenous peoples968
slavery238
UN member state199n20
water utilities865
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Commission for Real Property Claims of Displaced Persons and Refugees946n105
ethnic cleansing in778
minority commitments, validity of336n37
UN safe areas in823
Brazil
1964 coup956
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
amnesty laws964–5, 975
CEDAW, obligations under439
civilian protection830–1
Council of Europe member471n7
criminal and social violence969
detention facilities,961
disappearances977
human rights movements in960
Juntas in958
language662n43
police, use of force970
public administration916–17
reparations977
responsibility to protect837–8
slavery227, 238, 247
abolition movement244
truth commission976–7
UN member state199n20
UNCAT procedure637n44
WTO846, 863
Yanomami territory156
Brunei Darussalam
Third Committee Report485n91
Bulgaria
Constitution704n10
Council of Europe905
material minority law328
treaties328
Burkina Faso
US subsidies845n18
(p. 985) Burundi
victims’ perceptions923n6
Calcutta
slavery237
Cambodia
Extraordinary Criminal Chamber for Cambodia (ECCC)937, 948n111, 950
Pol Pot, overthrowing of819
victims’ perceptions923n6, 948
Canada
asbestos products, European ban on863
civil immunity807
Council of Europe membership471n7
counter-terrorism786
cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment659
customary international law vs. common law705
female genital mutilation659
population391n88
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251592n30, 597n60
Quebec, secession of391n88
State Immunity Act800n23
UN member state199n20
women’s right to vote245
Cape of Good Hope
slavery237
Centre for Legal and Social Studies (CELS)967
Central African Republic
UN missions779
Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR)924
Chad
President Hissène Habré557
transfers of arms791
US Subsidies845n18
child, rights of the27, 39, 68, 166, 176, 308–9, 357, 366, 512, 517, 545n25, 659–60, 677, 777, 779
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child680–1
African Children’s Committee686
animal species and children67
child abduction866
child adoption97
child care29–30, 93
child development78, 88
language acquisition123
child and gender issues952n125
child labour297, 309–10, 726, 729n59
child marriage12
child mortality879
child soldiers733, 791, 812n76, 931, 937
citizenship328n16
Confucianism and parent/child relations16
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)350, 352, 366, 432, 503, 509, 623, 720n10, 722, 753n62, 895n2, 927n28
custodial arrangements120
disappeared children373
exploitation of children364
‘illegitimate’ children212
kidnapping of children733
massacre victims960
minority language education332, 334
nationality709
reproduction464
sexual education375
sexual orientation and child custody689n93
status of children692
trafficking of children226n22, 520
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention322n109
see also education
Chile
in the 1970s820
abstentions486n98
accountability efforts974
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
amnesty laws964–5, 974
compensation schemes949
Council of Europe471n7
criminal codes965
deforestation868
dictatorship, brutality of379, 932–4
victims’ administrative schemes977
disappearances958, 968
Foreign Investment Committee868
IACtHR, financial contributions to917n80
Juntas958
NGOs199
political repression, survivors of923n5
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251592n30
(p. 986) public administration, transparency in916–17
reparations programs for HR violations925n15, 932–3, 948
right of equal access to professions and vocations201
right to work201
slavery227, 238
torture795, 804, 808
UDHR200
UN member state199n20
women968
China, People’s Republic of
ancient169–70, 184
Communism201
conception of human rights52–3
Confucianism16–17
constitutional provisions201
economic reforms857
foreign intervention900
freedom of expression856
Hong Kong, transfer of699n2
Huang Zongxi182
internet censorship856
Libya, relations with830
Mencius in172, 178, 184
neighbours of101
Peng-Chun Chang199
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251592n38
Syria, relations with835–7, 900n20
Third Committee Report485n91
transfers of arms791
UN member state199n20
WTO obligations846
Collective Action Problem (CAP)68–71, 74
Colombia
accountability976
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, adoption of901
counter-insurgency battles957
courts, supreme and constitutional917
democratic principles969
dictatorship in934
reparations for victims977
enforceable legal decisions641n65
‘faceless courts’959
international humanitarian law961
journalism, protection of916
justice in970
UN member state199n20
Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (CVR)962, 971
Commission of Inquiry (COI)
appointment of312
failure to comply with recommendations305, 312
Human Rights Council896, 899–901
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)501, 643
Committee Against Torture (CAT)503, 623, 690, 753, 894, 937
compliance rule944
Committee of Ministers (CM)471
advisory opinions, request for684
European system, role in917
execution of judgments, monitoring of905–9
working methods, effectiveness of905, 909–12
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR)see United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UNCESCR)
Committee on Enforced Disappearances (CED)623, 627, 637, 644, 753
Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW)623, 625, 753, 895
compliance893–920
non-judicial mechanisms894–901
Human Rights Council895–901
Commission of Inquiry899–901
complaint procedure898–9
fact-finding missions899–901
special procedures899–901
Universal Periodic Review896–8
preliminary considerations894–5
regional judicial mechanisms901–18
Council of Europe human rights protection mechanisms902–5
effectiveness909–12
execution of judgments, monitoring of905–9
(p. 987) Inter-American System912–18
see also IACHR; IACtHR
Constitutions and general principles194–221
context195–8
international courts204
Court of Justice of the European Union, the216–20
European Court of Human Rights210–16
International Court of Justice204–10
Permanent Court of International Justice204–10
Universal Declaration of Human Rights198–203
core obligations536–8
core rights527–40
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
adoption622
autonomy of the family, limits on366
Committee623, 625, 633
compensation374
compliance876
as core instrument509
dignity350, 357
discrimination435, 438, 728
drafting643
equality352, 432
gender motivated violence582
indicators880
inquiries636
interstate complaints633–4
multiple439
nationality, acquisition of252, 709
opposition to unified treaty body645
practices of641
remedies374
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD Committee)
establishment of622, 753
experience634, 641
individual complaints, adjudicating646
special measures, concept of440
‘living instrument’, treaty as767
comparative advantage, theory of462, 845–7, 854
Congo, Republic of
army812
crimes against humanity801–2
Eastern792
King Leopold’s slavery practices247
state authority, collapse of829
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
committee623
dignity350–3
‘discrimination’, definition of438, 440, 442
equality432, 435, 444
establishment of623
statistics and data collection879
Costa Rica
abortion, right to659
abstentions486n98
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
IACtHR686, 915
Court budget, contributions to917n80
in vitro fertilization463
Nicaraguan migrant population in261
UN member state199n20
Côte d’Ivoire
armed force781–2
civil war in781–2
civilian protection816
national reconciliation process781
sanctions and human rights778, 793
UN missions779
UNOCI781–2
Council of Europe (CoE)
aim755
budget686
Charter of338, 369
complaint procedure898
democracy470–1, 488
derogations701
dignity351
employment rights214
establishment675–6
EU as non-member of912
family name, right to214
foundation of901
human rights protection mechanism902
institutional functioning of682
interpretation766
inter-State complaints633
Human Rights Trust Fund910
(p. 988) League of Nations337
Legal Committee of the Consultative Assembly of764
member states905
non-judicial mechanisms894
reform of convention system903
relationship with UN690
remedies372
secession390
Secretariat905
subsidiarity, principle of369
suspension688
traders and investors861
website688
Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC)785
Court of First Instance (CFI)
jus cogens546–7
natural law approach546
ne bis in idem rule219
Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU),see European Court of Justice
Cuba
in the 1960s820
Guantánamo military detention centre490n105
NGOs199n18
Peace Conference304n27
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251592nn32, 35, 36
right to work201
slavery, abolition of227n24, 238
Syria, relations with900n20
Third Committee Report485n91
UDHR200
US unilateral sanctions on773, 789
cultural relativism84, 88, 147, 150–1, 154, 268, 334, 376
Czechoslovakia
in 1968 (Czechoslovakia Crisis)820
genocide335n32
Paris Agreement330
Peace Conference304n27
peace treaties328
Ruthenians in329n17
UN member state199n20
Darfur
in 2006594n47
arms embargo violations in792
civilian attacks791
coercion789
crisis, handling of828
ICC, referral to933n52
government’s campaign of violence590
Resolution 1556 on413
Resolution 1769414
Save Darfur225
transfers of arms791
UN involvement (2004)98
UN sanctions778–9
see also Sudan
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
in 2008594n47
armed activities544
Emergency Special Session (1960)397
illegal expulsion of Mr Diallo261n54
immunity397
sanctions and human rights777–8
Third Committee Report485n91
UN missions in779
Victims perceptions923n6
(p. 989) democracy469–96
examination of475–87
democracy482–7
rule of law475–82
formal recognition470–5
Habermas’ communicative theory90–1
