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date: 29 May 2017

(p. 981) Index

abortion, right to 12, 659–61
Afghanistan
Communism 201
crisis (1980) 397 n130
Edicts of Asoka 171
grave human rights situations 597
sanctions and human rights 778
Taliban regime:
cultural artifacts 778
women’s rights 778
UN member state 199 n20
UN missions 779
war in 93, 98, 102
African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP countries) 409, 906
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfChHPR)
compared to inter-American and African Systems 682
democratic principles 485
development of 679–82
development, right to 690
dignity 352, 353
duties, catalogue of 86
equality 437
freedom of association 495
implied rights 763
interpretation 765
legality, requirement of 479
natural resources, right to 387
non-discrimination 437
obligations 492, 576
preamble 755–6
ratification of 682
rule of law 472
safe and healthy environment 690
self-determination 392, 472
social and economic rights 757
women, rights of 691
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR)
‘chilling effect’ doctrine 459
compliance with recommendations of 685, 944
democratic principles 485
establishment of 753
implied rights 753
interpretive methods 462, 765
interim relief, power to issue 684
interstate communications 680
jurisprudence of 479, 492
first session of 681
freedom of association, right to 495
funding 686
legality 491
legal reform, recommendations for 940
local remedies, exhaustion of 260
measures of satisfaction 938
meetings:
frequency of 487
location of 686
natural resources, right to 387
NGO accreditation system 687–8
obligations 576
oversight role 962
proportionality 450–1
public interest, matters of 496
remedies 936
reports to 684
self-determination 392
scope 757
supervisory role of 682
website 688
(p. 982) African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 681
African Union (AU)
aims of 902
democratic principles 485
development of 675, 681, 753
dispute with ICC 398
funding 686
national borders 388
preamble 755
prevention of conflict and violence, regional mechanisms for 523
regional criminal court, establishment of 674
state vs. human security 838
undemocratic governments, stance on 472–85
Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) 846, 852–3, 855
Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) 849–52
exceptions to 851
flexibilities 851
health, right to 849–50
IP protection 851
‘TRIPS-plus’ 851
Algeria
African Court 686 n78
civil war in 805
Council of Europe member 471 n7
Minister of Defense for war crimes 805
America’s Watch, see Human Rights Watch
American Anthropological Association (AAA) 146–58
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 248
American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)
acceptable public interest grounds 451
adoption 677
armed conflicts 963
basic rights, prohibition on derogation of 701
democracy, principle of 484–5, 654
denouncement of 682
Trinidad and Tobago 679, 918
Venezuela 679
dignity 352
duty to ‘ensure’ rights 574, 579
entry into force 678
equality 436
establishment 752
exercise of rights 668
expropriation 866
fair trial 262
freedom of expression 868
international minimum standard 262
interpretation of 661–3, 765, 758, 760, 766–7
interstate complaints, primary 261
jurisprudence 575, 666–7
legislative incorporation 708
limitations clause 479
limitation to protection of civil and political rights 678
as living instrument 664
name, right to a 545
nationality, right to 545
non-derogable rights 545
non-discrimination clause 464
obligations 573, 575, 866
participation in government, right to 655
preamble 257, 654, 755, 770, 932
precautionary measures 684
pro homine approach 765–6
property rights 664, 860, 867
proportionality, principle of 450, 455, 462
Protocol of San Salvador 678
recognition of rights 756–7
relationship to other international instruments 755
remedies 708, 915, 971
reparations 372, 663, 977
rule of law 472
special characteristics of 759
United Nations Covenants 678
universality 655
American Federation of Labor (AFL) 202, 301–2, 303
American historical particularism 154
American ‘Indians’ 46
Plains Indians 93
Amnesty International (AI) 223 n3, 500, 724, 939 n83, 967
(p. 983) Angola
civil war in 791
UN sanctions 778, 790
UNITA rebel movement 790–1
Anthropology 144–59
history 145–59
ecumenical anthropology 158–9
Herskovits, Melville 150–2
‘prodigal son returns’ 154–7
social justice and other universalist projects 153–4
wilderness years 152–3
Anti-Slavery International 223 n3, 247, 724
anti-slavery movement 222–49
abolitionism, rise of 226–36
international action 236–48
civil society networks 236–7
state-to-state action 237–8
transnational non-governmental organizations 245–7
connection with present day 247–8
women 239–45
Argentina
abstentions 486 n98
American Convention on Human Rights 902
amnesty laws 964
civil society 967
complaints 914
constitution of 704
Council of Europe member 471 n7
crimes against humanity 966
democratic elections 966
dictatorship, brutality of 934, 966
disappearances 924, 939 n82, 958, 967
economic crisis (1990s) 865
expression, forms of 916
human rights obligations 865
human rights treaties 704 n9
Junta, the (1976–1983) 958, 973
military 964
military coup 967
political repression 923 n5
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251 592 n34
pulp mills dispute 208
punishment, approaches to 973 n75
rape 660–1
reparations, administrative schemes for 977
slavery 227, 238
UN member state 199 n20
women 968
Armenia
abstentions 486 n98
genocide committed against 96
arms, right to keep and bear 95
ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR) 692
assembly, right of 30, 453–4, 459 n80, 484 n82, 531, 607 n86, 654, 900
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 523, 674. 692, 696
Australia
civil immunity 807
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples 483 n74
East Timorese continental shelf 556
Foreign States Immunities Act 798
Human Rights Committee 646, 656
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251 592
UN member state 199 n20
Austria
bilateral agreement 560 n95
Constitution 336, 704 n9
monarchy 325–6
treaties 328, 336
Bahrain
grave human rights situations 597
protests and uprisings in 831
Third Committee Reports 485 n91
Bangladesh
Edicts of Asoka 171
NHRC Reports 605 n78
military dictatorship 819
water and sanitation 610 n95
Barbados
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
Belarus
Council of Europe 471 n7
grave human rights crises 596
human rights situation 608 n86
UDHR membership criteria 470
UN member state 199 n20
Belgium
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples 483 n74
Peace Conference 304 n27
torture Convention 557, 802–4
UN member state 199 n20
Benin
US subsidies 845 n18
Bhutan
Third Committee Report 485 n91
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 12–13
Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs)
Argentina 865
decline (2000s) 849
ECHR law, distinction with 860
emergence of 843
enforcement via arbitration 849
enforcement systems 868–9
expropriation 860, 866
interpretation 862
proliferation of 843
purpose 843–4
ratification 866
regulatory costs 849
‘stabilization clauses’ 848
substantive rights 844, 864
‘umbrella’ clauses 848
biology 54–81
altruism:
adaptations in humans and other animals 75–9
group benefits 73
true 66
collective action:
problems 68–73
competition 68–79
cooperation 68–79
group augmentation 60
human rights, need for 57–8
kin selection 58–60
mutualism 60
reciprocity 60–6
direct 60–6
indirect 63–6
violence and altruism 57–8
Bolivia
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
Revolutionary Movement Tupaj Katari 968
rights of indigenous peoples 968
slavery 238
UN member state 199 n20
water utilities 865
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Commission for Real Property Claims of Displaced Persons and Refugees 946 n105
ethnic cleansing in 778
minority commitments, validity of 336 n37
UN safe areas in 823
Brazil
1964 coup 956
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
amnesty laws 964–5, 975
CEDAW, obligations under 439
civilian protection 830–1
Council of Europe member 471 n7
criminal and social violence 969
detention facilities, 961
disappearances 977
human rights movements in 960
Juntas in 958
language 662 n43
police, use of force 970
public administration 916–17
reparations 977
responsibility to protect 837–8
slavery 227, 238, 247
abolition movement 244
truth commission 976–7
UN member state 199 n20
UNCAT procedure 637 n44
WTO 846, 863
Yanomami territory 156
Brunei Darussalam
Third Committee Report 485 n91
Bulgaria
Constitution 704 n10
Council of Europe 905
material minority law 328
treaties 328
Burkina Faso
US subsidies 845 n18
(p. 985) Burundi
victims’ perceptions 923 n6
Calcutta
slavery 237
Cambodia
Extraordinary Criminal Chamber for Cambodia (ECCC) 937, 948 n111, 950
Pol Pot, overthrowing of 819
victims’ perceptions 923 n6, 948
Canada
asbestos products, European ban on 863
civil immunity 807
Council of Europe membership 471 n7
counter-terrorism 786
cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment 659
customary international law vs. common law 705
female genital mutilation 659
population 391 n88
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251 592 n30, 597 n60
Quebec, secession of 391 n88
State Immunity Act 800 n23
UN member state 199 n20
women’s right to vote 245
Cape of Good Hope
slavery 237
Centre for Legal and Social Studies (CELS) 967
Central African Republic
UN missions 779
Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) 924
Chad
President Hissène Habré 557
transfers of arms 791
US Subsidies 845 n18
child, rights of the 27, 39, 68, 166, 176, 308–9, 357, 366, 512, 517, 545 n25, 659–60, 677, 777, 779
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 680–1
African Children’s Committee 686
animal species and children 67
child abduction 866
child adoption 97
child care 29–30, 93
child development 78, 88
language acquisition 123
child and gender issues 952 n125
child labour 297, 309–10, 726, 729 n59
child marriage 12
child mortality 879
child soldiers 733, 791, 812 n76, 931, 937
citizenship 328 n16
Confucianism and parent/child relations 16
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 350, 352, 366, 432, 503, 509, 623, 720 n10, 722, 753 n62, 895 n2, 927 n28
custodial arrangements 120
disappeared children 373
exploitation of children 364
‘illegitimate’ children 212
kidnapping of children 733
massacre victims 960
minority language education 332, 334
nationality 709
reproduction 464
sexual education 375
sexual orientation and child custody 689 n93
status of children 692
trafficking of children 226 n22, 520
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention 322 n109
see also education
Chile
in the 1970s 820
abstentions 486 n98
accountability efforts 974
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
amnesty laws 964–5, 974
compensation schemes 949
Council of Europe 471 n7
criminal codes 965
deforestation 868
dictatorship, brutality of 379, 932–4
victims’ administrative schemes 977
disappearances 958, 968
Foreign Investment Committee 868
IACtHR, financial contributions to 917 n80
Juntas 958
NGOs 199
political repression, survivors of 923 n5
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251 592 n30
(p. 986) public administration, transparency in 916–17
reparations programs for HR violations 925 n15, 932–3, 948
right of equal access to professions and vocations 201
right to work 201
slavery 227, 238
torture 795, 804, 808
UDHR 200
UN member state 199 n20
women 968
China, People’s Republic of
ancient 169–70, 184
Communism 201
conception of human rights 52–3
Confucianism 16–17
constitutional provisions 201
economic reforms 857
foreign intervention 900
freedom of expression 856
Hong Kong, transfer of 699 n2
Huang Zongxi 182
internet censorship 856
Libya, relations with 830
Mencius in 172, 178, 184
neighbours of 101
Peng-Chun Chang 199
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251 592 n38
Syria, relations with 835–7, 900 n20
Third Committee Report 485 n91
transfers of arms 791
UN member state 199 n20
WTO obligations 846
Collective Action Problem (CAP) 68–71, 74
Colombia
accountability 976
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, adoption of 901
counter-insurgency battles 957
courts, supreme and constitutional 917
democratic principles 969
dictatorship in 934
reparations for victims 977
enforceable legal decisions 641 n65
‘faceless courts’ 959
international humanitarian law 961
journalism, protection of 916
justice in 970
UN member state 199 n20
Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (CVR) 962, 971
Commission of Inquiry (COI)
appointment of 312
failure to comply with recommendations 305, 312
Human Rights Council 896, 899–901
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) 501, 643
Committee Against Torture (CAT) 503, 623, 690, 753, 894, 937
compliance rule 944
Committee of Ministers (CM) 471
advisory opinions, request for 684
European system, role in 917
execution of judgments, monitoring of 905–9
working methods, effectiveness of 905, 909–12
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) see United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UNCESCR)
Committee on Enforced Disappearances (CED) 623, 627, 637, 644, 753
Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW) 623, 625, 753, 895
compliance 893–920
non-judicial mechanisms 894–901
Human Rights Council 895–901
Commission of Inquiry 899–901
complaint procedure 898–9
fact-finding missions 899–901
special procedures 899–901
Universal Periodic Review 896–8
preliminary considerations 894–5
regional judicial mechanisms 901–18
Council of Europe human rights protection mechanisms 902–5
effectiveness 909–12
execution of judgments, monitoring of 905–9
(p. 987) Inter-American System 912–18
see also IACHR; IACtHR
Constitutions and general principles 194–221
context 195–8
international courts 204
Court of Justice of the European Union, the 216–20
European Court of Human Rights 210–16
International Court of Justice 204–10
Permanent Court of International Justice 204–10
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 198–203
core obligations 536–8
core rights 527–40
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
adoption 622
autonomy of the family, limits on 366
Committee 623, 625, 633
