- Table of National Cases
- Table of Treaties, Declarations, and Other International Instruments
- Table of Abbreviations
- Notes on the Contributors
- Moral Philosophy
- Biological Foundations of Human Rights
- Sociology of Human Rights
- The Psychological Foundations of Human Rights
- Anthropology and the Grounds of Human Rights
- The Foundations of Justice and Human Rights in Early Legal Texts and Thought
- General Principles and Constitutions as Sources of Human Rights Law
- The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Rise of International Non-Governmental Organizations
- Diplomatic Protection as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Humanitarian Law as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Social Justice, Rights, and Labour
- The Protection of Minorities under the Auspices of the League of Nations
- Human Dignity
- Democracy and the Rule of Law
- The Law-Making Process: From Declaration to Treaty to Custom to Prevention
- Core Rights and Obligations
- Jus Cogens and Obligations Erga Omnes
- Positive and Negative Obligations
- From Commission to the Council: Evolution of UN Charter Bodies
- The Role and Impact of Treaty Bodies
- The Role of International Tribunals: Law-Making or Creative Interpretation?
- Universality and the Growth of Regional Systems
- National Implementation and Interpretation
- Roles and Responsibilities of Non-State Actors
- Interpretation of Human Rights Treaties
- Enforcing Human Rights Through Economic Sanctions
- Transnational Litigation: Jurisdiction and Immunities
- The Use of International Force to Prevent or Halt Atrocities: From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect
- Trade Law and Investment Law
- Creating and Applying Human Rights Indicators
- What Outcomes for Victims?
- Human Rights Make a Difference: Lessons from Latin America
Abstract and Keywords
This article focuses on the history of the creation and application of human rights indicators within the United Nations. It describes the economic, statistical, social, and development regimes created influential actors which have significantly influenced the narrative of human rights indicators and describes the works of human rights bodies concerned with economic, social and cultural rights (ESC rights). It also discusses the Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights’ (OHCHR) development of the so-called illustrative indicators and some theoretical and practical proposals for the application of human rights indicators.
Law, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Francisco López-Bermúdez is a scholar-practitioner with multidisciplinary experience in human rights, democracy, and civil society. He holds a JD from the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador (PUCE) and an MA in Public Opinion and Polling from the Department of Government at the University of Essex (United Kingdom). He also studied for a Doctorate in Human Rights at the Carlos III University of Madrid (Spain) and is currently working towards his PhD in Political Science at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. He founded and directed the Human Rights and Democracy Program at PUCE, where he also taught Public International Law, International Organizations, and Human Rights. As an active member of civil society in the global South, he fostered the creation of a number of institutions and initiatives dealing with human rights and democracy. He co-founded and directed Auditoría Democrática Andina, and was the architect and first consultant of Ecuador’s National Human Rights Plan. In recognition of his work, he was awarded the inaugural UNESCO Chair in Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy at Utrecht University (The Netherlands) for the academic year 2007.
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