legal nature of487–9
democracy488–9
rule of law487–8
status of human rights in practice489–96
democracy494–6
rule of law489–94
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
Emergency Special Session of UN General Assembly397
ICJ cases261, 274, 640
sanctions778–9
Special Session of the UN Human Rights Council594
victims923
Denmark
GDP of727
Geneva Convention514
Greece, relations with633
UN member state199n20
diplomatic protection250–74
international minimum standard262–73
‘reasonable and impartial man’262–7
safety net, as267–73
territorial and nationality dimension253–61
bond of nationality254–8
sovereignty of territorial state258–61
Dominica
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
Dominican Republic
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples483n74
UN member state199n20
due process, right to177, 183, 187, 198, 263–5, 453, 458, 480, 564, 663, 785–7, 858, 861, 969–71, 973–4
East Timor
continental shelf556
humanitarian catastrophes823
self-determination, right to209n66, 556
truth commissions and victim participation948–9
UN actions in816, 829
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
composition624
creation of Commission589, 595
examination of proposals317
minority agreements336
monitoring role536, 623
NGO consultative status22–3, 723–4
principal organ of the UN, as622
transfer of oversight to General Assembly599
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)485, 523, 694
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESC or ESCR)4, 198, 200, 201, 316–7, 347, 434, 568, 607, 717, 844–7
constitutional and international law standards979
corruption730
dignity355
distinction with civil and political rights480–1
impact of WTO rules849–55
indicators880–1
non-discrimination, principle of457
obligations536, 564
Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights678
Rapporteurships884
Special Rapporteur on the Realization of881
UN Council treatment600
Ecuador
abortion659
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
Chevron and868n169
impartiality, absence of971
indigenous political movements968–9
IntCtHR971n68
slavery238
OAS human right system917
UN member state199n20
(p. 990) Edicts of Asoka171
Egypt
Abu Omar, abduction of806
ancient164–5
Hittite territories841
pharaoh Rameses II841
detainees, transportation of548n12
dictatorship98, 855
ICCPR700–1
inquiries637n44
Mubarak regime98, 855
assassination784–5
Suez Canal, annexation of379 n130
UN member state199n20
El Salvador
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
amnesty laws964
dictatorship in934
extra-judicial killings960
forms of expression916
ICCPR629n26
institutional reform978
insurgency957
Oficina de Tutela Legal del Arzobispado961
UN member state199n20
women968
equality420–45
codification433–6
consistent treatment, as427–8
implicit descriptive function, serving as432–3
philosophical foundations of421–6
preambular objective, as431–2
non-discrimination concepts426–30
opportunity, of428
outcomes, of429
right to442–4
scope and interpretation of437–42
discrimination438–9
measures to accelerate439–42
structural principle, as a430–6
transformative429–30
erga omnes norms,see jus cogens
Eritrea
secession from Ethiopia391
UN sanctions777
Estonia
Poland and326n5
unilateral declarations328
Ethiopia
apartheid207
Eritrea, secession from391
UN member state199n20
UN sanctions777
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
adoption of675
civil and political rights, focus on902
challenges to910–12
democratic society, criterion of a484
differences with BIT law860
dignity, no mention of351, 353, 356
domestic remedies, exhaustion of710–11
effective remedy, right to an211
enforcement676, 893
entry into force752
equality436
EU as party to862
fair trial, right to212, 262, 549, 761–2, 799, 800
fundamental rights217–19, 473
effectiveness901–2
emergency, suspension of rights in an701
expression, freedom of484
general principles197, 204, 210–11, 215
guidelines218
information, freedom to receive572
institutional functioning682
interpretation of213, 221, 699, 741–2, 751, 756, 758, 764
inter-State complaints633
judgments, supervision of905–6
(p. 991) jurisprudence438
‘just satisfaction’371
launch of99, 471
legal persons859
legislative incorporation of708
life, right to570
‘living instrument’, as a766
margin of appreciation doctrine767
minorities337
moral concepts477
national implementation699, 702–3
France714–15
Germany715–16
UK713
non-discrimination, right to436, 438–9
legitimate aim test451
object and purpose of761–2
political participation484
political parties, ban of495
property rights859
proportionality, principle of449–50, 453–7, 464
public interest grounds451
obligations569, 571
reform903
rule of law479, 494
slavery and torture, prohibition of545
socialist systems471
state immunity, rules of866
torture, prevention of638
UK violation of491, 713
wider political context755
see also ECtHR
(p. 992) European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)
advisory opinions903, 683–4
autonomous interpretation709
budget686
characteristics:
base in Strasbourg686
permanent body686
conscientious objection689
consensus, principle of769
court of last resort, as919
creation of99, 676, 752
death penalty689
democracy494–6
dignity346, 351, 353–6
due diligence standard580
EU accession to ECHR912
execution of judgments685, 696, 711, 713, 714–16, 903–4, 906, 908, 918–19, 938
compliance with909–10
enforcement of944
monitoring of905
fax line684
freedom to receive information572
general principles of law196–7
individual complaints677
interim measures903, 635
interpretation of human rights by210–16
interpretative methods221, 462–4, 741, 751, 757, 759–67
holistic approach to769–70
limits to judicial function770
invasion of another state389
judge from state under scrutiny, requirement of683
judges, selection of687, 904
jurisprudence of219, 261, 490–2, 759, 866
jus cogens norms544, 549, 799
legal persons861
liberalism492
local remedies, exhaustion of260
margin of appreciation375–6, 767
measures of non-repetition939–40
NGO participation687
obligations569
overlap with work of other bodies693–4
participation in proceedings of687
positive action measures:
failure to implement441
procedural justice941
proportionality, principle of447
preliminary inquiries451
analysis of453–58
remedial subsidiarity371–4
reservations759, 690
rights of ownership859–60
rule of law492–4
special rapporteurs, lack of684
state immunity799
supervisory role768
time limits on remedies710
torture, prohibition of544
‘very essence’ of rights467
victims, needs of936, 952
violations, large scale946
working mechanisms of902
see also VCLT
European Court of Justice (ECJ)216–20, 438, 694, 786–7
jurisprudence of447–8
jus cogens547
proportionality453, 462
European Union (EU)
accession912n62
activities220
Charter of Fundamental Rights218–19, 433, 473, 534
conflict prevention523n54
corporate human rights861–2
democracy488
establishment218
legal system409, 429
legislation220, 446, 547
Maastricht Treaty on218, 361
preference system409
proportionality, principle of446n1
regional and sub-regional bodies693
sanctions773, 783–6, 792
subsidiarity, version of361
system for human rights protection220–1
evolutionary theory54–5, 105, 122, 124
inclusive fitness59
Social Darwinism80
punctuated equilibrium2
see also biology
execution289n81, 811, 904, 974
expression, freedom of188, 198, 266n81, 270, 357, 375, 453–6, 459–60, 466n122, 484, 491–5, 531, 562, 671, 708, 716, 754n63, 856, 868, 910n58, 917–18, 956, 971, 978
fair trial, right to165, 197–8, 211–12, 262, 265–6, 269, 291, 458, 530n13, 533, 546–7, 567n31, 761–2, 858, 866, 890n85, 918, 950, 969, 973–4
family life, right to299, 433, 453, 463, 531, 569n52, 570, 716, 763, 867
Finland
bilateral treaties328
Human Rights Trust Fund910
non-binding decisions712
UN member state199n20
food, right to adequate24, 277, 355–6, 367, 537–8, 576, 594n47, 611nn102, 105, 664, 667, 723, 725, 763, 849, 850n47, 852–5, 866n152, 878n19, 879, 887, 889–90
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)613, 854, 887–8
France
14th Century278
17th Century241–2
18th Century Government797–8
19th Century244
abduction805
binding decisions712
Constitutional provision195, 201, 220, 704
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen197–8
democracy in483–4
diplomatic agents, inviolability of802n29
employment, right to201
état de droit, concept of476
family life, right to867
France-Venezuela Mixed Claims Commission252n5
French Revolution187–8
German occupation of726
human rights standards716
ICCPR700
ILO304n26
jus cogens, concept of542
League of Nations329
marriage241–2
minority protection system, concerns over335n32
monarch, legislative power of382
Syria, interventions in819
Turkey, interventions in819
Optional Protocol632n35
UN member state199n20
unitary national state, attempts to create382
US relations805–7, 831
warfare, methods of278
women’s activism239, 244
(p. 993) free market theory314
Freedom House881
Freetown
courts and international treaties238
functionalism154
game theory69, 71, 128n48
see also biology
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
adoption841
health, right to848
non-discrimination obligations842
public interest848
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
morals and public health, protection of848
right to water849
General Assembly (GA)see United Nations General Assembly
Germany
bilateral treaties328
binding decisions712
Code of Criminal Procedure716
Committee of Ministers910
Constitutional provisions353
review216
dignity, right to353
ECtHR716
effet utile argument549
expropriation866
extradition to806n45
Farben organisation726n38
Geneva Convention (1958)515
Italian jurisdiction800
Jews, treatment of379
Libya and Gaddafi, action against830–1
Nazi203, 477, 487, 934
reservations700
reunification of391
sanctions tools775
territorial subsidiarity362, 371
treaties in704
Treaty of Versailles296n2, 331n25
UN member state199n20