compensation 374
compliance 876
as core instrument 509
dignity 350, 357
discrimination 435, 438, 728
drafting 643
equality 352, 432
gender motivated violence 582
indicators 880
inquiries 636
interstate complaints 633–4
multiple 439
nationality, acquisition of 252, 709
opposition to unified treaty body 645
practices of 641
remedies 374
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD Committee)
establishment of 622, 753
experience 634, 641
individual complaints, adjudicating 646
special measures, concept of 440
‘living instrument’, treaty as 767
comparative advantage, theory of 462, 845–7, 854
Congo, Republic of
army 812
crimes against humanity 801–2
Eastern 792
King Leopold’s slavery practices 247
state authority, collapse of 829
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
committee 623
dignity 350–3
‘discrimination’, definition of 438, 440, 442
equality 432, 435, 444
establishment of 623
statistics and data collection 879
Costa Rica
abortion, right to 659
abstentions 486 n98
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
IACtHR 686, 915
Court budget, contributions to 917 n80
in vitro fertilization 463
Nicaraguan migrant population in 261
UN member state 199 n20
Côte d’Ivoire
armed force 781–2
civil war in 781–2
civilian protection 816
national reconciliation process 781
sanctions and human rights 778, 793
UN missions 779
UNOCI 781–2
Council of Europe (CoE)
aim 755
budget 686
Charter of 338, 369
complaint procedure 898
democracy 470–1, 488
derogations 701
dignity 351
employment rights 214
establishment 675–6
EU as non-member of 912
family name, right to 214
foundation of 901
human rights protection mechanism 902
institutional functioning of 682
interpretation 766
inter-State complaints 633
Human Rights Trust Fund 910
(p. 988) League of Nations 337
Legal Committee of the Consultative Assembly of 764
member states 905
non-judicial mechanisms 894
reform of convention system 903
relationship with UN 690
remedies 372
secession 390
Secretariat 905
subsidiarity, principle of 369
suspension 688
traders and investors 861
website 688
Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) 785
Court of First Instance (CFI)
jus cogens 546–7
natural law approach 546
ne bis in idem rule 219
Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), see European Court of Justice
Cuba
in the 1960s 820
Guantánamo military detention centre 490 n105
NGOs 199 n18
Peace Conference 304 n27
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251 592 nn32, 35, 36
right to work 201
slavery, abolition of 227 n24, 238
Syria, relations with 900 n20
Third Committee Report 485 n91
UDHR 200
US unilateral sanctions on 773, 789
cultural relativism 84, 88, 147, 150–1, 154, 268, 334, 376
Czechoslovakia
in 1968 (Czechoslovakia Crisis) 820
genocide 335 n32
Paris Agreement 330
Peace Conference 304 n27
peace treaties 328
Ruthenians in 329 n17
UN member state 199 n20
Darfur
in 2006 594 n47
arms embargo violations in 792
civilian attacks 791
coercion 789
crisis, handling of 828
ICC, referral to 933 n52
government’s campaign of violence 590
Resolution 1556 on 413
Resolution 1769 414
Save Darfur 225
transfers of arms 791
UN involvement (2004) 98
UN sanctions 778–9
see also Sudan
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
in 2008 594 n47
armed activities 544
Emergency Special Session (1960) 397
illegal expulsion of Mr Diallo 261 n54
immunity 397
sanctions and human rights 777–8
Third Committee Report 485 n91
UN missions in 779
Victims perceptions 923 n6
(p. 989) democracy 469–96
examination of 475–87
democracy 482–7
rule of law 475–82
formal recognition 470–5
Habermas’ communicative theory 90–1
legal nature of 487–9
democracy 488–9
rule of law 487–8
status of human rights in practice 489–96
democracy 494–6
rule of law 489–94
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
Emergency Special Session of UN General Assembly 397
ICJ cases 261, 274, 640
sanctions 778–9
Special Session of the UN Human Rights Council 594
victims 923
Denmark
GDP of 727
Geneva Convention 514
Greece, relations with 633
UN member state 199 n20
diplomatic protection 250–74
international minimum standard 262–73
‘reasonable and impartial man’ 262–7
safety net, as 267–73
territorial and nationality dimension 253–61
bond of nationality 254–8
sovereignty of territorial state 258–61
Dominica
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
Dominican Republic
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples 483 n74
UN member state 199 n20
due process, right to 177, 183, 187, 198, 263–5, 453, 458, 480, 564, 663, 785–7, 858, 861, 969–71, 973–4
East Timor
continental shelf 556
humanitarian catastrophes 823
self-determination, right to 209 n66, 556
truth commissions and victim participation 948–9
UN actions in 816, 829
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
composition 624
creation of Commission 589, 595
examination of proposals 317
minority agreements 336
monitoring role 536, 623
NGO consultative status 22–3, 723–4
principal organ of the UN, as 622
transfer of oversight to General Assembly 599
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 485, 523, 694
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESC or ESCR) 4, 198, 200, 201, 316–7, 347, 434, 568, 607, 717, 844–7
constitutional and international law standards 979
corruption 730
dignity 355
distinction with civil and political rights 480–1
impact of WTO rules 849–55
indicators 880–1
non-discrimination, principle of 457
obligations 536, 564
Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights 678
Rapporteurships 884
Special Rapporteur on the Realization of 881
UN Council treatment 600
Ecuador
abortion 659
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
Chevron and 868 n169
impartiality, absence of 971
indigenous political movements 968–9
IntCtHR 971 n68
slavery 238
OAS human right system 917
UN member state 199 n20
(p. 990) Edicts of Asoka 171
Egypt
Abu Omar, abduction of 806
ancient 164–5
Hittite territories 841
pharaoh Rameses II 841
detainees, transportation of 548 n12
dictatorship 98, 855
ICCPR 700–1
inquiries 637 n44
Mubarak regime 98, 855
assassination 784–5
Suez Canal, annexation of 379 n130
UN member state 199 n20
El Salvador
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
amnesty laws 964
dictatorship in 934
extra-judicial killings 960
forms of expression 916
ICCPR 629 n26
institutional reform 978
insurgency 957
Oficina de Tutela Legal del Arzobispado 961
UN member state 199 n20
women 968
environmental rights 30, 57–8, 88, 96–7, 99–100, 171, 207–9, 403–10, 415, 436, 577, 608 n86, 689–90, 695, 729–32, 741, 762, 765 n107, 855, 863, 867, 879 n28, 946 n106
equality 420–45
codification 433–6
consistent treatment, as 427–8
implicit descriptive function, serving as 432–3
philosophical foundations of 421–6
preambular objective, as 431–2
non-discrimination concepts 426–30
opportunity, of 428
outcomes, of 429
right to 442–4
scope and interpretation of 437–42
discrimination 438–9
measures to accelerate 439–42
structural principle, as a 430–6
transformative 429–30
erga omnes norms, see jus cogens
Eritrea
secession from Ethiopia 391
UN sanctions 777
Estonia
Poland and 326 n5
unilateral declarations 328
Ethiopia
apartheid 207
Eritrea, secession from 391
UN member state 199 n20
UN sanctions 777
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
adoption of 675
civil and political rights, focus on 902
challenges to 910–12
democratic society, criterion of a 484
differences with BIT law 860
dignity, no mention of 351, 353, 356
domestic remedies, exhaustion of 710–11
effective remedy, right to an 211
enforcement 676, 893
entry into force 752
equality 436
EU as party to 862
fair trial, right to 212, 262, 549, 761–2, 799, 800
fundamental rights 217–19, 473
effectiveness 901–2
emergency, suspension of rights in an 701
expression, freedom of 484
general principles 197, 204, 210–11, 215
guidelines 218
information, freedom to receive 572
institutional functioning 682
interpretation of 213, 221, 699, 741–2, 751, 756, 758, 764
inter-State complaints 633
judgments, supervision of 905–6
(p. 991) jurisprudence 438
‘just satisfaction’ 371
launch of 99, 471
legal persons 859
legislative incorporation of 708
life, right to 570
‘living instrument’, as a 766
margin of appreciation doctrine 767
minorities 337
moral concepts 477
national implementation 699, 702–3
France 714–15
Germany 715–16
UK 713
non-discrimination, right to 436, 438–9
legitimate aim test 451
object and purpose of 761–2
political participation 484
political parties, ban of 495
property rights 859
proportionality, principle of 449–50, 453–7, 464
public interest grounds 451
obligations 569, 571
reform 903
rule of law 479, 494
slavery and torture, prohibition of 545
socialist systems 471
state immunity, rules of 866
torture, prevention of 638
UK violation of 491, 713
wider political context 755
see also ECtHR
(p. 992) European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)
advisory opinions 903, 683–4
autonomous interpretation 709
budget 686
characteristics:
base in Strasbourg 686
permanent body 686
conscientious objection 689
consensus, principle of 769
court of last resort, as 919
creation of 99, 676, 752
death penalty 689
democracy 494–6
dignity 346, 351, 353–6
due diligence standard 580
EU accession to ECHR 912
execution of judgments 685, 696, 711, 713, 714–16, 903–4, 906, 908, 918–19, 938
compliance with 909–10
enforcement of 944
monitoring of 905
fax line 684
freedom to receive information 572
general principles of law 196–7
individual complaints 677
interim measures 903, 635
interpretation of human rights by 210–16
interpretative methods 221, 462–4, 741, 751, 757, 759–67
holistic approach to 769–70
limits to judicial function 770
invasion of another state 389
judge from state under scrutiny, requirement of 683
judges, selection of 687, 904
jurisprudence of 219, 261, 490–2, 759, 866
jus cogens norms 544, 549, 799
legal persons 861
liberalism 492
local remedies, exhaustion of 260
margin of appreciation 375–6, 767
measures of non-repetition 939–40
NGO participation 687
obligations 569
overlap with work of other bodies 693–4
participation in proceedings of 687
positive action measures:
failure to implement 441
procedural justice 941
proportionality, principle of 447
preliminary inquiries 451
analysis of 453–58
remedial subsidiarity 371–4
reservations 759, 690
rights of ownership 859–60
rule of law 492–4
special rapporteurs, lack of 684
state immunity 799
supervisory role 768
time limits on remedies 710
torture, prohibition of 544
‘very essence’ of rights 467
victims, needs of 936, 952
violations, large scale 946
working mechanisms of 902
see also VCLT
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 216–20, 438, 694, 786–7
jurisprudence of 447–8
jus cogens 547
proportionality 453, 462
European Union (EU)
accession 912 n62
activities 220
Charter of Fundamental Rights 218–19, 433, 473, 534
conflict prevention 523 n54
corporate human rights 861–2
democracy 488
establishment 218
legal system 409, 429
legislation 220, 446, 547
Maastricht Treaty on 218, 361
preference system 409
proportionality, principle of 446 n1
regional and sub-regional bodies 693
sanctions 773, 783–6, 792
subsidiarity, version of 361
system for human rights protection 220–1
evolutionary theory 54–5, 105, 122, 124
inclusive fitness 59
Social Darwinism 80
punctuated equilibrium 2
see also biology
execution 289 n81, 811, 904, 974
expression, freedom of 188, 198, 266 n81, 270, 357, 375, 453–6, 459–60, 466 n122, 484, 491–5, 531, 562, 671, 708, 716, 754 n63, 856, 868, 910 n58, 917–18, 956, 971, 978
fair trial, right to 165, 197–8, 211–12, 262, 265–6, 269, 291, 458, 530 n13, 533, 546–7, 567 n31, 761–2, 858, 866, 890 n85, 918, 950, 969, 973–4
family life, right to 299, 433, 453, 463, 531, 569 n52, 570, 716, 763, 867
Finland
bilateral treaties 328
Human Rights Trust Fund 910
non-binding decisions 712
UN member state 199 n20
food, right to adequate 24, 277, 355–6, 367, 537–8, 576, 594 n47, 611 nn102, 105, 664, 667, 723, 725, 763, 849, 850 n47, 852–5, 866 n152, 878 n19, 879, 887, 889–90
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) 613, 854, 887–8
France
14th Century 278
17th Century 241–2
18th Century Government 797–8
19th Century 244
abduction 805
binding decisions 712
Constitutional provision 195, 201, 220, 704
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 197–8
democracy in 483–4
diplomatic agents, inviolability of 802 n29
employment, right to 201
état de droit, concept of 476
family life, right to 867
France-Venezuela Mixed Claims Commission 252 n5
French Revolution 187–8
German occupation of 726
human rights standards 716
ICCPR 700
ILO 304 n26
jus cogens, concept of 542
League of Nations 329
marriage 241–2
minority protection system, concerns over 335 n32
monarch, legislative power of 382
slavery 188, 232–4, 241–2
Syria, interventions in 819
Turkey, interventions in 819
Optional Protocol 632 n35
UN member state 199 n20
unitary national state, attempts to create 382
US relations 805–7, 831
warfare, methods of 278
women’s activism 239, 244
(p. 993) free market theory 314
Freedom House 881
Freetown
courts and international treaties 238
functionalism 154
game theory 69, 71, 128 n48
see also biology
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
adoption 841
health, right to 848
non-discrimination obligations 842
public interest 848
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
morals and public health, protection of 848
right to water 849
General Assembly (GA) see United Nations General Assembly
Germany
bilateral treaties 328
binding decisions 712
Code of Criminal Procedure 716
Committee of Ministers 910
Constitutional provisions 353
review 216
dignity, right to 353
ECtHR 716
effet utile argument 549
expropriation 866
extradition to 806 n45
Farben organisation 726 n38
Geneva Convention (1958) 515
Italian jurisdiction 800
Jews, treatment of 379
Libya and Gaddafi, action against 830–1
Nazi 203, 477, 487, 934
reservations 700
reunification of 391
sanctions tools 775
territorial subsidiarity 362, 371
treaties in 704
Treaty of Versailles 296 n2, 331 n25
UN member state 199 n20
US-Germany Mixed Claims Commission 252 n5
Weimar-Germany 334–5
women’s activism 239, 242
WW2:
armed forces 799–800
post-war violations 949
Greece
bilateral treaties 328 n14
classical/ancient 172–5, 184, 422, 444
compensation 860
