- Table of National Cases
- Table of Treaties, Declarations, and Other International Instruments
- Table of Abbreviations
- Notes on the Contributors
- Moral Philosophy
- Biological Foundations of Human Rights
- Sociology of Human Rights
- The Psychological Foundations of Human Rights
- Anthropology and the Grounds of Human Rights
- The Foundations of Justice and Human Rights in Early Legal Texts and Thought
- General Principles and Constitutions as Sources of Human Rights Law
- The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Rise of International Non-Governmental Organizations
- Diplomatic Protection as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Humanitarian Law as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Social Justice, Rights, and Labour
- The Protection of Minorities under the Auspices of the League of Nations
- Human Dignity
- Democracy and the Rule of Law
- The Law-Making Process: From Declaration to Treaty to Custom to Prevention
- Core Rights and Obligations
- Jus Cogens and Obligations Erga Omnes
- Positive and Negative Obligations
- From Commission to the Council: Evolution of UN Charter Bodies
- The Role and Impact of Treaty Bodies
- The Role of International Tribunals: Law-Making or Creative Interpretation?
- Universality and the Growth of Regional Systems
- National Implementation and Interpretation
- Roles and Responsibilities of Non-State Actors
- Interpretation of Human Rights Treaties
- Enforcing Human Rights Through Economic Sanctions
- Transnational Litigation: Jurisdiction and Immunities
- The Use of International Force to Prevent or Halt Atrocities: From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect
- Trade Law and Investment Law
- Creating and Applying Human Rights Indicators
- What Outcomes for Victims?
- Human Rights Make a Difference: Lessons from Latin America
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines biological theories and evidence about the evolution of human traits that are relevant for the development of human rights law. It highlights the human potential for violent and aggressive acts and discusses the emergence of a biological capacity for altruism. It evaluates the hypothesis about the capacity of groups of animals to maintain cooperative and altruistic behaviours despite competition for resources. This article also considers biological adaptations that have enabled humans to engage regularly in altruistic behaviours towards those outside of their family and immediate group.
Political Science, Bronx Community College (CUNY)
Dr. Chris A. Robinson is a Professor at Bronx Community College of the City University of New York. He holds a BA from the University of California, Berkeley, in Integrative Biology and an MA and PhD in Anthropology from New York University. He has recently published research papers in the Journal of Human Evolution and The Anatomical Record exploring methods of identifying species in the human fossil record using analyses of variation in the three dimensional shape of the teeth and jaws of extant humans and apes, and fossil humans. He has also written a book chapter on fossil giraffes based on research at the early human site of Laetoli, Tanzania, from which the earliest human footprints were recovered. He contributed a chapter on evidence for genocide in the fossil record for the award-winning Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity.
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