US-Germany Mixed Claims Commission252n5
Weimar-Germany334–5
women’s activism239, 242
WW2:
armed forces799–800
post-war violations949
Greece
bilateral treaties328n14
classical/ancient172–5, 184, 422, 444
compensation860
Constitutional provision704n10
Council of Europe membership470–1, 688n91, 905
customary international law705
Declaration, governmental328n15
human rights violations677
monks, special status of (Mount Athos)329n18
peace treaties328n12
post-1967 military junta, Greece633n37
self-executing treaties706n17
state immunity800
Turkey, intervention in819
UN member state199n20
war, international336n37
Greenpeace97
Grenada
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
Great Britain,see United Kingdom
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)727, 877–9, 891
Guatemala
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
amnesty laws964
Bishop Juan Gerardi, murder of960
CONAVIGUA968n53
CONDEG968n53
(p. 994) counter-insurgency battles957
criminal and social violence969
disappearances958
genocide976
human rights movements960
judicial problems970
police force970
prosecutions and trials973
UN member state199n20
women, identity of968
Haiti
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
democratic institutions486, 823
disappearances939n82
Earthquake (2010)594n47
slavery, history of189
UN member state199n20
UN missions779
UN sanctions774, 777, 790–1
victims, compensation for934
health and health care, right to27, 30, 44, 48, 88, 96, 264, 299, 309, 313n75, 314, 319, 338n47, 353, 355, 356n52, 434, 451, 537–8, 570, 576–7, 610n96, 660n32, 667, 692, 723, 727, 730, 763, 845, 848–52, 863, 865, 879n28, 882–6, 888–90, 936n65
Holy See, the
Council of Europe and471n7
Honduras
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
detention facilities961
disappearances958
human rights violations663
OAS, suspension from472n12
Third Committee Report485n91
UN member state199n20
Hong Kong
Google and856
ICCPR699n2
transfer from UK to China699n2
WTO864
Human Development Index (HDI)878
human dignity345–59
functions of357–8
other international instruments350–3
principle of, further specification of353–7
UN Declaration of Human Rights347–50
Human Rights Watch724, 732n74, 962, 970
humanitarian intervention817–40
changing world context821–2
global dialogue on R2P implementation833–4
false north-south dichotomy834–5
legitimacy criteria837–8
Syria (2012)835–7
practice and theory of (until 1990s)818–20
responsibility to protect versus822–3
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty824–6
international interventions and UN executive authority828–30
Kosovo823–4
Libya 2011830–1
norm consolidation831–2
principle to actionable norm826–8
humanitarian law275–94
armed conflict290–2
Dunant, Henri286–7
humanity in war, ancient roots of275–9
individual rights and national wars279–81
inter arma caritas286–7
Red Cross286–7
science of warfare and progress of civilisation281–6
United Nations287–90
Iceland
fishing management867
UN member state199n20
implied waiver theory800n21 India
ancient170–2, 276
armed opposition groups733n79
Bangladesh/Bengalis, relations with819
Census (2011)12
chemical plant disaster726
Constitution of396, 933
constitutional rights petitions946
constitutional secularism13
economic emergence of846
(p. 995) Emperor Ashoka (269–232 BC)834
Gujarat, state of13
human dignity, conceptions of349n10
Indian Supreme Court727, 939
Law Commission of939n83
Libya/Gaddafi, action against831
NHRCs605nn78, 79
R2P837
refugees820
religious practices10–13, 16
same sex relationships443
slavery227
UDHR199
UN member state199n20
warfare rules (ancient India)276
women in243
sati, practice of243
Working Group on Human Rights in India604nn76, 77
indicators873–92
application of884–91
conceptual and historical framework875–7
creation of877–83
Indonesia
Indonesian clove cigarettes, import of863
Islam in19
militias816
OIC693
treaties556
Intellectual Property (IP)
dissemination, limitation of726
property, right to859
protection of rights845
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR)
administration of justice970–1
atrocities, role in exposing679, 684, 957, 970
budget686, 917
citizen security480
civil society, collaboration with967
compliance with orders of685
complaints to918
consular assistance380–1
creation of677
democracy654
disappearances958–60
due diligence standard579
effectiveness of901, 912–14
hearings of687
inter-State complaints261
forms of expression, decriminalization of916
freedom of thought and expression575
impunity975
institutional functioning682–8
Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons690, 959
international humanitarian law902
jurisdiction of752
jus cogens norms544–5
life, right to544
multifaceted role of918
observation, request for916
precautionary measures684
proportionality analyses448, 461–4
remedies935
rules of interpretation758
sessions686
socio-economic rights678
statute of the, interpretation of758
subordination of international legal obligations to domestic law380
subsidiarity365
supervisory role682
UN Covenants, compatibility with677–8
websites688
withdrawal917, 971
Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR)915–19
advisory opinions683
amnesty laws940, 965, 975
autonomous interpretation769
budget686
case referrals914
collective reparation937
compensation372
democratic legitimacy492, 654
democracy484, 654
dignity354–6
disappearances959, 965
effectiveness901–2
enforcement of judgments912
equality208, 426, 441
establishment of752
freedom of expression495
(p. 996) HRC jurisprudence641
indigenous rights867
land claims937
international law, reliance on741
interpretation755, 760, 763, 765–6, 770
judgments959
judges687
jurisdiction of753
jus cogens norms208, 210, 221
‘laws’ definition of492
legality491
limitation to Latin America679, 682
local remedies rule261
measures of:
compensation936–8
design of948
rehabilitation935–6
restitution935–6
symbolic939
multi-dimensional role of437
natural law544
non-discrimination, obligation of208, 358, 544
obligation to ‘ensure’ a right574
practice of661–8
proportionality, analysis of448, 461–4
provisional measures684, 913
public disclosure of truth939
remedial power of372–4
reparations977
restitution of land860–8
requisite inherent qualities of law493
sessions of686–7
socio-economic rights678
websites688
Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (IIHR)923
Interest Theory37, 40–3
Intergovernmental Organization (IGO)
activism97
business entities725–6
Guiding Principles732
human rights norms721
human rights treaties688
influential and key organizations97
membership688, 695n122
NGOs and721
regional systems672, 675, 682, 691, 695
see also under individual organizations
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD)854
International Association for Labour Legislation (IALL)300
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS)412, 816–17, 824–9, 832, 834, 837
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)246, 286–7, 290, 292, 724–5, 734
International Confederation of Trade Unions (ICFTU)303
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
advisory opinion of391, 742
case law251
consular assistance, right to380–2
diplomatic protection258–9
due diligence578
general principles99, 195–6, 221
Human Rights Committee jurisprudence640–1
international humanitarian law291
international legal obligations380–1
interpretative methods744–7, 749–50, 760–1, 705–6
interstate disputes396
intervention in state practice820
ipso jure jurisdiction of382
jus cogens543–4, 799
erga omnes553–8
jurisdiction of:
exclusion550
local remedies rule261
normative evolution507–8, 514–16, 518, 544, 549
obligations563
practice of204–10, 640
rule of law487
social rights vs. human rights102
sovereign immunity397
state immunity549, 799–802
territorial tort exception393
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
accession699
abortion659–61
absolute norms210
(p. 997) additional protocols503
communal property right666
companies728
core instrument, as509–10
customary law493
death penalty689–90
decision-making625
democracy654
denial of justice, prohibition on262
denunciation701
development of317
dignity350, 352, 357
domestic implementation701, 703, 707–8, 712
erga omnes effect555
equality432–6
family rights366–7
Geneva Conventions291
Human Rights Committee492, 622, 628, 631, 656–8
interpretation655, 767
inviolable core of human rights533, 535
limitation clauses451, 462, 489
jurisprudence866–7
monitoring results699
non-derogable rights529–30, 532, 545
obligations564–8
optional protocol373, 634, 640
organized armed groups733
permissible limitations531
political rights473–4, 484
proportionality459
public emergency701
ratification700
religion26–7
remedy927
reparations512
reports:
examination of656–7
submission of627
reservations690
right to life845
rule of law473, 490
self-determination385
self-executing character of treaty provision705–6
solidarity rights410
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, division of564
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)509
additional protocols503
communal property right666
core obligations536–8, 565, 576
derogations clause, lack of532
dignity, right to350
disadvantaged groups440
education368
equality432, 434
erga omnes obligations555
family rights366
food, right to852
health, right to844–5
implementation481
indicators881–2
intellectual property rights850
international Bill of Rights876
interpretation763
jurisprudence866
monitoring of623
positive subsidiary367
preamble932
problems642
right to health845
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, division of317, 564, 622
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearances (CPED)480, 623, 644, 894, 959
expert studies504
individual complaints643
norm recognition690
remedy, right to929
reporting627
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination(CERD)
case law641
‘core’ instrument, as a509
discrimination:
definition of438
prohibition on421