Constitutional provision 704 n10
Council of Europe membership 470–1, 688 n91, 905
customary international law 705
Declaration, governmental 328 n15
human rights violations 677
monks, special status of (Mount Athos) 329 n18
peace treaties 328 n12
post-1967 military junta, Greece 633 n37
self-executing treaties 706 n17
state immunity 800
Turkey, intervention in 819
UN member state 199 n20
war, international 336 n37
Greenpeace 97
Grenada
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
Great Britain, see United Kingdom
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 727, 877–9, 891
Guatemala
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
amnesty laws 964
Bishop Juan Gerardi, murder of 960
CONAVIGUA 968 n53
CONDEG 968 n53
(p. 994) counter-insurgency battles 957
criminal and social violence 969
disappearances 958
genocide 976
human rights movements 960
judicial problems 970
police force 970
prosecutions and trials 973
UN member state 199 n20
women, identity of 968
Haiti
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
democratic institutions 486, 823
disappearances 939 n82
Earthquake (2010) 594 n47
slavery, history of 189
UN member state 199 n20
UN missions 779
UN sanctions 774, 777, 790–1
victims, compensation for 934
health and health care, right to 27, 30, 44, 48, 88, 96, 264, 299, 309, 313 n75, 314, 319, 338 n47, 353, 355, 356 n52, 434, 451, 537–8, 570, 576–7, 610 n96, 660 n32, 667, 692, 723, 727, 730, 763, 845, 848–52, 863, 865, 879 n28, 882–6, 888–90, 936 n65
Holy See, the
Council of Europe and 471 n7
Honduras
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
detention facilities 961
disappearances 958
human rights violations 663
OAS, suspension from 472 n12
Third Committee Report 485 n91
UN member state 199 n20
Hong Kong
Google and 856
ICCPR 699 n2
transfer from UK to China 699 n2
WTO 864
Human Development Index (HDI) 878
human dignity 345–59
functions of 357–8
other international instruments 350–3
principle of, further specification of 353–7
UN Declaration of Human Rights 347–50
Human Rights Watch 724, 732 n74, 962, 970
humanitarian intervention 817–40
changing world context 821–2
global dialogue on R2P implementation 833–4
false north-south dichotomy 834–5
legitimacy criteria 837–8
Syria (2012) 835–7
practice and theory of (until 1990s) 818–20
responsibility to protect versus 822–3
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty 824–6
international interventions and UN executive authority 828–30
Kosovo 823–4
Libya 2011 830–1
norm consolidation 831–2
principle to actionable norm 826–8
humanitarian law 275–94
armed conflict 290–2
Dunant, Henri 286–7
humanity in war, ancient roots of 275–9
individual rights and national wars 279–81
inter arma caritas 286–7
Red Cross 286–7
science of warfare and progress of civilisation 281–6
United Nations 287–90
Iceland
fishing management 867
UN member state 199 n20
implied waiver theory 800 n21 India
ancient 170–2, 276
armed opposition groups 733 n79
Bangladesh/Bengalis, relations with 819
Census (2011) 12
chemical plant disaster 726
Constitution of 396, 933
constitutional rights petitions 946
constitutional secularism 13
economic emergence of 846
(p. 995) Emperor Ashoka (269–232 BC) 834
Gujarat, state of 13
human dignity, conceptions of 349 n10
Indian Supreme Court 727, 939
Law Commission of 939 n83
Libya/Gaddafi, action against 831
NHRCs 605 nn78, 79
R2P 837
refugees 820
religious practices 10–13, 16
same sex relationships 443
slavery 227
UDHR 199
UN member state 199 n20
warfare rules (ancient India) 276
women in 243
sati, practice of 243
Working Group on Human Rights in India 604 nn76, 77
indicators 873–92
application of 884–91
conceptual and historical framework 875–7
creation of 877–83
Indonesia
Indonesian clove cigarettes, import of 863
Islam in 19
militias 816
OIC 693
treaties 556
Intellectual Property (IP)
dissemination, limitation of 726
property, right to 859
protection of rights 845
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR)
administration of justice 970–1
atrocities, role in exposing 679, 684, 957, 970
budget 686, 917
citizen security 480
civil society, collaboration with 967
compliance with orders of 685
complaints to 918
consular assistance 380–1
creation of 677
democracy 654
disappearances 958–60
due diligence standard 579
effectiveness of 901, 912–14
hearings of 687
inter-State complaints 261
forms of expression, decriminalization of 916
freedom of thought and expression 575
impunity 975
institutional functioning 682–8
Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons 690, 959
international humanitarian law 902
jurisdiction of 752
jus cogens norms 544–5
life, right to 544
multifaceted role of 918
observation, request for 916
precautionary measures 684
proportionality analyses 448, 461–4
remedies 935
rules of interpretation 758
sessions 686
socio-economic rights 678
statute of the, interpretation of 758
subordination of international legal obligations to domestic law 380
subsidiarity 365
supervisory role 682
UN Covenants, compatibility with 677–8
websites 688
withdrawal 917, 971
Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) 915–19
advisory opinions 683
amnesty laws 940, 965, 975
autonomous interpretation 769
budget 686
case referrals 914
collective reparation 937
compensation 372
democratic legitimacy 492, 654
democracy 484, 654
dignity 354–6
disappearances 959, 965
effectiveness 901–2
enforcement of judgments 912
equality 208, 426, 441
establishment of 752
freedom of expression 495
(p. 996) HRC jurisprudence 641
indigenous rights 867
land claims 937
international law, reliance on 741
interpretation 755, 760, 763, 765–6, 770
judgments 959
judges 687
jurisdiction of 753
jus cogens norms 208, 210, 221
‘laws’ definition of 492
legality 491
limitation to Latin America 679, 682
local remedies rule 261
measures of:
compensation 936–8
design of 948
rehabilitation 935–6
restitution 935–6
symbolic 939
multi-dimensional role of 437
natural law 544
non-discrimination, obligation of 208, 358, 544
obligation to ‘ensure’ a right 574
practice of 661–8
proportionality, analysis of 448, 461–4
provisional measures 684, 913
public disclosure of truth 939
remedial power of 372–4
reparations 977
restitution of land 860–8
requisite inherent qualities of law 493
sessions of 686–7
socio-economic rights 678
websites 688
Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (IIHR) 923
Interest Theory 37, 40–3
Intergovernmental Organization (IGO)
activism 97
business entities 725–6
Guiding Principles 732
human rights norms 721
human rights treaties 688
influential and key organizations 97
membership 688, 695 n122
NGOs and 721
regional systems 672, 675, 682, 691, 695
see also under individual organizations
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) 854
International Association for Labour Legislation (IALL) 300
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 412, 816–17, 824–9, 832, 834, 837
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 246, 286–7, 290, 292, 724–5, 734
International Confederation of Trade Unions (ICFTU) 303
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
advisory opinion of 391, 742
case law 251
consular assistance, right to 380–2
diplomatic protection 258–9
due diligence 578
general principles 99, 195–6, 221
Human Rights Committee jurisprudence 640–1
international humanitarian law 291
international legal obligations 380–1
interpretative methods 744–7, 749–50, 760–1, 705–6
interstate disputes 396
intervention in state practice 820
ipso jure jurisdiction of 382
jus cogens 543–4, 799
erga omnes 553–8
jurisdiction of:
exclusion 550
local remedies rule 261
normative evolution 507–8, 514–16, 518, 544, 549
obligations 563
practice of 204–10, 640
rule of law 487
social rights vs. human rights 102
sovereign immunity 397
state immunity 549, 799–802
territorial tort exception 393
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
accession 699
abortion 659–61
absolute norms 210
(p. 997) additional protocols 503
communal property right 666
companies 728
core instrument, as 509–10
customary law 493
death penalty 689–90
decision-making 625
democracy 654
denial of justice, prohibition on 262
denunciation 701
development of 317
dignity 350, 352, 357
domestic implementation 701, 703, 707–8, 712
erga omnes effect 555
equality 432–6
family rights 366–7
Geneva Conventions 291
Human Rights Committee 492, 622, 628, 631, 656–8
interpretation 655, 767
inviolable core of human rights 533, 535
limitation clauses 451, 462, 489
jurisprudence 866–7
monitoring results 699
non-derogable rights 529–30, 532, 545
obligations 564–8
optional protocol 373, 634, 640
organized armed groups 733
permissible limitations 531
political rights 473–4, 484
proportionality 459
public emergency 701
ratification 700
religion 26–7
remedy 927
reparations 512
reports:
examination of 656–7
submission of 627
reservations 690
right to life 845
rule of law 473, 490
self-determination 385
self-executing character of treaty provision 705–6
solidarity rights 410
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, division of 564
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 509
additional protocols 503
communal property right 666
core obligations 536–8, 565, 576
derogations clause, lack of 532
dignity, right to 350
disadvantaged groups 440
education 368
equality 432, 434
erga omnes obligations 555
family rights 366
food, right to 852
health, right to 844–5
implementation 481
indicators 881–2
intellectual property rights 850
international Bill of Rights 876
interpretation 763
jurisprudence 866
monitoring of 623
positive subsidiary 367
preamble 932
problems 642
right to health 845
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, division of 317, 564, 622
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearances (CPED) 480, 623, 644, 894, 959
expert studies 504
individual complaints 643
norm recognition 690
remedy, right to 929
reporting 627
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination(CERD)
case law 641
‘core’ instrument, as a 509
discrimination:
definition of 438
prohibition on 421
racial 435
women 435
equality 432
establishment of 622
(p. 998) inalienable rights 432
individual complaints 634
interstate complaints 633
matters not addressed:
duration 626
frequency 626
non-state entities 728
opposition to unified treaty body 645–6
positive measures , requirement to take 421, 440–1
resources 643
supplementary standards 503
(p. 999) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers anMembers of Their Families (ICRMW) 321, 623
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) 432, 623
equality 435, 444
discrimination 438
‘reasonable accommodation’, denial of 440, 442
International Criminal Court (ICC)
Africa, focus on 681
Arab Charter on Human Rights 1994 674
‘aggression,’ definition of 389
coalition for 225
consent of national state 398–9
constitutional council 715
creation 647, 720, 795, 962
crime against humanity 830
forceful acquisition of a territory 389
government atrocities, investigation of 782
international humanitarian law 961–2
jurisdiction 554, 735
remedy 929, 945–6
reparations 930, 936–7, 948–9, 951–2
sovereign immunity 398
state sovereignty 397
victims 951
trust fund for 950
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 379, 394, 544, 735, 923, 926
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCRCS) 725
International Human Rights Law (IHRL), see proportionality
International Humanitarian Law (IHL)
armed conflict and 838
human rights norms 816
national law and 825
obligations 830, 835
treaties and conventions 821
International Labour Movement 294–324
development of 297–8
ILO action and innovation 309–21
constitutional innovation 313–16
‘generations’ 316–318
international human rights law 316–18
oversight machinery 310–13
standards 316–18
UN Human Rights and 318–20
cooperation 320–21
lasting peace, principles for 302–9
guiding 307–9
structural 304–7
Quo Vadis 321–3
social legislation, sources and theory of 298–9
transnational labour law, idea of 299–300
worker’s rights 301–2
International Labour Organization (ILO) 96, 102, 296, 300, 303
action and innovation 309–21
constitutional innovation 313–16
creation of 301, 303
Digest of Decisions 519
equality 435
expert reports 503
indicators 877
indigenous peoples 664–5, 968
international labour standards 310–13
multinational enterprises 729
NGOs relationship with 723
principles 303, 307
‘regulatory conversation’ 321–2
standards 316–18, 322–3
structural principles of 304–7
tripartite character of 304
UN human rights 318–20
cooperation 320–1
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 874, 877–8, 883
International Relations (IR) Theory 101
international tribunals 649–69
Human Rights Committee:
practice of 656–61
Inter-American Court:
practice of 661–8
interpreting human rights norms 653–6
law-making vs. interpretation 650–3
Iran
Commission, competition to host 693
draft resolution 60/251 592 nn 31, 32, 37
HRCouncil 895 n6
human rights situation 608 n86
nuclear arms proliferation 102
rapporteurs 609 n92
regime (1980s) 629 n26
regime change 820
sanctions 789, 792
Syria, relations with 835
UN member state 199 n20
US relations 206–7
Iraq
Kurdish protection 411
Kuwait, attempted annexation of 389–90
oil reserves 949
torture:
Abu Ghraib prison 805 n39
unilateral declarations 328
UN Compensation Commission on Iraq 945 n104, 946 n106
UN member state 199 n20
UN sanctions (1990s) 774, 777, 789
UNSC intervention 823
US intervention (2003) 98, 820
humanitarian atrocities 839
Israel
ancient 165
Council of Europe 471 n7
Covenant obligations 640
east Jerusalem, status of 397 n130
GA Resolution 5/2 597 n60
GA Resolution 60/125 592 nn29, 31
Gaza strip 596
General Security Service 809
Gesher Benot Ya’Aqov 68 n81
humanitarian law 292
immunity 803
Palestinians, rights of 831
religion and 18
right to dignity 353
settlements 596
special reports from 629
treaties 706 n16
UN mission (2006) 610 n96
UPR system 600
US relations 292, 837
Italy
abduction and rendition 806
codes of warfare (14th Century) 278
Commission for International Labour Legislation 304 n26
Constitution 705
court judgments 905
effet utile argument 549
League of Nations 329, 336
Pinto law 907
state immunity, scope of 800
treaties 704 n9
Jamaica
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
denunciation 701
Japan
bombing of cities 87
Commission for International Labour Legislation 304 n26
