- Table of National Cases
- Table of Treaties, Declarations, and Other International Instruments
- Table of Abbreviations
- Notes on the Contributors
- Moral Philosophy
- Biological Foundations of Human Rights
- Sociology of Human Rights
- The Psychological Foundations of Human Rights
- Anthropology and the Grounds of Human Rights
- The Foundations of Justice and Human Rights in Early Legal Texts and Thought
- General Principles and Constitutions as Sources of Human Rights Law
- The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Rise of International Non-Governmental Organizations
- Diplomatic Protection as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Humanitarian Law as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Social Justice, Rights, and Labour
- The Protection of Minorities under the Auspices of the League of Nations
- Human Dignity
- Democracy and the Rule of Law
- The Law-Making Process: From Declaration to Treaty to Custom to Prevention
- Core Rights and Obligations
- Jus Cogens and Obligations Erga Omnes
- Positive and Negative Obligations
- From Commission to the Council: Evolution of UN Charter Bodies
- The Role and Impact of Treaty Bodies
- The Role of International Tribunals: Law-Making or Creative Interpretation?
- Universality and the Growth of Regional Systems
- National Implementation and Interpretation
- Roles and Responsibilities of Non-State Actors
- Interpretation of Human Rights Treaties
- Enforcing Human Rights Through Economic Sanctions
- Transnational Litigation: Jurisdiction and Immunities
- The Use of International Force to Prevent or Halt Atrocities: From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect
- Trade Law and Investment Law
- Creating and Applying Human Rights Indicators
- What Outcomes for Victims?
- Human Rights Make a Difference: Lessons from Latin America
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the evolution of the United Nations’ (UN) human rights agency from the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) into the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC). It explains that UNHRC was created in March 2006 to replace the UNCHR and become the world’s premier human rights body. It evaluates the effectiveness of the UNHRC’s peer-review human rights mechanism called the Universal Periodic Review. This article also offers some suggestions on how to improve the performance of the UNHRC including changes in size and distribution of membership, membership criteria, voting patterns and participation of non-state actors.
Human Rights, Working Group on Human Rights
Miloon Kothari is a leading voice on human rights, especially economic, social and cultural rights. An architect by training, Mr. Kothari has extensive experience in the area of housing and land rights. He graduated from the Pratt Institute and Columbia University and the Maharaja Sayajirao University. Mr. Kothari has been a Guest Professor at many universities and institutions. He is the coordinator of the South Asian Regional Programme of the Habitat International Coalition’s Housing and Land Rights Network and is founding member of the International NGO Committee on Human Rights in Trade and Investment. Mr. Kothari is also a member of the Leadership Council of the Global Women and AIDS Coalition, UNAIDS. In September 2000, the UN Commission on Human Rights appointed Mr. Kothari as the Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing. In his work as Rapporteur he focused on strategies to ensure respect for human rights in post-conflict and post-disaster situations. He actively contributed to the standard setting process as part of his Rapporteur work, including the preparation of Principles and Guidelines on Development Based Evictions and Displacement, in his 2007 report to the UN Human Rights Council. And in recent years, he has been particularly active on issues such as Women’s rights to land, inheritance, property, housing and globalization, and trade liberalization and their impacts on the right to adequate housing and other related rights. He currently serves as Convenor of the Working Group on Human Rights in India and the UN.
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