racial435
women435
equality432
establishment of622
(p. 998) inalienable rights432
individual complaints634
interstate complaints633
matters not addressed:
duration626
frequency626
non-state entities728
opposition to unified treaty body645–6
positive measures , requirement to take421, 440–1
resources643
supplementary standards503
(p. 999) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers anMembers of Their Families (ICRMW)321, 623
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)432, 623
equality435, 444
discrimination438
‘reasonable accommodation’, denial of440, 442
International Criminal Court (ICC)
Africa, focus on681
Arab Charter on Human Rights 1994674
‘aggression,’ definition of389
coalition for225
consent of national state398–9
constitutional council715
creation647, 720, 795, 962
crime against humanity830
forceful acquisition of a territory389
government atrocities, investigation of782
international humanitarian law961–2
jurisdiction554, 735
remedy929, 945–6
reparations930, 936–7, 948–9, 951–2
sovereign immunity398
state sovereignty397
victims951
trust fund for950
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)379, 394, 544, 735, 923, 926
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCRCS)725
International Human Rights Law (IHRL),see proportionality
International Humanitarian Law (IHL)
armed conflict and838
human rights norms816
national law and825
obligations830, 835
treaties and conventions821
International Labour Movement294–324
development of297–8
ILO action and innovation309–21
constitutional innovation313–16
‘generations’316–318
international human rights law316–18
oversight machinery310–13
standards316–18
UN Human Rights and318–20
cooperation320–21
lasting peace, principles for302–9
guiding307–9
structural304–7
Quo Vadis321–3
social legislation, sources and theory of298–9
transnational labour law, idea of299–300
worker’s rights301–2
International Labour Organization (ILO)96, 102, 296, 300, 303
action and innovation309–21
constitutional innovation313–16
creation of301, 303
Digest of Decisions519
equality435
expert reports503
indicators877
indigenous peoples664–5, 968
international labour standards310–13
multinational enterprises729
NGOs relationship with723
principles303, 307
‘regulatory conversation’321–2
standards316–18, 322–3
structural principles of304–7
tripartite character of304
UN human rights318–20
cooperation320–1
International Monetary Fund (IMF)874, 877–8, 883
International Relations (IR) Theory101
international tribunals649–69
Human Rights Committee:
practice of656–61
Inter-American Court:
practice of661–8
interpreting human rights norms653–6
law-making vs. interpretation650–3
Iran
Commission, competition to host693
draft resolution 60/251592nn 31, 32, 37
HRCouncil895n6
human rights situation608n86
nuclear arms proliferation102
rapporteurs609n92
regime (1980s)629n26
regime change820
sanctions789, 792
Syria, relations with835
UN member state199n20
US relations206–7
Iraq
Kurdish protection411
Kuwait, attempted annexation of389–90
oil reserves949
torture:
Abu Ghraib prison805n39
unilateral declarations328
UN Compensation Commission on Iraq945n104, 946n106
UN member state199n20
UN sanctions (1990s)774, 777, 789
UNSC intervention823
US intervention (2003)98, 820
humanitarian atrocities839
Israel
ancient165
Council of Europe471n7
Covenant obligations640
east Jerusalem, status of397n130
GA Resolution 5/2597n60
GA Resolution 60/125592nn29, 31
Gaza strip596
General Security Service809
Gesher Benot Ya’Aqov68n81
humanitarian law292
immunity803
Palestinians, rights of831
religion and18
right to dignity353
settlements596
special reports from629
treaties706n16
UN mission (2006)610n96
UPR system600
US relations292, 837
Italy
abduction and rendition806
codes of warfare (14th Century)278
Commission for International Labour Legislation304n26
Constitution705
court judgments905
effet utile argument549
League of Nations329, 336
Pinto law907
state immunity, scope of800
treaties704n9
Jamaica
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
denunciation701
Japan
bombing of cities87
Commission for International Labour Legislation304n26
‘comfort women’ (WW2)923n6
Constitution704n12
Council of Europe472n7
culture147
domestic violence94
draft resolution 60/251592n34
Japanese Nationality Law709, 712
League of Nations329
modalities of incorporation702
sexual equality709
treaties, status of704
UN member state199n20
jus cogens541–61
concept of541–3
content of543–7
erga omnes norms553–8
identifying553–5
juscogens obligations, implications for enforcement555–8
(p. 1000) limiting scope of548–51
practical impact of547–42
‘ordinary’ custom instead of552–3
relevance within domestic legal order558–60
techniques for avoiding551–2
just war theory181, 278
Kosovo
NATO intervention (1999)98, 816, 823–5, 831
population based surveys948
regime change839
sanctions789
Serbia, independence from391
United Nations Interim Administration Mission364–5
Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of (North)
Human Rights Committee701–2
human rights standards709, 711
nuclear arms proliferation102
rapporteurs609n92
Korea, Republic of (South)
Council of Europe471n7
domestic violence94
Foreign Ministry590n17
National Security Law708
UN member state199n20
Korean War (1950–53)288, 708
Kyrgyzstan
Council of Europe471n7
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Third Committee Report485n91
Latin America955–79
civil society, role of966–9
democracy, quality of978–9
innovations961–6
application of international human rights law961–4
discrediting amnesty laws964–6
mechanisms of change972–8
institutional reform977–8
reparations977
transitional justice prosecutions972–6
truth reports976–7
transitions, effects of969–71
violations958–61
Latvia
Poland and326n5
unilateral declarations328
law-making process, the499–526
Declarations and Conventions, drafting for501–6
collection of relevant materials504–5
expert studies504
final adoption506
plans of action502–3
provisions514–18
Secretariat and Office of Legal Affairs505
stages in the deliberations process505–6
international law506–14
customary509
general principles513–14
human rights treaties509–13
UN Charter508
prevention518–26
cooperation with partners524
human rights grand strategy525
leadership524
national protection systems521–22
optional protocol to CAT524
regional preventative regimes523
responsibility to protect521
threats to humanity520
UN High Commissioner524–5
Universal Periodic Review522
vulnerable groups, protection of521
League of Nations, the325–41
historical and practical lessons336–41
main principles of327–32
mechanism, birth of326–7
memorandum of the Secretary General of the UN335–6
minority protection332–5
structures of327–32
complaints procedure330–2
Least Developed Country (LDC)
TRIPS, compliance with849
Lebanon
foreign troops, deployment of397n130
regime change820
special session on594n47
(p. 1001) Special Tribunal for951
UN Commission on Human Rights199–200
UN member state199n20
UN mission to610n96
Lesotho
abortion659
Liberia
Charles Taylor’s government397, 791
humanitarian catastrophes823
sanctions and human rights777–8, 780–1, 790, 793
slavery236
South Africa, proceedings against207
torture805
UN member state199n20
libertarianism43–5
Libya
atrocities, response to793, 833
civilian protection793, 816, 831–2
democracy, transition towards486
Gaddafi:
corruption by784
immunity803n32
human rights crises596
international intervention (2011)98
Khaddafi590n18
Qaddafi, removal of833–4
R2P415, 782, 791, 817, 830–1, 833, 837, 839–40
regime change836
sanctions and human rights777–8, 792–3
SC action415, 718, 782–4
Sharia law832
Special Session (2011)594n47
state vs. human security838
Syria and835
terrorist actions790
against airlines784–5
UN member state199n20
UN support mission783–4
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Third Committee Report485n91
List of Issues (LOI)627, 629–30, 642, 647
List of Issues Prior to Reporting (LOIPR)630, 646–7
Lithuania
creation of326n5, 328
Memel-region328n12, 333n28
unilateral declarations328n15
litigation, transnational human rights794–814
claims against:
current or former foreign officials801–3
immunity from civil proceedings806–10
immunity from criminal prosecution803–6
foreign state immunity797–800
‘absolute’ theory of798
‘restrictive’ approach798
non-state actors810–12
jurisdiction, asserting796–7
overview795
Luxembourg
UN member state199n20
Machiavellian theory of State83–4
Maldives
Third Committee Report486n91
Mali
civilian Government, overthrow of485
US subsidies845n18
Marshall Islands
GA Resolution 60.125592n29
Marxism154, 155n28, 297n3
Mayan Indian communities976
Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders)97
Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR)694
Mesopotamia164–5, 167
Mexico
abstentions486n98
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
civilian massacre, Acetal809n66
Constitution703n8
Council of Europe471n7
detention facilities961
(p. 1002) disappearances958
forms of expression916–17
housing and indigenous peoples612n109
Maya communities968
slavery227
protection mechanisms914
UN member state199n20
UNCAT procedure637n44
US-Mexico General Claims Commission252n5, 263, 268–9, 271–2
women, violent deaths of580
moral philosophy32–53
challenges to35–6
human rights:
political conception of32–5
natural property rights, as43–7
nature of rights debate37–41
new analyses of rights41–3
welfare, natural rights to47–51
Morocco
Council of Europe471n7
Islam in19
Most Favored Nation (MFN)842–3, 852
movement, freedom of167, 454, 459n80, 460, 461n90, 484n82, 531, 533, 568, 610, 640
Myanmar
authoritarian government16
events (2007)594n47
forced labour312n72
Third Committee Report486n91
Namibia
apartheid207
Emergency Special Session397n130
ICJ Advisory Opinion750, 766
National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples (NAACP)247–8
National Civil Police Force (PNC)970