‘comfort women’ (WW2) 923 n6
Constitution 704 n12
Council of Europe 472 n7
culture 147
domestic violence 94
draft resolution 60/251 592 n34
Japanese Nationality Law 709, 712
League of Nations 329
modalities of incorporation 702
sexual equality 709
treaties, status of 704
UN member state 199 n20
jus cogens 541–61
concept of 541–3
content of 543–7
erga omnes norms 553–8
identifying 553–5
jus cogens obligations, implications for enforcement 555–8
(p. 1000) limiting scope of 548–51
practical impact of 547–42
‘ordinary’ custom instead of 552–3
relevance within domestic legal order 558–60
techniques for avoiding 551–2
just war theory 181, 278
Kosovo
NATO intervention (1999) 98, 816, 823–5, 831
population based surveys 948
regime change 839
sanctions 789
Serbia, independence from 391
United Nations Interim Administration Mission 364–5
Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of (North)
Human Rights Committee 701–2
human rights standards 709, 711
nuclear arms proliferation 102
rapporteurs 609 n92
Korea, Republic of (South)
Council of Europe 471 n7
domestic violence 94
Foreign Ministry 590 n17
National Security Law 708
UN member state 199 n20
Korean War (1950–53) 288, 708
Kyrgyzstan
Council of Europe 471 n7
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Third Committee Report 485 n91
Latin America 955–79
civil society, role of 966–9
democracy, quality of 978–9
innovations 961–6
application of international human rights law 961–4
discrediting amnesty laws 964–6
mechanisms of change 972–8
institutional reform 977–8
reparations 977
transitional justice prosecutions 972–6
truth reports 976–7
transitions, effects of 969–71
violations 958–61
Latvia
Poland and 326 n5
unilateral declarations 328
law-making process, the 499–526
Declarations and Conventions, drafting for 501–6
collection of relevant materials 504–5
expert studies 504
final adoption 506
plans of action 502–3
provisions 514–18
Secretariat and Office of Legal Affairs 505
stages in the deliberations process 505–6
international law 506–14
customary 509
general principles 513–14
human rights treaties 509–13
UN Charter 508
prevention 518–26
cooperation with partners 524
human rights grand strategy 525
leadership 524
national protection systems 521–22
optional protocol to CAT 524
regional preventative regimes 523
responsibility to protect 521
threats to humanity 520
UN High Commissioner 524–5
Universal Periodic Review 522
vulnerable groups, protection of 521
League of Nations, the 325–41
historical and practical lessons 336–41
main principles of 327–32
mechanism, birth of 326–7
memorandum of the Secretary General of the UN 335–6
minority protection 332–5
structures of 327–32
complaints procedure 330–2
Least Developed Country (LDC)
TRIPS, compliance with 849
Lebanon
foreign troops, deployment of 397 n130
regime change 820
special session on 594 n47
(p. 1001) Special Tribunal for 951
UN Commission on Human Rights 199–200
UN member state 199 n20
UN mission to 610 n96
Lesotho
abortion 659
Liberia
Charles Taylor’s government 397, 791
humanitarian catastrophes 823
sanctions and human rights 777–8, 780–1, 790, 793
slavery 236
South Africa, proceedings against 207
torture 805
UN member state 199 n20
libertarianism 43–5
Libya
atrocities, response to 793, 833
civilian protection 793, 816, 831–2
democracy, transition towards 486
Gaddafi:
corruption by 784
immunity 803 n32
human rights crises 596
international intervention (2011) 98
Khaddafi 590 n18
Qaddafi, removal of 833–4
R2P 415, 782, 791, 817, 830–1, 833, 837, 839–40
regime change 836
sanctions and human rights 777–8, 792–3
SC action 415, 718, 782–4
Sharia law 832
Special Session (2011) 594 n47
state vs. human security 838
Syria and 835
terrorist actions 790
against airlines 784–5
UN member state 199 n20
UN support mission 783–4
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Third Committee Report 485 n91
life, right to 185, 215, 262, 264, 266, 291, 356, 376, 433, 480, 494, 527, 529 n6, 530, 531, 544–6, 564, 567, 570–2, 657–60, 667, 671, 696 n124, 845, 889–90, 918, 938, 971
List of Issues (LOI) 627, 629–30, 642, 647
List of Issues Prior to Reporting (LOIPR) 630, 646–7
Lithuania
creation of 326 n5, 328
Memel-region 328 n12, 333 n28
unilateral declarations 328 n15
litigation, transnational human rights 794–814
claims against:
current or former foreign officials 801–3
immunity from civil proceedings 806–10
immunity from criminal prosecution 803–6
foreign state immunity 797–800
‘absolute’ theory of 798
‘restrictive’ approach 798
non-state actors 810–12
jurisdiction, asserting 796–7
overview 795
Luxembourg
UN member state 199 n20
Machiavellian theory of State 83–4
Maldives
Third Committee Report 486 n91
Mali
civilian Government, overthrow of 485
US subsidies 845 n18
Marshall Islands
GA Resolution 60.125 592 n29
Marxism 154, 155 n28, 297 n3
Mayan Indian communities 976
Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders) 97
Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) 694
Mesopotamia 164–5, 167
Mexico
abstentions 486 n98
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
civilian massacre, Acetal 809 n66
Constitution 703 n8
Council of Europe 471 n7
detention facilities 961
(p. 1002) disappearances 958
forms of expression 916–17
housing and indigenous peoples 612 n109
Maya communities 968
slavery 227
protection mechanisms 914
UN member state 199 n20
UNCAT procedure 637 n44
US-Mexico General Claims Commission 252 n5, 263, 268–9, 271–2
women, violent deaths of 580
moral philosophy 32–53
challenges to 35–6
human rights:
political conception of 32–5
natural property rights, as 43–7
nature of rights debate 37–41
new analyses of rights 41–3
welfare, natural rights to 47–51
Morocco
Council of Europe 471 n7
Islam in 19
Most Favored Nation (MFN) 842–3, 852
movement, freedom of 167, 454, 459 n80, 460, 461 n90, 484 n82, 531, 533, 568, 610, 640
Myanmar
authoritarian government 16
events (2007) 594 n47
forced labour 312 n72
Third Committee Report 486 n91
Namibia
apartheid 207
Emergency Special Session 397 n130
ICJ Advisory Opinion 750, 766
National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples (NAACP) 247–8
National Civil Police Force (PNC) 970
National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) 604–5, 619, 709, 939
National Human Rights Institutions (NHRI) 522, 603, 605–6, 608, 617, 644, 896–7
national implementation and interpretation 698–718
accession 699–700
incorporation 702–7
modalities of 702–3
rank of the treaty 703–5
self-executing character of a treaty provision 705–7
denunciation 700–2
derogation 700–2
jurisprudence 711
binding 712–17
non-binding 712
mechanism of 707–11
basic commitments 707–8
choice of means 709–10
exhaustion of domestic remedies 710–11
ratification 699–700
reservation 700–2
succession 699–700
National Research Center (NRC) 146–9
National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 790–1
natural law theory 189, 278, 423
natural rights theory, see moral philosophy
‘natural rights to welfare’ theories 48–50
Nepal
disappearances 949
Edicts of Asoka 171
slavery 247
truth commissions 948
victim’s perceptions 923 n6
Netherlands
bilateral treaties 238
bills of rights 25
Constitution 201, 703, 705 n14
cooperation activities 910
Dutch Unemployment Benefit Law 712
Geneva Convention (1958) 514
post-1967 military junta, Greece 633 n37
UN member state 199 n20
New Zealand
civil immunity 807
draft resolution 60/251 592 n31
non-refoulement 548 n43
press Statement on draft resolution 60/251 592 n30
UN member state 199 n20
Nicaragua
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
(p. 1003) amnesty laws 964
communal property and indigenous peoples 664
Constitution 665
counter-insurgency battles 957
humanitarian intervention (1980s) 820
indigenous communities 937
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 261
migrant population 261
military and paramilitary activities 516, 518
natural resources 935 n64
UN member state 199 n20
Niger
slavery 247
Nigeria
multinational oil companies 791–2, 811
violation of human rights 763
non-discrimination, principle of 207–10, 283, 291, 316, 338 n46, 354, 358, 421, 426–7, 433–7, 441–4, 453, 464, 473, 482, 531, 544, 565, 646 n83, 671, 842–4, 858, 867, 869, 890 n85
proportionality and 457
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) 97
active participation and 672, 686–7
anti-slavery 232
business entities 725–7
central office/secretariat 724
Code of Conduct 725
complaint procedure 898
consultative status of 222–3, 628 n22, 723–4
contribution 721–3, 725
definition 222–3
diamond smuggling 791
disappearances 958
drafting and deliberations process 505, 632, 722
early vs. contemporary, relations between 247–8
educational materials 722
ethical behaviour and fairness 725
emergency assistance 723
geographical distribution 724
government repression 725, 773
growth and frequency of 724
human rights conditions 723
Human Rights NGOs and expert studies 504, 524
independence of 725
influential and key organizations 724
Latin American 960–1
lobbying 721
membership 721–2
nature of institutions 102
nineteenth century emergence of 226, 233, 246
as non-state actors 672, 720–1, 735
registration 721
responsibility to protect (R2P) 840
review of state reports 628
San Francisco Conference (1945) 223
sizes of 724
as stakeholders 644
strategies and tactics 247, 604
structures of 724
transnational 246–7, 773
Universal Periodic Review (UPR) 522, 604–5, 896–7
victims and 942–3, 954
volunteers, use of 724
see also anti-slavery movement; see also under individual organizations
non-state actors 719–36
armed irregular groups 732–5
business entities 725–32
non-governmental or civil society organizations 721–5
transnational corporations 725–32
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 842–3, 864
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 406, 782–4, 793, 816, 823–5, 831, 833, 837
Northern Ireland
inequality 443
internees 923 n5
public sector equality 430
‘troubles’, the 633
Norway
cooperation activities 910
(p. 1004) Haakonsson, Magnus, king of Norway 177
IACtHR, financial contributions to 917
Krupp firm 726
Pension Fund, Global 731 n64
Petroleum Fund of Norway 731 n64
post-1967 military junta, Greece 633 n37
reopening of cases 641 n65
UN member state 199 n20
obligations, positive and negative 562–83
African system, in the 576–7
due diligence standard 577–82
development of 578–9
developing and applying 579–82
European systems, in the 569–72
Inter-American system, in the 573–5
textual statements 564–5
universal system 565–8
Office of Legal Affairs (OLA) 505
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
advisory services 596
capacity building assistance 596
compilation of information 605–6
field offices 613
guidelines 891
indicators:
common list of 889
housing rights 886–7
illustrative 874, 891
rights based 886, 888–9
implementation of recommendations 690
national consultations 947
prevention 519–25
ratifications 509
reform of special procedures 614–15
reports of 602, 604
role 606
leadership 619
support function of 594
technical assistance 890
technical cooperation 596
vulnerable groups 521
Oman
Third Committee Report 486 n91
OPCAT (UNCAT), 2002 Optional Protocol to 524, 623, 638
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 315, 729–30, 843, 874, 883
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 521, 523
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 388, 672, 675, 679–81, 755–7, 902
Organization of American States (OAS)
Charter of 677–8, 755, 861
compliance with main human rights instruments 913–14, 916–17
death penalty 678
disabilities 678
establishment 672, 677
forced disappearance 678, 958–9
foundation of 901
funding 686, 917
indigenous people 691
Inter-American Democratic Charter 472, 678
judicial mechanisms 894
objectives of 677
political will of member states 679
preventative mechanisms 523
proportionality analysis 450–1
case law 461–2
comparative method 462
‘normative cross-fertilization’ with European system 461
subtest of necessity 452
three-part test for 451, 453
principles:
democracy 472, 654
ratification of American Convention by member states 682
supervision role of 917
torture 678
undemocratic government, suspension of participation 472
Honduras 472
violence against women 690–1
withdrawal from 917
see also ACHR; IACHR; IACtHR
Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) 693
Oxfam 97
Oxfam International 844–5
Pakistan
(p. 1005) civil war, East Pakistan 820
draft resolution 60/251 592 n36
Edicts of Asoka 171
military dictatorship, West Pakistan 819
Palau
GA resolution 5/2 597 n60
GA resolution 60/125 592 n29
Palestine
Emergency Special Session on 397 n130
see also Israel
Panama
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
draft declarations 199 n18, 200–1
events (1980s) 820
forms of expression 916
UN member state 199 n20
Paraguay
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
human rights movements 960
indigenous community in 665
private land ownership 866
UN member state 199 n20
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) 215, 911–12
parsimony, theory of 67 n78
Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) 204–10, 251
affirmative action, notion of 337–338
bond of nationality 254–5
case law of 251
consultative opinion of 332
discrimination, prohibition of 337
‘elementary principle’ of international law 196
equality 430
exhaustion of local remedies 258
freedom of choice of identity, doctrine of 337
genuine equality, requirement of 338
minority issues 332–3
curriculum and textbooks 332
land confiscation 332
languages 332
religious freedom 332
monitoring activity 330
advisory opinions 330
interstate disputes 330
Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, appellate body over 330
nationality of claims rule 254
practice of 204–10
reparation 927
sovereignty of the territorial state 258
Peru
abortion 659–60
abstentions 486 n98
accountability 975
American Convention on Human Rights 679 n36, 902 n25
amnesty laws 964
Council of Europe 471 n7
counter-insurgency battles 957, 958
‘faceless’ courts 959
Fujimori regime 977
IACHR 914
IACtHR 914, 918
impunity 975
international humanitarian law 961
nationality issues 861
prosecutions and trials 973
reparations programmes 934, 948, 977
administrative schemes for victims 977
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (CVR) 962
truth reports 976
UNCAT procedure 637 n44
