- Table of National Cases
- Table of Treaties, Declarations, and Other International Instruments
- Table of Abbreviations
- Notes on the Contributors
- Moral Philosophy
- Biological Foundations of Human Rights
- Sociology of Human Rights
- The Psychological Foundations of Human Rights
- Anthropology and the Grounds of Human Rights
- The Foundations of Justice and Human Rights in Early Legal Texts and Thought
- General Principles and Constitutions as Sources of Human Rights Law
- The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Rise of International Non-Governmental Organizations
- Diplomatic Protection as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Humanitarian Law as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Social Justice, Rights, and Labour
- The Protection of Minorities under the Auspices of the League of Nations
- Human Dignity
- Democracy and the Rule of Law
- The Law-Making Process: From Declaration to Treaty to Custom to Prevention
- Core Rights and Obligations
- Jus Cogens and Obligations Erga Omnes
- Positive and Negative Obligations
- From Commission to the Council: Evolution of UN Charter Bodies
- The Role and Impact of Treaty Bodies
- The Role of International Tribunals: Law-Making or Creative Interpretation?
- Universality and the Growth of Regional Systems
- National Implementation and Interpretation
- Roles and Responsibilities of Non-State Actors
- Interpretation of Human Rights Treaties
- Enforcing Human Rights Through Economic Sanctions
- Transnational Litigation: Jurisdiction and Immunities
- The Use of International Force to Prevent or Halt Atrocities: From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect
- Trade Law and Investment Law
- Creating and Applying Human Rights Indicators
- What Outcomes for Victims?
- Human Rights Make a Difference: Lessons from Latin America
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the enforcement of human rights law through economic sanctions. It describes the development of the so-called targeted or smart sanctions and discusses controversies in the applications of these sanctions in the context of the principles of the ’protection of civilians’ and the ’responsibility to protect’ and the resort to targeted sanctions for counter-terrorism purposes. This article also suggests that the recent successes of sanctions in Libya, Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia can be extended to other areas and argues that the positive results of imposing targeted sanctions as proactive for human rights are counterbalanced by the ongoing rights controversies with counter-terrorism listing in the 1267 regime.
Law, University of Notre Dame
George A. Lopez holds the Reverend Theodore M Hesburgh, CSC Chair in Peace Studies at the Joan B Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame. He has advised various UN agencies and member states regarding the humanitarian and human rights impacts of sanctions since 1990. In 2010–11 he served on the UN Panel of Experts for sanctions on North Korea. Working often with David Cortright he has been Co-Editor/Author of six books and dozens of articles on economic sanctions. Their academic and policy work is available at http://www.sanctionsandsecurity.org.
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