National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)604–5, 619, 709, 939
National Human Rights Institutions (NHRI)522, 603, 605–6, 608, 617, 644, 896–7
national implementation and interpretation698–718
accession699–700
incorporation702–7
modalities of702–3
rank of the treaty703–5
self-executing character of a treaty provision705–7
denunciation700–2
derogation700–2
jurisprudence711
binding712–17
non-binding712
mechanism of707–11
basic commitments707–8
choice of means709–10
exhaustion of domestic remedies710–11
ratification699–700
reservation700–2
succession699–700
National Research Center (NRC)146–9
National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)790–1
natural law theory189, 278, 423
natural rights theory,see moral philosophy
‘natural rights to welfare’ theories48–50
Nepal
disappearances949
Edicts of Asoka171
slavery247
truth commissions948
victim’s perceptions923n6
Netherlands
bilateral treaties238
bills of rights25
Constitution201, 703, 705n14
cooperation activities910
Dutch Unemployment Benefit Law712
Geneva Convention (1958)514
post-1967 military junta, Greece633n37
UN member state199n20
New Zealand
civil immunity807
draft resolution 60/251592n31
non-refoulement548n43
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251592n30
UN member state199n20
Nicaragua
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
(p. 1003) amnesty laws964
communal property and indigenous peoples664
Constitution665
counter-insurgency battles957
humanitarian intervention (1980s)820
indigenous communities937
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights261
migrant population261
military and paramilitary activities516, 518
natural resources935n64
UN member state199n20
Niger
slavery247
Nigeria
multinational oil companies791–2, 811
violation of human rights763
non-discrimination, principle of207–10, 283, 291, 316, 338n46, 354, 358, 421, 426–7, 433–7, 441–4, 453, 464, 473, 482, 531, 544, 565, 646n83, 671, 842–4, 858, 867, 869, 890n85
proportionality and457
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)97
active participation and672, 686–7
anti-slavery232
business entities725–7
central office/secretariat724
Code of Conduct725
complaint procedure898
consultative status of222–3, 628n22, 723–4
contribution721–3, 725
definition222–3
diamond smuggling791
disappearances958
drafting and deliberations process505, 632, 722
early vs. contemporary, relations between247–8
educational materials722
ethical behaviour and fairness725
emergency assistance723
geographical distribution724
government repression725, 773
growth and frequency of724
human rights conditions723
Human Rights NGOs and expert studies504, 524
independence of725
influential and key organizations724
Latin American960–1
lobbying721
membership721–2
nature of institutions102
nineteenth century emergence of226, 233, 246
as non-state actors672, 720–1, 735
registration721
responsibility to protect (R2P)840
review of state reports628
San Francisco Conference (1945)223
sizes of724
as stakeholders644
strategies and tactics247, 604
structures of724
transnational246–7, 773
Universal Periodic Review (UPR)522, 604–5, 896–7
victims and942–3, 954
volunteers, use of724
see also anti-slavery movement; see also under individual organizations
non-state actors719–36
armed irregular groups732–5
business entities725–32
non-governmental or civil society organizations721–5
transnational corporations725–32
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)842–3, 864
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)406, 782–4, 793, 816, 823–5, 831, 833, 837
Northern Ireland
inequality443
internees923n5
public sector equality430
‘troubles’, the633
Norway
cooperation activities910
(p. 1004) Haakonsson, Magnus, king of Norway177
IACtHR, financial contributions to917
Krupp firm726
Pension Fund, Global731n64
Petroleum Fund of Norway731n64
post-1967 military junta, Greece633n37
reopening of cases641n65
UN member state199n20
obligations, positive and negative562–83
African system, in the576–7
due diligence standard577–82
development of578–9
developing and applying579–82
European systems, in the569–72
Inter-American system, in the573–5
textual statements564–5
universal system565–8
Office of Legal Affairs (OLA)505
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
advisory services596
capacity building assistance596
compilation of information605–6
field offices613
guidelines891
indicators:
common list of889
housing rights886–7
illustrative874, 891
rights based886, 888–9
implementation of recommendations690
national consultations947
prevention519–25
ratifications509
reform of special procedures614–15
reports of602, 604
role606
leadership619
support function of594
technical assistance890
technical cooperation596
vulnerable groups521
Oman
Third Committee Report486n91
OPCAT (UNCAT), 2002 Optional Protocol to524, 623, 638
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)315, 729–30, 843, 874, 883
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)521, 523
Organization of African Unity (OAU)388, 672, 675, 679–81, 755–7, 902
Organization of American States (OAS)
Charter of677–8, 755, 861
compliance with main human rights instruments913–14, 916–17
death penalty678
disabilities678
establishment672, 677
forced disappearance678, 958–9
foundation of901
funding686, 917
indigenous people691
Inter-American Democratic Charter472, 678
judicial mechanisms894
objectives of677
political will of member states679
preventative mechanisms523
proportionality analysis450–1
case law461–2
comparative method462
‘normative cross-fertilization’ with European system461
subtest of necessity452
three-part test for451, 453
principles:
democracy472, 654
ratification of American Convention by member states682
supervision role of917
torture678
undemocratic government, suspension of participation472
Honduras472
violence against women690–1
withdrawal from917
see also ACHR; IACHR; IACtHR
Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)693
Oxfam97
Oxfam International844–5
Pakistan
(p. 1005) civil war, East Pakistan820
draft resolution 60/251592n36
Edicts of Asoka171
military dictatorship, West Pakistan819
Palau
GA resolution 5/2597n60
GA resolution 60/125592n29
Palestine
Emergency Special Session on397n130
see also Israel
Panama
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
draft declarations199n18, 200–1
events (1980s)820
forms of expression916
UN member state199n20
Paraguay
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
human rights movements960
indigenous community in665
private land ownership866
UN member state199n20
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE)215, 911–12
parsimony, theory of67n78
Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ)204–10, 251
affirmative action, notion of337–338
bond of nationality254–5
case law of251
consultative opinion of332
discrimination, prohibition of337
‘elementary principle’ of international law196
equality430
exhaustion of local remedies258
freedom of choice of identity, doctrine of337
genuine equality, requirement of338
minority issues332–3
curriculum and textbooks332
land confiscation332
languages332
religious freedom332
monitoring activity330
advisory opinions330
interstate disputes330
Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, appellate body over330
nationality of claims rule254
practice of204–10
reparation927
sovereignty of the territorial state258
Peru
abortion659–60
abstentions486n98
accountability975
American Convention on Human Rights679n36, 902n25
amnesty laws964
Council of Europe471n7
counter-insurgency battles957, 958
‘faceless’ courts959
Fujimori regime977
IACHR914
IACtHR914, 918
impunity975
international humanitarian law961
nationality issues861
prosecutions and trials973
reparations programmes934, 948, 977
administrative schemes for victims977
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (CVR)962
truth reports976
UNCAT procedure637n44
UN member state199n20
petition, right to3, 25, 55, 183, 187, 232–5, 241, 331, 334, 364, 381n19, 657, 660, 676, 678, 685, 713–15, 722, 913, 933, 941n88, 944
Philippines
UN member state199n20
Philosophical theory105
physical integrity, right to291, 346, 352, 354, 356, 480, 971, 972n72
Poland
bilateral treaties328–9
Constitution201
cooperation activities910
Council of Europe905
creation/establishment326n5, 328
German-speaking minority336n37
grievances against333n29
(p. 1006) Krupp firm726
League of Nations329
minority policy334–5
Peace Conference304n27
UN member state199n20
Upper Silesian territory331n25
Portugal
bilateral treaties238
Constitution704
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial
Countries and Peoples483n74
East Timorese continental shelf556
slavery235
poverty568, 576, 597n55, 610n95, 611, 667, 682, 692, 846, 883, 926, 969
press, freedom of30, 38, 179, 187, 264, 496, 612, 654, 908
property, right to30, 33, 43, 128, 129, 138, 170, 175–9, 183–8, 197–8, 206, 210n69, 217, 218n108, 224, 241–3, 245, 256n20, 262, 264, 284n49, 436, 454, 480, 528, 547, 552, 576, 663–6, 741n3, 763, 859–61, 868, 925
‘natural’ property rights43–8
Proportionality446–468
critiques of464–6
European Court of Human Rights analysis453–9
derogations456–7
due process guarantees458
limitation clauses453–5
necessity455–6
non-discrimination457
overview453
genesis and development447–8
Inter-American System461–2
necessity462–3
proportionality in a narrow sense463–4
structure under ACHR462
principle of448–50
general principle, as449–50
overview448–9
three tests of450–2
necessity452
overview450–1
strict sense452
suitability451
UN Human Rights Committee, as applied by459–61
necessity460–1
overview459
Protection of Civilians (PoC)283, 289, 414–5, 774, 779–81
psychology104–43
contemporary evolutionary framework122–41
further evidence for obligata134–41
human concept sense of obligation129–34
natural function, concept of124–7
social contract problem, concept of124–7
interpersonal obligations109–114
complete psychology of121fig.