UN member state 199 n20
petition, right to 3, 25, 55, 183, 187, 232–5, 241, 331, 334, 364, 381 n19, 657, 660, 676, 678, 685, 713–15, 722, 913, 933, 941 n88, 944
Philippines
UN member state 199 n20
Philosophical theory 105
physical integrity, right to 291, 346, 352, 354, 356, 480, 971, 972 n72
Poland
bilateral treaties 328–9
Constitution 201
cooperation activities 910
Council of Europe 905
creation/establishment 326 n5, 328
German-speaking minority 336 n37
grievances against 333 n29
(p. 1006) Krupp firm 726
League of Nations 329
minority policy 334–5
Peace Conference 304 n27
UN member state 199 n20
Upper Silesian territory 331 n25
Portugal
bilateral treaties 238
Constitution 704
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial
Countries and Peoples 483 n74
East Timorese continental shelf 556
slavery 235
poverty 568, 576, 597 n55, 610 n95, 611, 667, 682, 692, 846, 883, 926, 969
press, freedom of 30, 38, 179, 187, 264, 496, 612, 654, 908
property, right to 30, 33, 43, 128, 129, 138, 170, 175–9, 183–8, 197–8, 206, 210 n69, 217, 218 n108, 224, 241–3, 245, 256 n20, 262, 264, 284 n49, 436, 454, 480, 528, 547, 552, 576, 663–6, 741 n3, 763, 859–61, 868, 925
‘natural’ property rights 43–8
Proportionality 446–468
critiques of 464–6
European Court of Human Rights analysis 453–9
derogations 456–7
due process guarantees 458
limitation clauses 453–5
necessity 455–6
non-discrimination 457
overview 453
genesis and development 447–8
Inter-American System 461–2
necessity 462–3
proportionality in a narrow sense 463–4
structure under ACHR 462
principle of 448–50
general principle, as 449–50
overview 448–9
three tests of 450–2
necessity 452
overview 450–1
strict sense 452
suitability 451
UN Human Rights Committee, as applied by 459–61
necessity 460–1
overview 459
Protection of Civilians (PoC) 283, 289, 414–5, 774, 779–81
psychology 104–43
contemporary evolutionary framework 122–41
further evidence for obligata 134–41
human concept sense of obligation 129–34
natural function, concept of 124–7
social contract problem, concept of 124–7
interpersonal obligations 109–114
complete psychology of 121 fig.
motives of 115 fig.
logic of rights 110 fig.
‘natural functions’:
of human organs 125 fig.
of Obligata and social contract resolution 132 fig.
obligation:
examination of 114–22
human sense of 129–34, 135 fig.
rights and 107–9
psychology of obligation and community attitudes 118 fig.
Qatar
Israeli action, illegal 397 n130
Libya, international efforts in 783
Third Committee Report 486 n91
Quechuan Indian nation 864
redistributive theory of justice 428
refugees 28, 251 n4, 254 n13, 410, 501–2, 511, 609 n92, 665, 723, 793 n76, 820, 934 n59, 946 n105
regional systems 670–97
established 675–82
Americas, the 677–9
Europe 675–7
other initiatives 691–4
Asia and the Pacific 691–2
Arab League 693
regional and sub-regional bodies 693–4
thematic comparison 682–91
institutional functioning 682–8
jurisprudence 688–91
religion 9–31
contemporary human rights and 29–31
human rights in the east 10–17
Confucianism 16–17
Buddhism 13–16
Hinduism 10–13
human rights in the west 18–26
Christianity 21–6
Islam 19–21
Judaism 18–19
modern international human rights framework 26–9
Reports of International Arbitral Awards (RIAA) 252
Reservations, Understandings, and Declarations (RUDs) 395
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 774
analytical concept, as a 817
atrocities, prevention of 830
classic case of:
NATO bombing Libya 782–4, 791
criticism of 817
deliberate substitute for imperial visions and governance practices 829
development of 822, 840
explicit application of 781
formulation of 816–17
guiding theme for council action 780
implementation 833–4
Libya 830–2, 839
linking concept, as 825
Luck, Edward 781
monitoring 838
normative instrument of choice, as a 817
north-south issue, not a 834–5
obligations, no new 828–9
principle to actionable norm 826–8
responsibility to rebuild 829–30
‘responsibility while protecting’ 837–8
sanctions 781
Special Representative of the Secretary General 780
support for 832
unanimous endorsement to implementation, from 817
undermining of 793
World Summit Outcome document 780
rights, theory of (Alexy) 534–5
Roman law 22, 45, 83, 174–6, 230–1, 276, 541
Romania
Committee of Ministers 905
compliance 905
creation of 328
ethnic cleansing and 335 n32
Hungarian minority in 333 n29, 335 n32
‘magyarized’ Romanians 333
minority policy 334–5
Paris Agreement 330
right to a fair trial 211
Szekler public bodies 329 n18
territorial enlargement 326
treaties 328 nn12, 14
Russia
19th Century intelligentsia 150
Bolshevik Revolution 298 n5, 301–2, 317
Chechnya, military operations in 938 n79
Committee of Ministers 905
Constitution 704 n10
Council of Europe 688 n91
domestic judicial decisions 907
draft resolution 60/251 592 n32
Greece, intervention in (1827) 819
human rights violations 677
ICCPR 699 n2
Libya, intervention in 830–1
Poland and 826 n5
Republican Party of Russia 495 n137
Russian language 627, 643
Russian Empire 385
sanctions 778, 792
sovereignty 900
Syria, intervention in 816, 835–6
transfers of arms 791
UN member state 199 n20
world opinion, isolation from 837
Rwanda
arms embargo for 775
gacaca courts 950 n119
human rights violations 412
sanctions 778
UN involvement in 98, 829
sanctions 771–93
cases involving human rights and 777–84
Cote d’Ivoire 781–2
Liberia 780–1
Libya 782–4
counter-terrorism 784–8
effectiveness 788–92
reforms 774–7
sanitation, right to 338 n47, 608 n86, 609 n92, 610 n95, 723, 848, 879
Saudi Arabia
Organization of Islamic Cooperation 693
protests and uprisings 831
torture 798–9, 807–8
Third Committee Report 486 n91
UN member state 199 n20
self-control, theory of 92
Senegal
Emergency Special Session 397
OAU Charter 679–80
torture 556–7
sexual orientation and gender identity 28, 355 n43, 436, 457, 597, 611 n107, 663 n47, 667, 671, 689 n93
shelter, right to 24, 537, 576, 658, 723, 763, 816
Siam
Constitution 201
UN member state 199 n20
Sierra Leone
courts 397
military junta 791
Revolutionary United Front areas 791
sanctions 778
slavery 238
World Anti-Slavery Convention 237
truth commission 939
Slovakia
Constitution 704 n9, 705 n13
constitutional change 391
human rights treaties, status of 704 n9
social security and income security 85, 256 n24, 310 n57, 313, 319–20, 323, 338 n47, 356, 438 n80, 480, 890 n85
sociology 82–103
citizen rights 85–7
civilizing process, the 92–5
globalization and community necessity 95–100
human:
vulnerability 87–92
recognition 87–92
missing 82–5
solidarity 401–19
international system, in the 405–9
international environmental law 407–8
protection of peace 405–7
world trade law 409
human rights, as a basis of protection of 410–11
humanitarian assistance 411–12
responsibility to protect 412–17
assessment 416–17
security council action 414–15
new developments 415
UN pronouncements 405
Somalia
coercion 818
human rights violations 809
humanitarian crisis 823
humanitarian relief 823
state authority, collapse of 818
torture 809
UN sanctions 777–8, 829
sources, historical and legal 163–92
Age of Exploration 178–81
ancient China 169–70
ancient India 170–2
ancient Near and Middle East 164–8
Classical Greece and Rome 172–5
Enlightenment, the 181–9
medieval period 175–8
perspectives and assessments 190–2
Reformation 178–81
Renaissance 178–81
(p. 1009) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 692
South Africa
apartheid, policy of 207, 399–400, 543, 607
Black Economic Empowerment Laws 865
Constitution 396, 400 n145, 704, 706
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples 483 n74
democratic ideals 483
investment jurisprudence 865
punishment for past crimes 938 n76
race issue 153
R2P 837
sanctions 777
victims:
compensation 949
reparations programmes 934
of torture 923 n6
Truth and Reconciliation Commission 923 n5, 924 n11, 926, 932, 948
UN member state 199 n20
Southern African Development Community (SADC) 380, 523, 685, 694
Southern Rhodesia
sanctions 777
sovereignty 379–400
concept of 382–394
exclusive control within national borders 385–8
political independence 383–5
territorial integrity 388–92
forceful acquisition 389–90
secession 390–2
sovereign immunity 393–4
human rights, and 394–9
Spain
Andalusia region 22
bilateral treaties 238
Constitution 704
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples 483 n74
extradition to 804
slavery 238, 244
women:
abolitionists 244
sexual trafficking of 244
Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) 397–8
Special Procedure (SP) 614–18
democracy 488
emergency situations, investigatory role 589, 594
enforced disappearances 637
impact of 615–16
indicators 888
mandate holders:
appointment process 600
expertise of 605
monitoring of compliance 894–6, 899–901
multiple discrimination 439
Peace Conference 312
process of establishment 594–6
purpose 594
recommendations of 619
reform of 614–15
state reports, review of 628
urgent appeals, making of 628
see also UPR
speech, freedom of 30, 165, 183, 187, 191, 197, 456, 460, 495–6, 689, 861
Srebrenica
human rights violations 412, 823
UN peacekeepers in 816
structuralism 154
Sub-Committee on Prevention of Torture (SPT) 623, 638
subsidiarity, principle of 360–78
definition 360–3
procedural doctrines of 369–77
exhaustion of domestic remedies 369–70
‘fourth instance’ doctrine 370–1
margin of appreciation 375–7
remedial subsidiarity 371–4
structural fact, as a 363–5
substantive 365–9
Sudan
African Commission 682 n56
armed conflict 411
Commission, the 590
country mandates 608 n86
draft resolution 60/251 592 n36
(p. 1010) female genital mutilation 659
genocide 101
R2P 413
sanctions 778, 789
Southern Sudan, secession of 391
terrorism 784
transfers of arms 791
UN missions 779
UN Panel of Experts on the Sudan 792
use of force 828
see also Darfur
Suriname
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
courts and international treaties 238
ICCPR 666
ICESCR 666
land and property rights 665–6
Swaziland
king of 485, 495
Third Committee reports 486 n91
Sweden
bilateral treaties 328, 336 n36
Convention against Torture (CAT) 503
ECHR 703
neutrality, WWII 336 n36
post-1967 military junta, Greece 633 n37
SC sanctions 775–6
UN member state 199 n20
Switzerland
Human Rights Trust Fund 910
private life and correspondence, respect for 493
SC sanctions 775
Swiss Federal Constitution 559
UN member state 199 n20
World Economic Forum 729
Syria
Arab League of States for Syria 688 n91, 901
cities, destruction of (2012–13) 784
civilian protection 816
country mandates 608 n86
crisis (2012) 102, 596, 784, 835–7, 900
democratic institutions 486
displacement 793 n76
HRCouncil’s engagement (2011) 899
human rights violations 900
international response to 793, 831
Maronite Christians, killing of 819
refugees 793 n76
sanctions 789, 791–2
Special Sessions (2011–12) 594 n47
UN member state 199 n20
UN observer mission access 901
universal human rights 900
UNSC resolutions on 836
Tanzania
abortion 659
African Court 686
Idi Amin regime, Uganda 680, 819
Terms of Reference (TOR)
ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights 692
Thailand, see Siam
Theory of Mind 114 n28
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of 14, 23–4, 27–8, 51, 83, 168, 179, 184, 266, 285–6, 517, 529 n6, 531, 545 n25, 689, 724
see also religion
Timor-Leste, see East Timor
torture
in Chile 795, 804, 808
ECHR 545, 638
ECtHR 544
Organization of American States (OAS) 678
Saudi Arabia 798–9, 807–8
Senegal 556–7
Somalia 809
South Africa 923 n6
United Kingdom 807–8
United States 798–9
Uruguay
totalitarianism 348
trade and investment law 841–70
chilling impact of 847–9
free trade, benefits of 855–8
general observations 844–7
harmonization 862–3
hierarchies 862–3
jurisprudence:
human rights 866–8
investment 864–5
protection for traders and investors 858–62
WTO rules 849–55
TRIPS and the right to health 849–52
free trade and the right to food 852–5
treaties, human rights 740–71
human rights tribunals 760–9
jurisprudence:
applicability of the VCLT 757–9
provisions of the human rights conventions relating to 753–7
self-contained regime 740–4
special characteristics of 759–60
supervisory bodies 752–3
uniform holistic approach to 769–70
VCLT 744–52
articles of 746–52
interpretation prior to 744–6
treaty bodies, role and impact of 621–48
Committee’s output:
legal nature and effect of 639–41
composition 624–5
decision-making 625–6
functions 626–38
general comments 631–3
individual complaints 634–6
inquiries 636–7
interstate complaints 633
other functions 637–8
Committee on Enforced Disappearances 637
Sub-Committee on the Prevention of Torture 638
review of state reports 626–31
follow-up procedures 638–9
problems 642–4
reviews and proposals 644–7
Trinidad and Tobago
American Convention on Human Rights 682, 902 n25, 918
derogation 701
Tunisia
Council of Europe 471 n7
dictatorship in 855
Turkey
Committee of Ministers 905, 910
Council of Europe membership 471, 688 n91
Cyprus, invasion of Northern 389
democracy 495
ECHR 389, 495 n103
employment rights 201
freedom of expression and media 910 n58
human rights violations 677
massacres by 819
military coup (1980) 471
neutrality, WWII 336 n37
peace treaties 328
UN member state 199 n20
UNCAT procedure 637
United Kingdom (UK)
anti-Nazi wartime military alliance 823
Anti-Slavery International 724
aristocratic history of 93
arrest warrants 804 n35
bilateral treaties 238
Chernobyl accident 260
civil society, development of 229–30, 233, 236–7
customary international law 805
European Convention on Human Rights 490 n102, 712–13, 716
Hong Kong, diplomatic relations with 699 n2
Human Rights Act (2000) 702–3
Human Rights Trust Fund 910
International Labour Organization 304
Iraq, war in 823
Jay Treaty (1794) 238
juridical, political, and social rights 84
juvenile detainees 700
labour movements (pre-WW1) 298 n5
League of Nations 335 n32
Libya, war in 831
Magna Carta (1215) 197
public sector equality 430
ratione personae immunity 805, 807–8
same-sex relationships 443–4
special mission immunity 804
Sudan and 413
telephone wiretapping 491
torture 807–8
transformative equality 429
United Nations Charter 223, 483
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 199 n20
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) 761
women and abolition 239–45
United Nations charter bodies, evolution of 587–620
comparing Council and Commission 598–601
Council, the:
five year review of 597–8
function of mandate holders 609–14
impact of work of 615–16
