- Table of National Cases
- Table of Treaties, Declarations, and Other International Instruments
- Table of Abbreviations
- Notes on the Contributors
- Moral Philosophy
- Biological Foundations of Human Rights
- Sociology of Human Rights
- The Psychological Foundations of Human Rights
- Anthropology and the Grounds of Human Rights
- The Foundations of Justice and Human Rights in Early Legal Texts and Thought
- General Principles and Constitutions as Sources of Human Rights Law
- The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Rise of International Non-Governmental Organizations
- Diplomatic Protection as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Humanitarian Law as a Source of Human Rights Law
- Social Justice, Rights, and Labour
- The Protection of Minorities under the Auspices of the League of Nations
- Human Dignity
- Democracy and the Rule of Law
- The Law-Making Process: From Declaration to Treaty to Custom to Prevention
- Core Rights and Obligations
- Jus Cogens and Obligations Erga Omnes
- Positive and Negative Obligations
- From Commission to the Council: Evolution of UN Charter Bodies
- The Role and Impact of Treaty Bodies
- The Role of International Tribunals: Law-Making or Creative Interpretation?
- Universality and the Growth of Regional Systems
- National Implementation and Interpretation
- Roles and Responsibilities of Non-State Actors
- Interpretation of Human Rights Treaties
- Enforcing Human Rights Through Economic Sanctions
- Transnational Litigation: Jurisdiction and Immunities
- The Use of International Force to Prevent or Halt Atrocities: From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect
- Trade Law and Investment Law
- Creating and Applying Human Rights Indicators
- What Outcomes for Victims?
- Human Rights Make a Difference: Lessons from Latin America
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the history of the emergence in the nineteenth century of non-governmental organizations, focusing on those organized around slavery and women’s rights and suffrage. It explains that like the modern human rights movements, the movement for the abolition of slavery and the slave trade involved transborder activism by privately organized individuals and included the strengthening of international treaty regimes concerning the slave trade as one of its goals. It suggests that one key similarity between these historical antecedents and modern human rights activism is the importance of transnational ties to successful mobilization.
Law, Stanford Law School
Jenny S. Martinez is a Professor of Law and Warren Christopher Professor in the Practice of International Law and Diplomacy at Stanford Law School. Previously, Professor Martinez clerked for Justice Stephen Breyer of the US Supreme Court and Judge Guido Calabresi of the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit; she was also an associate legal officer for Judge Patricia Wald of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague, where she worked on trials involving genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. She is a leading expert on international courts and tribunals, international human rights, national security, constitutional law, and the laws of war. Her research focuses on the role of courts and tribunals in advancing and protecting human rights, ranging from the nineteenth-century international tribunals involved in the suppression of the trans-Atlantic slave trade to contemporary institutions and the role of courts in policing human rights abuses in connection with anti-terrorism policies. She is the author of The Slave Trade and the Origins of International Human Rights Law (OUP 2012) and numerous articles in leading academic journals. Professor Martinez serves on the board of directors for the Open Society Justice Initiative, which promotes human rights and builds legal capacity for open societies around the world. In the past, she has served as a consultant on international human rights issues for both Human Rights First and the International Center for Transitional Justice. She is also a member of the US State Department’s Advisory Committee on International Law. She is a faculty affiliate of Stanford’s Center on International Security and Cooperation and Stanford’s Center on Democracy Development and the Rule of Law.
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