motives of115fig.
logic of rights110fig.
‘natural functions’:
of human organs125fig.
of Obligata and social contract resolution132fig.
obligation:
examination of114–22
human sense of129–34, 135fig.
rights and107–9
psychology of obligation and community attitudes118fig.
Qatar
Israeli action, illegal397n130
Libya, international efforts in783
Third Committee Report486n91
Quechuan Indian nation864
redistributive theory of justice428
refugees28, 251n4, 254n13, 410, 501–2, 511, 609n92, 665, 723, 793n76, 820, 934n59, 946n105
regional systems670–97
established675–82
Americas, the677–9
Europe675–7
other initiatives691–4
Asia and the Pacific691–2
Arab League693
regional and sub-regional bodies693–4
thematic comparison682–91
institutional functioning682–8
jurisprudence688–91
religion9–31
contemporary human rights and29–31
human rights in the east10–17
Confucianism16–17
Buddhism13–16
Hinduism10–13
human rights in the west18–26
Christianity21–6
Islam19–21
Judaism18–19
modern international human rights framework26–9
Reports of International Arbitral Awards (RIAA)252
Reservations, Understandings, and Declarations (RUDs)395
Responsibility to Protect (R2P)774
analytical concept, as a817
atrocities, prevention of830
classic case of:
NATO bombing Libya782–4, 791
criticism of817
deliberate substitute for imperial visions and governance practices829
development of822, 840
explicit application of781
formulation of816–17
guiding theme for council action780
implementation833–4
Libya830–2, 839
linking concept, as825
Luck, Edward781
monitoring838
normative instrument of choice, as a817
north-south issue, not a834–5
obligations, no new828–9
principle to actionable norm826–8
responsibility to rebuild829–30
‘responsibility while protecting’837–8
sanctions781
Special Representative of the Secretary General780
support for832
unanimous endorsement to implementation, from817
undermining of793
World Summit Outcome document780
rights, theory of (Alexy)534–5
Roman law22, 45, 83, 174–6, 230–1, 276, 541
Romania
Committee of Ministers905
compliance905
creation of328
ethnic cleansing and335n32
Hungarian minority in333n29, 335n32
‘magyarized’ Romanians333
minority policy334–5
Paris Agreement330
right to a fair trial211
Szekler public bodies329n18
territorial enlargement326
treaties328nn12, 14
Russia
19th Century intelligentsia150
Bolshevik Revolution298n5, 301–2, 317
Chechnya, military operations in938n79
Committee of Ministers905
Constitution704n10
Council of Europe688n91
domestic judicial decisions907
draft resolution 60/251592n32
Greece, intervention in (1827)819
human rights violations677
ICCPR699n2
Libya, intervention in830–1
Poland and826 n5
Republican Party of Russia495n137
Russian language627, 643
Russian Empire385
sanctions778, 792
sovereignty900
Syria, intervention in816, 835–6
transfers of arms791
UN member state199n20
world opinion, isolation from837
Rwanda
arms embargo for775
gacaca courts950n119
human rights violations412
sanctions778
UN involvement in98, 829
sanctions771–93
cases involving human rights and777–84
Cote d’Ivoire781–2
Liberia780–1
Libya782–4
counter-terrorism784–8
effectiveness788–92
reforms774–7
sanitation, right to338n47, 608n86, 609n92, 610n95, 723, 848, 879
Saudi Arabia
Organization of Islamic Cooperation693
protests and uprisings831
Third Committee Report486n91
UN member state199n20
self-control, theory of92
Senegal
Emergency Special Session397
OAU Charter679–80
torture556–7
sexual orientation and gender identity28, 355n43, 436, 457, 597, 611n107, 663n47, 667, 671, 689n93
shelter, right to24, 537, 576, 658, 723, 763, 816
Siam
Constitution201
UN member state199n20
Sierra Leone
courts397
military junta791
Revolutionary United Front areas791
sanctions778
slavery238
World Anti-Slavery Convention237
truth commission939
Slovakia
Constitution704n9, 705n13
constitutional change391
human rights treaties, status of704n9
social security and income security85, 256n24, 310n57, 313, 319–20, 323, 338n47, 356, 438n80, 480, 890n85
sociology82–103
citizen rights85–7
civilizing process, the92–5
globalization and community necessity95–100
human:
vulnerability87–92
recognition87–92
missing82–5
solidarity401–19
international system, in the405–9
international environmental law407–8
protection of peace405–7
world trade law409
human rights, as a basis of protection of410–11
humanitarian assistance411–12
responsibility to protect412–17
assessment416–17
security council action414–15
new developments415
UN pronouncements405
Somalia
coercion818
human rights violations809
humanitarian crisis823
humanitarian relief823
state authority, collapse of818
torture809
UN sanctions777–8, 829
sources, historical and legal163–92
Age of Exploration178–81
ancient China169–70
ancient India170–2
ancient Near and Middle East164–8
Classical Greece and Rome172–5
Enlightenment, the181–9
medieval period175–8
perspectives and assessments190–2
Reformation178–81
Renaissance178–81
(p. 1009) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)692
South Africa
apartheid, policy of207, 399–400, 543, 607
Black Economic Empowerment Laws865
Constitution396, 400n145, 704, 706
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples483n74
democratic ideals483
investment jurisprudence865
punishment for past crimes938n76
race issue153
R2P837
sanctions777
victims:
compensation949
reparations programmes934
of torture923n6
Truth and Reconciliation Commission923n5, 924n11, 926, 932, 948
UN member state199n20
Southern African Development Community (SADC)380, 523, 685, 694
Southern Rhodesia
sanctions777
sovereignty379–400
concept of382–394
exclusive control within national borders385–8
political independence383–5
territorial integrity388–92
forceful acquisition389–90
secession390–2
sovereign immunity393–4
human rights, and394–9
Spain
Andalusia region22
bilateral treaties238
Constitution704
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples483n74
extradition to804
slavery238, 244
women:
abolitionists244
sexual trafficking of244
Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL)397–8
Special Procedure (SP)614–18
democracy488
emergency situations, investigatory role589, 594
enforced disappearances637
impact of615–16
indicators888
mandate holders:
appointment process600
expertise of605
monitoring of compliance894–6, 899–901
multiple discrimination439
Peace Conference312
process of establishment594–6
purpose594
recommendations of619
reform of614–15
state reports, review of628
urgent appeals, making of628
see also UPR
speech, freedom of30, 165, 183, 187, 191, 197, 456, 460, 495–6, 689, 861
Srebrenica
human rights violations412, 823
UN peacekeepers in816
structuralism154
Sub-Committee on Prevention of Torture (SPT)623, 638
subsidiarity, principle of360–78
definition360–3
procedural doctrines of369–77
exhaustion of domestic remedies369–70
‘fourth instance’ doctrine370–1
margin of appreciation375–7
remedial subsidiarity371–4
structural fact, as a363–5
substantive365–9
Sudan
African Commission682n56
armed conflict411
Commission, the590
country mandates608n86
draft resolution 60/251592n36
(p. 1010) female genital mutilation659
genocide101
R2P413
sanctions778, 789
Southern Sudan, secession of391
terrorism784
transfers of arms791
UN missions779
UN Panel of Experts on the Sudan792
use of force828
see also Darfur
Suriname
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
courts and international treaties238
ICCPR666
ICESCR666
land and property rights665–6
Swaziland
king of485, 495
Third Committee reports486n91
Sweden
bilateral treaties328, 336n36
Convention against Torture (CAT)503
ECHR703
neutrality, WWII336n36
post-1967 military junta, Greece633n37
SC sanctions775–6
UN member state199n20
Switzerland
Human Rights Trust Fund910
private life and correspondence, respect for493
SC sanctions775
Swiss Federal Constitution559
UN member state199n20
World Economic Forum729
Syria
Arab League of States for Syria688n91, 901
cities, destruction of (2012–13)784
civilian protection816
country mandates608n86
crisis (2012)102, 596, 784, 835–7, 900
democratic institutions486
displacement793n76
HRCouncil’s engagement (2011)899
human rights violations900
international response to793, 831
Maronite Christians, killing of819
refugees793n76
sanctions789, 791–2
Special Sessions (2011–12)594n47
UN member state199n20
UN observer mission access901
universal human rights900
UNSC resolutions on836
Tanzania
abortion659
African Court686
Idi Amin regime, Uganda680, 819
Terms of Reference (TOR)
ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights692
Thailand,see Siam
Theory of Mind114n28
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of14, 23–4, 27–8, 51, 83, 168, 179, 184, 266, 285–6, 517, 529n6, 531, 545n25, 689, 724
see also religion
Timor-Leste,see East Timor
totalitarianism348
trade and investment law841–70
chilling impact of847–9
free trade, benefits of855–8
general observations844–7
harmonization862–3
hierarchies862–3
jurisprudence:
human rights866–8
investment864–5
protection for traders and investors858–62
WTO rules849–55
TRIPS and the right to health849–52
free trade and the right to food852–5
treaties, human rights740–71
human rights tribunals760–9
jurisprudence:
applicability of the VCLT757–9
provisions of the human rights conventions relating to753–7
self-contained regime740–4
special characteristics of759–60
supervisory bodies752–3
uniform holistic approach to769–70
VCLT744–52
articles of746–52
interpretation prior to744–6
treaty bodies, role and impact of621–48
Committee’s output:
legal nature and effect of639–41
composition624–5
decision-making625–6
functions626–38
general comments631–3
individual complaints634–6
inquiries636–7
interstate complaints633
other functions637–8
Committee on Enforced Disappearances637
Sub-Committee on the Prevention of Torture638
review of state reports626–31
follow-up procedures638–9
problems642–4
reviews and proposals644–7
Trinidad and Tobago
American Convention on Human Rights682, 902n25, 918
derogation701
Tunisia
Council of Europe471n7
dictatorship in855
Turkey
Committee of Ministers905, 910
Council of Europe membership471, 688n91
Cyprus, invasion of Northern389
democracy495
ECHR389, 495 n103
employment rights201
freedom of expression and media910n58
human rights violations677
massacres by819
military coup (1980)471
neutrality, WWII336n37
peace treaties328
UN member state199n20
UNCAT procedure637
United Kingdom (UK)
anti-Nazi wartime military alliance823
Anti-Slavery International724
aristocratic history of93
arrest warrants804n35
bilateral treaties238
Chernobyl accident260
civil society, development of229–30, 233, 236–7
customary international law805
European Convention on Human Rights490n102, 712–13, 716
Hong Kong, diplomatic relations with699n2
Human Rights Act (2000)702–3
Human Rights Trust Fund910
International Labour Organization304
Iraq, war in823
Jay Treaty (1794)238
juridical, political, and social rights84
juvenile detainees700
labour movements (pre-WW1)298n5
League of Nations335n32
Libya, war in831
Magna Carta (1215)197
public sector equality430
ratione personae immunity805, 807–8
same-sex relationships443–4
special mission immunity804
Sudan and413
telephone wiretapping491
torture807–8
transformative equality429
United Nations Charter223, 483
Universal Declaration of Human Rights199n20
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)761
women and abolition239–45
United Nations charter bodies, evolution of587–620
comparing Council and Commission598–601
Council, the:
five year review of597–8
function of mandate holders609–14
impact of work of615–16
reform of614–15
reform of the council616–8
special procedures609–16
structure and function of593–7
demise of the Commission and creation of the Council589–93
Universal Periodic Review601–6
enhancing participation on603–5
proposals for reform605–6
United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR)
business entities731
drafting:
UNCAT636, 643
victim-centred approach:
choice of measures947
Working Group on Disappearances958
Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances622
United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UNCESCR)
access to information628
creation of623–4
dignity355–6, 358
education368
indicators881–2, 884, 887, 891
interpretation:
role753
techniques763
Limburg Principles880
monitoring role623, 880, 894–5
obligations:
minimum core536–7
negative and positive565–6, 568
reviews644
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)843
United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT)350, 500, 509, 557–8, 622–3
adoption622
decision-making625
drafting500, 643, 503
general comments631
ICJ decisions804
individual complaints634
inquiries636–7
Pinochet decision804
preventative rationale519
Sub-Committee on the Prevention of Torture638
see also OPCAT
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)623, 625, 645
United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
catalytic role619
Indicators878, 888–9
Human Freedom Index881, 884–5
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
American Anthropological Association146–8
biological concept of race153
civil society97, 723
drafting of UDHR145–6
equality422
National Research Council Committee on International Cooperation in Anthropology147
United Nation General Assembly (UNGA)
adoption of1, 146, 317, 622, 770
Advisory Committee, role of598
‘Asian exception’ to human rights691
budgetary constraints630
Convention against Torture500
Council of:
creation of581–92, 608
five year review of603
GA assessment of role of599
membership criteria of598
monitoring decisions of622
normative sources governing593
operation of594
subsidiarity body of General Assembly599, 617
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples337
Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities337
democracy474, 485–6
derogations701
drafting499–502, 504
‘Emergency Specialist Sessions’397
enforced disappearances637
final adoption506
forceful acquisition of a territory389
funding630
Human Rights Council895
humanitarian assistance411–12
indicators878, 883
indigenous peoples337, 691
inquiries636
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families505
Secretariat, role of505
inquiries636
international humanitarian law288
League of Nations329, 331
limitations test534
mass claims934
membership of506
Millennium Declaration405, 474, 883
minorities337
natural wealth and resources386–7
Paris Principles709
protection of the environment in times of armed conflict207
protection of vulnerable groups521
R2P827, 835, 840
regional initiatives691
limits673
reparations410–11, 563
request for materials332
responsibility to protect412–14, 521
review of UN system644–5
rule of law475
rules of procedure624
secession391
self-determination483
solidarity405
South African racial policies399
status of resolutions639
terrorism482
victims of gross and systemic violations of human rights415, 928
see UDHR, UNHRC
United Nations Human Rights Committee (UNHRC)
compliance with decisions of944
concluding observations of631
conscientious objection689
customary international law517
death penalty689
disadvantaged groups440
discrimination:
definition of438
multiple439
democracy654
denunciation, right of701–2, 877
equality208, 709
family life862
freedom of expression484, 492–3
impact of decisions of708
implementation709, 712
individual communications, handling657–61
abortion659–61
women657–8
individual complaints643
inviolable core of human rights533–4
jurisprudence640–1, 866
law reform939
minority rights867
non-derogable principles210, 329
peremptory norms529–31
(p. 1014) non-discrimination principle, interpretation of338, 434
parliamentary origin, no requirement of492–3
positive action measures440
positive state duties480
practice of656
examining state reports656–7
membership656
property rights867
proportionality analyses of446, 448, 450, 459–61
necessity test461
obligations of states510, 565, 624, 631, 640
quotas440
reform of treaty bodies643–5
remedies373–4, 867
unreasonably prolonged710–11
reviewing role703
rules of procedure of625, 627
social rights709–10
special reports, requirement for629
status599
task forces630
see also Special Procedures, HRCouncil, ECtHR
United Nations Human Rights Council (HRCouncil)895–901
complaint procedure898–9
drafting process501
Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights732
preventative strategies520
‘Protect, Respect, Remedy’ Framework729, 731
reform of616–17
special procedures899–901, 607–9, 628
TRIPS851
UN Global Compact and the Guiding Principles on Human Rights and Business322
Universal Periodic Review896–8, 601–3, 628, 717
impact of work615–15
mandate holders609–14
reform of605–6, 614–15
United Nations International Law Commission (ILC)
‘crucible approach’746
diplomatic protection251–2, 254, 257, 258, 266
Draft Declaration on Rights and Duties of States379
Draft Articles of745–6, 251–2, 254, 257, 258, 260, 261, 543, 745, 746, 807, 927
fragmentation of international law741, 751