reform of 614–15
reform of the council 616–8
special procedures 609–16
structure and function of 593–7
demise of the Commission and creation of the Council 589–93
Universal Periodic Review 601–6
enhancing participation on 603–5
proposals for reform 605–6
United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR)
business entities 731
drafting:
UNCAT 636, 643
victim-centred approach:
choice of measures 947
Working Group on Disappearances 958
Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances 622
United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UNCESCR)
access to information 628
creation of 623–4
dignity 355–6, 358
education 368
indicators 881–2, 884, 887, 891
interpretation:
role 753
techniques 763
Limburg Principles 880
monitoring role 623, 880, 894–5
obligations:
minimum core 536–7
negative and positive 565–6, 568
reviews 644
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 843
United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) 350, 500, 509, 557–8, 622–3
adoption 622
decision-making 625
drafting 500, 643, 503
general comments 631
ICJ decisions 804
individual complaints 634
inquiries 636–7
Pinochet decision 804
preventative rationale 519
Sub-Committee on the Prevention of Torture 638
see also OPCAT
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 623, 625, 645
United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
catalytic role 619
Indicators 878, 888–9
Human Freedom Index 881, 884–5
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
American Anthropological Association 146–8
biological concept of race 153
civil society 97, 723
drafting of UDHR 145–6
equality 422
National Research Council Committee on International Cooperation in Anthropology 147
United Nation General Assembly (UNGA)
adoption of 1, 146, 317, 622, 770
Advisory Committee, role of 598
‘Asian exception’ to human rights 691
budgetary constraints 630
Convention against Torture 500
Council of:
creation of 581–92, 608
five year review of 603
GA assessment of role of 599
membership criteria of 598
monitoring decisions of 622
normative sources governing 593
operation of 594
subsidiarity body of General Assembly 599, 617
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 337
Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities 337
democracy 474, 485–6
derogations 701
drafting 499–502, 504
‘Emergency Specialist Sessions’ 397
enforced disappearances 637
final adoption 506
forceful acquisition of a territory 389
funding 630
Human Rights Council 895
humanitarian assistance 411–12
indicators 878, 883
indigenous peoples 337, 691
inquiries 636
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families 505
Secretariat, role of 505
inquiries 636
international humanitarian law 288
League of Nations 329, 331
limitations test 534
mass claims 934
membership of 506
Millennium Declaration 405, 474, 883
minorities 337
natural wealth and resources 386–7
Paris Principles 709
protection of the environment in times of armed conflict 207
protection of vulnerable groups 521
R2P 827, 835, 840
regional initiatives 691
limits 673
reparations 410–11, 563
request for materials 332
responsibility to protect 412–14, 521
review of UN system 644–5
rule of law 475
rules of procedure 624
secession 391
self-determination 483
solidarity 405
South African racial policies 399
status of resolutions 639
terrorism 482
victims of gross and systemic violations of human rights 415, 928
see UDHR, UNHRC
United Nations Human Rights Committee (UNHRC)
compliance with decisions of 944
concluding observations of 631
conscientious objection 689
customary international law 517
death penalty 689
disadvantaged groups 440
discrimination:
definition of 438
multiple 439
democracy 654
denunciation, right of 701–2, 877
equality 208, 709
family life 862
freedom of expression 484, 492–3
impact of decisions of 708
implementation 709, 712
individual communications, handling 657–61
abortion 659–61
women 657–8
individual complaints 643
inviolable core of human rights 533–4
jurisprudence 640–1, 866
law reform 939
minority rights 867
non-derogable principles 210, 329
peremptory norms 529–31
(p. 1014) non-discrimination principle, interpretation of 338, 434
parliamentary origin, no requirement of 492–3
positive action measures 440
positive state duties 480
practice of 656
examining state reports 656–7
membership 656
property rights 867
proportionality analyses of 446, 448, 450, 459–61
necessity test 461
obligations of states 510, 565, 624, 631, 640
quotas 440
reform of treaty bodies 643–5
remedies 373–4, 867
unreasonably prolonged 710–11
reviewing role 703
rules of procedure of 625, 627
social rights 709–10
special reports, requirement for 629
status 599
task forces 630
see also Special Procedures, HRCouncil, ECtHR
United Nations Human Rights Council (HRCouncil) 895–901
complaint procedure 898–9
drafting process 501
Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights 732
preventative strategies 520
‘Protect, Respect, Remedy’ Framework 729, 731
reform of 616–17
special procedures 899–901, 607–9, 628
TRIPS 851
UN Global Compact and the Guiding Principles on Human Rights and Business 322
Universal Periodic Review 896–8, 601–3, 628, 717
impact of work 615–15
mandate holders 609–14
reform of 605–6, 614–15
United Nations International Law Commission (ILC)
‘crucible approach’ 746
diplomatic protection 251–2, 254, 257, 258, 266
Draft Declaration on Rights and Duties of States 379
Draft Articles of 745–6, 251–2, 254, 257, 258, 260, 261, 543, 745, 746, 807, 927
fragmentation of international law 741, 751
immunity 808
jus cogens 541, 543
laws of war 288
local remedies rule 260–1
peremptory norms 542, 544
periodic studies of 519
reparations 927
self-contained regimes 740–1
supremacy of international law 379
treaty interpretation 749–50
workplan of 500, 502
see also VCLT
United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) 781–2
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) 878, 879
United Nations Security Council (UNSC) 292, 406, 774, 789, 778–80, 784–7, 816, 818–19, 823, 825–6, 830, 835–6, 838, 840, 899–901
United States (US)
act of state doctrine 393
Al Qaida attacks on 785
American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 901–2
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948) 201
Bill of Rights (1791) 25, 198, 396
bills of exchange 806–7
bribery and corruption 730 n61
civil society, development of 229–30
Constitution (1787) 187, 195, 699–700, 704
Constitution of Massachusetts (1780) 475
civil and political rights 318, 490, 700
civil rights movement 153
civil society networks 236–7
consular relations 381–2
(p. 1015) customary international law 812
death penalty 700
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, abstention from 483 n74
Declaration of Independence (1776) 198
epistemological shifts 154–5
Foreign Relations Law 507, 509, 518
homicide rates 94
human rights and:
Human Rights Committee 629, 640
Human Rights Council 895
human rights declarations 199 n18, 220
human rights jurisprudence 292
human rights organizations 721–2
human rights protection 396
international human rights law 699–700
incorporation 702
international legal obligations 380–1
Jay Treaty (1794) 238
jus cogens violations
labour movements 298 n5, 304
League of Nations 329
Lieber Code (1863) 282
lynching 94
Mixed Claims Commission 263, 268
moral systems in 107
political philosophy in 154
racial issues 153
rape, rates of 94 n39
sanctions 783
slavery, regulation against 226–30, 236–45
sovereign immunity 393
state immunity in 800
state regulation 94–5
subsidiarity 362
Supreme Court 700 n3
territorial sovereignty 797–8, 811
torture, use of 798–9
United Nations and 823
United States Supreme Court (SCOTUS) 371, 380–2, 700, 798, 810–11
US embassy in Tehran 206
Venice Commission, participation in 471 n7
water-boarding, employment of 102
women and abolition 239–45
suffragette movement 245
see also NGOs; see also under entries beginning with ‘American’
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 198–203
ACHR 755
adoption of 1, 195, 197, 317, 347–8, 483, 720, 893
African States 703
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man 677
anthropology 148–9
ASEAN Human Rights Declaration 692
business 727–8
catalogues of duties 86
collection of relevant materials 504
‘common standard of achievement’ 484
constitution of the entire human rights movement 203
‘core rights’ approach 528
cross-fertilization 754
cultural relativism 154
customary law, norms of 516
‘hard core of similarities’ 151
definition of human rights 395, 727
democratic society requirement 484
dignity 202–3, 347–51, 352, 355
division into two treaties 504
drafting 3, 145, 148–9, 199, 202–3, 224, 347, 348, 500, 722
economic, social and cultural rights 200–1, 220, 316–17, 425, 876
equality 352, 431–6
family rights 366
free elections 484
freedom of expression 856
fundamental freedoms 206–7, 395
guaranteed rights 894
healthcare 109
human rights standards prior to 197–8
‘inalienable rights’ 86, 202
International Bill of Human Rights 502, 621–2, 876
international humanitarian law 289–90
International Labour Movement 316–18, 320–1, 323
international labour standards 316–17
Islam 19
law of war 288–9
legal globalization 96
(p. 1016) natural law 192
NGOs 223, 722, 727
non-state armed groups 733
not legally binding 894
obligations 508, 972
personal liberty 425
philosophy 153, 220
principles of 206–7, 221
privacy 856
pro homine rule 756
property 859
relevance to non-state actors 720, 727–8
reliance of treaties on 769–70
religion 110
remedies 927
reparation 927
response to war, as 288
root of modern international human rights framework 26, 96
rule of law 470
self-determination 98
slavery, prohibition on 111
‘social contract’ problem 127
state sovereignty versus human rights 821
translation of 305
Universal Periodic Review 595, 601
universality 670–1
work, right to 202, 319
work-related rights 201
Universal Periodic Review (UPR) 601–6, 628, 717, 896–8
amendments of 603
civil society, role of 604, 619, 897–8
cooperation:
refusal 600
requirement of 598, 600
documentation for 602
establishment of 591–2, 600
failure to cooperate with 593–4
five year review 603–5
fulfilment of council mandate 594
fulfilment of purpose 717, 897
general 588
guidelines for conducting 601–6
impact of work 615
mandate holders 609–14
national human rights commissions, role of 604–5
objectives of 602
peer review process of 595
permanent human rights mechanism, as a 618
prevention, advance of 522
proposals for reform of 605–8
recommendations, follow up of 615, 619
reform of 605–6, 614–15
triangulation dynamic 618–19
representation 618 fig.
universalism 13, 377, 422–3
Uruguay
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
amnesty laws 964, 974
Council of Europe membership 471 n7
court systems 238
disappearances 958
forms of expression 916
human rights violations 975
immunity law 967 n45
pulp mills dispute 208
reparations 977
torture 958, 960–1
UN member state 199 n20
USSR, see Russia
utilitarian theory 138 n73
value, labour theory of 297 n3
Venezuela
American Convention on Human Rights 902 n25
denunciation of 679 n36, 682, 876 n14, 971
Constitution of 704 n9
detention facilities 961
France-Venezuela Mixed Claims Commission 252 n5
human rights treaties, special status of 704 n9
IACHR and 917, 971
UN member state 199 n20
victims, outcomes for 921–54
delivered 932–43
individual remedies 934–8
measures of non-repetition 939–40
procedural justice 940–3
desirable 923–6
envisaged 927–31
reparation 943–7
victim-centred approach 947–52
to punishment 973 n75
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)
applicability of 757–9
application of 739–40
articles of 746–52
human rights tribunals 760–5
international obligations 212, 380, 511
interpretation, rules for 540, 651, 662, 743, 744–6, 769, 862–3
textual versus teleological approach 754
legal reciprocity 744
jus cogens 541–2
norm conflicts 547–8, 802
pacta sunt servanda, principle of 707
prohibited reservations 700
state discretion 395
Vietnam
China and 101
Pol Pot 819
war (1965–73) 290–1
coverage of 98
protests against 154
water, right to safe potable 99, 356 n52, 387, 403, 608 n86, 609 n92, 610 n95, 667, 723, 763, 848, 849, 865, 879
wesensgehalt (German Constitutional Theory) 458 n73
West Indian colonies (British) 227, 235
Will Theory 39–43
women
African Charter 691
Afghanistan 778
anti-slavery movement 239–45
Argentina 968
CERD 435
Chile 968
El Salvador 968
French female activism 239, 244
German female activism 239, 242
Guatemala 968
India 243
Japan:
‘comfort women’ (WW2) 923 n6
Mexico:
violent female deaths 580
OAS:
violence against women 690–1
sexual trafficking of 244
Spanish female activism 244
UNHRC 657–8
voting rights 245
Working Group on Human Rights (WGHR) 604–5
World Bank (WB) 845, 874, 877–8, 883
World Health Assembly (WHA) 660
World Health Organization (WHO) 97, 613, 660, 882–3, 885
world-systems theory 84
World Trade Organization (WTO)
agreements 842
comparative advantage, theory of 845
core labour standards, concept of 315
dispute settlement mechanism 842–3, 862
economic, social and cultural rights:
free trade and the right to food 852–5
TRIPS and the rights to health 849–52
enforcement systems 868–9
ICESCR obligations 866
intellectual property rights 842
internet censorship 856
jurisprudence 863–4
legal system of 409
liberalisation 847
Ministerial Singapore Declaration 315
morals and public health 848
‘most favoured nation’ status 842
national treatment 842
non-discrimination obligations 842
normative bias 846
objectives of 409, 842
protectionism 846, 848
solidarity, principle of 409
(p. 1018) trade rules based on human rights values 869
treaty interpretation 749
World War I (WWI) 97, 205, 245, 248, 288, 296, 298, 300–2, 326–7, 334, 384, 877
World War II (WWII)
neutrality 336 nn36, 37
Yemen
forceful military action 831
Yugoslavia
constitutional provisions 201
creation/establishment 328, 335 n32
disintegration of 391
equality, right to 443
humanitarian impact 774
Hungarian minority 333 n29
ICTY 209 n66, 379, 554, 719, 735, 923 n6, 926
victims’ attitudes 948
minority commitments 336 n37
Paris Agreement 330
sanctions against 791
special reports 629
territorial enlargement 326 n6
UN member state 199 n20
UN sanctions 777–8
Zimbabwe
African Development Community 380
constitutional system 380
human rights cases against 694
Namibia and 397 n130
sanctions 789

