- Table of National Cases
- Table of Treaties, Declarations, and Other International Instruments
- Table of Abbreviations
- Notes on the Contributors
- Moral Philosophy
- Biological Foundations of Human Rights
- Sociology of Human Rights
- The Psychological Foundations of Human Rights
- Anthropology and the Grounds of Human Rights
- The Foundations of Justice and Human Rights in Early Legal Texts and Thought
- General Principles and Constitutions as Sources of Human Rights Law
- The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Rise of International Non-Governmental Organizations
- Diplomatic Protection as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Humanitarian Law as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Social Justice, Rights, and Labour
- The Protection of Minorities under the Auspices of the League of Nations
- Human Dignity
- Democracy and the Rule of Law
- The Law-Making Process: From Declaration to Treaty to Custom to Prevention
- Core Rights and Obligations
- Jus Cogens and Obligations Erga Omnes
- Positive and Negative Obligations
- From Commission to the Council: Evolution of UN Charter Bodies
- The Role and Impact of Treaty Bodies
- The Role of International Tribunals: Law-Making or Creative Interpretation?
- Universality and the Growth of Regional Systems
- National Implementation and Interpretation
- Roles and Responsibilities of Non-State Actors
- Interpretation of Human Rights Treaties
- Enforcing Human Rights Through Economic Sanctions
- Transnational Litigation: Jurisdiction and Immunities
- The Use of International Force to Prevent or Halt Atrocities: From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect
- Trade Law and Investment Law
- Creating and Applying Human Rights Indicators
- What Outcomes for Victims?
- Human Rights Make a Difference: Lessons from Latin America
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the contributions of early legal texts and thoughts to the development of the concept of justice and human rights. It analyses ideas about justice and human rights in ancient Near and Middle East, ancient China, ancient India, Classical Greece and Rome, the Medieval Period, the Renaissance, and the Enlightenment Period. It considers the relevant works of several ancient thinkers including Mencius, Plato and Cicero and suggests that they provided significant lessons and laid the essential foundations for developments that eventually would result in international human rights law.
Ethics and Public Affairs, University of Montana
Paul Gordon Lauren is Regents Professor at the University of Montana, where he previously served as the founding director of the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Center and as the Mansfield Professor of Ethics and Public Affairs. He earned his PhD from Stanford University and has received many fellowships and awards for his teaching, research, administrative leadership, and public service. He has published many articles, chapters, and thirteen books, including the award winning Power and Prejudice and the widely acclaimed Evolution of International Human Rights: Visions Seen, nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. His work is internationally known in the fields of history, international law, political science, and philosophy, and has been translated in whole or in part into seven languages. Lauren has lectured widely to a variety of audiences around the world, including students and professors, activists, analysts, judges, attorneys, diplomats, military and intelligence officers, legislators, and policymakers. He also has delivered invited addresses to the Nobel Institute, the Smithsonian Institution, and before the United Nations, where he has been described as possibly the world’s leading authority on the history of international human rights.
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