immunity808
jus cogens541, 543
laws of war288
local remedies rule260–1
peremptory norms542, 544
periodic studies of519
reparations927
self-contained regimes740–1
supremacy of international law379
treaty interpretation749–50
workplan of500, 502
see also VCLT
United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI)781–2
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)878, 879
United Nations Security Council (UNSC)292, 406, 774, 789, 778–80, 784–7, 816, 818–19, 823, 825–6, 830, 835–6, 838, 840, 899–901
United States (US)
act of state doctrine393
Al Qaida attacks on785
American Convention on Human Rights (1969)901–2
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948)201
Bill of Rights (1791)25, 198, 396
bills of exchange806–7
bribery and corruption730n61
civil society, development of229–30
Constitution (1787)187, 195, 699–700, 704
Constitution of Massachusetts (1780)475
civil and political rights318, 490, 700
civil rights movement153
civil society networks236–7
consular relations381–2
(p. 1015) customary international law812
death penalty700
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, abstention from483n74
Declaration of Independence (1776)198
epistemological shifts154–5
Foreign Relations Law507, 509, 518
homicide rates94
human rights and:
Human Rights Committee629, 640
Human Rights Council895
human rights declarations199n18, 220
human rights jurisprudence292
human rights organizations721–2
human rights protection396
international human rights law699–700
incorporation702
international legal obligations380–1
Jay Treaty (1794)238
jus cogens violations
labour movements298n5, 304
League of Nations329
Lieber Code (1863)282
lynching94
Mixed Claims Commission263, 268
moral systems in107
political philosophy in154
racial issues153
rape, rates of94n39
sanctions783
slavery, regulation against226–30, 236–45
sovereign immunity393
state immunity in800
state regulation94–5
subsidiarity362
Supreme Court700n3
territorial sovereignty797–8, 811
torture, use of798–9
United Nations and823
United States Supreme Court (SCOTUS)371, 380–2, 700, 798, 810–11
US embassy in Tehran206
Venice Commission, participation in471n7
water-boarding, employment of102
women and abolition239–45
suffragette movement245
see also NGOs; see alsounder entries beginning with ‘American’
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)198–203
ACHR755
adoption of1, 195, 197, 317, 347–8, 483, 720, 893
African States703
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man677
anthropology148–9
ASEAN Human Rights Declaration692
business727–8
catalogues of duties86
collection of relevant materials504
‘common standard of achievement’484
constitution of the entire human rights movement203
‘core rights’ approach528
cross-fertilization754
cultural relativism154
customary law, norms of516
‘hard core of similarities’151
definition of human rights395, 727
democratic society requirement484
division into two treaties504
drafting3, 145, 148–9, 199, 202–3, 224, 347, 348, 500, 722
economic, social and cultural rights200–1, 220, 316–17, 425, 876
equality352, 431–6
family rights366
free elections484
freedom of expression856
fundamental freedoms206–7, 395
guaranteed rights894
healthcare109
human rights standards prior to197–8
‘inalienable rights’86, 202
International Bill of Human Rights502, 621–2, 876
international humanitarian law289–90
International Labour Movement316–18, 320–1, 323
international labour standards316–17
Islam19
law of war288–9
legal globalization96
(p. 1016) natural law192
NGOs223, 722, 727
non-state armed groups733
not legally binding894
obligations508, 972
personal liberty425
philosophy153, 220
principles of206–7, 221
privacy856
pro homine rule756
property859
relevance to non-state actors720, 727–8
reliance of treaties on769–70
religion110
remedies927
reparation927
response to war, as288
root of modern international human rights framework26, 96
rule of law470
self-determination98
slavery, prohibition on111
‘social contract’ problem127
state sovereignty versus human rights821
translation of305
Universal Periodic Review595, 601
universality670–1
work, right to202, 319
work-related rights201
Universal Periodic Review (UPR)601–6, 628, 717, 896–8
amendments of603
civil society, role of604, 619, 897–8
cooperation:
refusal600
requirement of598, 600
documentation for602
establishment of591–2, 600
failure to cooperate with593–4
five year review603–5
fulfilment of council mandate594
fulfilment of purpose717, 897
general588
guidelines for conducting601–6
impact of work615
mandate holders609–14
national human rights commissions, role of604–5
objectives of602
peer review process of595
permanent human rights mechanism, as a618
prevention, advance of522
proposals for reform of605–8
recommendations, follow up of615, 619
reform of605–6, 614–15
triangulation dynamic618–19
representation618fig.
universalism13, 377, 422–3
Uruguay
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
amnesty laws964, 974
Council of Europe membership471n7
court systems238
disappearances958
forms of expression916
human rights violations975
immunity law967n45
pulp mills dispute208
reparations977
torture958, 960–1
UN member state199n20
USSR,see Russia
utilitarian theory138n73
value, labour theory of297n3
Venezuela
American Convention on Human Rights902n25
denunciation of679n36, 682, 876n14, 971
Constitution of704n9
detention facilities961
France-Venezuela Mixed Claims Commission252n5
human rights treaties, special status of704n9
IACHR and917, 971
UN member state199n20
victims, outcomes for921–54
delivered932–43
individual remedies934–8
measures of non-repetition939–40
procedural justice940–3
desirable923–6
envisaged927–31
reparation943–7
victim-centred approach947–52
to punishment973n75
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)
applicability of757–9
application of739–40
articles of746–52
human rights tribunals760–5
international obligations212, 380, 511
interpretation, rules for540, 651, 662, 743, 744–6, 769, 862–3
textual versus teleological approach754
legal reciprocity744
jus cogens541–2
norm conflicts547–8, 802
pacta sunt servanda, principle of707
prohibited reservations700
state discretion395
Vietnam
China and101
Pol Pot819
war (1965–73)290–1
coverage of98
protests against154
water, right to safe potable99, 356n52, 387, 403, 608n86, 609n92, 610n95, 667, 723, 763, 848, 849, 865, 879
wesensgehalt (German Constitutional Theory)458n73
West Indian colonies (British)227, 235
Will Theory39–43
women
African Charter691
Afghanistan778
anti-slavery movement239–45
Argentina968
CERD435
Chile968
El Salvador968
French female activism239, 244
German female activism239, 242
Guatemala968
India243
Japan:
‘comfort women’ (WW2)923n6
Mexico:
violent female deaths580
OAS:
violence against women690–1
sexual trafficking of244
Spanish female activism244
UNHRC657–8
voting rights245
Working Group on Human Rights (WGHR)604–5
World Bank (WB)845, 874, 877–8, 883
World Health Assembly (WHA)660
World Health Organization (WHO)97, 613, 660, 882–3, 885
world-systems theory84
World Trade Organization (WTO)
agreements842
comparative advantage, theory of845
core labour standards, concept of315
dispute settlement mechanism842–3, 862
economic, social and cultural rights:
free trade and the right to food852–5
TRIPS and the rights to health849–52
enforcement systems868–9
ICESCR obligations866
intellectual property rights842
internet censorship856
jurisprudence863–4
legal system of409
liberalisation847
Ministerial Singapore Declaration315
morals and public health848
‘most favoured nation’ status842
national treatment842
non-discrimination obligations842
normative bias846
objectives of409, 842
protectionism846, 848
solidarity, principle of409
(p. 1018) trade rules based on human rights values869
treaty interpretation749
World War I (WWI)97, 205, 245, 248, 288, 296, 298, 300–2, 326–7, 334, 384, 877
World War II (WWII)
neutrality336nn36, 37
Yemen
forceful military action831
Yugoslavia
constitutional provisions201
creation/establishment328, 335n32
disintegration of391
equality, right to443
humanitarian impact774
Hungarian minority333n29
ICTY209n66, 379, 554, 719, 735, 923n6, 926
victims’ attitudes948
minority commitments336n37
Paris Agreement330
sanctions against791
special reports629
territorial enlargement326n6
UN member state199n20
UN sanctions777–8
Zimbabwe
African Development Community380
constitutional system380
human rights cases against694
Namibia and397n130
sanctions789