Notes:

(1) For analysis of the principle of proportionality in European Union law, see: Gráinne de Búrca, ‘The Principle of Proportionality and its Application in EC Law’ (1993) 13 YEL 105; Nicholas Emiliou, The Principle of Proportionality in European Law: A Comparative Study (Kluwer 1996); George Gerapetritis, Proportionality in Administrative Law: Judicial Review in France, Greece, England and in the European Community (Sakkoulas 1997); Evelyn Ellis (ed), The Principle of Proportionality in the Laws of Europe (Hart 1999); Yutaka Arai-Takahashi, ‘“Scrupulous but Dynamic”: The Freedom of Expression and the Principle of Proportionality under European Community Law’ (2005) 24 YEL 27; Tor-Inge Harbo, ‘The Function of the Proportionality Principle in EU Law’ (2010) 16 ELJ 158.

(2) With the demise of the Soviet Union, Russia succeeded to the ICCPR, thereby becoming a party. In contrast, the three Baltic states, Belarus, and the Ukraine joined the same treaty by accession for the purpose of emphasizing their own identity separate from that of the Soviet Union. The ten Commonwealth of the Independent States (CIS) states followed suit. Another unique problem of state succession arose with the transfer of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China. The agreement of transfer required China to continue applying the ICCPR to Hong Kong, although China itself is not a party to the treaty. The succession of Macao to the ICCPR followed the same pattern on the basis of agreement between Portugal and China.

(2) The Human Rights Committee (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination), Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women), Committee against Torture (Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment), Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture (Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture), Committee on the Rights of the Child (Convention on The Rights of the Child), Committee on Migrant Workers (International Covenant on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families), Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities), Committee on Enforced Disappearance (International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance).

(2) Judge Martens in Gul v Switzerland 165, as quoted in Alastair Mowbray, Human Rights Law in Perspective: The Development of Positive Obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights by the European Court of Human Rights (Hart 2004) 2.

(2) Treaty of Peace between the Allied Powers and Germany (Treaty of Versailles).

(2) ILC, ‘Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission: Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from Diversification and Expansion of International Law’ (13 April 2006) UN Doc A/CN.4/L682, 65–101. See also Bruno Simma, ‘Self-Contained Regimes’ (1985) 16 NYIL 111; Erik Castrén, Annual Report: 2007 (U Helsinki 2007). Note, too, that Art 55 of the 2001 Articles on State Responsibility recognizes the phenomenon of self-contained regimes.

(2) ILC, ‘Text of the Draft Articles on Diplomatic Protection and Commentaries Thereto’ in ILC, ‘Report of the International Law Commission’ (8 August 2006) UN Doc A/61/10.

(3) United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, ‘NGO Branch’ <http://esa.un.org/coordination/ngo/new/index.asp?page=table2007> accessed 13 August 2012 (noting that forty NGOs had consultative status before the UN Economic and Social Council by 1948 and 180 in 1968). See also eg United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, ‘Civil Society Participation’ <http://esango.un.org/civilsociety/displayConsultativeStatusSearch.do> accessed 13 August 2012 (International League for Human Rights accredited in 1946; Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom accredited in 1948; Anti-Slavery International accredited in 1950; Amnesty International accredited in 1964). Until 1996, only international NGOs were allowed consultative status, but a resolution in that year allowed regional and national NGOs to apply as well. See ECOSOC ‘Consultative Relationship between the United Nations and Non-Governmental Organizations’ Res 1996/31 (25 July 1996).

(3) Marx based his claim, ‘from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs’, on John Locke’s argument that capitalists’ payment did not adequately reflect the value of workers’ labour. The association of the labour theory of value with Marxism may have diminished the respect given to economic claims of workers in contemporary human rights discourse. Tonia Novitz and Colin Fenwick, ‘The Adoption of Human Rights Discourse to Labour Relations: Translation of Theory into Practice’ in Colin Fenwick and Tonia Novitz (eds), Human Rights at Work: Perspectives on Law and Regulation (Hart 2010) 1, 10.

(3) As Koskenniemi aptly noted, ‘Terms such as “human rights law”, “trade law” or “environmental law” and so on are arbitrary labels of forms of professional specialization. There are no rules on how to qualify particular treaty regimes and most regimes could be qualified from a number of such perspectives. Human rights treaties, for example, are often used to further environmental objectives and trade regimes presuppose and are built upon the protection of human rights (in particular the right to property)’. ILC, ‘Fragmentation of International Law’ (n 2) 129–30. ‘The characterizations have less to do with the “nature” of the instrument that the interest from it which it is described’ ((n 2) 17).

(3) The United States Supreme Court subsequently held that application of the death penalty to juvenile offenders was unconstitutional, citing in part international consensus on the topic. Roper v Simmons.

(4) REDRESS, Torture Survivors’ Perceptions of Reparation: Preliminary Survey (Redress Trust 2001) 9, <http://www.redress.org/downloads/publications/TSPR.pdf> accessed 18 February 2013.

(4) See GATT, Art XXIV; Sarah Joseph, Blame It on the WTO: A Human Rights Critique (OUP 2011) 281.

(4) Developments in the law on diplomatic protection, as the ILC Draft Articles on Diplomatic Protection reflect, include the acknowledgment that states protect the rights of individuals, not primarily their own rights; the abandonment of the requirement of genuine nationality and the adoption of continuous nationality; the protection of refugees, stateless persons, and ships’ crews; certain exceptions to the local remedies rule; and recommendations regarding the decision whether and by what means to resort to diplomatic protection. See ILC, ‘Draft Articles’ (n 2) Arts 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 18, and 19, respectively.

(4) The 1836 People’s Charter of the London Working Men’s Association, which William Lovett led, exemplified the trend toward class-consciousness across borders. It called for universal suffrage and other democratic measures, reflecting an assumption that political reform and organization were necessary for workers to obtain economic and social progress. In 1843, the French unionist, Flora Tristan, presented a concrete plan for an international association of workers united to obtain political and economic power in L’Union Ouvrière. Lewis L Lorwin, The International Labor Movement: History, Policies, Outlook (Harper 1953) 3, 5.

(5) A survey of available literature at that time was made in the Redress study of 2001. REDRESS, Torture Survivors’ Perceptions (n 4); studies reviewed covered, inter alia, the ‘comfort women’ that the Japanese Army held as sex slaves in the Second World War, internees in Northern Ireland, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the truth and reconciliation processes in South Africa, Holocaust survivors, and survivors of political repression in Chile and Argentina.

(5) Poland (reborn after her partition in the eighteenth century among Prussia, Austria, and Russia) or Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

(5) Examples of claims commissions instituted in response to armed hostilities are the France-Venezuela Mixed Claims Commission of 1902 and the US-Germany Mixed Claims Commission of 1933. Somewhere in between are claims commissions established in response to internal disturbances affecting foreign nationals, such as the US-Mexico General Claims Commission of 1926–27. However, during the negotiations on the British-Mexican Claims Commission it was initially proposed to limit the jurisdiction of the Commission to claims related to the revolution in Mexico and to create a second, and separate, claims commission for claims not related to the revolution, if such claims could not be settled diplomatically. This suggested that situations unrelated to armed conflict were also subject to international settlement. See British-Mexican Claims Commission (1930) V RIAA 3. Numerous other arbitral awards have been reported in the Reports of International Arbitral Awards (RIAA) for claims based on individual injury.

(5) Before the First World War, the labour movements in Great Britain and the United States (US) took a pragmatic and functional approach to international problems, focusing on issues like migration and mutual aid in strikes. Social reformist trade unions in many Western European countries espoused immediate improvements in labour conditions and faith in socialism. The French and various minorities of other national labour movements advocated radical methods of class struggle to abolish capitalism but, with the advent of the First World War and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the French labour movement shifted toward the social reformist views. Lorwin (n 4) xii.

(6) Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (IIHR), Comprehensive Attention to Victims of Torture in Cases under Litigation: Psychological Contributions (IIHR 2009), a report of a four-year project by mental health professionals who offered support to victims during litigation before the Inter-American human rights system. They looked at how to ensure that litigation is a healing process for torture victims by reference to several countries in the Americas. Country-specific studies on victims’ perceptions have also been conducted, inter alia, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Timor Leste, Nepal, South Africa, Burundi, and Cambodia—both before and after the establishment of justice mechanisms.

(6) Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

(6) See generally J Herman Burgers and Hans Danelius, The United Nations Convention against Torture: A Handbook on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Martinus Nijhoff 1988); Ahcene Boulesbaa, The UN Convention on Torture and the Prospects for Enforcement (Martinus Nijhoff 1999); Manfred Nowak and Elizabeth McArthur, The United Nations Convention against Torture: A Commentary (OUP 2008); Nigel S Rodley and Matt Pollard, The Treatment of Prisoners under International Law (3rd edn, OUP 2009).

(6) The Human Rights Committee (HRC) has paraphrased the ICCPR Art 4(2) list of non-derogable rights as follows: ‘article 6 (right to life), article 7 (prohibition of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment, or of medical or scientific experimentation without consent), article 8, paragraphs 1 and 2 (prohibition of slavery, slave-trade and servitude), article 11 (prohibition of imprisonment because of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation), article 15 (the principle of legality in the field of criminal law, ie the requirement of both criminal liability and punishment being limited to clear and precise provisions in the law that was in place and applicable at the time the act or omission took place, except in cases where a later law imposes a lighter penalty), article 16 (the recognition of everyone as a person before the law), and article 18 (freedom of thought, conscience and religion).’ HRC, ‘General Comment No 29: States of Emergency (Art 4)’ (31 August 2001) UN Doc CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.11, para 7.

(6) See eg Richard Joyce, The Evolution of Morality (MIT Press 2006); Robin Kar, ‘The Deep Structure of Law and Morality’ (2006) 106 Tex L Rev 877; John Mikhail, ‘Universal Moral Grammar: Theory, Evidence and the Future’ (2007) 11 Trends in Cognitive Science 143; Marc D Hauser, Liane Young, and Fiery Cushman, ‘Reviving Rawls’s Linguistic Analogy: Operative Principles and the Causal Structure of Moral Actions’ in Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed), Moral Psychology: The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity, vol 2 (MIT Press 2008); Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Moral Psychology: The Evolution of Morality: Adaptations and Innateness, vol I (MIT Press 2008); John Mikhail, Elements of Moral Cognition: Rawls’s Linguistic Analogy and the Cognitive Science of Moral and Legal Judgment (CUP 2011); Robin Kar, ‘The Two Faces of Morality: How Evolutionary Theory Can Both Vindicate and Debunk Morality’ in James E Fleming and Sanford Levinson (eds), NOMOS: Evolution and Morality (NYU Press 2012); Michael Tomasello and Amrisha Vaish, ‘Origins of Human Cooperation and Morality’ (2013) 64 Annual Review of Psychology 231. In ways that are broadly consistent with the main claims of this chapter, John Mikhail has recently extended his work in moral psychology to the topic of human rights as well. See John Mikhail, ‘Moral Grammar and Human Rights: Some Reflections on Cognitive Science and Enlightenment Rationalism’ in Ryan Goodman, Derek Jinks, and Andrew K Woods (eds), Understanding Social Action: Promoting Human Rights (OUP 2012).

(6) As it was with the case with Iran in 2010.

(6) Eg Romania or the SHS-Kingdom (after 1929: Yugoslavia).

(7) In addition to the forty-seven members of the Council of Europe, Kyrgyzstan joined in 2004, Chile in 2005, the Republic of Korea in 2006, Morocco and Algeria in 2007, Israel in 2008, Peru and Brazil in 2009, Tunisia and Mexico in 2010, Kazakhstan in November 2011, and the United States in early 2013. The Council has accepted Belarus as an associate member, while Argentina, Canada, the Holy See, Japan, and Uruguay are observers. For a complete list, see ‘Documents by Opinion and Study’ (Venice Commission) <http://www.venice.coe.int/WebForms/members/countries.aspx> accessed 31 May 2013.

(7) See inter alia Marc-André Eissen, ‘The Principle of Proportionality in the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights’ in Ronald St J Macdonald, Franz Matscher, and Herbert Petzold (eds), The European System for the Protection of Human Rights (Martinus Nijhoff 1993) ch 7; Jeremy McBride, ‘Proportionality and the European Convention on Human Rights’ in Evelyn Ellis (ed), The Principle of Proportionality in the Laws of Europe (Hart 1999) 23; Yutaka Arai-Takahashi, The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine and the Principle of Proportionality in the Jurisprudence of the ECHR (Intersentia 2002).

(8) In 2011, for example, Mexico adopted an amendment to Article I of its constitution to give constitutional standing to international human rights treaties.

(8) Edwin M Borchard, Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad or the Law of International Claims (Banks Law Publishing Co 1915) 13.

(9) In Argentina, Slovakia, and Venezuela, special status is given to human rights treaties. The Argentine Constitution mentions a number of human rights treaties, giving them constitutional status; they cannot be repealed by the legislature. Similarly, Art 23 of the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution grants human right treaties a high level in the constitutional hierarchy, to the extent that those treaties contain provisions more favorable than domestic legislation. Austria and Italy require a parliamentary supermajority to give treaties the same status as constitutional provisions. Article 154(c) of Slovakia’s Constitution provides that human rights treaties adopted prior to I July 2001 have this status only if the rights are of greater scope than those provided in the constitution. For further examples, see Thomas Buergenthal, ‘Modem Constitutions and Human Rights Treaties’ (1997) 36 Colum J Transnat’l L 211. See the reports contained in Dinah Shelton (ed), International Law in Domestic Legal Systems (OUP 2011).

(10) Other states in this category include Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Portugal, and Russia.

(10) See eg International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR); International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); Convention on the Rights of the Child; Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms; International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

(10) See eg Thaddeus Metz, ‘Human Dignity, Capital Punishment, and an African Moral Theory: Toward a New Philosophy of Human Rights’ (2010) 9 JHR 81. See also the Indian Supreme Court’s very interesting discussion of India in M Nagraj v Union of India, philosophizing at length about the relationship between Indian conceptions of human dignity and the German understanding of dignity, and the extent to which German ideals thus inform their decision.

(11) Ernest Mahaim, ‘The Historical and Social Importance of International Labor Legislation’ in James T Shotwell (ed), The Origins of the International Labour Organization, vol I (Columbia UP 1934) 3 (from memorandum of Legrand, 1847).

(11) For instance, two studies that the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) published in 1998 and 2000 on the findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa found that whereas at the time of the first study, people thought about reparation in terms of their immediate needs, the passage of time, combined with treatment, led to a change in victims’ attitudes. As a result, by the time of the second study, they were likely to see prosecutions as more important. Brandon Hamber and others, ‘Survivors’ Perceptions of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Suggestions for the Final Report’ (CSVR) <http://www.csvr.org.za/index.php/publications/publications-by-date.html?start=370> accessed 18 February 2013; CSVR, ‘Two Years after the TRC Final Report: A Khulumani View’ (July 2000) CSVR (both cited in Torture Survivors’ Perceptions (n 4) 45–46).

(12) Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. See generally Nowak and McArthur (n 6) 879–1192; Rachel Murray and others, The Optional Protocol to the UN Convention against Torture (OUP 2011).

(12) Poland (28 June 1919), Czechoslovakia (10 September 1919), Romania (9 December 1919), Yugoslavia (10 September 1919), and Lithuania about the Memel-region (8 May 1924) signed the treaties. The Turkish peace treaties of Sèvres and Lausanne also imposed some obligations on Greece vis-à-vis her Muslim minority.

(12) The OAS suspended Honduras following a coup d’état in 2009, readmitting the government in 2011. The African Union similarly suspended Mauritania in 2005 and 2009.

(12) Article 98 of the Japanese Constitution provides, without further elaboration in the text, that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land and that ‘The treaties concluded by Japan...shall be faithfully observed’.

(13) Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, preamble.

(13) HRC, ‘General Comment No 29’ (n 6) para 11. As to the latter point, the Committee gives four examples of prohibited conduct that would not relate to any of the non-derogable provisions of the ICCPR, but which nevertheless would violate either peremptory norms or international humanitarian law: hostage-taking, collective punishment, arbitrary deprivation of liberty, and deviation from fundamental principles of a fair trial, including the presumption of innocence. It is to be noted that the Committee does not specify which, if any, of these prohibitions represent peremptory norms.

(13) There are some exceptions, which the ILC Draft Articles have included by way of progressive development; under Art 8, states are allowed to protect refugees and stateless persons under certain circumstances. While a human rights approach clearly inspired this provision, it is considered de lege ferenda and therefore outside the development of human rights law and diplomatic protection. See R (Al Rawi) v Foreign Secretary [2006] EWHC 972 (Admin), para 63, where the Court held that Art 8 was de lege ferenda ‘not yet part of international law’. If anything, it is the influence of human rights law on diplomatic protection that explains this provision.

(13) Examples include the constitutions of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Hungary, Portugal, and Slovakia.

(14) Treaty between Austria and Czechoslovakia (7 June 1920), amended later with an additional protocol (23 August 1920); Treaty between Free City of Danzig and Poland (9 November 1920); Treaty between Bulgaria and Greece (27 November 1919) and its protocol (29 September 1924); Treaty between Czechoslovakia and Poland (25 April 1925); Treaty between Romania and Yugoslavia (10 March 1933).

(14) Like that of many other constitutions, the Netherlands’ Constitution is silent on customary international law. The Portuguese Constitution also does not clearly indicate hierarchy. Authors almost unanimously ascribe a superior value to general international law, but opinions are divided as to its hierarchical position in relation to the constitution.

(14) For a regional example regarding the denunciation of the American Convention on Human Rights, see the case of Venezuela. OAS, ‘IACHR Regrets Decision of Venezuela to Denoun